Science.gov

Sample records for phylogenetics reveal multiple

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, isolated from different geographical regions revealed widespread multiple lineages.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Koizumi, Nobuo; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Suzuki, Jun; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kumagai, Takashi; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a pilot survey of genetic variation of A. cantonensis using small subunit (SSU) ribosomal (r) RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI) gene sequences. Two distinct SSU genotypes (G1 and G2) were identified among 17 individual A. cantonensis worms from 17 different geographical localities in Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The partial coxI sequences were determined for 83 worms from 18 different geographical localities from Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed eight distinct coxI haplotypes (ac1 to ac8). In 16 out of 18 localities, only a single coxI haplotype was found. However, in two localities, two coxI haplotypes coexisted. The common haplotypes found were: haplotype ac1 (Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Amamioshima Island, and Taichung), haplotype ac2 (Ishikawa, Shenzhen, and Lianjiang), haplotype ac5 (the Okinawa and the Ogasawara Islands), and haplotype ac7 (Miyagi, Aichi, and Kanagawa). Each of these regions is separated from the others by high mountain ranges or oceans. In addition, the lower genetic variation and particular geographical distribution of A. cantonensis in each location could indicate a founder effect, which may have resulted from multiple independent origins, and suggests that haplotypes migrated from endemic areas via human-related transportation.

  2. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of Pyrus has been difficult due to the wide distribution of the genus and lack of informative data. In this study, we collected 110 accessions representing 25 Pyrus species and constructed both phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks based on multiple DNA sequence d...

  3. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis reveals the multiple origin and evolution of mangrove physiological traits through exaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Reena; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2016-12-01

    Mangroves are taxonomically diverse group of salt-tolerant, mainly arboreal, flowering plants that grow in tropical and sub-tropical regions and have adapted themselves to thrive in such obdurate surroundings. While evolution is often understood exclusively in terms of adaptation, innovation often begins when a feature adapted for one function is co-opted for a different purpose and the co-opted features are called exaptations. Thus, one of the fundamental issues is what features of mangroves have evolved through exaptation. We attempt to address these questions through molecular phylogenetic approach using chloroplast and nuclear markers. First, we determined if these mangroves specific traits have evolved multiple times in the phylogeny. Once the multiple origins were established, we then looked at related non-mangrove species for characters that could have been co-opted by mangrove species. We also assessed the efficacy of these molecular sequences in distinguishing mangroves at the species level. This study revealed the multiple origin of mangroves and shed light on the ancestral characters that might have led certain lineages of plants to adapt to estuarine conditions and also traces the evolutionary history of mangroves and hitherto unexplained theory that mangroves traits (aerial roots and viviparous propagules) evolved as a result of exaptation rather than adaptation to saline habitats.

  4. apex: phylogenetics with multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Jombart, Thibaut; Archer, Frederick; Schliep, Klaus; Kamvar, Zhian; Harris, Rebecca; Paradis, Emmanuel; Goudet, Jérome; Lapp, Hilmar

    2017-01-01

    Genetic sequences of multiple genes are becoming increasingly common for a wide range of organisms including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes. While such data may sometimes be treated as a single locus, in practice, a number of biological and statistical phenomena can lead to phylogenetic incongruence. In such cases, different loci should, at least as a preliminary step, be examined and analysed separately. The r software has become a popular platform for phylogenetics, with several packages implementing distance-based, parsimony and likelihood-based phylogenetic reconstruction, and an even greater number of packages implementing phylogenetic comparative methods. Unfortunately, basic data structures and tools for analysing multiple genes have so far been lacking, thereby limiting potential for investigating phylogenetic incongruence. In this study, we introduce the new r package apex to fill this gap. apex implements new object classes, which extend existing standards for storing DNA and amino acid sequences, and provides a number of convenient tools for handling, visualizing and analysing these data. In this study, we introduce the main features of the package and illustrate its functionalities through the analysis of a simple data set.

  5. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms associated with climate change.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Lei; Wang, Wei; Mortimer, Peter E; Li, Rui-Qi; Li, De-Zhu; Hyde, Kevin D; Xu, Jian-Chu; Soltis, Douglas E; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2015-09-10

    Nitrogen is fundamental to all life forms and is also one of the most limiting of nutrients for plant growth. Several clades of angiosperms have developed symbiotic relationships with actinorhizal bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase access to this nutrient. However, the evolutionary patterns of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses remain unclear to date. Furthermore the underlying environmental pressures that led to the gain of symbiotic actinorhizal nitrogen fixation have never been investigated. Here, we present the most comprehensive genus-level phylogenetic analysis of the nitrogen-fixing angiosperms based on three plastid loci. We found that actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing species are distributed in nine distinct lineages. By dating the branching events, we determined that seven actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing lineages originated during the Late Cretaceous, and two more emerged during the Eocene. We put forward a hypothesis that multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms may have been associated with increased global temperatures and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide during these two time periods, as well as the availability of open habitats with high light conditions. Our nearly complete genus-level time-tree for the nitrogen-fixing clade is a significant advance in understanding the evolutionary and ecological background of this important symbiosis between plants and bacteria.

  6. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms associated with climate change

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Lei; Wang, Wei; Mortimer, Peter E.; Li, Rui-Qi; Li, De-Zhu; Hyde, Kevin D.; Xu, Jian-Chu; Soltis, Douglas E.; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is fundamental to all life forms and is also one of the most limiting of nutrients for plant growth. Several clades of angiosperms have developed symbiotic relationships with actinorhizal bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase access to this nutrient. However, the evolutionary patterns of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses remain unclear to date. Furthermore the underlying environmental pressures that led to the gain of symbiotic actinorhizal nitrogen fixation have never been investigated. Here, we present the most comprehensive genus-level phylogenetic analysis of the nitrogen-fixing angiosperms based on three plastid loci. We found that actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing species are distributed in nine distinct lineages. By dating the branching events, we determined that seven actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing lineages originated during the Late Cretaceous, and two more emerged during the Eocene. We put forward a hypothesis that multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms may have been associated with increased global temperatures and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide during these two time periods, as well as the availability of open habitats with high light conditions. Our nearly complete genus-level time-tree for the nitrogen-fixing clade is a significant advance in understanding the evolutionary and ecological background of this important symbiosis between plants and bacteria. PMID:26354898

  7. Phylogenetic proximity revealed by neurodevelopmental event timings.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Clancy, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Statistical properties such as distribution and correlation signatures were investigated using a temporal database of common neurodevelopmental events in the three species most frequently used in experimental studies, rat, mouse, and macaque. There was a fine nexus between phylogenetic proximity and empirically derived dates of the occurrences of 40 common events including the neurogenesis of cortical layers and outgrowth milestones of developing axonal projections. Exponential and power-law approximations to the distribution of the events reveal strikingly similar decay patterns in rats and mice when compared to macaques. Subsequent hierarchical clustering of the common event timings also captures phylogenetic proximity, an association further supported by multivariate linear regression data. These preliminary results suggest that statistical analyses of the timing of developmental milestones may offer a novel measure of phylogenetic classifications. This may have added pragmatic value in the specific support it offers for the reliability of rat/mouse comparative modeling, as well as in the broader implications for the potential of meta-analyses using databases assembled from the extensive empirical literature.

  8. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  9. Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Status Analyses of the Abaso Section from Multiple Nuclear Genes and Plastid Fragments Reveal New Insights into the North America Origin of Populus (Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Zhaoshan; Shao, Wenhao; Ye, Zhanyang; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Although, the Abaso section is widely accepted as an independent section, the taxonomic status of Populus mexicana (section Abaso) has not yet been resolved due to the limited availability markers and/or the lack of P. mexicana specimens in previous studies. Thirty-one poplar species that represent six sections of the Populus genus were sampled, and 23 single-copy nuclear DNA and 34 chloroplast fragments were sequenced. The present study obtained two updated phylogenies of Populus. We found that monophyly of the genus Populus is strongly supported by nuclear and plastid gene, which is consistent with previous studies. P. mexicana, diverged first in the nuclear DNA tree, which occupied the basal position, implying that the section Abaso may be the most ancestral lineage in extant populous species. Given that the short branches and low statistical support for the divergence of sections Abaso and Turanga, this observation probably indicated that a rapid radiation evolution following the early split of the genus Populus. In the plastid tree, P. mexicana clustered with modern-day species of section Tacamahaca in the plastid tree. Based on cytoplasmic and single-copy nuclear marker sequences, we hypothesized that chloroplast capture resulted in the inconsistent position of P. mexicana between the phylogenetic trees. Given the first unequivocal records of poplar fossils from the Eocene with similar leaf morphology to the extant P. mexicana and the phylogenetic positions of P. mexicana in our study, we support the hypothesis that the Populus genus originated in North America, which will provide new insights to the development of the origin of Populus species. PMID:28101098

  10. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence.

  11. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. Key words: phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. PMID:27343287

  12. Diagnostic phylogenetics reveals a new Porcine circovirus 2 cluster.

    PubMed

    Davies, Brendan; Wang, Xiong; Dvorak, Cheryl M T; Marthaler, Douglas; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2016-06-02

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was prevalent in swine in the United States before PCV2-associated disease (PCVAD) appeared in 2006. Limited nucleotide sequencing of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) encoding capsid, the only structural protein, revealed the presence of two genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b. Later, PCV2c and mutant PCV2b, or PCV2d, were also described. However, extensive PCV2 ORF2 sequence databases in veterinary diagnostic laboratories have not been analyzed systematically to determine the genetic diversity of field isolates. Here, we interrogated >1100 PCV2 ORF2 nucleotide sequences to assess population diversity and genetic variation. We detected a novel PCV2 genotype that is substantially different, primarily in ORF2, from all known PCV2. Notably, ORF2 contains a unique carboxyl terminal amino acid insertion resulting in a 238 amino acid ORF2. All other PCV2 ORF2 proteins are 233 or 234 aa in length. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is more ancient than other PCV2 genotypes. The findings demonstrate the value of analyzing routine diagnostic laboratory sequence databases in population genetic analyses of animal pathogens.

  13. Phylogenetic approaches reveal biodiversity threats under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Orozco, Carlos E.; Pollock, Laura J.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Mishler, Brent D.; Knerr, Nunzio; Laffan, Shawn W.; Miller, Joseph T.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Faith, Daniel P.; Nipperess, David A.; Kujala, Heini; Linke, Simon; Butt, Nathalie; Külheim, Carsten; Crisp, Michael D.; Gruber, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Predicting the consequences of climate change for biodiversity is critical to conservation efforts. Extensive range losses have been predicted for thousands of individual species, but less is known about how climate change might impact whole clades and landscape-scale patterns of biodiversity. Here, we show that climate change scenarios imply significant changes in phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic endemism at a continental scale in Australia using the hyper-diverse clade of eucalypts. We predict that within the next 60 years the vast majority of species distributions (91%) across Australia will shrink in size (on average by 51%) and shift south on the basis of projected suitable climatic space. Geographic areas currently with high phylogenetic diversity and endemism are predicted to change substantially in future climate scenarios. Approximately 90% of the current areas with concentrations of palaeo-endemism (that is, places with old evolutionary diversity) are predicted to disappear or shift their location. These findings show that climate change threatens whole clades of the phylogenetic tree, and that the outlined approach can be used to forecast areas of biodiversity losses and continental-scale impacts of climate change.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a scattered distribution of autumn colours

    PubMed Central

    Archetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf colour in autumn is rarely considered informative for taxonomy, but there is now growing interest in the evolution of autumn colours and different hypotheses are debated. Research efforts are hindered by the lack of basic information: the phylogenetic distribution of autumn colours. It is not known when and how autumn colours evolved. Methods Data are reported on the autumn colours of 2368 tree species belonging to 400 genera of the temperate regions of the world, and an analysis is made of their phylogenetic relationships in order to reconstruct the evolutionary origin of red and yellow in autumn leaves. Key Results Red autumn colours are present in at least 290 species (70 genera), and evolved independently at least 25 times. Yellow is present independently from red in at least 378 species (97 genera) and evolved at least 28 times. Conclusions The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that autumn colours have been acquired and lost many times during evolution. This scattered distribution could be explained by hypotheses involving some kind of coevolutionary interaction or by hypotheses that rely on the need for photoprotection. PMID:19126636

  15. Phylogenetic position of Myriapoda revealed by 454 transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Peter; Meusemann, Karen; Borner, Janus; Misof, Bernhard; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    Myriapods had been considered closely allied to hexapods (insects and relatives). However, analyses of molecular sequence data have consistently placed Myriapoda either as a sister group of Pancrustacea, comprising crustaceans and hexapods, and thereby supporting the monophyly of Mandibulata, or retrieved Myriapoda as a sister group of Chelicerata (spiders, ticks, mites and allies). In addition, the relationships among the four myriapod groups (Pauropoda, Symphyla, Diplopoda, Chilopoda) are unclear. To resolve the phylogeny of myriapods and their relationship to other main arthropod groups, we collected transcriptome data from the symphylan Symphylella vulgaris, the centipedes Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra dehaani, and the millipedes Polyxenus lagurus, Glomeris pustulata and Polydesmus angustus by 454 sequencing. We concatenated a multiple sequence alignment that contained 1550 orthologous single copy genes (1,109,847 amino acid positions) from 55 euarthropod and 14 outgroup taxa. The final selected alignment included 181 genes and 37,425 amino acid positions from 55 taxa, with eight myriapods and 33 other euarthropods. Bayesian analyses robustly recovered monophyletic Mandibulata, Pancrustacea and Myriapoda. Most analyses support a sister group relationship of Symphyla in respect to a clade comprising Chilopoda and Diplopoda. Inclusion of additional sequence data from nine myriapod species resulted in an alignment with poor data density, but broader taxon average. With this dataset we inferred Diplopoda+Pauropoda as closest relatives (i.e., Dignatha) and recovered monophyletic Helminthomorpha. Molecular clock calculations suggest an early Cambrian emergence of Myriapoda ∼513 million years ago and a late Cambrian divergence of myriapod classes. This implies a marine origin of the myriapods and independent terrestrialization events during myriapod evolution.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distinction between native and introduced flora in Australia presents some unique challenges given its geological and colonization history. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses, to date, have investigated the origin, diversity and phylo...

  17. Rarefaction and Extrapolation: Making Fair Comparison of Abundance-Sensitive Phylogenetic Diversity among Multiple Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, T C; Chao, Anne

    2016-08-26

    Measures of phylogenetic diversity are basic tools in many studies of systematic biology. Faith's PD (sum of branch lengths of a phylogenetic tree connecting all focal species) is the most widely used phylogenetic measure. Like species richness, Faith's PD based on sampling data is highly dependent on sample size and sample completeness. The sample-size- and sample-coverage-based integration of rarefaction and extrapolation of Faith's PD was recently developed to make fair comparison across multiple assemblages. However, species abundances are not considered in Faith's PD. Based on the framework of Hill numbers, Faith's PD was generalized to a class of phylogenetic diversity measures that incorporates species abundances. In this article, we develop both theoretical formulae and analytic estimators for seamless rarefaction and extrapolation for this class of abundance-sensitive phylogenetic measures, which includes simple transformations of phylogenetic entropy and of quadratic entropy. This work generalizes the previous rarefaction/extrapolation model of Faith's PD to incorporate species abundance, and also extends the previous rarefaction/extrapolation model of Hill numbers to include phylogenetic differences among species. Thus a unified approach to assessing and comparing species/taxonomic diversity and phylogenetic diversity can be established. A bootstrap method is suggested for constructing confidence intervals around the phylogenetic diversity, facilitating the comparison of multiple assemblages. Our formulation and estimators can be extended to incidence data collected from multiple sampling units. We also illustrate the formulae and estimators using bacterial sequence data from the human distal esophagus and phyllostomid bat data from three habitats. [Extrapolation; diversity; Hill numbers; interpolation; phylogenetic diversity; prediction; rarefaction; sample completeness; sample coverage.].

  18. Identification of a Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived From Cellular Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    phylogenetic relationships between bacterial species as a part of a hierarchical decision tree process. 1. INTRODUCTION The detection and...1 IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA USING PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS REVEALED BY MS/MS SEQUENCING OF TRYPTIC PEPTIDES DERIVED FROM CELLULAR PROTEINS...based on analysis of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS data for the fast classification of analyzed bacteria, using phylogenetic relationships

  19. Phylogenetic exploration of hantaviruses in paraguay reveals reassortment and host switching in South America

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal mark-recapture studies of rodents in two sites in the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve in the Interior Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraguay have revealed a complex and intriguing pattern of hantaviruses harbored by rodents in this area. Full-length sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted for several rodents from Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys fornesi. The phylogenetic relationships of these viruses were analyzed in the context of hantaviruses in South America with published S- and M-segment sequences. Findings Phylogenetic analyses of hantaviruses identified in the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve in Paraguay revealed Jabora and Juquitiba viruses are harbored by Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys fornesi, respectively. These analyses revealed that in general the constituents of the major subclade for the S- and M-segments differ for the South American hantaviruses. Further, the two major groups within subclade C for the M-segment reflect in general the lethality associated with the viruses within each group. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies of Jabora and Juquitiba viruses and other Paraguayan viruses in the context of American hantaviruses revealed reassortment and host-switching in the evolution of South American hantaviruses. PMID:21838900

  20. Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Martin, C.A.; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, S.N.; Garland, T.

    2008-01-01

    We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  1. Identification of Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships, Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    Universal Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria Based on SSU rRNA Sequences Aquificae Termotogae Planctomycetes Actinobacteria Firmicutes Cyanobacteria...Identification of Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins Jacek P...Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. Phylogenetic Analyses of Armillaria Reveal at Least 15 Phylogenetic Lineages in China, Seven of Which Are Associated with Cultivated Gastrodia elata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ting; Wang, Han Chen; Xue, Wan Qiu; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Zhu L.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species of Armillaria, which can act as plant pathogens and/or symbionts of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata (“Tianma”), are ecologically and economically important and have consequently attracted the attention of mycologists. However, their taxonomy has been highly dependent on morphological characterization and mating tests. In this study, we phylogenetically analyzed Chinese Armillaria samples using the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene and beta-tubulin gene. Our data revealed at least 15 phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria from China, of which seven were newly discovered and two were recorded from China for the first time. Fourteen Chinese biological species of Armillaria, which were previously defined based on mating tests, could be assigned to the 15 phylogenetic lineages identified herein. Seven of the 15 phylogenetic lineages were found to be disjunctively distributed in different continents of the Northern Hemisphere, while eight were revealed to be endemic to certain continents. In addition, we found that seven phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria were used for the cultivation of Tianma, only two of which had been recorded to be associated with Tianma previously. We also illustrated that G. elata f. glauca (“Brown Tianma”) and G. elata f. elata (“Red Tianma”), two cultivars of Tianma grown in different regions of China, form symbiotic relationships with different phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria. These findings should aid the development of Tianma cultivation in China. PMID:27138686

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of New Zealand earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) reveals ancient clades and cryptic taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas R; James, Sam; Allwood, Julia; Bartlam, Scott; Howitt, Robyn; Prada, Diana

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed the first ever phylogeny for the New Zealand earthworm fauna (Megascolecinae and Acanthodrilinae) including representatives from other major continental regions. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed from 427 base pairs from the mitochondrial large subunit (16S) rRNA gene and 661 base pairs from the nuclear large subunit (28S) rRNA gene. Within the Acanthodrilinae we were able to identify a number of well-supported clades that were restricted to continental landmasses. Estimates of nodal support for these major clades were generally high, but relationships among clades were poorly resolved. The phylogenetic analyses revealed several independent lineages in New Zealand, some of which had a comparable phylogenetic depth to monophyletic groups sampled from Madagascar, Africa, North America and Australia. These results are consistent with at least some of these clades having inhabited New Zealand since rifting from Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. Within the New Zealand Acanthodrilinae, major clades tended to be restricted to specific regions of New Zealand, with the central North Island and Cook Strait representing major biogeographic boundaries. Our field surveys of New Zealand and subsequent identification has also revealed extensive cryptic taxonomic diversity with approximately 48 new species sampled in addition to the 199 species recognized by previous authors. Our results indicate that further survey and taxonomic work is required to establish a foundation for future biogeographic and ecological research on this vitally important component of the New Zealand biota.

  4. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  5. Phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential revealed in a glacier ice metagenome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carola; Wiezer, Arnim; Strittmatter, Axel W; Daniel, Rolf

    2009-12-01

    The largest part of the Earth's microbial biomass is stored in cold environments, which represent almost untapped reservoirs of novel species, processes, and genes. In this study, the first metagenomic survey of the metabolic potential and phylogenetic diversity of a microbial assemblage present in glacial ice is presented. DNA was isolated from glacial ice of the Northern Schneeferner, Germany. Pyrosequencing of this DNA yielded 1,076,539 reads (239.7 Mbp). The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed by evaluation of a pyrosequencing-derived data set and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The Proteobacteria (mainly Betaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phylogenetic groups. In addition, isolation of psychrophilic microorganisms was performed, and 13 different bacterial isolates were recovered. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates revealed that all were affiliated to the predominant groups. As expected for microorganisms residing in a low-nutrient environment, a high metabolic versatility with respect to degradation of organic substrates was detected by analysis of the pyrosequencing-derived data set. The presence of autotrophic microorganisms was indicated by identification of genes typical for different ways of carbon fixation. In accordance with the results of the phylogenetic studies, in which mainly aerobic and facultative aerobic bacteria were detected, genes typical for central metabolism of aerobes were found. Nevertheless, the capability of growth under anaerobic conditions was indicated by genes involved in dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction. Numerous characteristics for metabolic adaptations associated with a psychrophilic lifestyle, such as formation of cryoprotectants and maintenance of membrane fluidity by the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids, were detected. Thus, analysis of the glacial metagenome provided insights into the microbial life in frozen habitats on

  6. Phylogenetic Diversity and Metabolic Potential Revealed in a Glacier Ice Metagenome▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Carola; Wiezer, Arnim; Strittmatter, Axel W.; Daniel, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The largest part of the Earth's microbial biomass is stored in cold environments, which represent almost untapped reservoirs of novel species, processes, and genes. In this study, the first metagenomic survey of the metabolic potential and phylogenetic diversity of a microbial assemblage present in glacial ice is presented. DNA was isolated from glacial ice of the Northern Schneeferner, Germany. Pyrosequencing of this DNA yielded 1,076,539 reads (239.7 Mbp). The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed by evaluation of a pyrosequencing-derived data set and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The Proteobacteria (mainly Betaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phylogenetic groups. In addition, isolation of psychrophilic microorganisms was performed, and 13 different bacterial isolates were recovered. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates revealed that all were affiliated to the predominant groups. As expected for microorganisms residing in a low-nutrient environment, a high metabolic versatility with respect to degradation of organic substrates was detected by analysis of the pyrosequencing-derived data set. The presence of autotrophic microorganisms was indicated by identification of genes typical for different ways of carbon fixation. In accordance with the results of the phylogenetic studies, in which mainly aerobic and facultative aerobic bacteria were detected, genes typical for central metabolism of aerobes were found. Nevertheless, the capability of growth under anaerobic conditions was indicated by genes involved in dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction. Numerous characteristics for metabolic adaptations associated with a psychrophilic lifestyle, such as formation of cryoprotectants and maintenance of membrane fluidity by the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids, were detected. Thus, analysis of the glacial metagenome provided insights into the microbial life in frozen habitats on

  7. A multivariate analysis of variation in genome size and endoreduplication in angiosperms reveals strong phylogenetic signal and association with phenotypic traits.

    PubMed

    Bainard, Jillian D; Bainard, Luke D; Henry, Thomas A; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Genome size (C-value) and endopolyploidy (endoreduplication index, EI) are known to correlate with various morphological and ecological traits, in addition to phylogenetic placement. A phylogenetically controlled multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationships between DNA content and phenotype in angiosperms. Seeds from 41 angiosperm species (17 families) were grown in a common glasshouse experiment. Genome size (2C-value and 1Cx-value) and EI (in four tissues: leaf, stem, root, petal) were determined using flow cytometry. The phylogenetic signal was calculated for each measure of DNA content, and phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) explored how the variation in genome size and EI was correlated with 18 morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic signal (λ) was strongest for EI in all tissues, and λ was stronger for the 2C-value than the 1Cx-value. PCCA revealed that EI was correlated with pollen length, stem height, seed mass, dispersal mechanism, arbuscular mycorrhizal association, life history and flowering time, and EI and genome size were both correlated with stem height and life history. PCCA provided an effective way to explore multiple factors of DNA content variation and phenotypic traits in a phylogenetic context. Traits that were correlated significantly with DNA content were linked to plant competitive ability.

  8. In silico scrutiny of genes revealing phylogenetic congruence with clinical prevalence or tropism properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damião, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2014-11-05

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars' tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted α-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections.

  9. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances.

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C

    2014-08-05

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the phasianidae reveals possible non-pheasant taxa.

    PubMed

    Bush, K L; Strobeck, C

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 21 pheasant and 6 non-pheasant species were determined using nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis were used to try to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within Phasianidae. Both the degree of resolution and strength of support are improved over previous studies due to the testing of a number of species from multiple pheasant genera, but several major ambiguities persist. Polyplectron bicalcaratum (grey peacock pheasant) is shown not to be a pheasant. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either the partridges or peafowl. Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha (koklass) and Gallus gallus (red jungle fowl) both emerge as non-pheasant genera. Monophyly of the pheasant group is challenged if Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha and Gallus gallus are considered to be pheasants. The placement of Catreus wallichii (cheer) within the pheasants also remains undetermined, as does the cause for the great sequence divergence in Chrysolophus pictus obscurus (black-throated golden). These results suggest that alterations in taxonomic classifications may be required for some pheasant species and genera.

  11. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances

    PubMed Central

    Hileman, Lena C.

    2014-01-01

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution. PMID:24958922

  12. SATCHMO-JS: a webserver for simultaneous protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Raffi; Davidson, John R; Datta, Ruchira S; Samad, Bushra; Jarvis, Glen R; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2010-07-01

    We present the jump-start simultaneous alignment and tree construction using hidden Markov models (SATCHMO-JS) web server for simultaneous estimation of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and phylogenetic trees. The server takes as input a set of sequences in FASTA format, and outputs a phylogenetic tree and MSA; these can be viewed online or downloaded from the website. SATCHMO-JS is an extension of the SATCHMO algorithm, and employs a divide-and-conquer strategy to jump-start SATCHMO at a higher point in the phylogenetic tree, reducing the computational complexity of the progressive all-versus-all HMM-HMM scoring and alignment. Results on a benchmark dataset of 983 structurally aligned pairs from the PREFAB benchmark dataset show that SATCHMO-JS provides a statistically significant improvement in alignment accuracy over MUSCLE, Multiple Alignment using Fast Fourier Transform (MAFFT), ClustalW and the original SATCHMO algorithm. The SATCHMO-JS webserver is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/satchmo-js. The datasets used in these experiments are available for download at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/satchmo-js/supplementary/.

  13. Dengue in China: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Evaluation Reveals Evidence of Endemicity and Complex Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rubing; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing threat of dengue outbreaks in China, it is still considered as an imported disease and its introduction and/or circulation patterns remain obscure. On the basis of the most extensive phylogenetic analysis to date, we showed highly complex genetic diversity of dengue viruses (DENVs) in south China with up to 20 different clades/lineages from multiple serotypes co-circulating in the same year. Despite that most of these clades/lineages were resulted from imported cases, evidence of local persistence of DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was observed, indicating its potential endemicity in Guangdong province. This study, therefore, provided an overview of DENV genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics in China, which will be useful for developing policies to prevent and control future dengue outbreaks in China. PMID:26458780

  14. Multilocus phylogenetic inference in subfamily Chlorogaloideae and related genera of Agavaceae - informing questions in taxonomy at multiple ranks.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Jenny K; Kephart, Susan R; Theiss, Kathryn E; Petrosky, Anna L; Culley, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    A series of taxonomic questions at the subfamilial, generic, and intrageneric levels have remained within subfamily Chlorogaloideae s.s. (comprising Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, and Schoenolirion) and relatives in Agavaceae. We present the first phylogenetic hypotheses focused on Chlorogaloideae that are based on multiple independent loci and include a wide sampling of outgroups across Agavaceae. In addition to chloroplast regions ndhF and trnL-trnF, we used nrDNA ITS for phylogenetic inference. Incomplete concerted evolution of the latter is indicated by intra-individual site polymorphisms for nearly half of the individuals. Comparisons of four coding and analysis methods for these characters indicate that the region remains phylogenetically informative. Our results confirm that Chlorogaloideae s.s. is not monophyletic, due to the close relationship of Schoenolirion with Hesperaloe and Hesperoyucca, as well as the likely sister relationship between Hesperocallis and core Chlorogaloideae (Camassia, Chlorogalum, and Hastingsia). Chlorogalum is also not monophyletic, being divided with strong support into vespertine and diurnal clades. This study produced the first phylogenetic hypotheses across Hesperaloe, allowing initial tests of several taxonomic disagreements within this genus. Our results reveal the lack of cohesion of H. funifera, indicating that H. funifera ssp. funifera may be more closely related to H. campanulata than to H. funifera ssp. chiangii (=H. chiangii). With potential gene flow between many members of Hesperaloe and a possible hybrid origin for H. campanulata, the genetic relationships within this genus appear complex. Further population-level investigation of many of the taxa in Chlorogaloideae s.l. would benefit our understanding of the evolution and taxonomy of these groups; Camassia and Hastingsia are the current focus of ongoing study.

  15. Phylogenetic Inferences Reveal a Large Extent of Novel Biodiversity in Chemically Rich Tropical Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekera, Sarath P.; Gerwick, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic marine cyanobacteria are known for their prolific biosynthetic capacities to produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites with biomedical application and their ability to form cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. In an effort to provide taxonomic clarity to better guide future natural product drug discovery investigations and harmful algal bloom monitoring, this study investigated the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical natural product-producing marine cyanobacteria on the basis of their evolutionary relatedness. Our phylogenetic inferences of marine cyanobacterial strains responsible for over 100 bioactive secondary metabolites revealed an uneven taxonomic distribution, with a few groups being responsible for the vast majority of these molecules. Our data also suggest a high degree of novel biodiversity among natural product-producing strains that was previously overlooked by traditional morphology-based taxonomic approaches. This unrecognized biodiversity is primarily due to a lack of proper classification systems since the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical, benthic marine cyanobacteria has only recently been analyzed by phylogenetic methods. This evolutionary study provides a framework for a more robust classification system to better understand the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical marine cyanobacteria and the distribution of natural products in marine cyanobacteria. PMID:23315747

  16. Multilocus, DNA-based phylogenetic analyses reveal three new species lineages in the Phellinus gabonensis-P. caribaeo-quercicola species complex, including P. amazonicus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    de Campos-Santana, Marisa; Amalfi, Mario; Castillo, Gabriel; Decock, Cony

    2016-09-01

    Species complexes in the poroid Hymenochaetaceae are well documented in the temperate areas. Potential species complexes are less known in tropical areas, however. In the last ten years, four phylogenetically and morphologically closely related species of Phellinus (Hymenochaetaceae) were described from various tropical/subtropical areas viz. P. caribaeo-quercicola, P. gabonensis, P. ellipsoideus, and P. castanopsidis They are characterized by cushion-shaped basidiomata, ventricose, commonly hamate hymenial setae, and broadly ellipsoid, thick-walled, pale yellowish basidiospores. Pursuing the studies of this complex, a phylogenetic approach based on DNA sequence data from the nuc rDNA regions ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) and partial 28S (including the domains D1, D2, D3) and on part of the translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1, region between exons 4 and 8) revealed three new lineages or phylogenetic species. Two of these phylogenetic species are composed of exclusively on Neotropical specimens. One of them, described below as Phellinus amazonicus sp. nov., is represented by multiple collections originating from Neotropical, lowland, dense, moist forest at the western edge of the Amazon Basin in Ecuador, the Guiana Shield in French Guiana and (more likely) Trinidad. The second Neotropical phylogenetic species is represented in our phylogenetic analyses by a single collection from northeastern Argentina. It is also potentially known from two herbarium specimens originating from southern Brazil, for which no sequence data is available. It is left for now as Phellinus sp. 1, waiting to gather more specimens and DNA sequences data. The third new phylogenetic species is known by a single collection (pure culture) of uncertain origin. It is thought to represent Phellinus setulosus, a Southeast Asian taxa. From an evolutionary perspective, tree species occurring in the Neotropics (P. amazonicus, P. caribaeo-quercicola, and Phellinus sp. 1) have a closely related genetic

  17. Global phylogenetic structure of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole reveals the repeated evolution of macroecological patterns

    PubMed Central

    Economo, Evan P.; Klimov, Pavel; Sarnat, Eli M.; Guénard, Benoit; Weiser, Michael D.; Lecroq, Beatrice; Knowles, L. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive radiations are of particular interest owing to what they reveal about the ecological and evolutionary regulation of biodiversity. This applies to localized island radiations such as Darwin's finches, and also to rapid radiations occurring on a global scale. Here we analyse the macroevolution and macroecology of Pheidole, a famously hyperdiverse and ecologically dominant ant genus. We generate and analyse four novel datasets: (i) a robust global phylogeny including 285 Pheidole species, (ii) a global database on regional Pheidole richness in 365 political areas summarizing over 97 000 individual records from more than 6500 studies, (iii) a global database of Pheidole richness from 3796 local communities and (iv) a database of Pheidole body sizes across species. Analysis of the potential climate drivers of richness revealed that the patterns are statistically very similar across different biogeographic regions, with both regional and local richness associated with the same coefficients of temperature and precipitation. This similarity occurs even though phylogenetic analysis shows that Pheidole reached dominance in communities through serial localized radiations into different biomes within different continents and islands. Pheidole body size distributions have likewise converged across geographical regions. We propose these cases of convergence indicate that the global radiation of Pheidole is structured by deterministic factors regulating diversification and diversity. PMID:25429013

  18. Phylogenetic and Molecular Variability Studies Reveal a New Genetic Clade of Citrus leprosis virus C

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Breton, Michèle Claire; Arena, Gabriella Dias; Nunes, Maria Andreia; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes a severe disease affecting citrus orchards in the Western hemisphere. This study reveals the molecular variability of the virus by analyzing four genomic regions (p29, p15, MP and RNA2-intergenic region) distributed over its two RNAs. Nucleotide diversity (π) values were relatively low but statistically different over the analyzed genes and subpopulations, indicating their distinct evolutionary history. Values of πp29 and πMP were higher than those of πp15 and πRNA2–IR, whereas πMP was increased due to novel discovered isolates phylogenetically clustered in a divergent clade that we called SJP. Isolate BR_SP_SJP_01 RNA1 and RNA2 sequences, clade SJP, showed an identity of 85.6% and 88.4%, respectively, with those corresponding to CiLV-C, the type member of the genus Cilevirus, and its RNA2 5′-proximal region was revealed as a minor donor in a putative inter-clade recombination event. In addition to citrus, BR_SP_SJP_01 naturally infects the weed Commelina benghalensis and is efficiently transmitted by Brevipalpus yothersi mites. Our data demonstrated that negative selection was the major force operating in the evaluated viral coding regions and defined amino acids putatively relevant for the biological function of cilevirus proteins. This work provides molecular tools and sets up a framework for further epidemiological studies. PMID:27275832

  19. Phylogenetic analysis reveals conservation and diversification of micro RNA166 genes among diverse plant species.

    PubMed

    Barik, Suvakanta; SarkarDas, Shabari; Singh, Archita; Gautam, Vibhav; Kumar, Pramod; Majee, Manoj; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the majority of the microRNAs, mature miR166s are derived from multiple members of MIR166 genes (precursors) and regulate various aspects of plant development by negatively regulating their target genes (Class III HD-ZIP). The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA166 family members remains elusive. Here, we show the phylogenetic relationships among MIR166 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse model plant species. Despite strong conservation, some mature miR166 sequences, such as ppt-miR166m, have undergone sequence variation. Critical sequence variation in ppt-miR166m has led to functional diversification, as it targets non-HD-ZIPIII gene transcript (s). MIR166 precursor sequences have diverged in a lineage specific manner, and both precursors and mature osa-miR166i/j are highly conserved. Interestingly, polycistronic MIR166s were present in Physcomitrella and Oryza but not in Arabidopsis. The nature of cis-regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of MIR166 genes indicates their possible contribution to the functional variation observed among miR166 species.

  20. Complete Mitochondrial Reveals a New Phylogenetic Perspective on the Brackish Water Goby Mugilogobius Group (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobionellinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Chen, I-Shiung; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Yung, Mana M N

    2016-10-01

    The Mugilogobius group consists of brackish water gobionellines widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific region. Complete mitochondrial genome and morphological evidence was collected to estimate their phylogenetic relationship and taxonomic status. A total of 11 genera were sampled, including Brachygobius, Calamiana, Hemigobius, Mugilogobius, Pandaka, Pseudogobiopsis, Pseudogobius, Redigobius, Rhinogobius, Stigmatogobius, and Wuhanlinigobius, five of which were sequenced for the first time. A morphological phylogenetic tree was also reconstructed based on 35 characters. The molecular phylogenetic trees reveal that the Mugilogobius group contains four major clades. The present study also reveals that the adult male mouth size and forked sensory papillae row d can be considered as synapomorphies, and that the head pores on inter-orbital, anterior oculoscapular, and preopercular regions can be regarded as derived features among the Mugilogobius group. Furthermore, the absence of posterior oculoscapular pores may provide a clue for understanding the evolutionary history of the Mugilogobius group.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate CXC chemokines reveals novel lineage specific groups in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Qiaoqing; Wang, Tiehui; Collet, Bertrand; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Bird, Steve; Xie, Ping; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Christopher J; Zou, Jun

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we have identified 421 molecules across the vertebrate spectrum and propose a unified nomenclature for CXC chemokines in fish, amphibians and reptiles based on phylogenetic analysis. Expanding on earlier studies in teleost fish, lineage specific CXC chemokines that have no apparent homologues in mammals were confirmed. Furthermore, in addition to the two subgroups of the CXCL8 homologues known in teleost fish, a third group was identified (termed CXCL8_L3), as was a further subgroup of the fish CXC genes related to CXCL11. Expression of the CXC chemokines found in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was studied in response to stimulation with inflammatory and antiviral cytokines, and bacterial. Tissue distribution analysis revealed distinct expression profiles for these trout CXC chemokines. Lastly three of the trout chemokines, including two novel fish specific CXC chemokines containing three pairs of cysteines, were produced as recombinant proteins and their effect on trout leucocyte migration studied. These molecules increased the relative expression of CD4 and MCSFR in migrated cells in an in vitro chemotaxis assay.

  2. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Guido W.; Papini, Alessio; Vessella, Federico; Cardoni, Simone; Tordoni, Enrico; Piredda, Roberta; Franc, Alain; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks). Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech.) was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris) caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution ranges, that did not

  3. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-02-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  4. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  5. Multiplexed shotgun sequencing reveals congruent three-genome phylogenetic signals for four botanical sections of the flax genus Linum.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Dong, Yibo; Yang, Mo-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A genome-wide detection of phylogenetic signals by next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for phylogenetic analysis of non-model organisms. Here we explored the use of a multiplexed shotgun sequencing method to assess the phylogenetic relationships of 18 Linum samples representing 16 species within four botanical sections of the flax genus Linum. The whole genome DNAs of 18 Linum samples were fragmented, tagged, and sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq. Acquired sequencing reads per sample were further separated into chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear sequence reads. SNP calls upon genome-specific sequence data sets revealed 6143 chloroplast, 2673 mitochondrial, and 19,562 nuclear SNPs. Phylogenetic analyses based on three-genome SNP data sets with and without missing observations showed congruent three-genome phylogenetic signals for four botanical sections of the Linum genus. Specifically, two major lineages showing a separation of Linum-Dasylinum sections and Linastrum-Syllinum sections were confirmed. The Linum section displayed three major branches representing two major evolutionary stages leading to cultivated flax. Cultivated flax and its immediate progenitor were formed as its own branch, genetically more closely related to L. decumbens and L. grandiflorum with chromosome count of eight, and distantly apart from six other species with chromosome count of nine. Five species of the Linastrum and Syllinum sections were genetically more distant from cultivated flax, but they appeared to be more closely related to each other, even with variable chromosome counts. These findings not only provide the first evidence of congruent three-genome phylogenetic pathways within the Linum genus, but also demonstrate the utility of the multiplexed shotgun sequencing in acquisition of three-genome phylogenetic signals of non-model organisms.

  6. Emergence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4: Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Three Distinct Epidemiological Profiles ▿

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijne, Joep; Schinkel, Janke; Prins, Maria; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Aronson, Sem J.; van Ballegooijen, Marijn W.; Reesink, Hendrik W.; Molenkamp, Richard; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (HCV-4) infection is considered to be difficult to treat and has become increasingly prevalent in European countries, including The Netherlands. Using a molecular epidemiological approach, the present study investigates the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of HCV-4 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5B sequences (668 bp) obtained from 133 patients newly diagnosed with HCV-4 infection over the period from 1999 to 2008 revealed eight distinct HCV-4 subtypes; the majority of HCV-4 isolates were of subtypes 4d (57%) and 4a (37%). Three distinct monophyletic clusters were identified, with each one having a specific epidemiological profile: (i) Egyptian immigrants infected with HCV-4a (n = 46), (ii) Dutch patients with a history of injecting drug use infected with HCV-4d (n = 44), and (iii) Dutch human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HCV-4d (n = 26). Subsequent molecular clock analyses confirmed that the emergence of HCV-4 within these three risk groups coincided with (i) the parenteral antischistosomal therapy campaigns in Egypt (1920 to 1960), (ii) the popularity of injecting drug use in The Netherlands (1960 to 1990), and (iii) the rise in high-risk sexual behavior among MSM after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1996 onwards). Our data show that in addition to the influx of HCV-4 strains from countries where HCV-4 is endemic, the local spread of HCV-4d affecting injecting drug users and, in recent years, especially HIV-positive MSM will further increase the relative proportion of HCV-4-infected patients in The Netherlands. HCV-4-specific agents are drastically needed to improve treatment response rates and decrease the future burden of HCV-4-related disease. PMID:19794040

  7. Evaluation of phylogenetic footprint discovery for predicting bacterial cis-regulatory elements and revealing their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Janky, Rekin's; van Helden, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Background The detection of conserved motifs in promoters of orthologous genes (phylogenetic footprints) has become a common strategy to predict cis-acting regulatory elements. Several software tools are routinely used to raise hypotheses about regulation. However, these tools are generally used as black boxes, with default parameters. A systematic evaluation of optimal parameters for a footprint discovery strategy can bring a sizeable improvement to the predictions. Results We evaluate the performances of a footprint discovery approach based on the detection of over-represented spaced motifs. This method is particularly suitable for (but not restricted to) Bacteria, since such motifs are typically bound by factors containing a Helix-Turn-Helix domain. We evaluated footprint discovery in 368 Escherichia coli K12 genes with annotated sites, under 40 different combinations of parameters (taxonomical level, background model, organism-specific filtering, operon inference). Motifs are assessed both at the levels of correctness and significance. We further report a detailed analysis of 181 bacterial orthologs of the LexA repressor. Distinct motifs are detected at various taxonomical levels, including the 7 previously characterized taxon-specific motifs. In addition, we highlight a significantly stronger conservation of half-motifs in Actinobacteria, relative to Firmicutes, suggesting an intermediate state in specificity switching between the two Gram-positive phyla, and thereby revealing the on-going evolution of LexA auto-regulation. Conclusion The footprint discovery method proposed here shows excellent results with E. coli and can readily be extended to predict cis-acting regulatory signals and propose testable hypotheses in bacterial genomes for which nothing is known about regulation. PMID:18215291

  8. Prokaryotic Caspase Homologs: Phylogenetic Patterns and Functional Characteristics Reveal Considerable Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John

    2012-01-01

    Caspases accomplish initiation and execution of apoptosis, a programmed cell death process specific to metazoans. The existence of prokaryotic caspase homologs, termed metacaspases, has been known for slightly more than a decade. Despite their potential connection to the evolution of programmed cell death in eukaryotes, the phylogenetic distribution and functions of these prokaryotic metacaspase sequences are largely uncharted, while a few experiments imply involvement in programmed cell death. Aiming at providing a more detailed picture of prokaryotic caspase homologs, we applied a computational approach based on Hidden Markov Model search profiles to identify and functionally characterize putative metacaspases in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Out of the total of 1463 analyzed genomes, merely 267 (18%) were identified to contain putative metacaspases, but their taxonomic distribution included most prokaryotic phyla and a few archaea (Euryarchaeota). Metacaspases were particularly abundant in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, which harbor many morphologically and developmentally complex organisms, and a distinct correlation was found between abundance and phenotypic complexity in Cyanobacteria. Notably, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, known to undergo genetically regulated autolysis, lacked metacaspases. Pfam domain architecture analysis combined with operon identification revealed rich and varied configurations among the metacaspase sequences. These imply roles in programmed cell death, but also e.g. in signaling, various enzymatic activities and protein modification. Together our data show a wide and scattered distribution of caspase homologs in prokaryotes with structurally and functionally diverse sub-groups, and with a potentially intriguing evolutionary role. These features will help delineate future characterizations of death pathways in prokaryotes. PMID:23185476

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of faecal microbiota from captive cheetahs reveals underrepresentation of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Imbalanced feeding regimes may initiate gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases in endangered felids kept in captivity such as cheetahs. Given the crucial role of the host’s intestinal microbiota in feed fermentation and health maintenance, a better understanding of the cheetah’s intestinal ecosystem is essential for improvement of current feeding strategies. We determined the phylogenetic diversity of the faecal microbiota of the only two cheetahs housed in an EAZA associated zoo in Flanders, Belgium, to gain first insights in the relative distribution, identity and potential role of the major community members. Results Taxonomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (702 clones) revealed a microbiota dominated by Firmicutes (94.7%), followed by a minority of Actinobacteria (4.3%), Proteobacteria (0.4%) and Fusobacteria (0.6%). In the Firmicutes, the majority of the phylotypes within the Clostridiales were assigned to Clostridium clusters XIVa (43%), XI (38%) and I (13%). Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum and Bifidobacteriaceae, two groups that can positively contribute in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, were absent in the clone libraries and detected in only marginal to low levels in real-time PCR analyses. Conclusions This marked underrepresentation is in contrast to data previously reported in domestic cats where Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacteriaceae are common residents of the faecal microbiota. Next to methodological differences, these findings may also reflect the apparent differences in dietary habits of both felid species. Thus, our results question the role of the domestic cat as the best available model for nutritional intervention studies in endangered exotic felids. PMID:24548488

  10. A genomic schism in birds revealed by phylogenetic analysis of DNA strings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott V; Fertil, Bernard; Giron, Alain; Deschavanne, Patrick J

    2002-08-01

    The molecular systematics of vertebrates has been based entirely on alignments of primary structures of macromolecules; however, higher order features of DNA sequences not used in traditional studies also contain valuable phylogenetic information. Recent molecular data sets conflict over the phylogenetic placement of flightless birds (ratites - paleognaths), but placement of this clade critically influences interpretation of character change in birds. To help resolve this issue, we applied a new bioinformatics approach to the largest molecular data set currently available. We distilled nearly one megabase (1 million base pairs) of heterogeneous avian genomic DNA from 20 birds and an alligator into genomic signatures, defined as the complete set of frequencies of short sequence motifs (strings), thereby providing a way to directly compare higher order features of nonhomologous DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis and principal component analysis of the signatures strongly support the traditional hypothesis of basal ratites and monophyly of the nonratite birds (neognaths) and imply that ratite genomes are linguistically primitive within birds, despite their base compositional similarity to neognath genomes. Our analyses show further that the phylogenetic signal of genomic signatures are strongest among deep splits within vertebrates. Despite clear problems with phylogenetic analysis of genomic signatures, our study raises intriguing issues about the biological and genomic differences that fundamentally differentiate paleognaths and neognaths.

  11. Genetic analyses of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains reveal distinct phylogenetic groups.

    PubMed

    Donahoo, R S; Jones, J B; Lacy, G H; Stromberg, V K; Norman, D J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of 175 Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains isolated from 10 Araceae hosts was done to identify pathogen variation. The strains were subjected to repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence polymerase chain reaction and four major phylogenetic clusters were generated. A subset of 40 strains isolated from Anthurium, Dieffenbachia, and Syngonium was further defined by amplified fragment length polymorphism and fatty acid methyl ester analysis and the same four phylogenetic clusters were observed. Comparison of representative strains in the first three clusters using DNA-DNA hybridization and multilocus sequence analysis supports the previous reclassification of strains in cluster I, including the X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae pathovar reference strain (LMG695), to X. citri. Our research findings indicate that strains in cluster I, isolated primarily from anthurium, probably represent an undescribed pathovar. Other phylogenetic subclusters consisting primarily of strains isolated from xanthosoma and philodendron in clusters III and IV, respectively, may yet represent other undescribed species or pathovars of Xanthomonas.

  12. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of Wolverine Gulo gulo in Mustelidae revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shibing; Gao, Yingying; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Shifang; Bai, Xiaojie; Zhang, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    The Wolverine Gulo gulo is an endangered species in China. We first obtained blood sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of wolverine in Northeast China. We built the phylogenetic tree of wolverine and 10 other most closely related Mustelidae species. The wolverine's complete mitogenome is 16 575 bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree indicates that Wolverine is mostly close to the genus Martes.

  14. Comparison of phylogenetically distinct Histoplasma strains reveals evolutionarily divergent virulence strategies.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Victoria E; Williams, Corinne L; Goldman, William E

    2014-07-01

    Infection with the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum results from the inhalation of contaminated soil. Disease outcome is variable and depends on the immune status of the host, number of organisms inhaled, and the H. capsulatum strain. H. capsulatum is divided into seven distinct clades based on phylogenetic analyses, and strains from two separate clades have been identified in North America (denoted as NAm strains). We characterized an H. capsulatum isolate (WU24) from the NAm 1 lineage in relation to two other well-characterized Histoplasma isolates, the Panamanian strain G186A and the NAm 2 strain G217B. We determined that WU24 is a chemotype II strain and requires cell wall α-(1,3)-glucan for successful in vitro infection of macrophages. In a mouse model of histoplasmosis, WU24 exhibited a disease profile that was very similar to that of strain G186A at a high sublethal dose; however, at this dose G217B had markedly different kinetics. Surprisingly, infection with a lower dose mitigated many of the differences during the course of infection. The observed differences in fungal burden, disease kinetics, symptomology, and cytokine responses all indicate that there is a sophisticated relationship between host and fungus that drives the development and progression of histoplasmosis. Importance: Histoplasmosis has a wide range of clinical manifestations, presenting as mild respiratory distress, acute respiratory infection, or a life-threatening disseminated disease most often seen in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, the outcome appears to be dependent on the amount and strain of fungus inhaled. In this study, we characterized a recent clinical H. capsulatum isolate that was collected from an HIV(+) individual in North America. In contrast to other isolates from the same lineage, this strain, WU24, infected both macrophages and wild-type mice. We determined that in contrast to many other North American strains, WU24 infection of macrophages is

  15. Multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (Morchella) are especially species-rich in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in China was estimated by initially analyzing nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences from 361 specimens collected in 21 provinces during the 2003-2011 growing seasons, together with six collections obtained on loan fro...

  16. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Patterns in Microbial Carotenoid Biosynthesis Are Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i) Proteobacteria; (ii) Firmicutes; (iii) Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv) Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i) horizontal gene transfer; (ii) gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii) co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv) positive selection. Conclusions/Significance Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident previously. This

  17. A novel multilocus phylogenetic estimation reveals unrecognized diversity in Asian horned toads, genus Megophrys sensu lato (Anura: Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Min; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Stuart, Bryan L; Brown, Rafe M; Lathrop, Amy; Wang, Ying-Yong; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Ke; Hou, Mian; Chen, Hong-Man; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Duong, Tang Van; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Che, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The horned toad assemblage, genus Megophrys sensu lato, currently includes three groups previously recognized as the genera Atympanophrys, Xenophrys and Megophrys sensu stricto. The taxonomic status and species composition of the three groups remain controversial due to conflicting phenotypic analyses and insufficient phylogenetic reconstruction; likewise, the position of the monotypic Borneophrys remains uncertain with respect to the horned toads. Further, the diversity of the horned toads remains poorly understood, especially for widespread species. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 45 of the 57 described species from throughout southern China, Southeast Asia and the Himalayas using Bayesian inference trees and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) approach. We estimate the phylogeny using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. Analyses reveal statistically significant mito-nuclear discordance. All analyses resolve paraphyly for horned toads involving multiple strongly supported clades. These clades correspond with geography. We resurrect the genera Atympanophrys and Xenophrys from the synonymy of Megophrys to eliminate paraphyly of Megophrys s.l. and to account for the morphological, molecular and biogeographic differences among these groups, but we also provide an alternative option. Our study suggests that Borneophrys is junior synonym of Megophrys sensu stricto. We provide an estimation of timeframe for the horned toads. The mitochondrial and nuclear trees indicate the presence of many putative undescribed species. Widespread species, such as Xenophrys major and X. minor, likely have dramatically underestimated diversity. The integration of morphological and molecular evidence can validate this discovery. Montane forest dynamics appear to play a significant role in driving diversification of horned toads.

  18. Paleogenetic Analyses Reveal Unsuspected Phylogenetic Affinities between Mice and the Extinct Malpaisomys insularis, an Endemic Rodent of the Canaries

    PubMed Central

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Hughes, Sandrine; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Hutterer, Rainer; Rando, Juan Carlos; Michaux, Jacques; Hänni, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The lava mouse, Malpaisomys insularis, was endemic to the Eastern Canary islands and became extinct at the beginning of the 14th century when the Europeans reached the archipelago. Studies to determine Malpaisomys' phylogenetic affinities, based on morphological characters, remained inconclusive because morphological changes experienced by this insular rodent make phylogenetic investigations a real challenge. Over 20 years since its first description, Malpaisomys' phylogenetic position remains enigmatic. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we resolved this issue using molecular characters. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were successfully amplified from subfossils of three lava mouse samples. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions revealed, without any ambiguity, unsuspected relationships between Malpaisomys and extant mice (genus Mus, Murinae). Moreover, through molecular dating we estimated the origin of the Malpaisomys/mouse clade at 6.9 Ma, corresponding to the maximal age at which the archipelago was colonised by the Malpaisomys ancestor via natural rafting. Conclusion/Significance This study reconsiders the derived morphological characters of Malpaisomys in light of this unexpected molecular finding. To reconcile molecular and morphological data, we propose to consider Malpaisomys insularis as an insular lineage of mouse. PMID:22363563

  19. Multiple horizontal transfers of nuclear ribosomal genes between phylogenetically distinct grass lineages

    PubMed Central

    Mahelka, Václav; Krak, Karol; Kopecký, David; Fehrer, Judith; Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Hobza, Roman; Blavet, Nicolas; Blattner, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    The movement of nuclear DNA from one vascular plant species to another in the absence of fertilization is thought to be rare. Here, nonnative rRNA gene [ribosomal DNA (rDNA)] copies were identified in a set of 16 diploid barley (Hordeum) species; their origin was traceable via their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence to five distinct Panicoideae genera, a lineage that split from the Pooideae about 60 Mya. Phylogenetic, cytogenetic, and genomic analyses implied that the nonnative sequences were acquired between 1 and 5 Mya after a series of multiple events, with the result that some current Hordeum sp. individuals harbor up to five different panicoid rDNA units in addition to the native Hordeum rDNA copies. There was no evidence that any of the nonnative rDNA units were transcribed; some showed indications of having been silenced via pseudogenization. A single copy of a Panicum sp. rDNA unit present in H. bogdanii had been interrupted by a native transposable element and was surrounded by about 70 kbp of mostly noncoding sequence of panicoid origin. The data suggest that horizontal gene transfer between vascular plants is not a rare event, that it is not necessarily restricted to one or a few genes only, and that it can be selectively neutral. PMID:28137844

  20. Phylogeny of a Genomically Diverse Group of Elymus (Poaceae) Allopolyploids Reveals Multiple Levels of Reticulation

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J.

    2013-01-01

    The grass tribe Triticeae (=Hordeeae) comprises only about 300 species, but it is well known for the economically important crop plants wheat, barley, and rye. The group is also recognized as a fascinating example of evolutionary complexity, with a history shaped by numerous events of auto- and allopolyploidy and apparent introgression involving diploids and polyploids. The genus Elymus comprises a heterogeneous collection of allopolyploid genome combinations, all of which include at least one set of homoeologs, designated St, derived from Pseudoroegneria. The current analysis includes a geographically and genomically diverse collection of 21 tetraploid Elymus species, and a single hexaploid species. Diploid and polyploid relationships were estimated using four molecular data sets, including one that combines two regions of the chloroplast genome, and three from unlinked nuclear genes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, β-amylase, and granule-bound starch synthase I. Four gene trees were generated using maximum likelihood, and the phylogenetic placement of the polyploid sequences reveals extensive reticulation beyond allopolyploidy alone. The trees were interpreted with reference to numerous phenomena known to complicate allopolyploid phylogenies, and introgression was identified as a major factor in their history. The work illustrates the interpretation of complicated phylogenetic results through the sequential consideration of numerous possible explanations, and the results highlight the value of careful inspection of multiple independent molecular phylogenetic estimates, with particular focus on the differences among them. PMID:24302986

  1. Multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (Morchella) are especially species-rich in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Xi-Hui; Zhao, Qi; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Yang, Zhu L

    2012-06-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in China was estimated by initially analyzing nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences from 361 specimens collected in 21 provinces during the 2003-2011 growing seasons, together with six collections obtained on loan from three Chinese herbaria. Based on the results of this preliminary screen, 40 Esculenta Clade (yellow morels) and 30 Elata Clade (black morels) were chosen to represent the full range of phylogenetic diversity sampled. To investigate their species limits, we generated DNA sequences from portions of three protein-coding genes (RPB1, RPB2 and EF-1α) and domains D1 and D2 of the nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA for all 70 collections. To fully assess evolutionary relationships, previously published multilocus DNA sequence data representing all known Morchella species was included in this study. Phylogenetic analyses employing maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood frameworks resolved 30 species in China compared with 22 in Europe and 19 within North America. Eleven novel phylogenetically distinct species were discovered in China, including two species within the Elata Clade and nine within the Esculenta Clade. Of the 30 species in China, 20 appear to be endemic, nine were also represented in Europe, and four putatively fire-adapted species have disjunct distributions in China, Europe and western North America. Although the diversification time estimates place the Esculenta Clade in China as early as the late Cretaceous and the Elata Clade by the early Oligocene, 27 of the 30 species evolved between the middle Miocene 12Mya and present.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of the Bacillus pumilus group and the marine ecotype revealed by multilocus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments.

  3. Molecular and Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships of Stingrays Focusing on the Family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kean Chong; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chong, Ving Ching; Loh, Kar-Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes) was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene), 33 species (ND2 gene) and 34 species (RAG1 gene) of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level) were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four ‘Dasytidae’ clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species) but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species), Himanturidae (Himantura species) and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species). Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology. PMID:25867639

  4. Molecular phylogenetic lineage of Plagiopogon and Askenasia (Protozoa, Ciliophora) revealed by their gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, An; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2015-08-01

    Prostomates and haptorians are two basal groups of ciliates with limited morphological characteristics available for taxonomy. Morphologically, the structures used to identify prostomates and haptorians are similar or even identical, which generate heavy taxonomic and phylogenetic confusion. In present work, phylogenetic positions lineage of two rare genera, Plagiopogon and Askenasia, were investigated. Three genes including small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (hereafter SSU rDNA), internal transcribed spacer region (ITS region), and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) were analyzed, 10 new sequences five species each. Our findings included 1) class Prostomatea and order Haptorida are multiphyletic; 2) it may not be appropriate to place order Cyclotrichiida in subclass Haptoria, and the systematic lineage of order Cyclotrichiida needs to be verified further; 3) genus Plagiopogon branches consistently within a clade covering most prostomes and is basal of clade Colepidae, implying its close lineage to Prostomatea; and 4) Askenasia is phylogenetically distant from the subclass Haptoria but close to classes Prostomatea, Plagiopylea and Oligohymenophorea. We supposed that the toxicyst of Askenasia may be close to taxa of prostomes instead of haptorians, and the dorsal brush is a more typical morphological characteristics of haptorians than toxicysts.

  5. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses reveal ecophenotypic plasticity in freshwater mussels Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M; Harris, John L; Christian, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Freshwater mollusk shell morphology exhibits clinal variation along a stream continuum that has been termed the Law of Stream Distribution. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships and morphological similarity of two freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis, throughout their ranges. The objectives were to investigate phylogenetic structure and evolutionary divergence of O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis and morphological similarity between the two species. Our analyses were the first explicit tests of phenotypic plasticity in shell morphologies using a combination of genetics and morphometrics. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (1416 bp; two genes) and morphometric analyses for 135 individuals of O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis from 12 streams. We examined correlations among genetic, morphological, and spatial distances using Mantel tests. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a monophyletic relationship between O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis. Within this O. jacksoniana/V. arkansasensis complex, five distinct clades corresponding to drainage patterns showed high genetic divergence. Morphometric analysis revealed relative differences in shell morphologies between the two currently recognized species. We conclude that morphological differences between the two species are caused by ecophenotypic plasticity. A series of Mantel tests showed regional and local genetic isolation by distance. We observed clear positive correlations between morphological and geographic distances within a single drainage. We did not observe correlations between genetic and morphological distances. Phylogenetic analyses suggest O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis are synonomous and most closely related to a clade composed of O. retusa, O. subrotunda, and O. unicolor. Therefore, the synonomous O. jacksoniana and V. arkansasensis should be recognized as Obovaria arkansasensis (Lea 1862) n

  6. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Binladen, Jonas; Ho, Simon YW; Campos, Paula F; Ratan, Aakrosh; Tomsho, Lynn P; da Fonseca, Rute R; Sher, Andrei; Kuznetsova, Tatanya V; Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia; Roth, Terri L; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C

    2009-01-01

    Background The scientific literature contains many examples where DNA sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-DNA based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. One notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial DNA fragments. Results In this study we report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the extinct ice-age woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), and the threatened Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses. In combination with the previously published mitochondrial genomes of the white (Ceratotherium simum) and Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis) rhinoceroses, this data set putatively enables reconstruction of the rhinoceros phylogeny. While the six species cluster into three strongly supported sister-pairings: (i) The black/white, (ii) the woolly/Sumatran, and (iii) the Javan/Indian, resolution of the higher-level relationships has no statistical support. The phylogenetic signal from individual genes is highly diffuse, with mixed topological support from different genes. Furthermore, the choice of outgroup (horse vs tapir) has considerable effect on reconstruction of the phylogeny. The lack of resolution is suggestive of a hard polytomy at the base of crown-group Rhinocerotidae, and this is supported by an investigation of the relative branch lengths. Conclusion Satisfactory resolution of the rhinoceros phylogeny may not be achievable without additional analyses of substantial amounts of nuclear DNA. This study provides a compelling demonstration that, in spite of substantial sequence length, there are significant limitations with single-locus phylogenetics. We expect further examples of this to appear as next-generation, large-scale sequencing of complete mitochondrial

  7. The phylogenetic position of Acoela as revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acoels are simply organized unsegmented worms, lacking hindgut and anus. Several publications over recent years challenge the long-held view that acoels are early offshoots of the flatworms. Instead a basal position as sister group to all other bilaterian animals was suggested, mainly based on molecular evidence. This led to the view that features of acoels might reflect those of the last common ancestor of Bilateria, and resulted in several evo-devo studies trying to interpret bilaterian evolution using acoels as a proxy model for the "Urbilateria". Results We describe the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a member of the Acoela, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Gene content and circular organization of the mitochondrial genome does not significantly differ from other bilaterian animals. However, gene order shows no similarity to any other mitochondrial genome within the Metazoa. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated alignments of amino acid sequences from protein coding genes support a position of Acoela and Nemertodermatida as the sister group to all other Bilateria. Our data provided no support for a sister group relationship between Xenoturbellida and Acoela or Acoelomorpha. The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella bocki as sister group to or part of the deuterostomes was also unstable. Conclusions Our phylogenetic analysis supports the view that acoels and nemertodermatids are the earliest divergent extant lineage of Bilateria. As such they remain a valid source for seeking primitive characters present in the last common ancestor of Bilateria. Gene order of mitochondrial genomes seems to be very variable among Acoela and Nemertodermatida and the groundplan for the metazoan mitochondrial genome remains elusive. More data are needed to interpret mitochondrial genome evolution at the base of Bilateria. PMID:20942955

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian rosella parrots (Platycercus) reveals discordance among molecules and plumage.

    PubMed

    Shipham, Ashlee; Schmidt, Daniel J; Joseph, Leo; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Relationships and species limits among the colourful Australian parrots known as rosellas (Platycercus) are contentious because of poorly understood patterns of parapatry, sympatry and hybridization as well as complex patterns of geographical replacement of phenotypic forms. Two subgenera are, however, conventionally recognised: Platycercus comprises the blue-cheeked crimson rosella complex (Crimson Rosella P. elegans and Green Rosella P. caledonicus), and Violania contains the remaining four currently recognised species (Pale-headed Rosella P. adscitus, Eastern Rosella P. eximius, Northern Rosella P. venustus, and Western Rosella P. icterotis). We used phylogenetic analysis of ten loci (one mitochondrial, eight autosomal and one z-linked) and several individuals per nominal species primarily to examine relationships within the subgenera, especially the relationships and species limits within Violania. Of these, P. adscitus and P. eximius have long been considered sister species or conspecific due to a morphology-based hybrid zone and an early phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis presented here supports an alternative hypothesis aligning P. adscitus and P. venustus as sister species. Using divergence rates published in other avian studies, we estimated the divergence between P. venustus and P. adscitus at 0.0148-0.6124MYA and that between the P. adscitus/P. venustus ancestor and P. eximius earlier at 0.1617-1.0816MYA, both within the Pleistocene. Discordant topologies among gene and species trees are discussed and proposed to be the result of historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). In particular, we suggest that discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data may be the result of asymmetrical mitochondrial introgression from P. adscitus into P. eximius. The biogeographical implications of our findings are discussed relative to similarly distributed groups

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Sicilian goats reveals a new mtDNA lineage.

    PubMed

    Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the evolution and diversification of cyclins in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaowu; Wu, Yuliang; Jin, Jialu; Yan, Jun; Kuang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Mi; Zhang, Yuexuan; Guo, An-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclins are a family of diverse proteins that play fundamental roles in regulating cell cycle progression in Eukaryotes. Cyclins have been identified from protists to higher Eukaryotes, while its evolution remains vague and the findings turn out controversial. Current classification of cyclins is mainly based on their functions, which may not be appropriate for the systematic evolutionary analysis. In this work, we performed comparative and phylogenetic analysis of cyclins to investigate their classification, origin and evolution. Cyclins originated in early Eukaryotes and evolved from protists to plants, fungi and animals. Based on the phylogenetic tree, cyclins can be divided into three major groups designated as the group I, II and III with different functions and features. Group I plays key roles in cell cycle, group II varied in actions are kingdom (plant, fungi and animal) specific, and group III functions in transcription regulation. Our results showed that the dominating cyclins (group I) diverged from protists to plants, fungi and animals, while divergence of the other cyclins (groups II and III) has occurred in protists. We also discussed the evolutionary relationships between cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and found that the cyclins have undergone divergence in protists before the divergence of animal CDKs. This reclassification and evolutionary analysis of cyclins might facilitate understanding eukaryotic cell cycle control.

  11. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses reveal unexpected abundant diversity and significant disjunct distribution pattern of the Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Bang; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Ratkowsky, David; Gates, Genevieve; Lee, Su See; Grebenc, Tine; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-05-06

    Hydnum is a fungal genus proposed by Linnaeus in the early time of modern taxonomy. It contains several ectomycorrhizal species which are commonly consumed worldwide. However, Hydnum is one of the most understudied fungal genera, especially from a molecular phylogenetic view. In this study, we extensively gathered specimens of Hydnum from Asia, Europe, America and Australasia, and analyzed them by using sequences of four gene fragments (ITS, nrLSU, tef1α and rpb1). Our phylogenetic analyses recognized at least 31 phylogenetic species within Hydnum, 15 of which were reported for the first time. Most Australasian species were recognized as strongly divergent old relics, but recent migration between Australasia and the Northern Hemisphere was also detected. Within the Northern Hemisphere, frequent historical biota exchanges between the Old World and the New World via both the North Atlantic Land Bridge and the Bering Land Bridge could be elucidated. Our study also revealed that most Hydnum species found in subalpine areas of the Hengduan Mountains in southwestern China occur in northeastern/northern China and Europe, indicating that the composition of the mycobiota in the Hengduan Mountains reigion is more complicated than what we have known before.

  12. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses reveal unexpected abundant diversity and significant disjunct distribution pattern of the Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bang; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Ratkowsky, David; Gates, Genevieve; Lee, Su See; Grebenc, Tine; Yang, Zhu L.

    2016-01-01

    Hydnum is a fungal genus proposed by Linnaeus in the early time of modern taxonomy. It contains several ectomycorrhizal species which are commonly consumed worldwide. However, Hydnum is one of the most understudied fungal genera, especially from a molecular phylogenetic view. In this study, we extensively gathered specimens of Hydnum from Asia, Europe, America and Australasia, and analyzed them by using sequences of four gene fragments (ITS, nrLSU, tef1α and rpb1). Our phylogenetic analyses recognized at least 31 phylogenetic species within Hydnum, 15 of which were reported for the first time. Most Australasian species were recognized as strongly divergent old relics, but recent migration between Australasia and the Northern Hemisphere was also detected. Within the Northern Hemisphere, frequent historical biota exchanges between the Old World and the New World via both the North Atlantic Land Bridge and the Bering Land Bridge could be elucidated. Our study also revealed that most Hydnum species found in subalpine areas of the Hengduan Mountains in southwestern China occur in northeastern/northern China and Europe, indicating that the composition of the mycobiota in the Hengduan Mountains reigion is more complicated than what we have known before. PMID:27151256

  13. Using the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA to reveal the phylogenetic position of the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Duan, Jiang Yang; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. The intraspecific divergences of 18S rDNA in Chinese sparganum isolates ranged from 0.0 to 0.4%. Regions of V2, V4 and V7 were the most variable regions in the secondary structure of 18S rDNA. With the exception of genera Duthiersia and Probothriocephalus, other genera (i.e., Adenocephalus, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Duthiersia, Schistocephalus and Spirometra) selected in the Diphyllobothriidae shared similar topologies of V2, V4 and V7 structures. The topology of generated phylogenetic trees revealed close relationships among Adenocephalus, Digramma, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Ligula, Sparganum and Spirometra. The exact phylogenetic position of Spirometra species should be further analyzed with more sampling and more useful molecular markers.

  14. Phylogenetic relationship and geographic distribution of multiple human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, W M; Pieniazek, D; Swanson, P; Samdal, H H; Soriano, V; Khabbaz, R F; Kaplan, J E; Lal, R B; Heneine, W

    1995-01-01

    The current env-based subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) identifies only two heterogenetic groups, HTLV-IIa and HTLV-IIb. To better understand the genetic diversity and phylogeny of HTLV-II, we examined the most divergent genomic region of HTLV-II, the long terminal repeat, by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis. Long terminal repeat sequences were amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and digested with seven restriction endonucleases that differentiated HTLV-II into five HTLV-IIa (IIa0 to IIa4) and six HTLV-IIb (IIb0 to IIb5) restriction types, with HTLV-IIa0 and HTLV-IIb0 being prototypes for the MoT and NRA isolates, respectively. We examined 169 HTLV-II-infected samples, including 123 from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDU) from the Americas, 16 from IDU from Europe, and 30 from Amerindians. Of the 169 samples, 109 (64.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIa and 60 (35.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIb. The predominant restriction types seen among the U.S. blood donors and U.S. IDU were IIa0 (68.7%) and IIb4 (10.4%). Four Spanish and seven Italian samples were IIb4, while five Norwegian samples were IIa2. Twelve Guaymi and all ten Seminole samples were single restriction types (IIb1 and IIb5, respectively), whereas the two Navajo and six Pueblo samples had a mixture of restriction types IIa0, IIa4, and IIb5. Of the HTLV-IIb restriction types observed in the U.S. non-Indians, 42.8% appear to have originated from the North Amerindian (IIb5), while 57.2% were similar to the European IIb4 restriction type. Sequences of 15 selected HTLV-II samples were determined and phylogenetically compared with 7 previously published HTLV-II LTR sequences. The derived topologies revealed three HTLV-IIa phylogroups (A-I to A-III) and four HTLV-IIb phylogroups (B-I to B-IV). Furthermore, the HTLV-IIa phylogroups appear to have evolved from the HTLV-IIb phylogroups. In the HTLV-IIa cluster, a

  15. A next-generation sequencing method for overcoming the multiple gene copy problem in polyploid phylogenetics, applied to Poa grasses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyploidy is important from a phylogenetic perspective because of its immense past impact on evolution and its potential future impact on diversification, survival and adaptation, especially in plants. Molecular population genetics studies of polyploid organisms have been difficult because of problems in sequencing multiple-copy nuclear genes using Sanger sequencing. This paper describes a method for sequencing a barcoded mixture of targeted gene regions using next-generation sequencing methods to overcome these problems. Results Using 64 3-bp barcodes, we successfully sequenced three chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions (each of which contained two gene copies with up to two alleles per individual) in a total of 60 individuals across 11 species of Australian Poa grasses. This method had high replicability, a low sequencing error rate (after appropriate quality control) and a low rate of missing data. Eighty-eight percent of the 320 gene/individual combinations produced sequence reads, and >80% of individuals produced sufficient reads to detect all four possible nuclear alleles of the homeologous nuclear loci with 95% probability. We applied this method to a group of sympatric Australian alpine Poa species, which we discovered to share an allopolyploid ancestor with a group of American Poa species. All markers revealed extensive allele sharing among the Australian species and so we recommend that the current taxonomy be re-examined. We also detected hypermutation in the trnH-psbA marker, suggesting it should not be used as a land plant barcode region. Some markers indicated differentiation between Tasmanian and mainland samples. Significant positive spatial genetic structure was detected at <100 km with chloroplast but not nuclear markers, which may be a result of restricted seed flow and long-distance pollen flow in this wind-pollinated group. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that 454 sequencing of barcoded amplicon mixtures can be used to

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic relationship of sable Martes zibellina linkouensis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yan; Xu, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Over-hunting of the sable (Martes zibellina) in China since the 1950s has resulted in a dramatic decline of sable population size; and owing to effective conservation measures in recent years, sable populations in some areas are going through a rapid recovery. We first determined and annotated the whole mtDNA genome of the Lesser Khingan Mountains sable M. zibellina linkouensis to better understand the evolutionary relationship of this subspecies. The complete mitogenome is 16 460 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. We built the phylogenetic tree of three sable subspecies in Northeast China and other 10 species of Mustelinae.

  17. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  18. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  19. [Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific variation of D-genome Aegilops L. as revealed by RAPD analysis].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Kochieva, E Z; Chikida, N N; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2004-05-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation (0.03-0.21) was observed for Ae. tauschii. Intraspecific distances between accessions ranged 0.007-0.067 in Ae. cylindrica, 0.017-0.047 in Ae. vavilovii, and 0.00-0.053 in Ae. juvenalis. Likewise, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa showed low intraspecific polymorphism. The among-accession difference in alloploid Ae. ventricosa (genome DvNv) was similar to that of one parental species, Ae. uniaristata (N), and substantially lower than in the other parent, Ae. tauschii (D). The among-accession difference in Ae. cylindrica (CcDc) was considerably lower than in either parent, Ae. tauschii (D) or Ae. caudata (C). With the exception of Ae. cylindrica, all D-genome species--Ae. tauschii (D), Ae. ventricosa (DvNv), Ae. crassa (XcrDcrl and XcrDcrlDcr2), Ae. juvenalis (XjDjUj), and Ae. vavilovii (XvaDvaSva)--formed a single polymorphic cluster, which was distinct from clusters of other species. The only exception, Ae. cylindrica, did not group with the other D-genome species, but clustered with Ae. caudata (C), a donor of the C genome. The cluster of these two species was clearly distinct from the cluster of the other D-genome species and close to a cluster of Ae. umbellulata (genome U) and Ae. ovata (genome UgMg). Thus, RAPD analysis for the first time was used to estimate and to compare the interpopulation polymorphism and to establish the phylogenetic relationships of all diploid and alloploid D-genome Aegilops species.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  1. Using multiple analytical methods to improve phylogenetic hypotheses in Minaria (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Luz; Rapini, Alessandro; Silva, Uiara Catharina Soares E; Berg, Cássio van den

    2012-12-01

    Metastelmatinae is a neotropical subtribe of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), comprising 13 genera and around 260 species whose phylogenetic relationships are often unresolved or incongruent between plastid and nuclear datasets. The genus Minaria is one of the first lineages to emerge in the Metastelmatinae and is highly supported based on plastid markers. It comprises 21 species, most of which are endemic to small areas with open vegetation in the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In the work presented here, we use plastid (rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG, and trnD-trnT) and nuclear (ITS and ETS) datasets to investigate the relationships within Minaria. We show that the three methods mostly used in phylogenetic studies, namely, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference, have different performances and that a pluralistic analytical approach combining results from them can increase tree resolution and clade confidence, providing valuable phylogenetic information.

  2. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Jones, Frank A; Swenson, Nathan G; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D; Fang-Sun, I; Wright, S Joseph; Wolf, Amy T; Ye, W; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K; Kress, W John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of

  3. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Jones, Frank A.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A.; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J.; Ge, Xue-jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W.; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J.; Lum, Shawn K. Y.; Lutz, James A.; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D.; Fang-Sun, I.; Wright, S. Joseph; Wolf, Amy T.; Ye, W.; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of

  4. Bridging the Rubicon: phylogenetic analysis reveals repeated colonizations of marine and fresh waters by thalassiosiroid diatoms.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Jansen, Robert K; Theriot, Edward C

    2007-10-01

    Salinity imposes a significant barrier to the distribution of many organisms, including diatoms. Diatoms are ancestrally marine, and the number of times they have independently colonized fresh waters and the physiological adaptations that facilitated these transitions remain outstanding questions in diatom evolution. The colonization of fresh waters by diatoms has been compared to "crossing the Rubicon," implying that successful colonization events are rare, irreversible, and lead to substantial species diversification. To test these hypotheses, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Thalassiosirales, a diatom lineage with high diversity in both marine and fresh waters. We collected approximately 5.3kb of DNA sequence data from the nuclear (SSU and partial LSU rDNA) and chloroplast genomes (psbC and rbcL) and reconstructed the phylogeny using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Alternative topology tests strongly reject all previous colonization hypotheses, including monophyly of the predominantly freshwater Stephanodiscaceae. Results showed at least three independent colonizations of fresh waters, and whereas previous accounts of freshwater-to-marine transitions have been discounted, these results provide compelling evidence for as many as three independent re-colonizations of the marine habitat, two of which led to speciation events. This study adds valuable phylogenetic context to previous debate about the nature of the salinity barrier in diatoms and provides compelling evidence that, at least for Thalassiosirales, the salinity barrier might be less formidable than previously thought.

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Geographically Diverse Radopholus similis via rDNA Sequence Reveals a Monomorphic Motif.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Thomas, W K; Frisse, L M; Sarah, J L; Stanton, J M; Speijer, P R; Marin, D H; Opperman, C H

    2000-06-01

    The nucleic acid sequences of rDNA ITS1 and the rDNA D2/D3 expansion segment were compared for 57 burrowing nematode isolates collected from Australia, Cameroon, Central America, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, Nigeria, Honduras, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Puerto Rico, South Africa, and Uganda. Of the 57 isolates, 55 were morphologically similar to Radopholus similis and seven were citrus-parasitic. The nucleic acid sequences for PCR-amplified ITS1 and for the D2/D3 expansion segment of the 28S rDNA gene were each identical for all putative R. similis. Sequence divergence for both the ITS1 and the D2/D3 was concordant with morphological differences that distinguish R. similis from other burrowing nematode species. This result substantiates previous observations that the R. similis genome is highly conserved across geographic regions. Autapomorphies that would delimit phylogenetic lineages of non-citrus-parasitic R. similis from those that parasitize citrus were not observed. The data presented herein support the concept that R. similis is comprised of two pathotypes-one that parasitizes citrus and one that does not.

  6. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Chowdhury, Punam; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  7. Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing reveals major lineages and phylogenetic structure in the North American tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Eric M; Schwartz, Rachel; Bullock, C Thomas; Williams, Joshua S; Shaffer, H Bradley; Aguilar-Miguel, X; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Weisrock, David W

    2013-01-01

    Modern analytical methods for population genetics and phylogenetics are expected to provide more accurate results when data from multiple genome-wide loci are analysed. We present the results of an initial application of parallel tagged sequencing (PTS) on a next-generation platform to sequence thousands of barcoded PCR amplicons generated from 95 nuclear loci and 93 individuals sampled across the range of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex. To manage the bioinformatic processing of this large data set (344 330 reads), we developed a pipeline that sorts PTS data by barcode and locus, identifies high-quality variable nucleotides and yields phased haplotype sequences for each individual at each locus. Our sequencing and bioinformatic strategy resulted in a genome-wide data set with relatively low levels of missing data and a wide range of nucleotide variation. structure analyses of these data in a genotypic format resulted in strongly supported assignments for the majority of individuals into nine geographically defined genetic clusters. Species tree analyses of the most variable loci using a multi-species coalescent model resulted in strong support for most branches in the species tree; however, analyses including more than 50 loci produced parameter sampling trends that indicated a lack of convergence on the posterior distribution. Overall, these results demonstrate the potential for amplicon-based PTS to rapidly generate large-scale data for population genetic and phylogenetic-based research.

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals That ERVs "Die Young" but HERV-H Is Unusually Conserved

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Patrick; Hein, Jotun; Katzourakis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    About 8% of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Though most human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are thought to be irrelevant to our biology notable exceptions include members of the HERV-H family that are necessary for the correct functioning of stem cells. ERVs are commonly found in two forms, the full-length proviral form, and the more numerous solo-LTR form, thought to result from homologous recombination events. Here we introduce a phylogenetic framework to study ERV insertion and solo-LTR formation. We then apply the framework to site patterns sampled from a set of long alignments covering six primate genomes. Studying six categories of ERVs we quantitatively recapitulate patterns of insertional activity that are usually described in qualitative terms in the literature. A slowdown in most ERV groups is observed but we suggest that HERV-K activity may have increased in humans since they diverged from chimpanzees. We find that the rate of solo-LTR formation decreases rapidly as a function of ERV age and that an age dependent model of solo-LTR formation describes the history of ERVs more accurately than the commonly used exponential decay model. We also demonstrate that HERV-H loci are markedly less likely to form solo-LTRs than ERVs from other families. We conclude that the slower dynamics of HERV-H suggest a host role for the internal regions of these exapted elements and posit that in future it will be possible to use the relationship between full-length proviruses and solo-LTRs to help identify large scale co-options in distant vertebrate genomes. PMID:27295277

  9. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Muğla province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound.

  10. Mitogenome revealed multiple postdomestication genetic mixtures of West African sheep.

    PubMed

    Brahi, O H D; Xiang, H; Chen, X; Farougou, S; Zhao, X

    2015-10-01

    Notable diversity observed within African ovine breeds makes them of great interests, but limited studies on genetic origins and domestications remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the evolutionary status of West African native breeds, Djallonke and Sahelian sheep using mitogenome sequencing. Compared with other ovine mitogenome sequences, West African sheep were revealed a Eurasian origin, and the initially tamed sheep breeds in West Africa have been genetically mixed with each other and mixed with European breeds. Worldwide domestic sheep is deemed the Eurasian origin and migrated west to Europe and Africa and east to the Far East, in which dispersed and received selection for acclimation to autochthonic environment independently and ultimately evolved into different native breeds, respectively. Our results contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the domestic sheep origin and reveal multiple postdomestication genetic amelioration processes.

  11. Molecular and morphologic data reveal multiple species in Peromyscus pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Schmidly, David J.; Amman, Brian R.; Platt, Roy N.; Neumann, Kathy M.; Huynh, Howard M.; Muñiz-Martínez, Raúl; López-González, Celia; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequence and morphometric data were used to re-evaluate the taxonomy and systematics of Peromyscus pectoralis. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene in 44 samples of P. pectoralis indicated 2 well-supported monophyletic clades. The 1st clade contained specimens from Texas historically assigned to P. p. laceianus; the 2nd was comprised of specimens previously referable to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis obtained from northern and eastern Mexico. Levels of genetic variation (~7%) between these 2 clades indicated that the genetic divergence typically exceeded that reported for other species of Peromyscus. Samples of P. p. laceianus north and south of the Río Grande were not monophyletic. In addition, samples representing P. p. collinus and P. p. pectoralis formed 2 clades that differed genetically by 7.14%. Multivariate analyses of external and cranial measurements from 63 populations of P. pectoralis revealed 4 morpho-groups consistent with clades in the DNA sequence analysis: 1 from Texas and New Mexico assignable to P. p. laceianus; a 2nd from western and southern Mexico assignable to P. p. pectoralis; a 3rd from northern and central Mexico previously assigned to P. p. pectoralis but herein shown to represent an undescribed taxon; and a 4th from southeastern Mexico assignable to P. p. collinus. Based on the concordance of these results, populations from the United States are referred to as P. laceianus, whereas populations from Mexico are referred to as P. pectoralis (including some samples historically assigned to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis). A new subspecies is described to represent populations south of the Río Grande in northern and central Mexico. Additional research is needed to discern if P. p. collinus warrants species recognition. PMID:26937045

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

  13. Orders out of chaos – molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships

    PubMed Central

    Caira, Janine N.; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of “terrestrial” cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus; as was the sister to the freshwater fish and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  14. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny.

  15. Phylogenetic analyses in cornus substantiate ancestry of xylem supercooling freezing behavior and reveal lineage of desiccation related proteins.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Dale T; Xiang, Qiu-Yun; Stirm, Vicki E; Shirazi, A M; Ashworth, Edward N

    2004-07-01

    The response of woody plant tissues to freezing temperature has evolved into two distinct behaviors: an avoidance strategy, in which intracellular water supercools, and a freeze-tolerance strategy, where cells tolerate the loss of water to extracellular ice. Although both strategies involve extracellular ice formation, supercooling cells are thought to resist freeze-induced dehydration. Dehydrin proteins, which accumulate during cold acclimation in numerous herbaceous and woody plants, have been speculated to provide, among other things, protection from desiccative extracellular ice formation. Here we use Cornus as a model system to provide the first phylogenetic characterization of xylem freezing behavior and dehydrin-like proteins. Our data suggest that both freezing behavior and the accumulation of dehydrin-like proteins in Cornus are lineage related; supercooling and nonaccumulation of dehydrin-like proteins are ancestral within the genus. The nonsupercooling strategy evolved within the blue- or white-fruited subgroup where representative species exhibit high levels of freeze tolerance. Within the blue- or white-fruited lineage, a single origin of dehydrin-like proteins was documented and displayed a trend for size increase in molecular mass. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that an early divergent group of red-fruited supercooling dogwoods lack a similar protein. Dehydrin-like proteins were limited to neither nonsupercooling species nor to those that possess extreme freeze tolerance.

  16. A multi-locus analysis of phylogenetic relationships within cheilostome bryozoans supports multiple origins of ascophoran frontal shields.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sarah; Gordon, Dennis P; Lavery, Shane D

    2011-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the bryozoan order Cheilostomata are currently uncertain, with many morphological hypotheses proposed but scarcely tested by independent means of molecular analysis. This research uses DNA sequence data across five loci of both mitochondrial and nuclear origin from 91 species of cheilostome Bryozoa (34 species newly sequenced). This vastly improved the taxonomic coverage and number of loci used in a molecular analysis of this order and allowed a more in-depth look into the evolutionary history of Cheilostomata. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of individual loci were carried out along with a partitioned multi-locus approach, plus a range of topology tests based on morphological hypotheses. Together, these provide a comprehensive set of phylogenetic analyses of the order Cheilostomata. From these results inferences are made about the evolutionary history of this order and proposed morphological hypotheses are discussed in light of the independent evidence gained from the molecular data. Infraorder Ascophorina was demonstrated to be non-monophyletic, and there appears to be multiple origins of the ascus and associated structures involved in lophophore extension. This was further supported by the lack of monophyly within each of the four ascophoran grades (acanthostegomorph/spinocystal, hippothoomorph/gymnocystal, umbonulomorph/umbonuloid, lepraliomorph/lepralioid) defined by frontal-shield morphology. Chorizopora, currently classified in the ascophoran grade Hippothoomorpha, is phylogenetically distinct from Hippothoidae, providing strong evidence for multiple origins of the gymnocystal frontal shield type. Further evidence is produced to support the morphological hypothesis of multiple umbonuloid origins of lepralioid frontal shields, using a step-wise set of topological hypothesis tests combined with examination of multi-locus phylogenies.

  17. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PSEUDOCHLORODESMIS STRAINS REVEALS CRYPTIC DIVERSITY ABOVE THE FAMILY LEVEL IN THE SIPHONOUS GREEN ALGAE (BRYOPSIDALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Vlaeminck, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Sherwood, Alison R; Leliaert, Frederik; De Clerck, Olivier

    2009-06-01

    The genus Pseudochlorodesmis (Bryopsidales) is composed of diminutive siphons of extreme morphological simplicity. The discovery of Pseudochlorodesmis-like juveniles in more complex Bryopsidales (e.g., the Halimeda microthallus stage) jeopardized the recognition of this genus. Confronted with this uncertainty, taxonomists transferred many simple siphons into a new genus, Siphonogramen. In this study, we used a multimarker approach to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic affinities of the Pseudochlorodesmis-Siphonogramen (PS) complex within the more morphologically complex bryopsidalean taxa. Our analyses reveal a new layer of diversity largely distinct from the lineages containing the structurally complex genera. The PS complex shows profound cryptic diversity exceeding the family level. We discuss a potential link between thallus complexity and the prevalence and profundity of cryptic diversity. For taxonomic simplicity and as a first step toward clarifying the taxonomy of these simple siphons, we propose to maintain Pseudochlorodesmis as a form genus and subsume Siphonogramen and Botryodesmis therein.

  18. The High-throughput sequencing of Sillago japonica mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic position within the genus Sillago.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sufang; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Sillago japonica was determined through high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The circular mtDNA molecule was 16 645 bp in size and encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and content identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The identity analysis revealed that the mitogenome sequence of S. japonica shared a relatively high sequence identity to S. asiatica (81.5%) compared with S. aeolus (77.5%), S. indica (77.1%), and S. sihama (76.3%). The neighbor-joining tree of complete mitogenome sequence showed that S. japonica firstly clustered together with S. asiatica, then grouped with S. indica and S. sihama, and finally gathered with S. aeolus. Taken together, the results absolutely supported the evolutionary position of S. japonica and provided new insights into phylogenetic relationships of Sillago.

  19. Unusually High Archaeal Diversity in a Crystallizer Pond, Pomorie Salterns, Bulgaria, Revealed by Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomova, Iva; Boyadzhieva, Ivanka; Radchenkova, Nadja; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on archaeal diversity in few salterns have revealed heterogeneity between sites and unique structures of separate places that hinder drawing of generalized conclusions. Investigations on the archaeal community composition in P18, the biggest crystallizer pond in Pomorie salterns (PS) (34% salinity), demonstrated unusually high number of presented taxa in hypersaline environment. Archaeal clones were grouped in 26 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to 15 different genera from two orders, Halobacteriales and Haloferacales. All retrieved sequences were related to culturable halophiles or unculturable clones from saline (mostly hypersaline) niches. New sequences represented 53.9% of archaeal OTUs. Some of them formed separate branches with 90% similarity to the closest neighbor. Present results significantly differed from the previous investigations in regard to the number of presented genera, the domination of some genera not reported before in such extreme niche, and the identification of previously undiscovered 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:27974879

  20. Molecular phylogenetics reveals a pattern of biome conservatism in New World anchovies (family Engraulidae).

    PubMed

    Bloom, Devin D; Lovejoy, N R

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater biomes are relatively rare events, yielding a widespread pattern of biome conservatism among aquatic organisms. We investigated biome transitions in anchovies (Engraulidae), a globally distributed clade of economically important fishes. Most anchovy species are near-shore marine fishes, but several exclusively freshwater species are known from tropical rivers of South America and were previously thought to be the product of six or more independent freshwater invasions. We generated a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Engraulidae, including representatives from 15 of 17 currently recognized genera. Our data support previous hypotheses of higher-level relationships within Engraulidae, but show that most New World genera are not monophyletic and in need of revision. Ancestral character reconstruction reveals that New World freshwater anchovies are the product of a single marine to freshwater transition, supporting a pattern of biome conservatism. We argue that competition is the principal mechanism that regulates aquatic biome transitions on a continental scale.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus within Panicoideae (Poaceae) reveal two new genera of tropical grasses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Christian; Snak, Cristiane; Schnadelbach, Alessandra Selbach; van den Berg, Cássio; Oliveira, Reyjane Patrícia

    2015-12-01

    Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are two tropical grass genera distributed mostly in the Americas, characterized by the presence of rachilla appendages in the shape of convex swellings, scars or wings at the base of the upper anthecium. However, recent studies have shown that rachilla appendages arose several times independently in several groups within Paniceae and Paspaleae (Panicoideae). Thus, this study aimed to assess the monophyly of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus and their relationship to other genera of Paniceae and Paspaleae, especially those including species with rachilla appendages. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the cpDNA regions ndhF, rpl16, trnH-(rps19)-psbA, trnL-trnF, trnS-(psbZ)-trnG, and the rDNA ITS region included 29 of the 39 known species of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus, 23 of which were sampled for the first time. The multiple loci analyses indicated that Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are polyphyletic in their current circumscriptions, with species in four distinct lineages within subtribe Paspalinae, each one characterized by a single type of rachilla appendage. Thus, Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are each circumscribed in a narrow sense, and the other two lineages excluded from them are proposed as the new genera Hildaea and Oedochloa, resulting in 15 new combinations and the restablishment of I. oplismenoides Munro ex Döll.

  2. Phylogenetic Insights into Chinese Rubus (Rosaceae) from Multiple Chloroplast and Nuclear DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Chen, Tao; Tang, Haoru; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Rubus L. is a large and taxonomically complex genus, species of which exhibit apomixis, polyploidy, and frequent hybridization. Most of Chinese Rubus are assigned in two major sections, Idaeobatus and Malachobatus. To explore the phylogenetic relationships within Chinese Rubus, inferences upon three chloroplast DNA (rbcL, rpl20-rps12, and trnG-trnS), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and two low-copy nuclear markers (GBSSI-2 and PEPC) were deduced in 142 Rubus taxa from 17 subsections in 6 sections. nrITS and GBSSI-2 were the most informative among the six DNA regions assessed. Phylogenetic relationships within Rubus were well-resolved by combined nuclear datasets rather than chloroplast markers. The phylogenetic inferences strongly supported that section Idaeobatus was a polyphyletic group with four distant clades. All samples of sect. Malachobatus formed a monophyletic clade, in which R. tsangorum and R. amphidasys of sect. Dalibardastrum, and R. peltatus from subsection Peltati of sect. Idaeobatus were always nested. Rubus pentagonus (2n = 2x = 14) from subsect. Alpestres of sect. Idaeobatus was a sister group to the polyploid sect. Malachobatus, as well as the polytomy of three sect. Cyalctis members. This suggests that some polyploids of Malachobatus might originate from common ancestors, via polyploidization of hybrids between R. pentagonus and sect. Cylactis species. They had experienced species explosion in a short time. Section Dalibardastrum species have potential parental lineages from subsects. Moluccani and Stipulosi of sect. Malachobatus. Based on molecular phylogenies, we also provided recommendations for the taxonomic treatments of four taxa. In addition, our results showed certain incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, which might be due to hybridization and introgression. PMID:27446191

  3. Molecular phylogenetic relationships reveal contrasting evolutionary patterns in Gorgoniidae (Octocorallia) in the Eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Soler-Hurtado, M M; López-González, P J; Machordom, A

    2017-03-24

    The description and delimitation of species in an evolutionary framework is essential for understanding patterns of biodiversity and distribution, and in the assessment of conservation strategies for natural resources. This study seeks to clarify the evolutionary history and genetic variation within and between closely related octocoral species that are fundamental to benthic marine ecosystems for harbouring a high diversity of associated fauna. For our study system, we focused on members of the Gorgoniidae family in the Eastern Pacific, particularly of the Ecuadorian littoral, a less studied marine ecosystem. According to our results, the diagnosis of the genus Pacifigorgia is here amended to include species previously considered in the genus Leptogorgia. The genera Leptogorgia and Eugorgia are included within a single clade, and neither are recovered as monophyletic. In this case, according to the priority rule of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), our proposal is to include the species considered in these two genera in Leptogorgia. In addition, we found evidence of interesting speciation patterns: morphological differentiation with no apparent genetic differentiation (in Pacifigorgia), and inconsistencies between mitochondrial and nuclear data that suggest a hybridisation phenomenon (in Leptogorgia). In the first case, recent radiation, ancient hybridisation, sympatric speciation, and in the second, reticulate evolution may have contributed to the evolutionary history of the studied taxa. Therefore, incongruences observed between morphological and molecular evidences in these octocorals, and in corals in general, may reveal the types of events/patterns that have influenced their evolution.

  4. Phylogenomic networks reveal limited phylogenetic range of lateral gene transfer by transduction

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Ovidiu; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages are recognized DNA vectors and transduction is considered as a common mechanism of lateral gene transfer (LGT) during microbial evolution. Anecdotal events of phage-mediated gene transfer were studied extensively, however, a coherent evolutionary viewpoint of LGT by transduction, its extent and characteristics, is still lacking. Here we report a large-scale evolutionary reconstruction of transduction events in 3982 genomes. We inferred 17 158 recent transduction events linking donors, phages and recipients into a phylogenomic transduction network view. We find that LGT by transduction is mostly restricted to closely related donors and recipients. Furthermore, a substantial number of the transduction events (9%) are best described as gene duplications that are mediated by mobile DNA vectors. We propose to distinguish this type of paralogy by the term autology. A comparison of donor and recipient genomes revealed that genome similarity is a superior predictor of species connectivity in the network in comparison to common habitat. This indicates that genetic similarity, rather than ecological opportunity, is a driver of successful transduction during microbial evolution. A striking difference in the connectivity pattern of donors and recipients shows that while lysogenic interactions are highly species-specific, the host range for lytic phage infections can be much wider, serving to connect dense clusters of closely related species. Our results thus demonstrate that DNA transfer via transduction occurs within the context of phage–host specificity, but that this tight constraint can be breached, on rare occasions, to produce long-range LGTs of profound evolutionary consequences. PMID:27648812

  5. New insights on the sialidase protein family revealed by a phylogenetic analysis in metazoa.

    PubMed

    Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bresciani, Roberto; Schauer, Roland; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Sialidases are glycohydrolytic enzymes present from virus to mammals that remove sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Four different sialidase forms are known in vertebrates: the lysosomal NEU1, the cytosolic NEU2 and the membrane-associated NEU3 and NEU4. These enzymes modulate the cell sialic acid content and are involved in several cellular processes and pathological conditions. Molecular defects in NEU1 are responsible for sialidosis, an inherited disease characterized by lysosomal storage disorder and neurodegeneration. The studies on the biology of sialic acids and sialyltransferases, the anabolic counterparts of sialidases, have revealed a complex picture with more than 50 sialic acid variants selectively present in the different branches of the tree of life. The gain/loss of specific sialoconjugates have been proposed as key events in the evolution of deuterostomes and Homo sapiens, as well as in the host-pathogen interactions. To date, less attention has been paid to the evolution of sialidases. Thus we have conducted a survey on the state of the sialidase family in metazoan. Using an in silico approach, we identified and characterized sialidase orthologs from 21 different organisms distributed among the evolutionary tree: Metazoa relative (Monosiga brevicollis), early Deuterostomia, precursor of Chordata and Vertebrata (teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avians and early and recent mammals). We were able to reconstruct the evolution of the sialidase protein family from the ancestral sialidase NEU1 and identify a new form of the enzyme, NEU5, representing an intermediate step in the evolution leading to the modern NEU3, NEU4 and NEU2. Our study provides new insights on the mechanisms that shaped the substrate specificity and other peculiar properties of the modern mammalian sialidases. Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may be involved in

  6. Phylogenetic analysis reveals rapid evolutionary dynamics in the plant RNA virus genus tobamovirus.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; Firth, Cadhla; Holmes, Edward C

    2010-10-01

    Early studies on the evolutionary dynamics of plant RNA viruses suggested that they may evolve more slowly than their animal counterparts, sometimes dramatically so. However, these estimates were often based on an assumption of virus-host codivergence over time-scales of many millions of years that is difficult to verify. An important example are viruses of the genus Tobamovirus, where the assumption of host-virus codivergence over 100 million years has led to rate estimates in the range of ~1 × 10(-8) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year. Such a low evolutionary rate is in apparent contradiction with the ability of some tobamoviruses to quickly overcome inbred genetic resistance. To resolve how rapidly molecular evolution proceeds in the tobomaviruses, we estimated rates of nucleotide substitution, times to common ancestry, and the extent of congruence between virus and host phylogenies. Using Bayesian coalescent methods applied to time-stamped sequences, we estimated mean evolutionary rates at the nucleotide and amino acid levels of between 1 × 10(-5) and 1.3 × 10(-3) substitutions per site, per year, and hence similar to those seen in a broad range of animal and plant RNA viruses. Under these rates, a conservative estimate for the time of origin of the sampled tobamoviruses is within the last 100,000 years, and hence a far more recently than proposed assuming codivergence. This is supported by our cophylogeny analysis which revealed significantly discordant evolutionary histories between the tobamoviruses and the plant families they infect.

  7. New Insights on the Sialidase Protein Family Revealed by a Phylogenetic Analysis in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bresciani, Roberto; Schauer, Roland; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Sialidases are glycohydrolytic enzymes present from virus to mammals that remove sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Four different sialidase forms are known in vertebrates: the lysosomal NEU1, the cytosolic NEU2 and the membrane-associated NEU3 and NEU4. These enzymes modulate the cell sialic acid content and are involved in several cellular processes and pathological conditions. Molecular defects in NEU1 are responsible for sialidosis, an inherited disease characterized by lysosomal storage disorder and neurodegeneration. The studies on the biology of sialic acids and sialyltransferases, the anabolic counterparts of sialidases, have revealed a complex picture with more than 50 sialic acid variants selectively present in the different branches of the tree of life. The gain/loss of specific sialoconjugates have been proposed as key events in the evolution of deuterostomes and Homo sapiens, as well as in the host-pathogen interactions. To date, less attention has been paid to the evolution of sialidases. Thus we have conducted a survey on the state of the sialidase family in metazoan. Using an in silico approach, we identified and characterized sialidase orthologs from 21 different organisms distributed among the evolutionary tree: Metazoa relative (Monosiga brevicollis), early Deuterostomia, precursor of Chordata and Vertebrata (teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avians and early and recent mammals). We were able to reconstruct the evolution of the sialidase protein family from the ancestral sialidase NEU1 and identify a new form of the enzyme, NEU5, representing an intermediate step in the evolution leading to the modern NEU3, NEU4 and NEU2. Our study provides new insights on the mechanisms that shaped the substrate specificity and other peculiar properties of the modern mammalian sialidases. Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may be involved in

  8. Endemism and diversification in freshwater insects of Madagascar revealed by coalescent and phylogenetic analysis of museum and field collections.

    PubMed

    Vuataz, Laurent; Sartori, Michel; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Monaghan, Michael T

    2013-03-01

    The biodiversity and endemism of Madagascar are among the most extraordinary and endangered in the world. This includes the island's freshwater biodiversity, although detailed knowledge of the diversity, endemism, and biogeographic origin of freshwater invertebrates is lacking. The aquatic immature stages of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) are widely used as bio-indicators and form an important component of Malagasy freshwater biodiversity. Many species are thought to be microendemics, restricted to single river basins in forested areas, making them particularly sensitive to habitat reduction and degradation. The Heptageniidae are a globally diverse family of mayflies (>500 species) but remain practically unknown in Madagascar except for two species described in 1996. The standard approach to understanding their diversity, endemism, and origin would require extensive field sampling on several continents and years of taxonomic work followed by phylogenetic analysis. Here we circumvent this using museum collections and freshly collected individuals in a combined approach of DNA taxonomy and phylogeny. The coalescent-based GMYC analysis of DNA barcode data (mitochondrial COI) revealed 14 putative species on Madagascar, 70% of which were microendemics. A phylogenetic analysis that included African and Asian species and data from two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci indicated the Malagasy Heptageniidae are monophyletic and sister to African species. The genus Compsoneuria is shown to be paraphyletic and the genus Notonurus is reinstalled for African and Malagasy species previously placed in Compsoneuria. A molecular clock excluded a Gondwanan vicariance origin and instead favoured a more recent overseas colonization of Madagascar. The observed monophyly and high microendemism highlight their conservation importance and suggest the DNA-based approach can rapidly provide information on the diversity, endemism, and origin of freshwater biodiversity. Our results underline the

  9. Single-Copy Nuclear Genes Place Haustorial Hydnoraceae within Piperales and Reveal a Cretaceous Origin of Multiple Parasitic Angiosperm Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Julia; Salomo, Karsten; Der, Joshua P.; Wafula, Eric K.; Bolin, Jay F.; Maass, Erika; Frenzke, Lena; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Extreme haustorial parasites have long captured the interest of naturalists and scientists with their greatly reduced and highly specialized morphology. Along with the reduction or loss of photosynthesis, the plastid genome often decays as photosynthetic genes are released from selective constraint. This makes it challenging to use traditional plastid genes for parasitic plant phylogenetics, and has driven the search for alternative phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary markers. Thus, evolutionary studies, such as molecular clock-based age estimates, are not yet available for all parasitic lineages. In the present study, we extracted 14 nuclear single copy genes (nSCG) from Illumina transcriptome data from one of the “strangest plants in the world”, Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae). A ∼15,000 character molecular dataset, based on all three genomic compartments, shows the utility of nSCG for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in parasitic lineages. A relaxed molecular clock approach with the same multi-locus dataset, revealed an ancient age of ∼91 MYA for Hydnoraceae. We then estimated the stem ages of all independently originated parasitic angiosperm lineages using a published dataset, which also revealed a Cretaceous origin for Balanophoraceae, Cynomoriaceae and Apodanthaceae. With the exception of Santalales, older parasite lineages tend to be more specialized with respect to trophic level and have lower species diversity. We thus propose the “temporal specialization hypothesis” (TSH) implementing multiple independent specialization processes over time during parasitic angiosperm evolution. PMID:24265760

  10. Interim Report on Multiple Sequence Alignments and TaqMan Signature Mapping to Phylogenetic Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S; Jaing, C

    2012-03-27

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, addressing a significant capability gap for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the Taqman signature development for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  11. Data Requirement for Phylogenetic Inference from Multiple Loci: A New Distance Method.

    PubMed

    Dasarathy, Gautam; Nowak, Robert; Roch, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the evolutionary history of a set of species (phylogeny or species tree) from several genes. It is known that the evolutionary history of individual genes (gene trees) might be topologically distinct from each other and from the underlying species tree, possibly confounding phylogenetic analysis. A further complication in practice is that one has to estimate gene trees from molecular sequences of finite length. We provide the first full data-requirement analysis of a species tree reconstruction method that takes into account estimation errors at the gene level. Under that criterion, we also devise a novel reconstruction algorithm that provably improves over all previous methods in a regime of interest.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals positive correlations between adaptations to diverse hosts in a group of pathogen-like herbivores.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Daniel A; Hardy, Nate B; Morse, Geoffrey E; Stocks, Ian C; Okusu, Akiko; Normark, Benjamin B

    2015-10-01

    A jack of all trades can be master of none-this intuitive idea underlies most theoretical models of host-use evolution in plant-feeding insects, yet empirical support for trade-offs in performance on distinct host plants is weak. Trade-offs may influence the long-term evolution of host use while being difficult to detect in extant populations, but host-use evolution may also be driven by adaptations for generalism. Here we used host-use data from insect collection records to parameterize a phylogenetic model of host-use evolution in armored scale insects, a large family of plant-feeding insects with a simple, pathogen-like life history. We found that a model incorporating positive correlations between evolutionary changes in host performance best fit the observed patterns of diaspidid presence and absence on nearly all focal host taxa, suggesting that adaptations to particular hosts also enhance performance on other hosts. In contrast to the widely invoked trade-off model, we advocate a "toolbox" model of host-use evolution in which armored scale insects accumulate a set of independent genetic tools, each of which is under selection for a single function but may be useful on multiple hosts.

  13. Connexin43 null mice reveal that astrocytes express multiple connexins.

    PubMed

    Dermietzel, R; Gao, Y; Scemes, E; Vieira, D; Urban, M; Kremer, M; Bennett, M V; Spray, D C

    2000-04-01

    The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is the primary component of intercellular channels in cardiac tissue and in astrocytes, the most abundant type of glial cells in the brain. Mice in which the gene for Cx43 is deleted by homologous recombination die at birth, due to profound hypertrophy of the ventricular outflow tract and stenosis of the pulmonary artery. Despite this significant cardiovascular abnormality, brains of connexin43 null [Cx43 (-/-)] animals are shown to be macroscopically normal and to display a pattern of cortical lamination that is not detectably different from wildtype siblings. Presence of Cx40 and Cx45 in brains and astrocytes cultured from both Cx43 (-/-) mice and wildtype littermates was confirmed by RT-PCR, Northern blot analyses and by immunostaining; Cx46 was detected by RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses. Presence of Cx26 in astrocyte cultures was indicated by RT-PCR and by Western blot analysis, although we were unable to resolve whether it was contributed by contaminating cells; Cx30 mRNA was detected by Northern blot in long term (2 weeks) but not fresh cultures of astrocytes. These studies thus reveal that astrocyte gap junctions may be formed of multiple connexins. Presumably, the metabolic and ionic coupling provided by these diverse gap junction types may functionally compensate for the absence of the major astrocyte gap junction protein in Cx43 (-/-) mice, providing whatever intercellular signaling is necessary for brain development and cortical lamination.

  14. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  15. Phylogenetic evidence for multiple losses of a sexually selected character in phrynosomatid lizards

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of conspicuous male display ornaments is a common trend in diverse groups of organisms and a continuing challenge to studies of sexual selection. A phylogenetic approach was used to examine macro-evolutionary patterns of change in sexually dichromatic display coloration (distinctively coloured belly patches) among 130 taxa of phrynosomatid lizards. The results showed repeated losses of sexual dimorphism, which occur through losses of conspicuous male coloration or gains of conspicuous female coloration. The frequent loss of male traits is surprising, given that sexual selection presumably drives their evolutionary origin and maintenance, but is consistent with a recently proposed hypothesis suggesting that females may lose responsiveness to male traits over macro-evolutionary time-scales. The observation of repeated losses of male traits in phrynosomatid lizards (and other groups) may have implications for testing among competing models for the evolution of female preferences. A concentrated changes test showed that changes in male display coloration are significantly associated with the use of ground-dwelling habitat, as opposed to rock- or tree-dwelling habitats. This result suggests a role for natural selection in the loss of male display traits in phrynosomatid lizards, but habitat type alone may be insufficient to explain these losses.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and identification of pseudogenes reveal a progressive loss of zona pellucida genes during evolution of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Ghylène; Mugnier, Sylvie; Callebaut, Isabelle; Monget, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an extracellular matrix with similar functions and conserved individual components: the zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. In mammals, chickens, frogs, and some fish species, we established an updated list of the ZP genes, studied the relationships within the ZP gene family using phylogenetic analysis, and identified ZP pseudogenes. Our study confirmed the classification of ZP genes in six subfamilies: ZPA/ZP2, ZPB/ZP4, ZPC/ZP3, ZP1, ZPAX, and ZPD. The identification of a Zpb pseudogene in the mouse genome, Zp1 pseudogenes in the dog and bovine genomes, and Zpax pseudogenes in the human, chimpanzee, macaque, and bovine genomes showed that the evolution of ZP genes mainly occurs by death of genes. Our study revealed that the extracellular matrix surrounding vertebrate eggs contains three to at least six ZP glycoproteins. Mammals can be classified in three categories. In the mouse, the ZP is composed of three ZP proteins (ZPA/ZP2, ZPC/ZP3, and ZP1). In dog, cattle and, putatively, pig, cat, and rabbit, the zona is composed of three ZP proteins (ZPA/ZP2, ZPB/ZP4, and ZPC/ZP3). In human, chimpanzee, macaque, and rat, the ZP is composed of four ZP proteins (ZPA/ZP2, ZPB/ZP4, ZPC/ZP3, and ZP1). Our review provides new directions to investigate the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition, a mechanism which is not yet elucidated.

  17. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene sequences reveals significant genomic divergence in Triticeae species.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Rong; Lang, Tao; Yang, En-Nian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Zu-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Although the unique properties of wheat α-gliadin gene family are well characterized, little is known about the evolution and genomic divergence of α-gliadin gene family within the Triticeae. We isolated a total of 203 α-gliadin gene sequences from 11 representative diploid and polyploid Triticeae species, and found 108 sequences putatively functional. Our results indicate that α-gliadin genes may have possibly originated from wild Secale species, where the sequences contain the shortest repetitive domains and display minimum variation. A miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion is reported for the first time in α-gliadin gene sequence of Thinopyrum intermedium in this study, indicating that the transposable element might have contributed to the diversification of α-gliadin genes family among Triticeae genomes. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the α-gliadin gene sequences of Dasypyrum, Australopyrum, Lophopyrum, Eremopyrum and Pseudoroengeria species have amplified several times. A search for four typical toxic epitopes for celiac disease within the Triticeae α-gliadin gene sequences showed that the α-gliadins of wild Secale, Australopyrum and Agropyron genomes lack all four epitopes, while other Triticeae species have accumulated these epitopes, suggesting that the evolution of these toxic epitopes sequences occurred during the course of speciation, domestication or polyploidization of Triticeae.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis clinical strains reveals a clear species clustering.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim; Lang, Niklaus P; Mayfield, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis are oral pathogens from the family Bacteroidaceae, regularly isolated from cases of gingivitis and periodontitis. In this study, the phylogenetic variability of these three bacterial species was investigated by means of 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequence comparisons of a set of epidemiologically and geographically diverse isolates. For each of the three species, the rrs gene sequences of 11 clinical isolates as well as the corresponding type strains was determined. Comparison of all rrs sequences obtained with those of closely related species revealed a clear clustering of species, with only a little intraspecies variability but a clear difference in the rrs gene with respect to the next related taxon. The results indicate that the three species form stable, homogeneous genetic groups, which favours an rrs-based species identification of these oral pathogens. This is especially useful given the 7% sequence divergence between Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens, since phenotypic distinction between the two Prevotella species is inconsistent or involves techniques not applicable in routine identification.

  19. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of Methanomassiliicoccales in wetlands and animal intestinal tracts reveals clade-specific habitat preferences.

    PubMed

    Söllinger, Andrea; Schwab, Clarissa; Weinmaier, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Tveit, Alexander T; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Methanogenic Thermoplasmata of the novel order Methanomassiliicoccales were recently discovered in human and animal gastro-intestinal tracts (GITs). However, their distribution in other methanogenic environments has not been addressed systematically. Here, we surveyed Methanomassiliicoccales presence in wetland soils, a globally important source of methane emissions to the atmosphere, and in the GITs of different animals by PCR targeting their 16S rRNA and methyl:coenzyme M reductase (α-subunit) genes. We detected Methanomassiliicoccales in all 16 peat soils investigated, indicating their wide distribution in these habitats. Additionally, we detected their genes in various animal faeces. Methanomassiliicoccales were subdivided in two broad phylogenetic clades designated 'environmental' and 'GIT' clades based on differential, although non-exclusive, habitat preferences of their members. A well-supported cluster within the environmental clade comprised more than 80% of all wetland 16S rRNA gene sequences. Metagenome assembly from bovine rumen fluid enrichments resulted in two almost complete genomes of both Methanomassiliicoccales clades. Comparative genomics revealed that members of the environmental clade contain larger genomes and a higher number of genes encoding anti-oxidative enzymes than animal GIT clade representatives. This study highlights the wide distribution of Methanomassiliicoccales in wetlands, which suggests that they contribute to methane emissions from these climate-relevant ecosystems.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis reveals common antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter coli population in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and commercial swine systems.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the population biology of antimicrobial resistant (AR) Campylobacter coli isolated from swine reared in the conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) swine production systems at farm, slaughter and environment. A total of 200 C. coli isolates selected from fecal, environmental, and carcass samples of ABF (n = 100) and conventional (n = 100) swine production systems were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sequence data from seven housekeeping genes was analyzed for the identification of allelic profiles, sequence types (STs) and clonal complex determination. Phylogenetic trees were generated to establish the relationships between the genotyped isolates. A total of 51 STs were detected including two novel alleles (glnA 424 and glyA 464) and 14 novel STs reported for the first time. The majority of the C. coli isolates belonged to ST-854 (ABF: 31, conventional: 17), and were grouped in clonal complex ST-828 (ABF: 68%, conventional: 66%). The mean genetic diversity (H) for the ABF (0.3963+/-0.0806) and conventional (0.4655+/-0.0714) systems were similar. The index of association (I(A)(S)) for the ABF (I(A)(S)= 0.1513) and conventional (I(A)(S) = 0.0991) C. coli populations were close to linkage equilibrium, indicative of a freely recombining population. Identical STs were detected between the pigs and their environment both at farm and slaughter. A minimum spanning tree revealed the close clustering of C. coli STs that originated from swine and carcass with those from the environment. In conclusion, our study reveals a genotypic diverse C. coli population that shares a common ancestry in the conventional and ABF swine production systems. This could potentially explain the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. coli in the ABF system in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure.

  1. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus in South America clade 1 reveals unique molecular signatures of the local epidemic.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Cristine D B; Gräf, Tiago; Ikuta, Nilo; Lehmann, Fernanda K M; Passos, Daniel T; Makiejczuk, Aline; Silveira, Marcos A T; Fonseca, André S K; Canal, Cláudio W; Lunge, Vagner R

    2016-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious pathogen for domestic dogs and several wild carnivore species. In Brazil, natural infection of CDV in dogs is very high due to the large non-vaccinated dog population, a scenario that calls for new studies on the molecular epidemiology. This study investigates the phylodynamics and amino-acid signatures of CDV epidemic in South America by analyzing a large dataset compiled from publicly available sequences and also by collecting new samples from Brazil. A population of 175 dogs with canine distemper (CD) signs was sampled, from which 89 were positive for CDV, generating 42 new CDV sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the new and publicly available sequences revealed that Brazilian sequences mainly clustered in South America 1 (SA1) clade, which has its origin estimated to the late 1980's. The reconstruction of the demographic history in SA1 clade showed an epidemic expanding until the recent years, doubling in size every nine years. SA1 clade epidemic distinguished from the world CDV epidemic by the emergence of the R580Q strain, a very rare and potentially detrimental substitution in the viral genome. The R580Q substitution was estimated to have happened in one single evolutionary step in the epidemic history in SA1 clade, emerging shortly after introduction to the continent. Moreover, a high prevalence (11.9%) of the Y549H mutation was observed among the domestic dogs sampled here. This finding was associated (p<0.05) with outcome-death and higher frequency in mixed-breed dogs, the later being an indicator of a continuous exchange of CDV strains circulating among wild carnivores and domestic dogs. The results reported here highlight the diversity of the worldwide CDV epidemic and reveal local features that can be valuable for combating the disease.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of Muar strain of Japanese encephalitis virus reveal it is the missing fifth genotype.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Manal A F; Galbraith, Sareen E; Radford, Alan D; Dove, Winifred; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Solomon, Tom

    2011-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide but its origin is unknown. Epidemics of encephalitis suggestive of Japanese encephalitis (JE) were described in Japan from the 1870s onwards. Four genotypes of JEV have been characterised and representatives of each genotype have been fully sequenced. Based on limited information, a single isolate from Malaysia is thought to represent a putative fifth genotype. We have determined the complete nucleotide and amino acid sequence of Muar strain and compared it with other fully sequenced JEV genomes. Muar was the least similar, with nucleotide divergence ranging from 20.2 to 21.2% and amino acid divergence ranging from 8.5 to 9.9%. Phylogenetic analysis of Muar strain revealed that it does represent a distinct fifth genotype of JEV. We elucidated Muar signature amino acids in the envelope (E) protein, including E327 Glu on the exposed lateral surface of the putative receptor binding domain which distinguishes Muar strain from the other four genotypes. Evolutionary analysis of full-length JEV genomes revealed that the mean evolutionary rate is 4.35 × 10(-4) (3.4906 × 10(-4) to 5.303 × 10(-4)) nucleotides substitutions per site per year and suggests JEV originated from its ancestral virus in the mid 1500s in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved there into different genotypes, which then spread across Asia. No strong evidence for positive selection was found between JEV strains of the five genotypes and the E gene has generally been subjected to strong purifying selection.

  4. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of haemoplasmas from cats infected with multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Larissa Campos; Hicks, Chelsea A.E.; Scalon, Marcela C.; Lima, Maíra G. da M.; Lemos, Marcelle dos S.; Paludo, Giane Regina; Helps, Chris R.; Tasker, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ (CMt) are agents of feline haemoplasmosis and can induce anaemia in cats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogeny of haemoplasma species in cats from Brazil's capital and surrounding areas, and whether correlation with haematological abnormalities existed. Feline haemoplasmas were found in 13.8% of 432 cats. CMhm was the most prevalent species (in 13.8% of cats), followed by Mhf (11.1%) and CMt (4.4%). Over 80% of haemoplasma-infected cats harboured two or more feline haemoplasma species: 7.1% of cats were co-infected with Mhf/CMhm, 0.4% with CMhm/CMt and 3.9% with Mhf/CMhm/CMt. Male gender was significantly associated with haemoplasma infections. No association was found between qPCR haemoplasma status and haematological variables, however CMhm relative copy numbers were correlated with red blood cell (RBC) numbers and packed cell volume (PCV). Haemoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 1 Kb) were derived from co-infected cats using novel haemoplasma species-specific primers. This allowed 16S rRNA gene sequences to be obtained despite the high level of co-infection, which precluded the use of universal 16S rRNA gene primers. Within each species, the Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.8%, > 98.5% and > 98.8% identity, respectively. The Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.2%, > 98.4% and > 97.8% identity, respectively, with GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed all Mhf sequences to reside in a single clade, whereas the CMhm and CMt sequences each grouped into three distinct subclades. These phylogeny findings suggest the existence of different CMhm and CMt strains. PMID:25447887

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferases in Opisthokonts Reveals Unexpected Ancestral Complexity and Novel Modern Biosynthetic Components

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Heather C.; Mast, Fred D.; Chilije, Maxwell F. J.; Tavassoli, Marjan; Dacks, Joel B.; Zaremberg, Vanina

    2014-01-01

    Glycerolipid synthesis represents a central metabolic process of all forms of life. In the last decade multiple genes coding for enzymes responsible for the first step of the pathway, catalyzed by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), have been described, and characterized primarily in model organisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mice. Notoriously, the fungal enzymes share low sequence identity with their known animal counterparts, and the nature of their homology is unclear. Furthermore, two mitochondrial GPAT isoforms have been described in animal cells, while no such enzymes have been identified in Fungi. In order to determine if the yeast and mammalian GPATs are representative of the set of enzymes present in their respective groups, and to test the hypothesis that metazoan orthologues are indeed absent from the fungal clade, a comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis was performed including organisms spanning the breadth of the Opisthokonta supergroup. Surprisingly, our study unveiled the presence of ‘fungal’ orthologs in the basal taxa of the holozoa and ‘animal’ orthologues in the basal holomycetes. This includes a novel clade of fungal homologues, with putative peroxisomal targeting signals, of the mitochondrial/peroxisomal acyltransferases in Metazoa, thus potentially representing an undescribed metabolic capacity in the Fungi. The overall distribution of GPAT homologues is suggestive of high relative complexity in the ancestors of the opisthokont clade, followed by loss and sculpting of the complement in the descendent lineages. Divergence from a general versatile metabolic model, present in ancestrally deduced GPAT complements, points to distinctive contributions of each GPAT isoform to lipid metabolism and homeostasis in contemporary organisms like humans and their fungal pathogens. PMID:25340523

  6. Genotyping of Capreolus pygargus Fossil DNA from Denisova Cave Reveals Phylogenetic Relationships between Ancient and Modern Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Sherbakov, Dmitry Y.; Druzhkova, Anna S.; Stanyon, Roscoe; Tsybankov, Alexander A.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Shunkov, Mikhail V.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821) includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus) and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia), where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan), Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains) are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples. Conclusion/Significance Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian roe deer

  7. Phylogenetic Footprinting Reveals Evolutionarily Conserved Regions of the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene that Enhance Cell-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    GIVENS, MARJORY L.; KUROTANI, REIKO; RAVE-HAREL, NAAMA; MILLER, NICHOL L. G.; MELLON, PAMELA L.

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive function is controlled by the hypothalamic neuropeptide, GnRH, which serves as the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH expression is limited to a small population of neurons in the hypothalamus. Targeting this minute population of neurons (as few as 800 in the mouse) requires regulatory elements upstream of the GnRH gene that remain to be fully characterized. Previously, we have identified an evolutionarily conserved promoter region (−173 to −1) and an enhancer (−1863 to −1571) in the rat gene that targets a subset of the GnRH neurons in vivo. In the present study, we used phylogenetic sequence comparison between human and rodents and analysis of the transcription factor clusters within conserved regions in an attempt to identify additional upstream regulatory elements. This approach led to the characterization of a new upstream enhancer that regulates expression of GnRH in a cell-specific manner. Within this upstream enhancer are nine binding sites for Octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (OCT1), known to be an important transcriptional regulator of GnRH gene expression. In addition, we have identified nuclear factor I (NF1) binding to multiple elements in the GnRH-regulatory regions, each in close proximity to OCT1. We show that OCT1 and NF1 physically and functionally interact. Moreover, the OCT1 and NF1 binding sites in the regulatory regions appear to be essential for appropriate GnRH gene expression. These findings indicate a role for this upstream enhancer and novel OCT1/NF1 complexes in neuron-restricted expression of the GnRH gene. PMID:15319450

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity of Marine Cyanophage Isolates and Natural Virus Communities as Revealed by Sequences of Viral Capsid Assembly Protein Gene g20†

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Chen, Feng; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Poorvin, Leo; Hodson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to characterize the genetic diversity and phylogenetic affiliations of marine cyanophage isolates and natural cyanophage assemblages, oligonucleotide primers CPS1 and CPS8 were designed to specifically amplify ca. 592-bp fragments of the gene for viral capsid assembly protein g20. Phylogenetic analysis of isolated cyanophages revealed that the marine cyanophages were highly diverse yet more closely related to each other than to enteric coliphage T4. Genetically related marine cyanophage isolates were widely distributed without significant geographic segregation (i.e., no correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance). Cloning and sequencing analysis of six natural virus concentrates from estuarine and oligotrophic offshore environments revealed nine phylogenetic groups in a total of 114 different g20 homologs, with up to six clusters and 29 genotypes encountered in a single sample. The composition and structure of natural cyanophage communities in the estuary and open-ocean samples were different from each other, with unique phylogenetic clusters found for each environment. Changes in clonal diversity were also observed from the surface waters to the deep chlorophyll maximum layer in the open ocean. Only three clusters contained known cyanophage isolates, while the identities of the other six clusters remain unknown. Whether or not these unidentified groups are composed of bacteriophages that infect different Synechococcus groups or other closely related cyanobacteria remains to be determined. The high genetic diversity of marine cyanophage assemblages revealed by the g20 sequences suggests that marine viruses can potentially play important roles in regulating microbial genetic diversity. PMID:11916671

  9. Bacterial Communities in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis: High Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal Relationships of Microbiota to Clinical Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Hoffman, Noah G.; Morgan, Martin T.; Matsen, Frederick A.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Hall, Robert W.; Ross, Frederick J.; McCoy, Connor O.; Bumgarner, Roger; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Fredricks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV. Methodology/Principal Findings Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and pyrosequencing were performed on vaginal swabs from 220 women with and without BV. BV was assessed by Amsel’s clinical criteria and confirmed by Gram stain. Taxonomic classification was performed using phylogenetic placement tools that assigned 99% of query sequence reads to the species level. Women with BV had heterogeneous vaginal bacterial communities that were usually not dominated by a single taxon. In the absence of BV, vaginal bacterial communities were dominated by either Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners. Leptotrichia amnionii and Eggerthella sp. were the only two BV-associated bacteria (BVABs) significantly associated with each of the four Amsel’s criteria. Co-occurrence analysis revealed the presence of several sub-groups of BVABs suggesting metabolic co-dependencies. Greater abundance of several BVABs was observed in Black women without BV. Conclusions/Significance The human vaginal bacterial biota is heterogeneous and marked by greater species richness and diversity in women with BV; no species is universally present. Different bacterial species have different associations with the four clinical criteria, which may account for discrepancies often observed between Amsel and Nugent (Gram stain) diagnostic criteria. Several BVABs exhibited race-dependent prevalence when analyzed in separate groups by BV status which may contribute to increased incidence of BV in

  10. Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genome of Shiraia bambusicola Reveals Special Features in the Order of Pleosporales

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Ye; Li, Tong; Chen, Shuang; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Shiraia bambusicola P. Henn. is a pathogenic fungus of bamboo, and its fruiting bodies are regarded as folk medicine. We determined and analyzed its complete mitochondrial DNA sequence (circular DNA molecule of 39,030 bp, G + C content of 25.19%). It contains the typical genes encoding proteins involved in electron transport and coupled oxidative phosphorylation (nad1-6 and nad4L, cob and cox1-3), one ATP synthase subunit (atp6), 4 hypothetical proteins, and two genes for large and small rRNAs (rnl and rns). There is a set of 32 tRNA genes comprising all 20 amino acids, and these genes are evenly distributed on the two strands. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated mitochondrial proteins indicated that S. bambusicola clustered with members of the order Pleosporales, which is in agreement with previous results. The gene arrangements of Dothideomycetes species contained three regions of gene orders partitioned in their mitochondrial genomes, including block 1 (nad6-atp6), block 2 (nad1-cox3) and block 3 (genes around rns). S. bambusicola displayed unique special features that differed from the other Pleosporales species, especially in the coding regions around rns (trnR-trnY). Moreover, a comparison of gene orders in mitochondrial genomes from Pezizomycotina revealed that although all encoded regions are located on the same strand in most Pezizomycotina mtDNAs, genes from Dothideomycetes species had different orientations, as well as diverse positions and colocalization of genes (such as cox3, cox1-cox2 and nad2–nad3); these distinctions were regarded as class-specific features. Interestingly, two incomplete copies of the atp6 gene were found on different strands of the mitogenomic DNA, a finding that has not been observed in the other analyzed fungal species. In our study, mitochondrial genomes from Dothideomycetes species were comprehensively analyzed for the first time, including many species that have not appeared in previous reports. PMID:25790308

  11. Phylogenetic Reassessment of Antarctic Tetillidae (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) Reveals New Genera and Genetic Similarity among Morphologically Distinct Species

    PubMed Central

    Carella, Mirco; Agell, Gemma; Cárdenas, Paco; Uriz, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Species of Tetillidae are distributed worldwide. However, some genera are unresolved and only a few genera and species of this family have been described from the Antarctic. The incorporation of 25 new COI and 18S sequences of Antarctic Tetillidae to those used recently for assessing the genera phylogeny, has allowed us to improve the resolution of some poorly resolved nodes and to confirm the monophyly of previously identified clades. Classical genera such as Craniella recovered their traditional diagnosis by moving the Antarctic Tetilla from Craniella, where they were placed in the previous family phylogeny, to Antarctotetilla gen. nov. The morphological re-examination of specimens used in the previous phylogeny and their comparison to the type material revealed misidentifications. The proposed monotypic new genus Levantinella had uncertain phylogenetic relationships depending on the gene partition used. Two more clades would require the inclusion of additional species to be formally established as new genera. The parsimony tree based on morphological characters and the secondary structure of the 18S (V4 region) almost completely matched the COI M1-M6 and the COI+18S concatenated phylogenies. Morphological synapomorphies have been identified for the genera proposed. New 15 28S (D3-D5) and 11 COI I3-M11 partitions were exclusively sequenced for the Antarctic species subset. Remarkably, species within the Antarctic genera Cinachyra (C. barbata and C. antarctica) and Antarctotetilla (A. leptoderma, A. grandis, and A. sagitta), which are clearly distinguishable morphologically, were not genetically differentiated with any of the markers assayed. Thus, as it has been reported for other Antarctic sponges, both the mitochondrial and nuclear partitions used did not differentiate species that were well characterized morphologically. Antarctic Tetillidae offers a rare example of genetically cryptic (with the traditional markers used for sponges), morphologically distinct

  12. Phylogenetic reassessment of tribe Anemoneae (Ranunculaceae): Non-monophyly of Anemone s.l. revealed by plastid datasets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Guan, Kai-Yun; Tan, Yun-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Morphological and molecular evidence strongly supported the monophyly of tribe Anemoneae DC.; however, phylogenetic relationships among genera of this tribe have still not been fully resolved. In this study, we sampled 120 specimens representing 82 taxa of tribe Anemoneae. One nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and six plastid markers (atpB-rbcL, matK, psbA-trnQ, rpoB-trnC, rbcL and rps16) were amplified and sequenced. Both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies for this tribe. Individual datasets supported all traditional genera as monophyletic, except Anemone and Clematis that were polyphyletic and paraphyletic, respectively, and revealed that the seven single-gene datasets can be split into two groups, i.e. nrITS + atpB-rbcL and the remaining five plastid markers. The combined nrITS + atpB-rbcL dataset recovered monophyly of subtribes Anemoninae (i.e. Anemone s.l.) and Clematidinae (including Anemoclema), respectively. However, the concatenated plastid dataset showed that one group of subtribes Anemoninae (Hepatica and Anemone spp. from subgenus Anemonidium) close to the clade Clematis s.l. + Anemoclema. Our results strongly supported a close relationship between Anemoclema and Clematis s.l., which included Archiclematis and Naravelia. Non-monophyly of Anemone s.l. using the plastid dataset indicates to revise as two genera, new Anemone s.l. (including Pulsatilla, Barneoudia, Oreithales and Knowltonia), Hepatica (corresponding to Anemone subgenus Anemonidium). PMID:28362811

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses in mixed flocks: multiple evidence of dual infection and natural transmission of types A2 and B1 between sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Fras, Marion; Leboeuf, Anne; Labrie, François-Mikaël; Laurin, Marc-André; Singh Sohal, Jagdip; L'Homme, Yvan

    2013-10-01

    Previous molecular analyses of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) populations in single species herds in Quebec, Canada, have revealed a relatively simple structure where goats and sheep appeared exclusively infected with B1 and A2 subtypes respectively. The present work aimed at extending these earlier findings with the analysis of SRLVs in mixed flocks. Molecular analyses revealed a more complex picture of SRLV population structure in mixed herds compared to single species herds. Notably, phylogenetic analyses of long gag sequences strongly support transmission of A2 subtype from sheep to goats as well as transmission of B1 subtype from goats to sheep. Hence, this work uncovered for the first time natural transmission between sheep and goats of North American subtype A2. In addition, multiple evidences of mixed infection of sheep and goats with A2 and B1 subtypes were found. The data reported in this study reinforces the concept of a genetic continuum of SRLVs where strains are exchanged between sheep and goats under favourable conditions and in the absence of specific species barriers. Most interestingly, this study suggests that dual infection, which is a hallmark of the lentivirus paradigm HIV, may not be such rare events in small ruminants but may simply be understudied and underreported. Overall, the present data shows that sheep and goats in Canada can be infected with both SRLV A and B types, sometimes simultaneously, and that mixed flocks may represent a breeding ground for their evolution.

  14. Eyetracking Reveals Multiple-Category Use in Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Category information is used to predict properties of new category members. When categorization is uncertain, people often rely on only one, most likely category to make predictions. Yet studies of perception and action often conclude that people combine multiple sources of information near-optimally. We present a perception-action analog of…

  15. Clarification of the Phylogenetic Framework of the Tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) Inferred from Multiple Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoling; Chiba, Hideyuki; Huang, Zhenfu; Fei, Wen; Wang, Min; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Members of the skipper tribe Baorini generally resemble each other and are characterized by dark brown wings with hyaline white spots. These shared characteristics have caused difficulties with revealing the relationships among genera and species in the group, and some conflicting taxonomic views remain unresolved. The present study aims to infer a more comprehensive phylogeny of the tribe using molecular data, to test the monophyly of the tribe as well as the genera it includes in order to clarify their taxonomic status, and finally to revise the current classification of the group. In order to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree, the mitochondrial COI-COII and 16S genes as well as the nuclear EF-1α and 28S genes were analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The analysis included 67 specimens of 41 species, and we confirmed the monophyly of Baorini, and revealed that 14 genera are well supported. The genus Borbo is separated into three clades: Borbo, Pseudoborbo, and Larsenia gen. nov. We confirmed that Polytremis is polyphyletic and separated into three genera: Polytremis, Zinaida, and Zenonoida gen. nov., and also confirmed that the genus Prusiana is a member of the tribe. Relationships among some genera were strongly supported. For example, Zenonia and Zenonoida were found to be sister taxa, closely related to Zinaida and Iton, while Pelopidas and Baoris were also found to cluster together. PMID:27463803

  16. Molecular phylogenetics of moray eels (Muraenidae) demonstrates multiple origins of a shell-crushing jaw (Gymnomuraena, Echidna) and multiple colonizations of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Reece, Joshua S; Bowen, Brian W; Smith, David G; Larson, Allan

    2010-11-01

    Moray eels (Muraenidae) are apex predators on coral reefs around the world, but they are not well studied because their cryptic habitats and occasionally aggressive behaviors make them difficult to collect. We provide a molecular phylogeny of moray eels including 44 species representing two subfamilies, eight genera, and all tropical ocean basins. Phylogenetic relationships among these taxa are estimated from portions of mitochondrial loci cytochrome b (632 bp) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (596 bp), and portions of the nuclear loci RAG-1 (421 bp) and RAG-2 (754 bp). We test four sets of contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses using Bayes Factors, Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests, and Templeton tests. First, our results support the subfamily-level taxonomic distinction between true morays (Muraeninae) and snakemorays (Uropterygiinae), statistically rejecting hypotheses of non-monophyly for each subfamily. Second, we reject a monophyletic grouping of the genera Gymnomuraena and Echidna, which share a durophagous (shell-crushing) cranial morphology and dentition, indicating that the durophagous characters are not homologous. Third, we demonstrate that durophagous feeding habits and associated morphological characters have evolved in parallel in an ancestor of Gymnomuraena and at least three additional times within the genus Echidna. Finally, the tree topology indicates multiple invasions of the Atlantic from the Indo-Pacific, one of these occurring immediately prior to formation of the Isthmus of Panama approximately 2.8 MYA (million years ago) and one or two others occurring in the early to mid Miocene. Cladogenesis occurring within the Atlantic during the mid Miocene and Pliocene also contributed to moray species diversity. These data include a pair of sister species separated by the Isthmus of Panama, allowing a time-calibrated tree with an estimated crown age for Muraenidae at between 41 and 60 MYA, consistent with fossil evidence. Most lineage accumulation within morays

  17. Novel High-Rank Phylogenetic Lineages within a Sulfur Spring (Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma), Revealed Using a Combined Pyrosequencing-Sanger Approach

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Noha; Steidley, Brandi L.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of high-throughput sequencing technologies in 16S rRNA gene-based diversity surveys has indicated that within most ecosystems, a significant fraction of the community could not be assigned to known microbial phyla. Accurate determination of the phylogenetic affiliation of such sequences is difficult due to the short-read-length output of currently available high-throughput technologies. This fraction could harbor multiple novel phylogenetic lineages that have so far escaped detection. Here we describe our efforts in accurate assessment of the novelty and phylogenetic affiliation of selected unclassified lineages within a pyrosequencing data set generated from source sediments of Zodletone Spring, a sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma. Lineage-specific forward primers were designed for 78 putatively novel lineages identified within the pyrosequencing data set, and representative nearly full-length small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were obtained by pairing those primers with reverse universal bacterial primers. Of the 78 lineages tested, amplifiable products were obtained for 52, 32 of which had at least one nearly full-length sequence that was representative of the lineage targeted. Analysis of phylogenetic affiliation of the obtained Sanger sequences identified 5 novel candidate phyla and 10 novel candidate classes (within Fibrobacteres, Planctomycetes, and candidate phyla BRC1, GN12, TM6, TM7, LD1, WS2, and GN06) in the data set, in addition to multiple novel orders and families. The discovery of multiple novel phyla within a pilot study of a single ecosystem clearly shows the potential of the approach in identifying novel diversities within the rare biosphere. PMID:22307312

  18. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative ot other regions of Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published survey of 10 Turkish provinces and another of the world in which D...

  19. Plastid genomes reveal support for deep phylogenetic relationships and extensive rate variation among palms and other commelinid monocots.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Craig F; Baker, William J; Comer, Jason R; Conran, John G; Lahmeyer, Sean C; Leebens-Mack, James H; Li, Jeff; Lim, Gwynne S; Mayfield-Jones, Dustin R; Perez, Leticia; Medina, Jesus; Pires, J Chris; Santos, Cristian; Wm Stevenson, Dennis; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Davis, Jerrold I

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress based on multilocus, phylogenetic studies of the palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae), uncertainty remains in resolution/support among major clades and for the placement of the palms among the commelinid monocots. Palms and related commelinids represent a classic case of substitution rate heterogeneity that has not been investigated in the genomic era. To address questions of relationships, support and rate variation among palms and commelinid relatives, 39 plastomes representing the palms and related family Dasypogonaceae were generated via genome skimming and integrated within a monocot-wide matrix for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. Support was strong for 'deep' relationships among the commelinid orders, among the five palm subfamilies, and among tribes of the subfamily Coryphoideae. Additionally, there was extreme heterogeneity in the plastid substitution rates across the commelinid orders indicated by model based analyses, with c. 22 rate shifts, and significant departure from a global clock. To date, this study represents the most comprehensively sampled matrix of plastomes assembled for monocot angiosperms, providing genome-scale support for phylogenetic relationships of monocot angiosperms, and lays the phylogenetic groundwork for comparative analyses of the drivers and correlates of such drastic differences in substitution rates across a diverse and significant clade.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  1. Multiple phylogenetically distinct events shaped the evolution of limb skeletal morphologies associated with bipedalism in the jerboas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Talia Y.; Organ, Chris L.; Edwards, Scott V.; Biewener, Andrew A.; Tabin, Clifford J.; Jenkins, Farish A.; Cooper, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent rapid advances in experimental biology have expanded the opportunity for interdisciplinary investigations of the evolution of form and function in non-traditional model species. However, historical divisions of philosophy and methodology between evolutionary/organismal biologists and developmental geneticists often preclude an effective merging of disciplines. In an effort to overcome these divisions, we take advantage of the extraordinary morphological diversity of the rodent superfamily Dipodoidea, including the bipedal jerboas, to experimentally study the developmental mechanisms and biomechanical performance of a remarkably divergent limb structure. Here, we place multiple limb character states in a locomotor and phylogenetic context. While obligate bipedalism arose once in the ancestor of extant jerboas, we find that digit loss, metatarsal fusion, between limb proportions, and within hindlimb proportions all evolved independently of one another. Digit loss occurred three times through at least two distinct developmental mechanisms, and elongation of the hindlimb relative to the forelimb is not simply due to growth mechanisms that change proportions within the hindlimb. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for punctuated evolution of allometric scaling of hindlimb elements during the radiation of Dipodoidea. Our work demonstrates the value of leveraging the evolutionary history of a clade to establish criteria for identifying the developmental genetic mechanisms of morphological diversification. PMID:26455300

  2. Multiple phylogenetically distinct events shaped the evolution of limb skeletal morphologies associated with bipedalism in the jerboas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Talia Y; Organ, Chris L; Edwards, Scott V; Biewener, Andrew A; Tabin, Clifford J; Jenkins, Farish A; Cooper, Kimberly L

    2015-11-02

    Recent rapid advances in experimental biology have expanded the opportunity for interdisciplinary investigations of the evolution of form and function in non-traditional model species. However, historical divisions of philosophy and methodology between evolutionary/organismal biologists and developmental geneticists often preclude an effective merging of disciplines. In an effort to overcome these divisions, we take advantage of the extraordinary morphological diversity of the rodent superfamily Dipodoidea, including the bipedal jerboas, to experimentally study the developmental mechanisms and biomechanical performance of a remarkably divergent limb structure. Here, we place multiple limb character states in a locomotor and phylogenetic context. Whereas obligate bipedalism arose just once in the ancestor of extant jerboas, we find that digit loss, metatarsal fusion, between-limb proportions, and within-hindlimb proportions all evolved independently of one another. Digit loss occurred three times through at least two distinct developmental mechanisms, and elongation of the hindlimb relative to the forelimb is not simply due to growth mechanisms that change proportions within the hindlimb. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for punctuated evolution of allometric scaling of hindlimb elements during the radiation of Dipodoidea. Our work demonstrates the value of leveraging the evolutionary history of a clade to establish criteria for identifying the developmental genetic mechanisms of morphological diversification.

  3. Fomitiporia castilloi sp. nov. and multiple clades around F. apiahyna and F. texana in Meso- and South America evidenced by multiloci phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Amalfi, Mario; Decock, Cony

    2013-01-01

    Fomitiporia castilloi sp. nov. from the lowland rainforest in French Guyana is described, illustrated and its phylogenetic affinities are discussed. This species is characterized by pileate basidiomata, a plicate margin, abundant, variably shaped hymenial setae and basidiospores averaging ≅ 6 × 5 μm. In phylogenetic inferences based on a DNA sequence dataset of four loci (5' end of the LSU, ITS-5.8S, partial tef1 and rpb2), F. castilloi occupies an isolated position, basal to a clade that is composed exclusively of Neotropical species with resupinate basidiomata. The phylogenetic inferences also provide evidence of an unreported complexity within the Neotropical taxa, with multiple clades closely related to F. apiahyna and F. texana, representing additional potential species.

  4. Kidney tumor biomarkers revealed by simultaneous multiple matrix metabolomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Sheila; Taylor, Sandra L; Abu Aboud, Omran; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher; Osier, Michael V; Alexander, Danny C; Kim, Kyoungmi; Weiss, Robert H

    2012-07-15

    Metabolomics is increasingly being used in cancer biology for biomarker discovery and identification of potential novel therapeutic targets. However, a systematic metabolomics study of multiple biofluids to determine their interrelationships and to describe their use as tumor proxies is lacking. Using a mouse xenograft model of kidney cancer, characterized by subcapsular implantation of Caki-1 clear cell human kidney cancer cells, we examined tissue, serum, and urine all obtained simultaneously at baseline (urine) and at, or close to, animal sacrifice (urine, tissue, and plasma). Uniform metabolomics analysis of all three "matrices" was accomplished using gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of all the metabolites identified (267 in tissue, 246 in serum, and 267 in urine), 89 were detected in all 3 matrices, and the majority was altered in the same direction. Heat maps of individual metabolites showed that alterations in serum were more closely related to tissue than was urine. Two metabolites, cinnamoylglycine and nicotinamide, were concordantly and significantly (when corrected for multiple testing) altered in tissue and serum, and cysteine-glutathione disulfide showed the highest change (232.4-fold in tissue) of any metabolite. On the basis of these and other considerations, three pathways were chosen for biologic validation of the metabolomic data, resulting in potential therapeutic target identification. These data show that serum metabolomics analysis is a more accurate proxy for tissue changes than urine and that tryptophan degradation (yielding anti-inflammatory metabolites) is highly represented in renal cell carcinoma, and support the concept that PPAR-α antagonism may be a potential therapeutic approach for this disease.

  5. Molecular genetic analysis and ecological evidence reveals multiple cryptic species among thynnine wasp pollinators of sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate E; Trueman, John W H; Brown, Graham R; Peakall, Rod

    2011-04-01

    Sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids lure their male thynnine wasp pollinators to the flower by emitting semiochemicals that mimic the specific sex pheromone of the wasp. Sexual deception is possible because chemical rather than visual cues play the key role in wasp mate search, suggesting that cryptic wasp species may be frequent. We investigated this prospect among Neozeleboria wasp pollinators of Chiloglottis orchids, drawing on evidence from molecular phylogenetic analysis at three genes (CO1, rhodopsin and wingless), population genetic and statistical parsimony analysis at CO1, orchid associations and their semiochemicals, and geographic ranges. We found a compelling relationship between genetically defined wasp groups, orchid associations, semiochemicals and geographic range, despite a frequent lack of detectable morphological differences. Our findings reveal multiple cryptic species among orchid pollinators and indicate that chemical changes are important for wasp reproductive isolation and speciation. The diversity of Neozeleboria may have enabled, rather than constrained, pollinator-driven speciation in these orchids.

  6. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.

  7. Biosensor reveals multiple sources for mitochondrial NAD⁺.

    PubMed

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Stewart, Melissa L; Kim, DongHo; Jones-Brunette, Amber M; Morgan, Rory K; Farrens, David L; Cohen, Michael S; Goodman, Richard H

    2016-06-17

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which are NAD(+)-consuming enzymes localized in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. Fluctuations in NAD(+) concentrations within these subcellular compartments are thought to regulate the activity of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes; however, the challenge in measuring compartmentalized NAD(+) in cells has precluded direct evidence for this type of regulation. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for directly monitoring free NAD(+) concentrations in subcellular compartments. We found that the concentrations of free NAD(+) in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria approximate the Michaelis constants for sirtuins and PARPs in their respective compartments. Systematic depletion of enzymes that catalyze the final step of NAD(+) biosynthesis revealed cell-specific mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial NAD(+) concentrations.

  8. Invariants reveal multiple forms of robustness in bifunctional enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Joseph P; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that bifunctional enzymes catalyzing opposing modification and demodification reactions can confer steady-state concentration robustness to their substrates. However, the types of robustness and the biochemical basis for them have remained elusive. Here we report a systematic study of the most general biochemical reaction network for a bifunctional enzyme acting on a substrate with one modification site, along with eleven sub-networks with more specialized biochemical assumptions. We exploit ideas from computational algebraic geometry, introduced in previous work, to find a polynomial expression (an invariant) between the steady state concentrations of the modified and unmodified substrate for each network. We use these invariants to identify five classes of robust behavior: robust upper bounds on concentration, robust two-sided bounds on concentration ratio, hybrid robustness, absolute concentration robustness (ACR), and robust concentration ratio. This analysis demonstrates that robustness can take a variety of forms and that the type of robustness is sensitive to many biochemical details, with small changes in biochemistry leading to very different steady-state behaviors. In particular, we find that the widely-studied ACR requires highly specialized assumptions in addition to bifunctionality. An unexpected result is that the robust bounds derived from invariants are strictly tighter than those derived by ad hoc manipulation of the underlying differential equations, confirming the value of invariants as a tool to gain insight into biochemical reaction networks. Furthermore, invariants yield multiple experimentally testable predictions and illuminate new strategies for inferring enzymatic mechanisms from steady-state measurements.

  9. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses reveal multiple species of Boa and independent origins of insular dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Corbin, Andrew B; Perry, Blair W; Andrew, Audra L; Pasquesi, Giulia I M; Smith, Eric N; Jezkova, Tereza; Boback, Scott M; Booth, Warren; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-09-01

    Boa is a Neotropical genus of snakes historically recognized as monotypic despite its expansive distribution. The distinct morphological traits and color patterns exhibited by these snakes, together with the wide diversity of ecosystems they inhabit, collectively suggest that the genus may represent multiple species. Morphological variation within Boa also includes instances of dwarfism observed in multiple offshore island populations. Despite this substantial diversity, the systematics of the genus Boa has received little attention until very recently. In this study we examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of Boa populations using mitochondrial sequences and genome-wide SNP data obtained from RADseq. We analyzed these data at multiple geographic scales using a combination of phylogenetic inference (including coalescent-based species delimitation) and population genetic analyses. We identified extensive population structure across the range of the genus Boa and multiple lines of evidence for three widely-distributed clades roughly corresponding with the three primary land masses of the Western Hemisphere. We also find both mitochondrial and nuclear support for independent origins and parallel evolution of dwarfism on offshore island clusters in Belize and Cayos Cochinos Menor, Honduras.

  10. Patterns of diversification of Afrotropical Otiteselline fig wasps: phylogenetic study reveals a double radiation across host figs and conservatism of host association.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, E; Van Noort, S; Rasplus, J-Y; Greeff, J M

    2006-01-01

    We studied the phylogenetic relationships of Otiteselline fig waSPS associated with Ficus in the Afrotropical region using rDNA sequences. African fig species usually host two species of Otiteselline fig waSPS. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this pattern of association results from the radiation of two clades of waSPS superimposed on the fig system. Within each clade, wasp species generally cluster according to their host classification. The phylogenies of the two clades are also generally more congruent than expected by chance. Together these results suggest that Otiteselline wasp speciation is largely constrained by the diversification of their hosts. Finally, we show a difference in ovipositor length between the two Otiteselline species coexisting in the same Ficus species, which probably corresponds to ecological differences. The diversification of ecological niches within the fig is probably, with cospeciation, one of the key factors explaining the diversification and maintenance of species of parasites of the fig/pollinator system.

  11. Multiple etiologies for Alzheimer disease are revealed by segregation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.S.; Connor-Lacke, L.; Cupplies, L.A.; Growdon, J.H.; Farrer, L.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1994-11-01

    We have evaluated several transmission models for Alzheimer disease (AD), using the logistic regressive approach in 401 nuclear families of consecutively ascertained and rigorously diagnosed probands. Models postulating no major gene effect, random environmental transmission, recessive inheritance, and sporadic occurrence were rejected under varied assumptions regarding the associations among sex, age, and major gene susceptibility. Transmission of the disorder was not fully explained by a single Mendelian model for all families. Stratification of families as early- and late-onset by using the median of family mean onset ages showed that, regardless of the model studied, two groups of families fit better than a single group. AD in early-onset families is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with full penetrance in both sexes and has a gene frequency of 1.5%. Dominant inheritance also gave the best fit of the data in late-onset families, but this hypothesis was rejected, suggesting the presence of heterogeneity within this subset. Our study also revealed that genetically nonsusceptible males and females develop AD, indicating the presence of phenocopies within early-onset and late-onset groups. Moreover, our results suggest that the higher risk to females is not solely due to their increased longevity. 50 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Microsatellite markers reveal multiple origins for Italian weedy rice

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Annabelle; Fogliatto, Silvia; Nick, Peter; Ferrero, Aldo; Vidotto, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major issues of rice cultivation worldwide. In Italy, it infests about 70% of the total rice area. Different Weedy Rice populations can be distinguished based on variable morphological and physiological traits; however, little is known about genetic differentiation and origin of Italian weedy rice populations. The objective of this study was to genetically and morphologically characterize and compare different Italian weedy rice populations selected on the basis of different phenotypes. The main Italian rice territory was divided into 10 geographical areas in which 40 weedy rice populations were collected and grouped according to the awn traits. All the individuals of the populations were morphologically characterized according to plant and seed traits. Genetic characterization was performed using 19 SSR markers on all the collected accessions, and several rice cultivars, including some very old (late 19th century), nowadays are no longer cultivated. ANOVA showed that morphological plant and seed traits were significantly affected by the collection area and awnedness group. The importance of the awn morphology was also reflected in the Bayesian clustering where, despite a relatively low genetic diversity, the clusters displayed different awn types. An UPGMA dendrogram confirmed the clusters detected in STRUCTURE analysis and also revealed a grouping of certain old cultivars with the weedy rice, suggesting a common origin. PMID:24363904

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences of waterfowl parvoviruses from the Mainland of China revealed genetic diversity and recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Chen, Shi-Long; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Huang, Mei-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2016-03-01

    To determine the origin and evolution of goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in the Mainland of China, phylogenetic and recombination analyses in the present study were performed on 32 complete VP1 gene sequences from China and other countries. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, GPV strains studied here from Mainland China (PRC) could be divided into three genotypes, namely PRC-I, PRC-II and PRC-III. Genotype PRC-I is indigenous to Mainland China. Only one GPV strain from Northeast China was of Genotype PRC-II and was thought to be imported from Europe. Genotype PRC-III, which was the most isolated genotype during 1999-2012, is related to GPVs in Taiwan and has been the predominant pathogen responsible for recent Derzy's disease outbreaks in Mainland China. Current vaccine strains used in Mainland China belong to Genotype PRC-I that is evolutionary distant from Genotypes PRC-II and PRC-III. In comparison, MDPV strains herein from Mainland China are clustered in a single group which is closely related to Taiwanese MDPV strains, and the full-length sequences of the VP1 gene of China MDPVs are phylogenetic closely related to the VP1 sequence of a Hungarian MDPV strain. Moreover, We also found that homologous recombination within VP1 gene plays a role in generating genetic diversity in GPV evolution. The GPV GDFSh from Guangdong Province appears to be the evolutionary product of a recombination event between parental GPV strains GD and B, while the major parent B proved to be a reference strain for virulent European GPVs. Our findings provide valuable information on waterfowl parvoviral evolution in Mainland China.

  14. Novel Evolutionary Lineages Revealed in the Chaetothyriales (Fungi) Based on Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses and Comparison of ITS Secondary Structure

    PubMed Central

    Réblová, Martina; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Réblová, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Cyphellophora and Phialophora (Chaetothyriales, Pezizomycota) comprise species known from skin infections of humans and animals and from a variety of environmental sources. These fungi were studied based on the comparison of cultural and morphological features and phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear loci, i.e., internal transcribed spacer rDNA operon (ITS), large and small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuc28S rDNA, nuc18S rDNA), β-tubulin, DNA replication licensing factor (mcm7) and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). Phylogenetic results were supported by comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structure of representatives of the Chaetothyriales and the identification of substitutions among the taxa analyzed. Base pairs with non-conserved, co-evolving nucleotides that maintain base pairing in the RNA transcript and unique evolutionary motifs in the ITS2 that characterize whole clades or individual taxa were mapped on predicted secondary structure models. Morphological characteristics, structural data and phylogenetic analyses of three datasets, i.e., ITS, ITS-β-tubulin and 28S-18S-rpb2-mcm7, define a robust clade containing eight species of Cyphellophora (including the type) and six species of Phialophora. These taxa are now accommodated in the Cyphellophoraceae, a novel evolutionary lineage within the Chaetothyriales. Cyphellophora is emended and expanded to encompass species with both septate and nonseptate conidia formed on discrete, intercalary, terminal or lateral phialides. Six new combinations in Cyphellophora are proposed and a dichotomous key to species accepted in the genus is provided. Cyphellophora eugeniae and C. hylomeconis, which grouped in the Chaetothyriaceae, represent another novel lineage and are introduced as the type species of separate genera. PMID:23723988

  15. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece), revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae)

    PubMed Central

    Davolos, Domenico; Matthaeis, Elvira De; Latella, Leonardo; Vonk, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to Cryptorchestia cavimana (Cyprus) and Cryptorchestia garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion). Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (Cryptorchestia canariensis, Cryptorchestia gomeri, Cryptorchestia guancha, and Cryptorchestia stocki from the Canary islands, Cryptorchestia monticola from Madeira, and Cryptorchestia chevreuxi from the Azores). The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., Cryptorchestia cavimana, Cryptorchestia garbinii, and Cryptorchestia kosswigi (Turkish coast) clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013) and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only Cryptorchestia stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and Cryptorchestia stocki from Gran Canaria. PMID:28331390

  16. Comparison of the distribution of the repetitive DNA sequences in three variants of Cucumis sativus reveals their phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Lu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Hu, Jiajin; Huang, Sanwen; Jin, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences with variability in copy number or/and sequence polymorphism can be employed as useful molecular markers to study phylogenetics and identify species/chromosomes when combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cucumis sativus has three variants, Cucumis sativus L. var. sativus, Cucumis sativus L. var. hardwickii and Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannesis. The phylogenetics among these three variants has not been well explored using cytological landmarks. Here, we concentrate on the organization and distribution of highly repetitive DNA sequences in cucumbers, with emphasis on the differences between cultivar and wild cucumber. The diversity of chromosomal karyotypes in cucumber and its relatives was detected in our study. Thereby, sequential FISH with three sets of multi-probe cocktails (combined repetitive DNA with chromosome-specific fosmid clones as probes) were conducted on the same metaphase cell, which helped us to simultaneously identify each of the 7 metaphase chromosomes of wild cucumber C. sativus var. hardwickii. A standardized karyotype of somatic metaphase chromosomes was constructed. Our data also indicated that the relationship between cultivar cucumber and C. s. var. xishuangbannesis was closer than that of C. s. var. xishuangbannesis and C. s. var. hardwickii.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  18. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis reveals the presence of complex and partly unknown bacterial communities in Tito Bustillo cave, Spain, and on its Palaeolithic paintings.

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    Tito Bustillo cave (Ribadesella, Spain) contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings, which date back 15 000-20 000 years. Since 1969, the cave has been open to the public. Rock wall surfaces, spelaeothems and soils are covered by apparent biofilms of phototrophic microorganisms, which develop under artificial lighting. In addition, rock surfaces present conspicuous bacterial growth in the form of round colonies of different colours and about 1-2 mm in diameter. Even the famous Paintings Panel shows some evident microbial growth. In the present study, bacterial communities on the paintings and on the rock surfaces near the paintings were analysed by culture-independent techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA), phylogenetic sequence analyses and genetic community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE fingerprints showed complex bacterial community patterns. Forty-one clones matching DGGE bands of the community fingerprints were sequenced, representing about 39% of DNA fragments in the DGGE patterns. Phylogenetic sequence analyses revealed a high number of phylogenetically novel 16S rDNA sequence types and a high diversity of putatively chemotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Sequences were phylogenetically most closely related to the Proteobacteria (20 clones), green non-sulphur bacteria (three clones), Planctomycetales order (one clone), Cytophaga-Flexibacter- Bacteroides division (one clone) and the Actinobacteria (four clones). Furthermore, we report the presence of members of the Acidobacterium division (12 clones) in a karstic hypogean environment. Members of this phylum have not so far been detected in these particular environments.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and protein modelling revealed two distinct subfamilies of group II HKT genes between crop and model grasses.

    PubMed

    Ariyarathna, H A Chandima K; Francki, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    Molecular evolution of large protein families in closely related species can provide useful insights on structural functional relationships. Phylogenetic analysis of the grass-specific group II HKT genes identified two distinct subfamilies, I and II. Subfamily II was represented in all species, whereas subfamily I was identified only in the small grain cereals and possibly originated from an ancestral gene duplication post divergence from the coarse grain cereal lineage. The core protein structures were highly analogous despite there being no more than 58% amino acid identity between members of the two subfamilies. Distinctly variable regions in known functional domains, however, indicated functional divergence of the two subfamilies. The subsets of codons residing external to known functional domains predicted signatures of positive Darwinian selection potentially identifying new domains of functional divergence and providing new insights on the structural function and relationships between protein members of the two subfamilies.

  20. Taxonomic relationships among Turkish water frogs as revealed by phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Ufuk; Matsui, Masafumi; Kutrup, Bilal; Eto, Koshiro

    2011-12-01

    We assessed taxonomic relationships among Turkish water frogs through estimation of phylogenetic relationships among 62 adult specimens from 44 distinct populations inhabiting seven main geographical regions of Turkey using 2897 bp sequences of the mitochondrial Cytb, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes with equally-weighted parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods of inference. Monophyletic clade (Clade A) of the northwesternmost (Thrace) samples is identified as Pelophylax ridibundus. The other clade (Clade B) consisted of two monophyletic subclades. One of these contains specimens from southernmost populations that are regarded as an unnamed species. The other subclade consists of two lineages, of which one corresponds to P. caralitanus and another to P. bedriagae. Taxonomic relationships of these two species are discussed and recognition of P. caralitanus as a subspecies of P. bedriagae is proposed.

  1. Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids. PMID:21831316

  2. Molecular phylogenetics and microsatellite analysis reveal cryptic species of speckled dace (Cyprinidae: Rhinichthys osculus) in Oregon's Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Hoekzema, Kendra; Sidlauskas, Brian L

    2014-08-01

    Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a small cyprinid that occurs throughout western North America and is the most commonly occurring fish in Oregon. Because of the high genetic and morphological variation in this species across its range, it has been referred to as a species complex; however, no revision to its taxonomy has occurred since 1984. Here, the phylogenetics and population genetics of speckled dace are examined throughout Oregon's Great Basin to describe genetic variation and infer the geographic boundaries between distinct taxonomic entities and populations. We tested the validity of a putative subspecies, Foskett Spring speckled dace, that occurs in a single spring within Warner Valley in Southeast Oregon and is listed Federally as threatened. Dace were collected from Foskett Spring and all surrounding basins containing speckled dace (Warner, Goose Lake, Lake Abert, Silver Lake, and Malheur), as well as Stinking Lake Spring (located within Malheur), created phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear S7 sequence data, and genotyped eight microsatellite loci for population-level analyses. Three highly divergent clades warrant species-level status: Malheur stream dace, Stinking Lake Spring dace, and dace from the other four basins combined. Although Foskett Spring dace were not monophyletic, substantial population structure occurs at the basin-level and separates Foskett Spring dace from other dace in the surrounding Warner Valley. Thus, we recommend ESU status for the isolated population of speckled dace in Foskett Spring. The high, previously unrecognized, taxonomic diversity within this region indicates a need for a range-wide phylogeographic study of speckled dace and an investigation of the morphological distinctiveness of the putative new species.

  3. Genetic, morphological, geographical and ecological approaches reveal phylogenetic relationships in complex groups, an example of recently diverged pinyon pine species (Subsection Cembroides).

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Wegier, Ana; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Ortíz-Medrano, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel; Whipple, Amy V; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Domínguez, César A

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups is challenging for intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., technical) reasons. Mexican pinyon pines are a complex group whose phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries have been widely studied but poorly resolved, partly due to intrinsic ecological and evolutionary features such as low morphological and genetic differentiation caused by recent divergence, hybridization and introgression. Extrinsic factors such as limited sampling and difficulty in selecting informative molecular markers have also impeded progress. Some of the Mexican pinyon pines are of conservation concern but others may remain unprotected because the species boundaries have not been established. In this study we combined approaches to resolve the phylogenetic relationships in this complex group and to establish species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa: P. discolor, P. johannis, P. culminicola and P. cembroides. We performed phylogenetic analyses using the chloroplast markers matK and psbA-trnH as well as complete and partial chloroplast genomes of species of Subsection Cembroides. Additionally, we performed a phylogeographic analysis combining genetic data (18 chloroplast markers), morphological data and geographical data to define species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa. Ecological divergence was supported by differences in climate among localities for distinct genetic lineages. Whereas the phylogenetic analysis inferred with matK and psbA-trnH was unable to resolve the relationships in this complex group, we obtained a resolved phylogeny with the use of the chloroplast genomes. The resolved phylogeny was concordant with a haplotype network obtained using chloroplast markers. In species with potential for recent divergence, hybridization or introgression, nonhierarchical network-based approaches are probably more appropriate to protect against misclassification due to incomplete

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  5. Comparative 16S rRNA Analysis of Lake Bacterioplankton Reveals Globally Distributed Phylogenetic Clusters Including an Abundant Group of Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Zaichikov, Evgeny; Belkova, Natalia; Denissova, Ludmilla; Pernthaler, Jakob; Pernthaler, Annelie; Amann, Rudolf

    2000-01-01

    In a search for cosmopolitan phylogenetic clusters of freshwater bacteria, we recovered a total of 190 full and partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from three different lakes (Lake Gossenköllesee, Austria; Lake Fuchskuhle, Germany; and Lake Baikal, Russia). The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA data set showed that our sequences fall into 16 clusters, which otherwise include bacterial rDNA sequences of primarily freshwater and soil, but not marine, origin. Six of the clusters were affiliated with the α, four were affiliated with the β, and one was affiliated with the γ subclass of the Proteobacteria; four were affiliated with the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group; and one was affiliated with the class Actinobacteria (formerly known as the high-G+C gram-positive bacteria). The latter cluster (hgcI) is monophyletic and so far includes only sequences directly retrieved from aquatic environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes specific for the hgcI cluster showed abundances of up to 1.7 × 105 cells ml−1 in Lake Gossenköllesee, with strong seasonal fluctuations, and high abundances in the two other lakes investigated. Cell size measurements revealed that Actinobacteria in Lake Gossenköllesee can account for up to 63% of the bacterioplankton biomass. A combination of phylogenetic analysis and FISH was used to reveal 16 globally distributed sequence clusters and to confirm the broad distribution, abundance, and high biomass of members of the class Actinobacteria in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:11055963

  6. Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi.

    PubMed

    Mercês, Michelle P; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Ferreira, Wallax A S; Harada, Maria L; Silva Júnior, José S

    2015-01-01

    Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Marajó Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species Concept: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916. East Amazonian squirrel monkeys north of the Amazon have a gray crown (S. sciureus), and south of the Amazon, the crown is yellow (S. collinsi). Morphometric measurements also clearly distinguish between the two species, with the most important contributing factors including width across upper canines for both sexes. For males, the mean zygomatic breadth was significantly wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi, and for females, the width across the upper molars was wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses support this separation of the eastern Amazonian squirrel monkeys into two distinct taxa, recovering one clade (S. sciureus) distributed to the north of the Amazon River, from the Negro River and Branco River to the Guiana coast and the Brazilian state of Amapá, and another clade (S. collinsi) south of the Amazon River, from the region of the Tapaj

  7. Identity of major sulfur-cycle prokaryotes in freshwater lake ecosystems revealed by a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the dissimilatory adenylylsulfate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Adenylylsulfate reductase is a heterodimeric complex of two subunits, AprB and AprA, and is a key enzyme in dissimilatory sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation. Common use of aprA as a functional marker gene has revealed the diversity of sulfur-cycle prokaryotes in diverse environments. In this study, we established a comprehensive sequence set of apr genes and employed it to reanalyze apr phylogeny, evaluate the coverage of a widely used primer set (AprA-1-FW/AprA-5-RV), and categorize environmental aprA sequences. Phylogenetic tree construction revealed new members of Apr lineage II and several previously unrecognized lateral gene transfer events. Using the established phylogenetic tree, we classified all previously reported aprA sequences amplified from freshwater lakes with the primer pair AprA-1-FW/AprA-5-RV in addition to the aprA sequences newly retrieved from freshwater lakes; the obtained results were complemented by 16S rRNA clone library analysis. Apr-based classifications of some of operational taxonomic units were supported by 16S rRNA-based analysis. This study updates our knowledge on the phylogeny of aprBA and shows the identities of several sulfur-cycle bacteria, which could not be classified to a known taxa until now. The established apr sequence set is publicly available and can be applied to assign environmental sequences to known lineages. PMID:27824124

  8. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009-2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-09-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011-2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009-2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic (112)GRQGRL(117) and velogenic (112)RRQKRF(117) along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks.

  9. Systematics of Plant-Pathogenic and Related Streptomyces Species Based on Phylogenetic Analyses of Multiple Gene Loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 10 species of Streptomyces implicated as the etiological agents in scab disease of potatoes or soft rot disease of sweet potatoes are distributed among 7 different phylogenetic clades in analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, but high sequence similarity of this gene among Streptomyces speci...

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian trans-Bass Strait millipede genus Pogonosternum (Carl, 1912) (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) indicates multiple glacial refugia in southeastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study documents the first detailed phylogenetic analysis of an Australian paradoxosomatid millipede genus. Two mitochondrial genes (partial COI and 16S) as well as partial nuclear 28S rDNA were amplified and sequenced for 41 individuals of the southeastern Australian genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965. The analysis indicates that five species groups of Pogonosternum occur across New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania: Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1912), Pogonosternum adrianae Jeekel, 1982, Pogonosternum laetificum Jeekel, 1982 and two undescribed species. Pogonosternum coniferum (Jeekel, 1965) specimens cluster within Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum. Most of these five species groups exhibit a pattern of high intraspecific genetic variability and highly localized haplotypes, suggesting that they were confined to multiple Pleistocene refugia on the southeastern Australian mainland. The phylogenetic data also show that northwestern Tasmania was colonized by Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum, probably from central Victoria, and northeastern Tasmania by an as yet undescribed species from eastern Victoria. PMID:27110194

  11. Molecular phylogenetic study on few morphotypes of a patellogastropod Cellana karachiensis from northern Arabian Sea reveals unexpected genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sneha; Vakani, Bhavik; Kundu, Rahul

    2016-12-26

    A group of limpets, Cellana karachiensis, exhibiting phenotypic plasticity were examined from Gujarat coastline India, using molecular phylogeny. Previous examination of the COI genes established the presence of three different haplotypes X, Y and Z, while present study showed three more haplotypes X1, X2 and Z1. Thus, a total of six COI gene haplotypes, having 99.23% to 99.85% sequence similarity, were observed with variations at six sites. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis shows divergence of lineages X-Y, X1-X2 and Z-Z1. Careful observation of nucleotide alterations showed a nonrandom mutation with more A↔G and C↔T transitions between closely related species of the genus Cellana. A stretch of 17 base pair, within COI region, was marked as region with high degree of variability between species of Cellana. Results suggest that this could be the beginning of speciation, with partial or complete reproductive barrier or these are already distinct species in different stages of evolution.

  12. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals the Impact of Repetitive DNA Across Phylogenetically Closely Related Genomes of Orobanchaceae

    PubMed Central

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Aberer, Andre J.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Gundlach, Heidrun; Temsch, Eva M.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the genomes of nine species of Orobanchaceae of known phylogenetic relationships, different life forms, and including a polyploid species. The study species are the autotrophic, nonparasitic Lindenbergia philippensis, the hemiparasitic Schwalbea americana, and seven nonphotosynthetic parasitic species of Orobanche (Orobanche crenata, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche gracilis (tetraploid), and Orobanche pancicii) and Phelipanche (Phelipanche lavandulacea, Phelipanche purpurea, and Phelipanche ramosa). Ty3/Gypsy elements comprise 1.93%–28.34% of the nine genomes and Ty1/Copia elements comprise 8.09%–22.83%. When compared with L. philippensis and S. americana, the nonphotosynthetic species contain higher proportions of repetitive DNA sequences, perhaps reflecting relaxed selection on genome size in parasitic organisms. Among the parasitic species, those in the genus Orobanche have smaller genomes but higher proportions of repetitive DNA than those in Phelipanche, mostly due to a diversification of repeats and an accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy elements. Genome downsizing in the tetraploid O. gracilis probably led to sequence loss across most repeat types. PMID:22723303

  13. Molecular based phylogenetic species recognition in the genus Pampus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) reveals hidden diversity in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Divya, P R; Mohitha, C; Rahul, G Kumar; Rajool Shanis, C P; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A

    2017-04-01

    Pomfrets (Genus Pampus) are commercially important fishes in the Indo Pacific region. The systematics of this genus is complicated due to morphological similarities between species. The silver pomfret from Indian waters has long been considered to be Pampus argenteus. The objective of the study was to utilize the mitochondrial COI gene to establish the molecular identity of the silver pomfret distributed in Indian waters and to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among Pampus species in the world based on sequence data in the NCBI database. Seven valid Pampus species are identified in this study. The mean genetic divergence value calculated between clades representing these species was 7.9%. The mean genetic distance between the so-called Pampus argenteus from Indian waters and sequences attributed to P. argenteus from the South China Sea, where the neotype of this species was collected, was found to be greater than 12%, strongly supporting the likelihood of the Indian species being distinct. The Indian Pampus species show very close affinity to P. cinereus, with inter species differences less than 2%. The taxonomic identity of the silver pomfret in India is also discussed here, in light of molecular and morphological evidence.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis using E2 gene of classical swine fever virus reveals a new subgenotype in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Da-Liang; Gong, Wen-Jie; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Hu, Yun-Fei; Ge, Meng; Wang, Shu-Qin; Yu, Xing-Long; Tu, Changchun

    2013-07-01

    Outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) have caused serious economic consequences in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on full-length E2 gene sequences showed that five classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates collected from Hunan province in 2011 and 2012, together with seven other isolates from neighboring provinces, Guangdong (5) and Guangxi (2), could be classified as a new subgenotype 2.1c, which may have been endemic in the south of China for at least fourteen years. Subgenotype 2.1c isolates share 90.2-94.9% and 89.9-93.8% nucleotide sequence similarity separately with those of subgenotype 2.1a and 2.1b in E2 gene, which are lower than the nucleotide identities between subgenotype 2.1a and 2.1b (91.1-95.7%). Further analysis based on a partial E2 gene sequence (216 nt) indicated that subgenotype 2.1c isolates are also circulating in Thailand. Alignment of E2 amino acid sequences showed that subgenotype 2.1c isolates exhibit a SPA → TPV substitution at positions 777 and 779 compared with subgenotypes 2.1a and 2.1b.

  15. Comparative Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Eligma narcissus and other Lepidopteran Insects Reveals Conserved Mitochondrial Genome Organization and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Eligma narcissus and compared it with 18 other lepidopteran species. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) was a circular molecule of 15,376 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T) − rich region. The positive AT skew (0.007) indicated the occurrence of more As than Ts. The arrangement of 13 PCGs was similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which was initiated by the CGA sequence, as observed in other lepidopterans. The results of the codon usage analysis indicated that Asn, Ile, Leu, Tyr and Phe were the five most frequent amino acids. All tRNA genes were shown to be folded into the expected typical cloverleaf structure observed for mitochondrial tRNA genes. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs from other insect mitogenomes, which confirmed that E. narcissus is a member of the Noctuidae superfamily. PMID:27222440

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Thylakoid ATP/ADP Carrier Reveals New Insights into Its Function Restricted to Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Spetea, Cornelia; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    ATP is the common energy currency of cellular metabolism in all living organisms. Most of them synthesize ATP in the cytosol or on the mitochondrial inner membrane, whereas land plants, algae, and cyanobacteria also produce it on the thylakoid membrane during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. From the site of synthesis, ATP is transported to the site of utilization via intracellular membrane transporters. One major type of ATP transporters is represented by the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier family. Here we review a recently characterized member, namely the thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTAAC). Thus far, no orthologs of this carrier have been characterized in other organisms, although similar sequences can be recognized in many sequenced genomes. Protein Sequence database searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate the absence of TAAC in cyanobacteria and its appearance early in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. The TAAC clade is composed of carriers found in land plants and some green algae, but no proteins from other photosynthetic taxa, such as red algae, brown algae, and diatoms. This implies that TAAC-like sequences arose only once before the divergence of green algae and land plants. Based on these findings, it is proposed that TAAC may have evolved in response to the need of a new activity in higher photosynthetic eukaryotes. This activity may provide the energy to drive reactions during biogenesis and turnover of photosynthetic complexes, which are heterogeneously distributed in a thylakoid membrane system composed of appressed and non-appressed regions. PMID:22629269

  17. Phylogenetic and gene-centric metagenomics of the canine intestinal microbiome reveals similarities with humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kelly S; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Vester, Brittany M; Barry, Kathleen A; Nelson, Karen E; Torralba, Manolito; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Cann, Isaac KO; White, Bryan A; Fahey, George C

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first to use a metagenomics approach to characterize the phylogeny and functional capacity of the canine gastrointestinal microbiome. Six healthy adult dogs were used in a crossover design and fed a low-fiber control diet (K9C) or one containing 7.5% beet pulp (K9BP). Pooled fecal DNA samples from each treatment were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing, generating 503 280 (K9C) and 505 061 (K9BP) sequences. Dominant bacterial phyla included the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group and Firmicutes, both of which comprised ∼35% of all sequences, followed by Proteobacteria (13–15%) and Fusobacteria (7–8%). K9C had a greater percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria, whereas K9BP had greater proportions of the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group and Firmicutes. Archaea were not altered by diet and represented ∼1% of all sequences. All archaea were members of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with methanogens being the most abundant and diverse. Three fungi phylotypes were present in K9C, but none in K9BP. Less than 0.4% of sequences were of viral origin, with >99% of them associated with bacteriophages. Primary functional categories were not significantly affected by diet and were associated with carbohydrates; protein metabolism; DNA metabolism; cofactors, vitamins, prosthetic groups and pigments; amino acids and derivatives; cell wall and capsule; and virulence. Hierarchical clustering of several gastrointestinal metagenomes demonstrated phylogenetic and metabolic similarity between dogs, humans and mice. More research is required to provide deeper coverage of the canine microbiome, evaluate effects of age, genetics or environment on its composition and activity, and identify its role in gastrointestinal disease. PMID:20962874

  18. Phylogenetic and Morphologic Analyses of a Coastal Fish Reveals a Marine Biogeographic Break of Terrestrial Origin in the Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Acero P., Arturo; Duque-Caro, Hermann; Santos, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a ∼2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by ∼150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM) in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated ∼0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at ∼0.78 my. Main Conclusions/Significance Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with

  19. The Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Two Octopods Cistopus chinensis and Cistopus taiwanicus: Revealing the Phylogenetic Position of the Genus Cistopus within the Order Octopoda

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rubin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two species of Cistopus, namely C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus, and conducted a comparative mt genome analysis across the class Cephalopoda. The mtDNA length of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus are 15706 and 15793 nucleotides with an AT content of 76.21% and 76.5%, respectively. The sequence identity of mtDNA between C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus was 88%, suggesting a close relationship. Compared with C. taiwanicus and other octopods, C. chinensis encoded two additional tRNA genes, showing a novel gene arrangement. In addition, an unusual 23 poly (A) signal structure is found in the ATP8 coding region of C. chinensis. The entire genome and each protein coding gene of the two Cistopus species displayed notable levels of AT and GC skews. Based on sliding window analysis among Octopodiformes, ND1 and DN5 were considered to be more reliable molecular beacons. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 protein-coding genes revealed that C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus form a monophyletic group with high statistical support, consistent with previous studies based on morphological characteristics. Our results also indicated that the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus is closer to Octopus than to Amphioctopus and Callistoctopus. The complete mtDNA sequence of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus represent the first whole mt genomes in the genus Cistopus. These novel mtDNA data will be important in refining the phylogenetic relationships within Octopodiformes and enriching the resource of markers for systematic, population genetic and evolutionary biological studies of Cephalopoda. PMID:24358345

  20. A three-gene phylogeny of the Mycena pura complex reveals 11 phylogenetic species and shows ITS to be unreliable for species identification.

    PubMed

    Harder, Christoffer B; Læssøe, Thomas; Frøslev, Tobias G; Ekelund, Flemming; Rosendahl, Søren; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of Mycena sect. Calodontes using ITS previously suggested ten cryptic monophyletic ITS lineages within the Mycena pura morphospecies. Here, we compare ITS data (645 bp incl. gaps) from 46 different fruit bodies that represent the previously described ITS diversity with partial tEF-1-α (423 bp) and RNA polymerase II (RPB1) (492 bp) sequence data to test the genealogical concordance. While neither of the markers were in complete topological agreement, the branches differing between the tEF and RPB1 trees had a low bootstrap (<50) support, and the partition homogeneity incongruence length difference (ILD) tests were not significant. ILD tests revealed significant discordances between ITS and the tEF and RPB1 markers in several lineages. And our analyses suggested recombination between ITS1 and ITS2, most pronounced in one phylospecies that was identical in tEF and RPB1. Based on the agreement between tEF and RPB1, we defined 11 mutually concordant terminal clades as phylospecies inside the M. pura morphospecies; most of them cryptic. While neither of the markers showed an unequivocal barcoding gap between inter- and intraspecific diversity, the overlap was most pronounced for ITS (intraspecific diversity 0-3.5 %, interspecific diversity 0.4 %-8.8 %). A clustering analysis on tEF separated at a 1.5 % level returned all phylogenetic species as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), while ITS at both a 1.5 % level and at a 3 % threshold level not only underestimated diversity as found by the tEF and RPB1, but also identified an OTU which was not a phylogenetic species. Thus, our investigation does not support the universal suitability of ITS for species recognition in particular, and emphasises the general limitation of single gene analyses combined with single percentage separation values.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two octopods Cistopus chinensis and Cistopus taiwanicus: revealing the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus within the order Octopoda.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rubin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two species of Cistopus, namely C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus, and conducted a comparative mt genome analysis across the class Cephalopoda. The mtDNA length of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus are 15706 and 15793 nucleotides with an AT content of 76.21% and 76.5%, respectively. The sequence identity of mtDNA between C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus was 88%, suggesting a close relationship. Compared with C. taiwanicus and other octopods, C. chinensis encoded two additional tRNA genes, showing a novel gene arrangement. In addition, an unusual 23 poly (A) signal structure is found in the ATP8 coding region of C. chinensis. The entire genome and each protein coding gene of the two Cistopus species displayed notable levels of AT and GC skews. Based on sliding window analysis among Octopodiformes, ND1 and DN5 were considered to be more reliable molecular beacons. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 protein-coding genes revealed that C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus form a monophyletic group with high statistical support, consistent with previous studies based on morphological characteristics. Our results also indicated that the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus is closer to Octopus than to Amphioctopus and Callistoctopus. The complete mtDNA sequence of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus represent the first whole mt genomes in the genus Cistopus. These novel mtDNA data will be important in refining the phylogenetic relationships within Octopodiformes and enriching the resource of markers for systematic, population genetic and evolutionary biological studies of Cephalopoda.

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of the grape genus (Vitis L.) reveals broad reticulation and concurrent diversification during neogene and quaternary climate change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapes are one of the most economically important fruit crops. There are about 60 species in the genus Vitis. The phylogenetic relationships among these species are of keen interest for the conservation and use of this germplasm. We selected 309 accessions from 48 Vitis species,varieties, and outgroups, examined ~11 kb (~3.4 Mb total) of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 27 unlinked genes in a phylogenetic context, and estimated divergence times based on fossil calibrations. Results Vitis formed a strongly supported clade. There was substantial support for species and less for the higher-level groupings (series). As estimated from extant taxa, the crown age of Vitis was 28 Ma and the divergence of subgenera (Vitis and Muscadinia) occurred at ~18 Ma. Higher clades in subgenus Vitis diverged 16 – 5 Ma with overlapping confidence intervals, and ongoing divergence formed extant species at 12 – 1.3 Ma. Several species had species-specific SNPs. NeighborNet analysis showed extensive reticulation at the core of subgenus Vitis representing the deeper nodes, with extensive reticulation radiating outward. Fitch Parsimony identified North America as the origin of the most recent common ancestor of extant Vitis species. Conclusions Phylogenetic patterns suggested origination of the genus in North America, fragmentation of an ancestral range during the Miocene, formation of extant species in the late Miocene-Pleistocene, and differentiation of species in the context of Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic and climatic change. Nuclear SNPs effectively resolved relationships at and below the species level in grapes and rectified several misclassifications of accessions in the repositories. Our results challenge current higher-level classifications, reveal the abundance of genetic diversity in the genus that is potentially available for crop improvement, and provide a valuable resource for species delineation, germplasm conservation and use. PMID:23826735

  3. Comparative analysis of SET domain proteins in maize and Arabidopsis reveals multiple duplications preceding the divergence of monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M; Napoli, Carolyn A; Selinger, David A; Pandey, Ritu; Cone, Karen C; Chandler, Vicki L; Kaeppler, Heidi F; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2003-06-01

    Histone proteins play a central role in chromatin packaging, and modification of histones is associated with chromatin accessibility. SET domain [Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax] proteins are one class of proteins that have been implicated in regulating gene expression through histone methylation. The relationships of 22 SET domain proteins from maize (Zea mays) and 32 SET domain proteins from Arabidopsis were evaluated by phylogenetic analysis and domain organization. Our analysis reveals five classes of SET domain proteins in plants that can be further divided into 19 orthology groups. In some cases, such as the Enhancer of zeste-like and trithorax-like proteins, plants and animals contain homologous proteins with a similar organization of domains outside of the SET domain. However, a majority of plant SET domain proteins do not have an animal homolog with similar domain organization, suggesting that plants have unique mechanisms to establish and maintain chromatin states. Although the domains present in plant and animal SET domain proteins often differ, the domains found in the plant proteins have been generally implicated in protein-protein interactions, indicating that most SET domain proteins operate in complexes. Combined analysis of the maize and Arabidopsis SET domain proteins reveals that duplication of SET domain proteins in plants is extensive and has occurred via multiple mechanisms that preceded the divergence of monocots and dicots.

  4. Integrating phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of multiple loci to test species divergence hypotheses in Passerina buntings.

    PubMed

    Carling, Matt D; Brumfield, Robb T

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of DNA sequence data from 10 nuclear loci were used to test species divergence hypotheses within Passerina buntings, with special focus on a strongly supported, but controversial, sister relationship between Passerina amoena and P. caerulea inferred from a previous mitochondrial study. Here, a maximum-likelihood analysis of a concatenated 10-locus data set, as well as minimize-deep-coalescences and maximum-likelihood analyses of the locus-specific gene trees, recovered the traditional sister relationship between P. amoena and P. cyanea. In addition, a more recent divergence time estimate between P. amoena and P. cyanea than between P. amoena and P. caerulea provided evidence for the traditional sister relationship. These results provide a compelling example of how lineage sorting stochasticity can lead to incongruence between gene trees and species trees, and illustrate how phylogenetic and population genetic analyses can be integrated to investigate evolutionary relationships between recently diverged taxa.

  5. Phylogenetic Studies of the Three RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes of South American CTV Isolates Reveal the Circulation of a Novel Genetic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Galeano, María José; Rubio, Leticia; Bertalmío, Ana; Maeso, Diego; Rivas, Fernando; Colina, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) is the most economically important virus of citrus worldwide. Genetic diversity and population structure of CTV isolates from all citrus growing areas from Uruguay were analyzed by RT-PCR and cloning of the three RNA silencing suppressor genes (p25, p20 and p23). Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of three known genotypes (VT, T3, T36) in the country, and the presence of a new genetic lineage composed by isolates from around the world, mainly from South America. Nucleotide and amino acid identity values for this new genetic lineage were both higher than 97% for the three analyzed regions. Due to incongruent phylogenetic relationships, recombination analysis was performed using Genetic Algorithms for Recombination Detection (GARD) and SimPlot software. Recombination events between previously described CTV isolates were detected. High intra-sample variation was found, confirming the co-existence of different genotypes into the same plant. This is the first report describing: (1) the genetic diversity of Uruguayan CTV isolates circulating in the country and (2) the circulation of a novel CTV genetic lineage, highly present in the South American region. This information may provide assistance to develop an effective cross-protection program. PMID:26205407

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Aspidisca (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida) revealed by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Yi, Zhenzhen; Miao, Miao; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2011-03-01

    The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8S rRNA genes were sequenced in six populations of four Aspidisca species, namely A. leptaspis, A. orthopogon, A. magna and A. aculeata. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by means of Bayesian inference (BI), Maximum Parsimony (MP), Neighbor-Joining (NJ), and Maximum Likelihood (ML) to assess the inter- and intra-species relationships within the genus Aspidisca. All trees show similar topologies with stable supports and indicate that: (1) four well known groups, i.e., Oligotrichia, Stichotrichia, Choreotrichia and Hypotrichia, are distinctly outlined within the class Spirotrichea, and all are monophyletic other than Hypotrichia; (2) members of Aspidisca can be distinguished well, based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences, and A. leptaspis and A. magna shared a closer relationship than other species; (3) Aspidisca and Euplotes branch early in the subclass Hypotrichia. To compare the phylogenetic relationships based on different genes, SSU rRNA trees were also constructed with nearly the same species inclusion, which revealed different topologies of inter-species, inter-genera and inter-subclasses.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

    2007-07-16

    Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China.

  8. Oogonial biometry and phylogenetic analyses of the Pythium vexans species group from woody agricultural hosts in South Africa reveal distinct groups within this taxon.

    PubMed

    Spies, Christoffel F J; Mazzola, Mark; Botha, Wilhelm J; Van Der Rijst, Marieta; Mostert, Lizel; Mcleod, Adéle

    2011-02-01

    Pythium vexans fits into the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clade K sensu Lévesque & De Cock (2004). Within clade K, P. vexans forms a distinct clade containing two enigmatic species, Pythium indigoferae and Pythium cucurbitacearum of which no ex-type strains are available. In South Africa, as well as in other regions of the world, P. vexans isolates are known to be heterogeneous in their ITS sequences and may consist of more than one species. This study aimed to investigate the diversity of South African P. vexans isolates, mainly from grapevines, but also citrus and apple using (i) phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, cytochrome c oxidase (cox) I, cox II, and β-tubulin regions and (ii) seven biometric oogonial parameters. Each of the phylogenies clustered P. vexans isolates into a single well-supported clade, distinct from other clade K species. The β-tubulin region was phylogenetically uninformative regarding the P. vexans group. The ITS phylogeny and combined cox I and II phylogenies, although each revealing several P. vexans subclades, were incongruent. One of the most striking incongruences was the presence of one cox subclade that contained two distinct ITS subclades (Ib and IV). Three groups (A-C) were subjectively identified among South African P. vexans isolates using (i) phylogenetic clades (ITS and cox), (ii) univariate analysis of oogonial diameters, and (iii) multivariate analyses of biometric oogonial parameters. Group A is considered to be P. vexans s. str. since it contained the P. vexans CBS reference strain from Van der Plaats-Niterink (1981). This group had significantly smaller oogonial diameters than group B and C isolates. Group B contained the isolates from ITS subclades Ib and IV, which formed a single cox subclade. The ITS subclade IV isolates were all sexually sterile or produced mainly abortive oospores, as opposed to the sexually fertile subclade Ib isolates, and may thus represent a distinct assemblage within group B. Although ITS

  9. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses reveal species limits, phylogeographic patterns, and evolutionary histories of key morphological traits in Entoloma (Agaricales, Basidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Morgado, L N; Noordeloos, M E; Lamoureux, Y; Geml, J

    2013-12-01

    Species from Entoloma subg. Entoloma are commonly recorded from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and, according to literature, most of them have at least Nearctic-Palearctic distributions. However, these records are based on morphological analysis, and studies relating morphology, molecular data and geographical distribution have not been reported. In this study, we used phylogenetic species recognition criteria through gene genealogical concordance (based on nuclear ITS, LSU, rpb2 and mitochondrial SSU) to answer specific questions considering species limits in Entoloma subg. Entoloma and their geographic distribution in Europe, North America and Australasia. The studied morphotaxa belong to sect. Entoloma, namely species like the notorious poisonous E. sinuatum (E. lividum auct.), E. prunuloides (type-species of sect. Entoloma), E. nitidum and the red-listed E. bloxamii. With a few exceptions, our results reveal strong phylogeographical partitions that were previously not known. For example, no collection from Australasia proved to be conspecific with the Northern Hemisphere specimens. Almost all North American collections represent distinct and sister taxa to the European ones. And even within Europe, new lineages were uncovered for the red-listed E. bloxamii, which were previously unknown due to a broad morphological species concept. Our results clearly demonstrate the power of the phylogenetic species concept to reveal evolutionary units, to redefine the morphological limits of the species addressed and to provide insights into the evolutionary history of key morphological characters for Entoloma systematics. New taxa are described, and new combinations are made, including E. fumosobrunneum, E. pseudoprunuloides, E. ochreoprunuloides and E. caesiolamellatum. Epitypes are selected for E. prunuloides and E. bloxamii. In addition, complete descriptions are given of some other taxa used in this study for which modern descriptions are lacking, viz. E

  10. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of two closely related northeast China Vicia species revealed with RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Wang, Hao-You

    2010-06-01

    RAPD and ISSR analyses revealed genetic diversity and relationships among 11 populations of two closely related northeast China Vicia species, Vicia ramuliflora and V. unijuga. Both methods yielded similar and complementary results, showing high genetic diversity. Vicia ramuliflora had 100% polymorphic loci in both RAPD and ISSR, and V. unijuga had 100% polymorphic loci for RAPD and 98.96% for ISSR. Genetic differentiation was moderate among populations of each species. Genetic variation was distributed mainly within populations for the two species. The high level of gene flow was important for the allocation of genetic variation. The UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis at the level of individuals and populations showed that V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga were more closely related than either of them was to the outgroup species, V. cracca. The small molecular variance of V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga supports the conclusion that these two species had a common ancestor.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of Pax genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli reveal a novel bilaterian Pax subfamily.

    PubMed

    Franke, Franziska Anni; Schumann, Isabell; Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Pax family genes encode a class of transcription factors that regulate various developmental processes. To shed light on the evolutionary history of these genes in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we analyzed the Pax repertoire in the embryonic and adult transcriptomes of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed homologs of all five major bilaterian Pax subfamilies in this species, including Pax2/5/8, Pax4/6, Pox-neuro, Pax1/9/Pox-meso, and Pax3/7. In addition, we identified a new Pax member, pax-α, which does not fall into any other known Pax subfamily but instead clusters in the heterogenic Pax-α/β clade containing deuterostome, ecdysozoan, and lophotrochozoan gene sequences. These findings suggest that the last common bilaterian ancestor possessed six rather than five Pax genes, which have been retained in the panarthropod lineage. The expression data of Pax orthologs in the onychophoran embryo revealed distinctive patterns, some of which might be related to their ancestral roles in the last common panarthropod ancestor, whereas others might be specific to the onychophoran lineage. The derived roles include, for example, an involvement of pax2/5/8, pox-neuro, and pax3/7 in onychophoran nephridiogenesis, and an additional function of pax2/5/8 in the formation of the ventral and preventral organs. Furthermore, our transcriptomic analyses suggest that at least some Pax genes, including pax6 and pax-α, are expressed in the adult onychophoran head, although the corresponding functions remain to be clarified. The remarkable diversity of the Pax expression patterns highlights the functional and evolutionary plasticity of these genes in panarthropods.

  12. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  13. Reiterative pattern of sonic hedgehog expression in the catshark dentition reveals a phylogenetic template for jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Moya M; Fraser, Gareth J; Chaplin, Natalie; Hobbs, Carl; Graham, Anthony

    2009-04-07

    For a dentition representing the most basal extant gnathostomes, that of the shark can provide us with key insights into the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. To detail the pattern of odontogenesis, we have profiled the expression of sonic hedgehog, a key regulator of tooth induction. We find in the catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) that intense shh expression first occurs in a bilaterally symmetrical pattern restricted to broad regions in each half of the dentition in the embryo jaw. As in the mouse, there follows a changing temporal pattern of shh spatial restriction corresponding to epithelial bands of left and right dental fields, but also a subfield for symphyseal teeth. Then, intense shh expression is restricted to loci coincident with a temporal series of teeth in iterative jaw positions. The developmental expression of shh reveals previously undetected timing within epithelial stages of tooth formation. Each locus at alternate, even then odd, jaw positions establishes precise sequential timing for successive replacement within each tooth family. Shh appears first in the central cusp, iteratively along the jaw, then reiteratively within each tooth for secondary cusps. This progressive, sequential restriction of shh is shared by toothed gnathostomes and conserved through 500 million years of evolution.

  14. Differential Communications between Fungi and Host Plants Revealed by Secretome Analysis of Phylogenetically Related Endophytic and Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xihui; He, Qin; Zhang, Chulong

    2016-01-01

    During infection, both phytopathogenic and endophytic fungi form intimate contact with living plant cells, and need to resist or disable host defences and modify host metabolism to adapt to their host. Fungi can achieve these changes by secreting proteins and enzymes. A comprehensive comparison of the secretomes of both endophytic and pathogenic fungi can improve our understanding of the interactions between plants and fungi. Although Magnaporthe oryzae, Gaeumannomyces graminis, and M. poae are economically important fungal pathogens, and the related species Harpophora oryzae is an endophyte, they evolved from a common pathogenic ancestor. We used a pipeline analysis to predict the H. oryzae, M. oryzae, G. graminis, and M. poae secretomes and identified 1142, 1370, 1001, and 974 proteins, respectively. Orthologue gene analyses demonstrated that the M. oryzae secretome evolved more rapidly than those of the other three related species, resulting in many species-specific secreted protein-encoding genes, such as avirulence genes. Functional analyses highlighted the abundance of proteins involved in the breakdown of host plant cell walls and oxidation-reduction processes. We identified three novel motifs in the H. and M. oryzae secretomes, which may play key roles in the interaction between rice and H. oryzae. Furthermore, we found that expression of the H. oryzae secretome involved in plant cell wall degradation was downregulated, but the M. oryzae secretome was upregulated with many more upregulated genes involved in oxidation-reduction processes. The divergent in planta expression patterns of the H. and M. oryzae secretomes reveal differences that are associated with mutualistic and pathogenic interactions, respectively. PMID:27658302

  15. Intraspecific Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships Are Revealed by ITS1 Secondary Structure Analysis and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Ganoderma lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haisheng; Chen, Zhou; Tan, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jing; Yang, Bin; Sun, Junshe

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a typical polypore fungus used for traditional Chinese medical purposes. The taxonomic delimitation of Ganoderma lucidum is still debated. In this study, we sequenced seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Ganoderma lucidum strains and annotated the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 differentiated the strains into three geographic groups. Groups 1–3 were originated from Europe, tropical Asia, and eastern Asia, respectively. While ITS2 could only differentiate the strains into two groups in which Group 2 originated from tropical Asia gathered with Groups 1 and 3 originated from Europe and eastern Asia. By determining the secondary structures of the ITS1 sequences, these three groups exhibited similar structures with a conserved central core and differed helices. While compared to Group 2, Groups 1 and 3 of ITS2 sequences shared similar structures with the difference in helix 4. Large-scale evaluation of ITS1 and ITS2 both exhibited that the majority of subgroups in the same group shared the similar structures. Further Weblogo analysis of ITS1 sequences revealed two main variable regions located in helix 2 in which C/T or A/G substitutions frequently occurred and ITS1 exhibited more nucleotide variances compared to ITS2. ITS1 multi-alignment of seven spawn strains and culture tests indicated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site at position 180 correlated with strain antagonism. The HZ, TK and 203 fusion strains of Ganoderma lucidum had a T at position 180, whereas other strains exhibiting antagonism, including DB, RB, JQ, and YS, had a C. Taken together, compared to ITS2 region, ITS1 region could differentiated Ganoderma lucidum into three geographic originations based on phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction. Besides, a SNP in ITS 1 could delineate Ganoderma lucidum strains at the intraspecific level. These findings will be implemented to improve species quality control in the

  16. Phylogenetic investigation of a statewide HIV-1 epidemic reveals ongoing and active transmission networks among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Huang, Austin; DeLong, Allison; Salemi, Marco; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Kantor, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiologic evaluation of HIV-1 transmission networks can elucidate behavioral components of transmission that can be targets for intervention. Methods We combined phylogenetic and statistical approaches using pol sequences from patients diagnosed 2004-2011 at a large HIV center in Rhode Island, following 75% of the state’s HIV population. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum likelihood and putative transmission clusters were evaluated using latent class analyses (LCA) to determine association of cluster size with underlying demographic/behavioral characteristics. A logistic growth model was used to assess intra-cluster dynamics over time and predict “active” clusters that were more likely to harbor undiagnosed infections. Results Of 1,166 HIV-1 subtype B sequences, 31% were distributed among 114 statistically-supported, monophyletic clusters (range: 2-15 sequences/cluster). Sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) formed 52% of clusters. LCA demonstrated that sequences from recently diagnosed (2008-2011) MSM with primary HIV infection (PHI) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were more likely to form larger clusters (Odds Ratio 1.62-11.25, p<0.01). MSM in clusters were more likely to have anonymous partners and meet partners at sex clubs and pornographic stores. Four large clusters with 38 sequences (100% male, 89% MSM) had a high-probability of harboring undiagnosed infections and included younger MSM with PHI and STIs. Conclusions In this first large-scale molecular epidemiologic investigation of HIV-1 transmission in New England, sexual networks among recently diagnosed MSM with PHI and concomitant STIs contributed to ongoing transmission. Characterization of transmission dynamics revealed actively growing clusters which may be targets for intervention. PMID:26258569

  17. A phylogenetic analysis using full-length viral genomes of South American dengue serotype 3 in consecutive Venezuelan outbreaks reveals novel NS5 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, DJ; Pickett, BE; Camacho, D; Comach, G; Xhaja, K; Lennon, NJ; Rizzolo, K; de Bosch, N; Becerra, A; Nogueira, ML; Mondini, A; da Silva, EV; Vasconcelos, PF; Muñoz-Jordán, JL; Santiago, GA; Ocazionez, R; Gehrke, L; Lefkowitz, EJ; Birren, BW; Henn, MR; Bosch, I

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus currently causes 50-100 million infections annually. Comprehensive knowledge about the evolution of Dengue in response to selection pressure is currently unavailable, but would greatly enhance vaccine design efforts. In the current study, we sequenced 187 new dengue virus serotype 3(DENV-3) genotype III whole genomes isolated from Asia and the Americas. We analyzed them together with previously-sequenced isolates to gain a more detailed understanding of the evolutionary adaptations existing in this prevalent American serotype. In order to analyze the phylogenetic dynamics of DENV-3 during outbreak periods; we incorporated datasets of 48 and 11 sequences spanning two major outbreaks in Venezuela during 2001 and 2007-2008 respectively. Our phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced viruses shows that subsets of genomes cluster primarily by geographic location, and secondarily by time of virus isolation. DENV-3 genotype III sequences from Asia are significantly divergent from those from the Americas due to their geographical separation and subsequent speciation. We measured amino acid variation for the E protein by calculating the Shannon entropy at each position between Asian and American genomes. We found a cluster of 7 amino acid substitutions having high variability within E protein domain III, which has previously been implicated in serotype-specific neutralization escape mutants. No novel mutations were found in the E protein of sequences isolated during either Venezuelan outbreak. Shannon entropy analysis of the NS5 polymerase mature protein revealed that a G374E mutation, in a region that contributes to interferon resistance in other flaviviruses by interfering with JAK-STAT signaling was present in both the Asian and American sequences from the 2007-2008 Venezuelan outbreak, but was absent in the sequences from the 2001 Venezuelan outbreak. In addition to E, several NS5 amino acid changes were unique to the 2007-2008 epidemic in Venezuela and may

  18. The phylogenetic distribution of non-CTCF insulator proteins is limited to insects and reveals that BEAF-32 is Drosophila lineage specific.

    PubMed

    Schoborg, Todd A; Labrador, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are DNA sequences found in eukaryotes that may organize genomes into chromatin domains by blocking enhancer-promoter interactions and preventing heterochromatin spreading. Considering that insulators play important roles in organizing higher order chromatin structure and modulating gene expression, very little is known about their phylogenetic distribution. To date, six insulators and their associated proteins have been characterized, including Su(Hw), Zw5, CTCF, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and BEAF-32. However, all insulator proteins, with the exception of CTCF, which has also been identified in vertebrates and worms, have been exclusively described in Drosophila melanogaster. In this work, we have performed database searches utilizing each D. melanogaster insulator protein as a query to find orthologs in other organisms, revealing that except for CTCF all known insulator proteins are restricted to insects. In particular, the boundary element-associated factor of 32 kDa (BEAF-32), which binds to thousands of sites throughout the genome, was only found in the Drosophila lineage. Accordingly, we also found a significant bias of BEAF-32 binding sites in relation to transcription start sites (TSSs) in D. melanogaster but not in Anopheles gambiae, Apis mellifera, or Tribolium castaneum. These data suggest that DNA binding proteins such as BEAF-32 may have a dramatic impact in the genome of single evolutionary lineages. A more thorough evaluation of the phylogenetic distribution of insulator proteins will allow for a better understanding of whether the mechanism by which these proteins exert their function is conserved across phyla and their impact in genome evolution.

  19. Structural and Phylogenetic Studies with MjTX-I Reveal a Multi-Oligomeric Toxin – a Novel Feature in Lys49-PLA2s Protein Class

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Walter L. G.; Fernandez, Roberto M.; Gallacci, Márcia; Soares, Andreimar M.; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The mortality caused by snakebites is more damaging than many tropical diseases, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever, cholera, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and Chagas disease. For this reason, snakebite envenoming adversely affects health services of tropical and subtropical countries and is recognized as a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. One of the main components of snake venoms is the Lys49-phospholipases A2, which is catalytically inactive but possesses other toxic and pharmacological activities. Preliminary studies with MjTX-I from Bothrops moojeni snake venom revealed intriguing new structural and functional characteristics compared to other bothropic Lys49-PLA2s. We present in this article a comprehensive study with MjTX-I using several techniques, including crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, analytical size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, myographic studies, bioinformatics and molecular phylogenetic analyses.Based in all these experiments we demonstrated that MjTX-I is probably a unique Lys49-PLA2, which may adopt different oligomeric forms depending on the physical-chemical environment. Furthermore, we showed that its myotoxic activity is dramatically low compared to other Lys49-PLA2s, probably due to the novel oligomeric conformations and important mutations in the C-terminal region of the protein. The phylogenetic analysis also showed that this toxin is clearly distinct from other bothropic Lys49-PLA2s, in conformity with the peculiar oligomeric characteristics of MjTX-I and possible emergence of new functionalities inresponse to environmental changes and adaptation to new preys. PMID:23573271

  20. Intraspecific Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships Are Revealed by ITS1 Secondary Structure Analysis and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuqing; Xu, Zhangyang; Pei, Haisheng; Chen, Zhou; Tan, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jing; Yang, Bin; Sun, Junshe

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a typical polypore fungus used for traditional Chinese medical purposes. The taxonomic delimitation of Ganoderma lucidum is still debated. In this study, we sequenced seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Ganoderma lucidum strains and annotated the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 differentiated the strains into three geographic groups. Groups 1-3 were originated from Europe, tropical Asia, and eastern Asia, respectively. While ITS2 could only differentiate the strains into two groups in which Group 2 originated from tropical Asia gathered with Groups 1 and 3 originated from Europe and eastern Asia. By determining the secondary structures of the ITS1 sequences, these three groups exhibited similar structures with a conserved central core and differed helices. While compared to Group 2, Groups 1 and 3 of ITS2 sequences shared similar structures with the difference in helix 4. Large-scale evaluation of ITS1 and ITS2 both exhibited that the majority of subgroups in the same group shared the similar structures. Further Weblogo analysis of ITS1 sequences revealed two main variable regions located in helix 2 in which C/T or A/G substitutions frequently occurred and ITS1 exhibited more nucleotide variances compared to ITS2. ITS1 multi-alignment of seven spawn strains and culture tests indicated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site at position 180 correlated with strain antagonism. The HZ, TK and 203 fusion strains of Ganoderma lucidum had a T at position 180, whereas other strains exhibiting antagonism, including DB, RB, JQ, and YS, had a C. Taken together, compared to ITS2 region, ITS1 region could differentiated Ganoderma lucidum into three geographic originations based on phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction. Besides, a SNP in ITS 1 could delineate Ganoderma lucidum strains at the intraspecific level. These findings will be implemented to improve species quality control in the

  1. Integrative taxonomy of root-knot nematodes reveals multiple independent origins of mitotic parthenogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Toon; Karssen, Gerrit; Topalović, Olivera; Coyne, Danny; Bert, Wim

    2017-01-01

    During sampling of several Coffea arabica plantations in Tanzania severe root galling, caused by a root-knot nematode was observed. From pure cultures, morphology and morphometrics of juveniles and females matched perfectly with Meloidogyne africana, whereas morphology of the males matched identically with those of Meloidogyne decalineata. Based on their Cox1 sequence, however, the recovered juveniles, females and males were confirmed to belong to the same species, creating a taxonomic conundrum. Adding further to this puzzle, re-examination of M. oteifae type material showed insufficient morphological evidence to maintain its status as a separate species. Consequently, M. decalineata and M. oteifae are synonymized with M. africana, which is herewith redescribed based on results of light and scanning electron microscopy, ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences, isozyme electrophoresis, along with bionomic and cytogenetic features. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis placed M. africana outside of the three major clades, together with M. coffeicola, M. ichinohei and M. camelliae. This phylogenetic position was confirmed by several morphological features, including cellular structure of the spermatheca, egg mass position, perineal pattern and head shape. Moreover, M. africana was found to be a polyphagous species, demonstrating that “early-branching” Meloidogyne spp. are not as oligophagous as had previously been assumed. Cytogenetic information indicates M. africana (2n = 21) and M. ardenensis (2n = 51–54) to be a triploid mitotic parthenogenetic species, revealing at least four independent origins of mitotic parthenogenesis within the genus Meloidogyne. Furthermore, M. mali (n = 12) was found to reproduce by amphimixis, indicating that amphimictic species with a limited number of chromosomes are widespread in the genus, potentially reflecting the ancestral state of the genus. The wide variation in chromosome numbers and associated changes in reproduction modes

  2. Genomic data reveals potential for hybridization, introgression, and incomplete lineage sorting to confound phylogenetic relationships in an adaptive radiation of narrow-mouth frogs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Alana M; Su, Yong-Chao; Oliveros, Carl H; Olson, Karen V; Travers, Scott L; Brown, Rafe M

    2017-02-01

    The microhylid frog genus Kaloula is an adaptive radiation spanning the edge of the Asian mainland and multiple adjacent island archipelagos, with much of the clade's diversity associated with an endemic Philippine radiation. Relationships among clades from the Philippines, however, remain unresolved. With ultraconserved element (UCE) and mitogenomic data, we identified highly supported differences in topology and areas of poor resolution, for each marker set. Using the UCE data, we then identified possible instances of contemporary hybridization, past introgression, and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) within the Philippine Kaloula. Using a simulation approach, and an estimate of the Philippine Kaloula clade origin (12.7-21.0 mya), we demonstrate that an evolutionary history including inferred instances of hybridization, introgression, and ILS leads to phylogenetic reconstructions that show concordance with results from the observed mitogenome and UCE data. In the process of validating a complex evolutionary scenario in the Philippine Kaloula, we provide the first demonstration of the efficacy of UCE data for phylogenomic studies of anuran amphibians.

  3. Biogeography of “Cyprinella lutrensis”: intensive genetic sampling from the Pecos River ‘melting pot’ reveals a dynamic history and phylogenetic complexity

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Megan J.; Diver, Tracy A.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.; Turner, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Thorough sampling is necessary to delineate lineage diversity for polytypic “species” such as Cyprinella lutrensis. We conducted extensive mtDNA sampling (cytochrome b and ND4) from the Pecos River, Rio Grande, and South Canadian River, New Mexico. Our study emphasized the Pecos River due to its complex geological history and potential to harbor multiple lineages. We used geometric-morphometric, morphometric, and meristic analyses to test for phenotypic divergence and combined nucDNA with mtDNA to test for cytonuclear disequilibrium and combined our sequences with published data to conduct a phylogenetic re-assessment of the entire C. lutrensis clade. We detected five co-occurring mtDNA lineages in the Pecos River, but no evidence for cytonuclear disequilibrium or phenotypic divergence. Recognized species were interspersed amongst divergent lineages of “C. lutrensis”. Allopatric divergence among drainages isolated in the Late Miocene and Pliocene apparently produced several recognized species and major divisions within “C. lutrensis”. Pleistocene re-expansion and subsequent re-fragmentation of a centralized lineage founded younger, divergent lineages throughout the Rio Grande basin and Edwards Plateau. There is also evidence of recent introductions to the Rio Grande, Pecos and South Canadian Rivers. Nonetheless, deeply divergent lineages have coexisted since the Pleistocene. PMID:26858464

  4. Cytology and molecular phylogenetics of Monoblepharidomycetes provide evidence for multiple independent origins of the hyphal habit in the Fungi.

    PubMed

    Dee, Jaclyn M; Mollicone, Marilyn; Longcore, Joyce E; Roberson, Robert W; Berbee, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of filamentous hyphae underlies an astounding diversity of fungal form and function. We studied the cellular structure and evolutionary origins of the filamentous form in the Monoblepharidomycetes (Chytridiomycota), an early-diverging fungal lineage that displays an exceptional range of body types, from crescent-shaped single cells to sprawling hyphae. To do so, we combined light and transmission electron microscopic analyses of hyphal cytoplasm with molecular phylogenetic reconstructions. Hyphae of Monoblepharidomycetes lack a complex aggregation of secretory vesicles at the hyphal apex (i.e. Spitzenkörper), have centrosomes as primary microtubule organizing centers and have stacked Golgi cisternae instead of tubular/fenestrated Golgi equivalents. The cytoplasmic distribution of actin in Monoblepharidomycetes is comparable to the arrangement observed previously in other filamentous fungi. To discern the origins of Monoblepharidomycetes hyphae, we inferred a phylogeny of the fungi based on 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence data with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We focused sampling on Monoblepharidomycetes to infer intergeneric relationships within the class and determined 78 new sequences. Analyses showed class Monoblepharidomycetes to be monophyletic and nested within Chytridiomycota. Hyphal Monoblepharidomycetes formed a clade sister to the genera without hyphae, Harpochytrium and Oedogoniomyces. A likelihood ancestral state reconstruction indicated that hyphae arose independently within the Monoblepharidomycetes lineage and in at least two other lineages. Cytological differences among monoblepharidalean and other fungal hyphae are consistent with these convergent origins.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of AGAMOUS sequences reveals the origin of the diploid and tetraploid forms of self-pollinating wild buckwheat, Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyoshi, Mitsuyuki; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsako, Takanori; Li, Cheng-Yun; Ohnishi, Ohmi

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a self-pollinating wild buckwheat species indigenous to eastern Tibet and the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces of China. It is useful breeding material for shifting cultivated buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. esculentum Moench) from out-crossing to self-pollinating. Despite its importance as a genetic resource in buckwheat breeding, the genetic variation of F. homotropicum is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of the diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum based on the nucleotide sequences of a nuclear gene, AGAMOUS (AG). Neighbor-joining analysis revealed that representative individuals clustered into three large groups (Group I, II and III). Each group contained diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum. We identified tetraploid plants that had two diverged AG sequences; one belonging to Group I and the other belonging to Group II, or one belonging to Group II and the other belonging to Group III. These results suggest that the tetraploid form originated from at least two hybridization events between deeply differentiated diploids. The results also imply that the genetic diversity contributed by tetraploidization of differentiated diploids may have allowed the distribution range of F. homotropicum to expand to the northern areas of China. PMID:23226084

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of AGAMOUS sequences reveals the origin of the diploid and tetraploid forms of self-pollinating wild buckwheat, Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi.

    PubMed

    Tomiyoshi, Mitsuyuki; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsako, Takanori; Li, Cheng-Yun; Ohnishi, Ohmi

    2012-09-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a self-pollinating wild buckwheat species indigenous to eastern Tibet and the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces of China. It is useful breeding material for shifting cultivated buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. esculentum Moench) from out-crossing to self-pollinating. Despite its importance as a genetic resource in buckwheat breeding, the genetic variation of F. homotropicum is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of the diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum based on the nucleotide sequences of a nuclear gene, AGAMOUS (AG). Neighbor-joining analysis revealed that representative individuals clustered into three large groups (Group I, II and III). Each group contained diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum. We identified tetraploid plants that had two diverged AG sequences; one belonging to Group I and the other belonging to Group II, or one belonging to Group II and the other belonging to Group III. These results suggest that the tetraploid form originated from at least two hybridization events between deeply differentiated diploids. The results also imply that the genetic diversity contributed by tetraploidization of differentiated diploids may have allowed the distribution range of F. homotropicum to expand to the northern areas of China.

  7. Chromosomal Locations of 5S and 45S rDNA in Gossypium Genus and Its Phylogenetic Implications Revealed by FISH

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yimei; Liu, Fang; Chen, Dan; Wu, Qiong; Qin, Qin; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the locations of 5S and 45S rDNA in Gossypium diploid A, B, D, E, F, G genomes and tetraploid genome (AD) using multi-probe fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for evolution analysis in Gossypium genus. The rDNA numbers and sizes, and synteny relationships between 5S and 45S were revealed using 5S and 45S as double-probe for all species, and the rDNA-bearing chromosomes were identified for A, D and AD genomes with one more probe that is single-chromosome-specific BAC clone from G. hirsutum (A1D1). Two to four 45S and one 5S loci were found in diploid-species except two 5S loci in G. incanum (E4), the same as that in tetraploid species. The 45S on the 7th and 9th chromosomes and the 5S on the 9th chromosomes seemed to be conserved in A, D and AD genomes. In the species of B, E, F and G genomes, the rDNA numbers, sizes, and synteny relationships were first reported in this paper. The rDNA pattern agrees with previously reported phylogenetic history with some disagreements. Combined with the whole-genome sequencing data from G. raimondii (D5) and the conserved cotton karyotype, it is suggested that the expansion, decrease and transposition of rDNA other than chromosome rearrangements might occur during the Gossypium evolution. PMID:23826377

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein B gene sequences of bovine herpesvirus 1 isolates from India reveals the predominance of subtype 1.1

    PubMed Central

    Patil, S. S.; Prajapati, A.; Hemadri, D.; Suresh, K. P.; Desai, G. S.; Reddy, G. B. Manjunatha; Chandranaik, B. M.; Ranganatha, S.; Rahman, H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted for the isolation and molecular characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) isolated from the nasal and vaginal swabs collected from naturally infected cattle showing clinical symptoms of the respiratory disease. Materials and Methods: Isolation of BoHV-1 virus performed on clinical samples collected from 65 cattle from five states of India. The BoHV-1 isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for glycoprotein B (gB) genomic region. PCR amplification was performed using previously published gB gene-specific primer pairs. gB PCR amplicons obtained from all isolates were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using software. Results: A total of 12 samples were found positive in cell culture isolation. 11 isolates showed the visible cytopathic effect on Madin-Darby bovine kidney after 72 h. Partial sequence analysis of gB gene of all isolates revealed 99.0-100% homology between them. All isolates showed 99.2-99.8% homology with Cooper stain. Conclusion: BoHV-1.1 is the predominant circulating subtype of BoHV in India, and all isolates have homology with Cooper stain. PMID:28096606

  9. Phylogenetic and Genome-Wide Deep-Sequencing Analyses of Canine Parvovirus Reveal Co-Infection with Field Variants and Emergence of a Recent Recombinant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348

  10. Phylogenetic and genome-wide deep-sequencing analyses of canine parvovirus reveal co-infection with field variants and emergence of a recent recombinant strain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.

  11. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF 16S RRNA GENE SEQUENCES REVEALS THE PREVALENCE OF MYCOBACTERIA SP., ALPHA-PROTEOBACTERIA, AND UNCULTURED BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that culture-based methods tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting water distribution systems (WDS). In this study, the phylogenetic diversity of drinking water bacteria was assessed using sequence analysis...

  12. Multiple Assembly Rules Drive the Co-occurrence of Orthopteran and Plant Species in Grasslands: Combining Network, Functional and Phylogenetic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Bertrand; Mouly, Arnaud; Gillet, François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors underlying the co-occurrence of multiple species remains a challenge in ecology. Biotic interactions, environmental filtering and neutral processes are among the main mechanisms evoked to explain species co-occurrence. However, they are most often studied separately or even considered as mutually exclusive. This likely hampers a more global understanding of species assembly. Here, we investigate the general hypothesis that the structure of co-occurrence networks results from multiple assembly rules and its potential implications for grassland ecosystems. We surveyed orthopteran and plant communities in 48 permanent grasslands of the French Jura Mountains and gathered functional and phylogenetic data for all species. We constructed a network of plant and orthopteran species co-occurrences and verified whether its structure was modular or nested. We investigated the role of all species in the structure of the network (modularity and nestedness). We also investigated the assembly rules driving the structure of the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network by using null models on species functional traits, phylogenetic relatedness and environmental conditions. We finally compared our results to abundance-based approaches. We found that the plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network had a modular organization. Community assembly rules differed among modules for plants while interactions with plants best explained the distribution of orthopterans into modules. Few species had a disproportionately high positive contribution to this modular organization and are likely to have a key importance to modulate future changes. The impact of agricultural practices was restricted to some modules (3 out of 5) suggesting that shifts in agricultural practices might not impact the entire plant-orthopteran co-occurrence network. These findings support our hypothesis that multiple assembly rules drive the modular structure of the plant-orthopteran network. This

  13. Lung Postmortem Autopsy Revealing Extramedullary Involvement in Multiple Myeloma Causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Aurélie; Perbet, Sébastien; Guièze, Romain; Guérin, Renaud; Gayraud, Guillaume; Aliane, Jugurtha; Tremblay, Aymeric; Pascal, Julien; Ledoux, Albane; Chaleteix, Carine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14) translocation). Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy. PMID:25165587

  14. Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2005-05-01

    The pantherine lineage of the cat family Felidae (order: Carnivora) includes five big cats of genus Panthera and a great many midsized cats known worldwide. Presumably because of their recent and rapid radiation, the evolutionary relationship among pantherines remains ambiguous. We provide an independent assessment of the evolutionary history of pantherine lineage using two complete mitochondrial (mt) genes (ND2 and ND4) and the nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 gene, whose utility in carnivoran phylogeny was first explored. The available four mt (ND5, cytb, 12S, and 16SrRNA) and two nuclear (IRBP and TTR) sequence loci were also combined to reconstruct phylogeny of 14 closely related cat species. Our analyses of combined mt data (six genes; approximately 3750 bp) and combined mt and nuclear data (nine genes; approximately 6500 bp) obtained identical tree topologies, which were well-resolved and strongly supported for almost all nodes. Monophyly of Panthera genus in pantherine lineage was confirmed and interspecific affinities within this genus revealed a novel branching pattern, with P. tigris diverging first in Panthera genus, followed by P. onca, P. leo, and last two sister species P. pardus and P. uncia. In addition, close association of Neofelis nebulosa to Panthera, the phylogenetic redefinition of Otocolobus manul within the domestic cat group, and the relatedness of Acinonyx jubatus and Puma concolor were all important findings in the resulting phylogenies. The potential utilities of nine different genes for phylogenetic resolution of closely related pantherine species were also evaluated, with special interest in that of the novel nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) reveals a significant expansion of the inverted repeat and phylogenetic relationship with other angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Wang, Xumin

    2013-10-10

    Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) is a frequently-used traditional Chinese medicinal plant with efficient anti-inflammatory ability. This plant is one of the sources of berberine, a new cholesterol-lowering drug with anti-diabetic activity. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of M. bealei. The complete cp genome of M. bealei is 164,792 bp in length, and has a typical structure with large (LSC 73,052 bp) and small (SSC 18,591 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs 36,501 bp) of large size. The Mahonia cp genome contains 111 unique genes and 39 genes are duplicated in the IR regions. The gene order and content of M. bealei are almost unarranged which is consistent with the hypothesis that large IRs stabilize cp genome and reduce gene loss-and-gain probabilities during evolutionary process. A large IR expansion of over 12 kb has occurred in M. bealei, 15 genes (rps19, rpl22, rps3, rpl16, rpl14, rps8, infA, rpl36, rps11, petD, petB, psbH, psbN, psbT and psbB) have expanded to have an additional copy in the IRs. The IR expansion rearrangement occurred via a double-strand DNA break and subsequence repair, which is different from the ordinary gene conversion mechanism. Repeat analysis identified 39 direct/inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Analysis also revealed 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T, contributing to a distinct bias in base composition. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with ESTs reveals 9 putative RNA edits and 5 of them resulted in non-synonymous modifications in rpoC1, rps2, rps19 and ycf1. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) was performed on a dataset composed of 65 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa, which yields an identical tree topology as previous plastid-based trees, and provides strong support for the sister relationship between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE REVEALS MULTIPLE SUB-GIANT BRANCH IN EIGHT GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Piotto, G.; Nascimbeni, V.; Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Cassisi, S.; Marino, A. F. E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: aparicio@iac.es E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu E-mail: amarino@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE

    2012-11-20

    In the last few years many globular clusters (GCs) have revealed complex color-magnitude diagrams, with the presence of multiple main sequences (MSs), broad or multiple sub-giant branches (SGBs) and MS turnoffs, and broad or split red giant branches (RGBs). After a careful correction for differential reddening, high-accuracy photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) presented in this paper reveals a broadened or even split SGB in five additional Milky Way GCs: NGC 362, NGC 5286, NGC 6656, NGC 6715, and NGC 7089. In addition, we confirm (with new and archival HST data) the presence of a split SGB in 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, and NGC 6388. The fraction of faint SGB stars with respect to the entire SGB population varies from one cluster to another and ranges from {approx}0.03 for NGC 362 to {approx}0.50 for NGC 6715. The average magnitude difference between the bright SGB and the faint SGB is almost the same at different wavelengths. This peculiarity is consistent with the presence of two groups of stars with either an age difference of about 1-2 Gyr or a significant difference in their overall C+N+O content.

  17. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  18. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  19. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  20. Multiple Loci and Complete Taxonomic Sampling Resolve the Phylogeny and Biogeographic History of Tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae) and Reveal Higher Speciation Rates in Madagascar's Humid Forests.

    PubMed

    Everson, Kathryn M; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Olson, Link E

    2016-09-01

    The family Tenrecidae (tenrecs) is one of only four extant terrestrial mammal lineages to have colonized and diversified on Madagascar. Over the last 15 years, several studies have disagreed on relationships among major tenrec lineages, resulting in multiple reinterpretations of the number and timing of historical transoceanic dispersal events between Africa and Madagascar. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Tenrecidae using multiple loci from all recognized extant species and estimated divergence timing using six fossil calibrations within Afrotheria. All phylogenetic analyses strongly support monophyly of the Malagasy tenrecs, and our divergence timing analysis places their colonization of the island at 30-56 Ma. Our comprehensive phylogeny supports three important taxonomic revisions that reflect the evolutionary history of tenrecs: (1) we formally elevate the African otter shrews to their own family Potamogalidae, thereby rendering extant Tenrecidae entirely endemic to Madagascar; (2) we subsume the semiaquatic genus Limnogale within the shrew tenrec genus Microgale; and (3) we re-elevate the two largest-bodied shrew tenrecs, Microgale dobsoni and Microgale talazaci, to the genus Nesogale Thomas (1918) Finally, we use recently summarized habitat data to test the hypothesis that diversification rates differ between humid and arid habitats on Madagascar, and we compare three common methods for ancestral biogeographic reconstruction. These analyses suggest higher speciation rates in humid habitats and reveal a minimum of three and more likely five independent transitions to arid habitats. Our results resolve the relationships among previously recalcitrant taxa, illuminate the timing and mechanisms of major biogeographic patterns in an extraordinary example of an island radiation, and permit the first comprehensive, phylogenetically consistent taxonomy of Madagascar's tenrecs.

  1. Evolutionary Phylogenetic Networks: Models and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhleh, Luay

    Phylogenetic networks are special graphs that generalize phylogenetic trees to allow for modeling of non-treelike evolutionary histories. The ability to sequence multiple genetic markers from a set of organisms and the conflicting evolutionary signals that these markers provide in many cases, have propelled research and interest in phylogenetic networks to the forefront in computational phylogenetics. Nonetheless, the term 'phylogenetic network' has been generically used to refer to a class of models whose core shared property is tree generalization. Several excellent surveys of the different flavors of phylogenetic networks and methods for their reconstruction have been written recently. However, unlike these surveys, this chapte focuses specifically on one type of phylogenetic networks, namely evolutionary phylogenetic networks, which explicitly model reticulate evolutionary events. Further, this chapter focuses less on surveying existing tools, and addresses in more detail issues that are central to the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic networks.

  2. Barcoding against a paradox? Combined molecular species delineations reveal multiple cryptic lineages in elusive meiofaunal sea slugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many marine meiofaunal species are reported to have wide distributions, which creates a paradox considering their hypothesized low dispersal abilities. Correlated with this paradox is an especially high taxonomic deficit for meiofauna, partly related to a lower taxonomic effort and partly to a high number of putative cryptic species. Molecular-based species delineation and barcoding approaches have been advocated for meiofaunal biodiversity assessments to speed up description processes and uncover cryptic lineages. However, these approaches show sensitivity to sampling coverage (taxonomic and geographic) and the success rate has never been explored on mesopsammic Mollusca. Results We collected the meiofaunal sea-slug Pontohedyle (Acochlidia, Heterobranchia) from 28 localities worldwide. With a traditional morphological approach, all specimens fall into two morphospecies. However, with a multi-marker genetic approach, we reveal multiple lineages that are reciprocally monophyletic on single and concatenated gene trees in phylogenetic analyses. These lineages are largely concordant with geographical and oceanographic parameters, leading to our primary species hypothesis (PSH). In parallel, we apply four independent methods of molecular based species delineation: General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC), statistical parsimony, Bayesian Species Delineation (BPP) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD). The secondary species hypothesis (SSH) is gained by relying only on uncontradicted results of the different approaches (‘minimum consensus approach’), resulting in the discovery of a radiation of (at least) 12 mainly cryptic species, 9 of them new to science, some sympatric and some allopatric with respect to ocean boundaries. However, the meiofaunal paradox still persists in some Pontohedyle species identified here with wide coastal and trans-archipelago distributions. Conclusions Our study confirms extensive, morphologically cryptic diversity among

  3. The phylogenetic diversity of metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; Eisen, Jonathan A; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity--patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities--provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context.

  4. High-Resolution Transcriptome Maps Reveal Strain-Specific Regulatory Features of Multiple Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Förstner, Konrad U.; Heidrich, Nadja; Reinhardt, Richard; Nieselt, Kay; Sharma, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA) repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA–seq (dRNA–seq) of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS), which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA–seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA–seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA–seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP) in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new insights into

  5. Co-evolution of genomic islands and their bacterial hosts revealed through phylogenetic analyses of 17 groups of homologous genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Guo, F-B; Wei, W; Wang, X L; Lin, H; Ding, H; Huang, J; Rao, N

    2012-10-15

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism for the evolution of microbial genomes, and many horizontal gene transfer events are facilitated by genomic islands (GIs). Until now, few reports have provided evidence for the co-evolution of horizontally transferred genes and their hosts. We obtained 17 groups of homologous GIs, all of which appear in 8 or more bacterial strains of the same species or genus. Using phylogenetic analyses, we found that the topological structure of a distance tree based on the proteins of each group of homologous GIs was consistent with that based on the complete proteomes of the hosts. This result clearly indicates that GIs and their bacterial hosts have co-evolved. In addition to presenting and providing evidence for a novel concept, i.e., the co-evolution of GIs and their bacterial hosts, we also describe a new and interesting detail for the phylogenetic analysis of horizontally transferred genes: consistent phylogenetic trees can be obtained by focusing on homologous GIs despite the commonly accepted theory that the phylogenies of horizontally transferred sequences and host organisms should be inconsistent.

  6. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Results In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length), of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Conclusion Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny. PMID:18366624

  7. Proteomic Profiling in Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Courses Reveals Potential Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Maria; Qualtieri, Antonio; Tortorella, Carla; Direnzo, Vita; Bagalà, Angelo; Mastrapasqua, Mariangela; Spadafora, Patrizia; Trojano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our project was to perform an exploratory analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic profiles of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, collected in different phases of their clinical course, in order to investigate the existence of peculiar profiles characterizing the different MS phenotypes. The study was carried out on 24 Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), 16 Relapsing Remitting (RR) MS, 11 Progressive (Pr) MS patients. The CSF samples were analysed using the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer in linear mode geometry and in delayed extraction mode (m/z range: 1000–25000 Da). Peak lists were imported for normalization and statistical analysis. CSF data were correlated with demographic, clinical and MRI parameters. The evaluation of MALDI-TOF spectra revealed 348 peak signals with relative intensity ≥1% in the study range. The peak intensity of the signals corresponding to Secretogranin II and Protein 7B2 were significantly upregulated in RRMS patients compared to PrMS (p<0.05), whereas the signals of Fibrinogen and Fibrinopeptide A were significantly downregulated in CIS compared to PrMS patients (p<0.04). Additionally, the intensity of the Tymosin β4 peak was the only signal to be significantly discriminated between the CIS and RRMS patients (p = 0.013). Although with caution due to the relatively small size of the study populations, and considering that not all the findings remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, in our opinion this mass spectrometry evaluation confirms that this technique may provide useful and important information to improve our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of MS. PMID:25098164

  8. Proteomic profiling in multiple sclerosis clinical courses reveals potential biomarkers of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Maria; Qualtieri, Antonio; Tortorella, Carla; Direnzo, Vita; Bagalà, Angelo; Mastrapasqua, Mariangela; Spadafora, Patrizia; Trojano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our project was to perform an exploratory analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic profiles of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, collected in different phases of their clinical course, in order to investigate the existence of peculiar profiles characterizing the different MS phenotypes. The study was carried out on 24 Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), 16 Relapsing Remitting (RR) MS, 11 Progressive (Pr) MS patients. The CSF samples were analysed using the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer in linear mode geometry and in delayed extraction mode (m/z range: 1000-25000 Da). Peak lists were imported for normalization and statistical analysis. CSF data were correlated with demographic, clinical and MRI parameters. The evaluation of MALDI-TOF spectra revealed 348 peak signals with relative intensity ≥ 1% in the study range. The peak intensity of the signals corresponding to Secretogranin II and Protein 7B2 were significantly upregulated in RRMS patients compared to PrMS (p<0.05), whereas the signals of Fibrinogen and Fibrinopeptide A were significantly downregulated in CIS compared to PrMS patients (p<0.04). Additionally, the intensity of the Tymosin β4 peak was the only signal to be significantly discriminated between the CIS and RRMS patients (p = 0.013). Although with caution due to the relatively small size of the study populations, and considering that not all the findings remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, in our opinion this mass spectrometry evaluation confirms that this technique may provide useful and important information to improve our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of MS.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira; Kayano, Hidekazu; Koyama, Isamu; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell

  10. Phylogeography of the widespread African puff adder (Bitis arietans) reveals multiple Pleistocene refugia in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Axel; Baker, Karis; Hendry, Catriona R; Peppin, Lindsay; Phelps, Tony; Tolley, Krystal A; Wüster, Catharine E; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Evidence from numerous Pan-African savannah mammals indicates that open-habitat refugia existed in Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated by expanding tropical forests during warm and humid interglacial periods. However, comparative data from other taxonomic groups are currently lacking. We present a phylogeographic investigation of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans), a snake that occurs in open-habitat formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple parapatric mitochondrial clades occur across the current distribution of B. arietans, including a widespread southern African clade that is subdivided into four separate clades. We investigated the historical processes responsible for generating these phylogeographic patterns in southern Africa using species distribution modelling and genetic approaches. Our results show that interior regions of South Africa became largely inhospitable for B. arietans during glacial maxima, whereas coastal and more northerly areas remained habitable. This corresponds well with the locations of refugia inferred from mitochondrial data using a continuous phylogeographic diffusion model. Analysis of data from five anonymous nuclear loci revealed broadly similar patterns to mtDNA. Secondary admixture was detected between previously isolated refugial populations. In some cases, this is limited to individuals occurring near mitochondrial clade contact zones, but in other cases, more extensive admixture is evident. Overall, our study reveals a complex history of refugial isolation and secondary expansion for puff adders and a mosaic of isolated refugia in southern Africa. We also identify key differences between the processes that drove isolation in B. arietans and those hypothesized for sympatric savannah mammals.

  11. Comparisons of Caenorhabditis Fucosyltransferase Mutants Reveal a Multiplicity of Isomeric N-Glycan Structures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Jin, Chunsheng; Wilson, Iain B H; Paschinger, Katharina

    2015-12-04

    Recent studies have shown a remarkable degree of plasticity in the N-glycome of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; ablation of glycosylation-relevant genes can result in radically altered N-glycan profiles despite only minor biological phenotypic effects. Up to four fucose residues and five different linkages of fucose are known on the N-glycans of C. elegans. Due to the complexity in the wild type, we established three mutant strains defective in two core fucosyltransferases each (fut-1;fut-6, fut-1;fut-8, and fut-6;fut-8). Enzymatically released N-glycans were subject to HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS/MS, in combination with various treatments, to verify structural details. The N-glycome of the fut-1;fut-6 mutant was the most complex of the three double-mutant strains due to the extension of the core α1,6-fucose as well as the presence of fucose on the bisecting galactose. In contrast, maximally two fucoses were found on N-glycans of the fut-1;fut-8 and fut-6;fut-8 strains. The different locations and capping of fucose meant that up to 13 isomeric structures, many highly galactosylated, were determined for some single masses. These data not only show the high variability of the N-glycomic capacity of a "simple" nematode but also exemplify the need for multiple approaches to reveal individual glycan structures within complex invertebrate glycomes.

  12. Whole-epigenome analysis in multiple myeloma reveals DNA hypermethylation of B cell-specific enhancers.

    PubMed

    Agirre, Xabier; Castellano, Giancarlo; Pascual, Marien; Heath, Simon; Kulis, Marta; Segura, Victor; Bergmann, Anke; Esteve, Anna; Merkel, Angelika; Raineri, Emanuele; Agueda, Lidia; Blanc, Julie; Richardson, David; Clarke, Laura; Datta, Avik; Russiñol, Nuria; Queirós, Ana C; Beekman, Renée; Rodríguez-Madoz, Juan R; San José-Enériz, Edurne; Fang, Fang; Gutiérrez, Norma C; García-Verdugo, José M; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C; Guruceaga, Elisabeth; Martens, Joost H A; Gut, Marta; Calasanz, Maria J; Flicek, Paul; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Miguel, Jesús F San; Melnick, Ari; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Gut, Ivo G; Prosper, Felipe; Martín-Subero, José I

    2015-04-01

    While analyzing the DNA methylome of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell neoplasm, by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density arrays, we observed a highly heterogeneous pattern globally characterized by regional DNA hypermethylation embedded in extensive hypomethylation. In contrast to the widely reported DNA hypermethylation of promoter-associated CpG islands (CGIs) in cancer, hypermethylated sites in MM, as opposed to normal plasma cells, were located outside CpG islands and were unexpectedly associated with intronic enhancer regions defined in normal B cells and plasma cells. Both RNA-seq and in vitro reporter assays indicated that enhancer hypermethylation is globally associated with down-regulation of its host genes. ChIP-seq and DNase-seq further revealed that DNA hypermethylation in these regions is related to enhancer decommissioning. Hypermethylated enhancer regions overlapped with binding sites of B cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the degree of enhancer methylation inversely correlated with expression levels of these TFs in MM. Furthermore, hypermethylated regions in MM were methylated in stem cells and gradually became demethylated during normal B-cell differentiation, suggesting that MM cells either reacquire epigenetic features of undifferentiated cells or maintain an epigenetic signature of a putative myeloma stem cell progenitor. Overall, we have identified DNA hypermethylation of developmentally regulated enhancers as a new type of epigenetic modification associated with the pathogenesis of MM.

  13. Novel centrosomal protein reveals the presence of multiple centrosomes in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) bnbn binucleated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Woods, C M; Zhu, J; Coleman, T; Bloom, S E; Lazarides, E

    1995-02-01

    The phenotype of the bnbn hemolytic anemia mutation in the domestic turkey is manifested as binucleation specifically in the definitive erythrocyte lineage, most likely as the consequence of anomolous centrosomal activity (Bloom et al., 1970; Searle and Bloom, 1979). Here we have identified in turkey two variants of the novel, centrosomally-associated erythroid-specific protein p23. One variant is Ca(2+)-sensitive and is highly homologous to its chick counterpart (Zhu et al., 1995, accompanying paper). The other, p21 is a truncated form resulting from a 62 amino acid deletion from the 3' end and a 40 amino acid insertion at the 5' end, and appears to lack Ca(2+)-sensitivity. These proteins are localized at the marginal band, centrosomes and nuclear membrane of differentiated erythrocytes. Anti-p23/p21 immunofluorescence revealed the presence of multiple centrosomes in bnbn erythrocytes. We therefore undertook a detailed genetic analysis to determine whether the p21 variant represented the bn mutation. Initial tests of normal BnBn and mutant bnbn individuals suggested that the p23/p21 proteins might be encoded by the Bn/bn genes. However, further genetic tests demonstrated independent segregation for these two genetic loci. Thus, these proteins are encoded by the heretofore undescribed genes, p23/p21, mapping to an autosomal locus in the turkey genome.

  14. Whole-epigenome analysis in multiple myeloma reveals DNA hypermethylation of B cell-specific enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Giancarlo; Pascual, Marien; Heath, Simon; Kulis, Marta; Segura, Victor; Bergmann, Anke; Esteve, Anna; Merkel, Angelika; Raineri, Emanuele; Agueda, Lidia; Blanc, Julie; Richardson, David; Clarke, Laura; Datta, Avik; Russiñol, Nuria; Queirós, Ana C.; Beekman, Renée; Rodríguez-Madoz, Juan R.; José-Enériz, Edurne San; Fang, Fang; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; García-Verdugo, José M.; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.; Guruceaga, Elisabeth; Martens, Joost H.A.; Gut, Marta; Calasanz, Maria J.; Flicek, Paul; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Miguel, Jesús F. San; Melnick, Ari; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Gut, Ivo G.

    2015-01-01

    While analyzing the DNA methylome of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell neoplasm, by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density arrays, we observed a highly heterogeneous pattern globally characterized by regional DNA hypermethylation embedded in extensive hypomethylation. In contrast to the widely reported DNA hypermethylation of promoter-associated CpG islands (CGIs) in cancer, hypermethylated sites in MM, as opposed to normal plasma cells, were located outside CpG islands and were unexpectedly associated with intronic enhancer regions defined in normal B cells and plasma cells. Both RNA-seq and in vitro reporter assays indicated that enhancer hypermethylation is globally associated with down-regulation of its host genes. ChIP-seq and DNase-seq further revealed that DNA hypermethylation in these regions is related to enhancer decommissioning. Hypermethylated enhancer regions overlapped with binding sites of B cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the degree of enhancer methylation inversely correlated with expression levels of these TFs in MM. Furthermore, hypermethylated regions in MM were methylated in stem cells and gradually became demethylated during normal B-cell differentiation, suggesting that MM cells either reacquire epigenetic features of undifferentiated cells or maintain an epigenetic signature of a putative myeloma stem cell progenitor. Overall, we have identified DNA hypermethylation of developmentally regulated enhancers as a new type of epigenetic modification associated with the pathogenesis of MM. PMID:25644835

  15. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of dalytyphloplanida (platyhelminthes: rhabdocoela) reveals multiple escapes from the marine environment and origins of symbiotic relationships.

    PubMed

    Van Steenkiste, Niels; Tessens, Bart; Willems, Wim; Backeljau, Thierry; Jondelius, Ulf; Artois, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this study we elaborate the phylogeny of Dalytyphloplanida based on complete 18S rDNA (156 sequences) and partial 28S rDNA (125 sequences), using a Maximum Likelihood and a Bayesian Inference approach, in order to investigate the origin of a limnic or limnoterrestrial and of a symbiotic lifestyle in this large group of rhabditophoran flatworms. The results of our phylogenetic analyses and ancestral state reconstructions indicate that dalytyphloplanids have their origin in the marine environment and that there was one highly successful invasion of the freshwater environment, leading to a large radiation of limnic and limnoterrestrial dalytyphloplanids. This monophyletic freshwater clade, Limnotyphloplanida, comprises the taxa Dalyelliidae, Temnocephalida, and most Typhloplanidae. Temnocephalida can be considered ectosymbiotic Dalyelliidae as they are embedded within this group. Secondary returns to brackish water and marine environments occurred relatively frequently in several dalyeliid and typhloplanid taxa. Our phylogenies also show that, apart from the Limnotyphloplanida, there have been only few independent invasions of the limnic environment, and apparently these were not followed by spectacular speciation events. The distinct phylogenetic positions of the symbiotic taxa also suggest multiple origins of commensal and parasitic life strategies within Dalytyphloplanida. The previously established higher-level dalytyphloplanid clades are confirmed in our topologies, but many of the traditional families are not monophyletic. Alternative hypothesis testing constraining the monophyly of these families in the topologies and using the approximately unbiased test, also statistically rejects their monophyly.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics before sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Mark A; Bernard, Guillaume; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2014-01-01

    From 1971 to 1985, Carl Woese and colleagues generated oligonucleotide catalogs of 16S/18S rRNAs from more than 400 organisms. Using these incomplete and imperfect data, Carl and his colleagues developed unprecedented insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the large RNA components of the translational apparatus. They recognized a third domain of life, revealed the phylogenetic backbone of bacteria (and its limitations), delineated taxa, and explored the tempo and mode of microbial evolution. For these discoveries to have stood the test of time, oligonucleotide catalogs must carry significant phylogenetic signal; they thus bear re-examination in view of the current interest in alignment-free phylogenetics based on k-mers. Here we consider the aims, successes, and limitations of this early phase of molecular phylogenetics. We computationally generate oligonucleotide sets (e-catalogs) from 16S/18S rRNA sequences, calculate pairwise distances between them based on D2 statistics, compute distance trees, and compare their performance against alignment-based and k-mer trees. Although the catalogs themselves were superseded by full-length sequences, this stage in the development of computational molecular biology remains instructive for us today. PMID:24572375

  17. Phylogenetics and molecular clocks reveal the repeated evolution of ant-plants after the late Miocene in Africa and the early Miocene in Australasia and the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-07-01

    Ant-plant symbioses involve over 110 ant species in five subfamilies that are facultative or obligate occupants of stem, leaf or root domatia formed by hundreds of ant-plant species. The phylogenetic distribution and geological ages of these associations, and the frequency of gains or losses of domatium, are largely unknown. We compiled an up-to-date list of ant domatium-bearing plants, estimated their probable true number from model-based statistical inference, generated dated phylogenies that include c. 50% of ant-plant lineages, and traced the occurrence of domatia and extrafloral nectaries on a 1181-species tree, using likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found 681 vascular plants with domatia (159 genera in 50 families) resulting from minimally 158 inferred domatium origins and 43 secondary losses over the last 19 Myr. The oldest African ant-plant symbioses are younger than those in Australasia and the Neotropics. The best statistical model suggests that the true number of myrmecophytes may approach 1140 species. The phylogenetic distribution of ant-plants shows that domatia evolved from a range of pre-adapted morphological structures and have been lost frequently, suggesting that domatia have no generalizable effect on diversification. The Miocene origin of ant-plant symbioses is consistent with inferred changes in diet and behaviour during ant evolution.

  18. DNA analysis of a 30,000-year-old Urocitellus glacialis from northeastern Siberia reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Faerman, Marina; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E.; Ermakov, Oleg A.; Golenishchev, Fedor N.; Gubin, Stanislav V.; Mintz, Eugenia; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergei V.; Zanina, Oksana G.; Formozov, Nikolai A.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El’ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed 14C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El’ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on complete cytochrome b gene sequences of five Late Pleistocene arctic ground squirrels and those of modern U. parryii from 21 locations across western Beringia, provided no support for earlier proposals that ancient arctic ground squirrels from Siberia constitute a distinct species. In fact, we observed genetic continuity of the glacialis mitochondrial DNA lineage in modern U. parryii of the Kamchatka peninsula. When viewed in a broader geographic perspective, our findings provide new insights into the genetic history of U. parryii in Late Pleistocene Beringia. PMID:28205612

  19. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

    PubMed

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  20. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    system, all the antennas could provide data for us. In addition, we improved the level of detail by using the Pie Town, NM, antenna of the Very Long Baseline Array, as part of an expanded system," Lim said. The implementation and improvement of the 43 GHz receiving system was a collaborative program among the German Max Planck Institute, the Mexican National Autonomous University, and the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Two popular theoretical models for the formation of multiple-star systems are, first, that the two protostars and their surrounding dusty disks fragment from a larger parent disk, and, second, that the protostars form independently and then one captures the other into a mutual orbit. "Our new study shows that the disks of the two main protostars are aligned with each other, and also are aligned with the larger, surrounding disk. In addition, their orbital motion resembles the rotation of the larger disk. This is a 'smoking gun' supporting the fragmentation model," Lim said. However, the new study also revealed a third young star with a dust disk. "The disk of this one is misaligned with those of the other two, so it may be the result of either fragmentation or capture," Takakuwa said. The misalignment of the third disk could have come through gravitational interactions with the other two, larger, protostars, the scientists said. They plan further observations to try to resolve the question. "We have a very firm indication that two of these protostars and their dust disks formed from the same, larger disk-like cloud, then broke out from it in a fragmentation process. That strongly supports one theoretical model for how multiple-star systems are formed. The misalignment of the third protostar and its disk leaves open the possibility that it could have formed elsewhere and been captured, and we'll continue to work on reconstructing the history of this fascinating system," Lim summarized. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of

  1. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M., Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the {approx}1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5{prime} regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family.

  2. Human mast cell tryptase: multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family.

    PubMed Central

    Vanderslice, P; Ballinger, S M; Tam, E K; Goldstein, S M; Craik, C S; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the approximately 1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5' regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family. Images PMID:2187193

  3. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites.

  4. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    SciTech Connect

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  5. Phylogenetic multi-locus codon models and molecular clocks reveal the monophyly of haematophagous reduviid bugs and their evolution at the formation of South America.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James S; Gaunt, Michael W

    2010-08-01

    We previously constructed a single molecular clock to date insect evolution that remains a cornerstone within entomological dating. The insect clock predicts that triatomine bugs, the vectors of South American trypanosomiasis, originated with the formation of South America. We addressed this hypothesis using the insectivorous reduviid bugs and their phylogenetic relationship with the haematophagous reduviid bugs, as well as their biogeographic distribution. Putative paraphyly or monophyly of Triatominae, by non-haematophagous reduviids, have both previously been hypothesized and identified. We sampled a broad range of predatory reduviids, viz. Ectrichodiinae, Emesinae, Hammacerinae, Harpactorinae, Reduviinae, Salyavatinae, Steniopodainae and Vesciinae, including both New World and Old World representatives and sequenced the nuclear 28S ribosomal gene locus and the mitochondrial loci 5' cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 [COI]), cox1 3', cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2 [COII]) and cytochrome oxidase b (cob [cytb]). Robust evidence for the monophyly of Triatominae was observed in 5/5 loci using codon/nucleotide (28S) based maximum likelihood phylogenies, 3/5 loci using codon-based Bayesian phylogenies and in cox2 using amino acid Bayesian phylogenies. Several South American members of the Reduviinae, that are morphologically and phylogenetically a sister group to triatomine bugs, have a modal divergence date with the Triatominae of 109-107 million years ago (MYA). This creates a scenario where the closest (non-haematophagous) ancestor to triatomine bugs evolved immediately prior to the breakup of Gondwanaland whilst the triatomine bugs evolved 95MYA, putatively linking the origin of haematophagous behaviour to the origin of South America and in particular infers a delayed onset to the evolution of haematophagy. The placement of the enigmatic tribe Bolboderini as an ingroup to the Triatominae monophyly, confirms the 95MYA node as the most ancient in the subfamily.

  6. Comparison of tree-child phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. While much progress has been made to find practical algorithms for reconstructing a phylogenetic network from a set of sequences, all attempts to endorse a class of phylogenetic networks (strictly extending the class of phylogenetic trees) with a well-founded distance measure have, to the best of our knowledge and with the only exception of the bipartition distance on regular networks, failed so far. In this paper, we present and study a new meaningful class of phylogenetic networks, called tree-child phylogenetic networks, and we provide an injective representation of these networks as multisets of vectors of natural numbers, their path multiplicity vectors. We then use this representation to define a distance on this class that extends the well-known Robinson-Foulds distance for phylogenetic trees and to give an alignment method for pairs of networks in this class. Simple polynomial algorithms for reconstructing a tree-child phylogenetic network from its path multiplicity vectors, for computing the distance between two tree-child phylogenetic networks and for aligning a pair of tree-child phylogenetic networks, are provided. They have been implemented as a Perl package and a Java applet, which can be found at http://bioinfo.uib.es/~recerca/phylonetworks/mudistance/.

  7. Attentional Signatures of Perception: Multiple Object Tracking Reveals the Automaticity of Contour Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Brian P.; Mettler, Everett; Tsoi, Vicky; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional task wherein observers attempt to track multiple targets among moving distractors. Contour interpolation is a perceptual process that fills-in nonvisible edges on the basis of how surrounding edges (inducers) are spatiotemporally related. In five experiments, we explored the automaticity of…

  8. Xenon and iodine reveal multiple distinct exotic xenon components in Efremovka "nanodiamonds"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Holland, G.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Fisenko, A. V.; Crowther, S. A.; Turner, G.

    2016-03-01

    We identify new xenon components in a nanodiamond-rich residue from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. We demonstrate for the first time that these, and the previously identified xenon components Xe-P3 and Xe-P6, are associated with elevated I/Xe ratios. The 129I/127I ratio associated with xenon loss from these presolar compositions during processing on planetesimals in the early solar system was (0.369 ± 0.019) × 10-4, a factor of 3-4 lower than the canonical value. This suggests either incorporation of iodine into carbonaceous grains before the last input of freshly synthesized 129I to the solar system's precursor material, or loss of noble gases during processing of planetesimals around 30 Myr after solar system formation. The xenon/iodine ratios and model closure ages were revealed by laser step pyrolysis analysis of a neutron-irradiated, coarse-grained nanodiamond separate. Three distinct low temperature compositions are identified by characteristic I/Xe ratios and 136Xe/132Xe ratios. There is some evidence of multiple compositions with distinct I/Xe ratios in the higher temperature releases associated with Xe-P6. The presence of iodine alongside Q-Xe and these components in nanodiamonds constrains the pathway by which extreme volatiles entered the solid phase and may facilitate the identification of their carriers. There is no detectable iodine contribution to the presolar Xe-HL component, which is released at intermediate temperatures; this suggests a distinct trapping process. Releases associated with the other components all include significant contributions of 128Xe produced from iodine by neutron capture during reactor irradiation. We propose a revised model relating the origin of Xe-P3 (which exhibits an s-process deficit) through a ;Q-process; to the Q component (which makes the dominant contribution to the heavy noble gas budget of primitive material). The Q-process incorporates noble gases and iodine into specific carbonaceous phases with mass

  9. Phenotypic detection of clonotypic B cells in multiple myeloma by specific immunoglobulin ligands reveals their rarity in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Trepel, Martin; Martens, Victoria; Doll, Christian; Rahlff, Janina; Gösch, Barbara; Loges, Sonja; Binder, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    In multiple myeloma, circulating "clonotypic" B cells, that express the immunoglobulin rearrangement of the malignant plasma cell clone, can be indirectly detected by PCR. Their role as potential "feeder" cells for the malignant plasma cell pool remains controversial. Here we established for the first time an approach that allows direct tracking of such clonotypic cells by labeling with patient-specific immunoglobulin ligands in 15 patients with myeloma. Fifty percent of patients showed evidence of clonotypic B cells in blood or bone marrow by PCR. Epitope-mimicking peptides from random libraries were selected on each patient's individual immunoglobulin and used as ligands to trace cells expressing the idiotypic immunoglobulin on their surface. We established a flow cytometry and immunofluorescence protocol to track clonotypic B cells and validated it in two independent monoclonal B cell systems. Using this method, we found clonotypic B cells in only one out of 15 myeloma patients. In view of the assay's validated sensitivity level of 10(-3), this surprising data suggests that the abundance of such cells has been vastly overestimated in the past and that they apparently represent a very rare population in myeloma. Our novel tracing approach may open perspectives to isolate and analyze clonotypic B cells and determine their role in myeloma pathobiology.

  10. Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals the Complex Evolutionary History of Rabies Virus in Multiple Carnivore Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Troupin, Cécile; Dacheux, Laurent; Tanguy, Marion; Sabeta, Claude; Blanc, Hervé; Bouchier, Christiane; Vignuzzi, Marco; Holmes, Edward C.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The natural evolution of rabies virus (RABV) provides a potent example of multiple host shifts and an important opportunity to determine the mechanisms that underpin viral emergence. Using 321 genome sequences spanning an unprecedented diversity of RABV, we compared evolutionary rates and selection pressures in viruses sampled from multiple primary host shifts that occurred on various continents. Two major phylogenetic groups, bat-related RABV and dog-related RABV, experiencing markedly different evolutionary dynamics were identified. While no correlation between time and genetic divergence was found in bat-related RABV, the evolution of dog-related RABV followed a generally clock-like structure, although with a relatively low evolutionary rate. Subsequent molecular clock dating indicated that dog-related RABV likely underwent a rapid global spread following the intensification of intercontinental trade starting in the 15th century. Strikingly, although dog RABV has jumped to various wildlife species from the order Carnivora, we found no clear evidence that these host-jumping events involved adaptive evolution, with RABV instead characterized by strong purifying selection, suggesting that ecological processes also play an important role in shaping patterns of emergence. However, specific amino acid changes were associated with the parallel emergence of RABV in ferret-badgers in Asia, and some host shifts were associated with increases in evolutionary rate, particularly in the ferret-badger and mongoose, implying that changes in host species can have important impacts on evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27977811

  11. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that a dwarfing disease on different cereal crops in China is due to rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV).

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng-Wei; Yan, Jian; Qu, Zhi-cai; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Jia; Ye, Ming-Ming; Shen, Da-leng

    2002-10-01

    A viral disease with dwarfing symptoms is associated with severe damage of different cereal crops including rice, maize, wheat and sorghum grown in China. It is believed that the pathogenic agent of the disease on rice and sorghum is rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), however, the cause of maize dwarf disease in China is still inconclusive. In this report, dsRNA was isolated from virus particles obtained from the diseased plants of rice, maize, wheat and sorghum from two Chinese provinces. Full-length cDNAs of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S 10) were obtained through a RT-PCR approach. Sequence analysis showed that the S9 sequences of Chinese isolates and Japanese RBSDV isolate were very similar to each other (89.1-89.6% identity at the nucleotide level, 92.3-92.9% and 95.8-98.6% identity at the amino acid level for ORF1 and ORF2, respectively). In addition, the S10 sequences of Chinese isolates and Japanese RBSDV were very similar to each other (93.0-95.4% identical nucleotides and 96.2-97.0% identical amino acids, respectively). However, there were lower similarities for S9 and S10 sequences between Chinese isolates and an Italian Maize Rough Dwarf Virus (MRDV) isolate. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Chinese viral isolates found to infect rice, maize, wheat and sorghum and leading to similar cereal dwarfing manifestations could be grouped to the same virus species, RBSDV.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with a clinical history of sexual transmission of HIV-1 from a single donor reveals transmission of highly distinct variants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To combat the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), a successful vaccine will need to cope with the variability of transmissible viruses. Human hosts infected with HIV-1 potentially harbour many viral variants but very little is known about viruses that are likely to be transmitted, or even if there are viral characteristics that predict enhanced transmission in vivo. We show for the first time that genetic divergence consistent with a single transmission event in vivo can represent several years of pre-transmission evolution. Results We describe a highly unusual case consistent with a single donor transmitting highly related but distinct HIV-1 variants to two individuals on the same evening. We confirm that the clustering of viral genetic sequences, present within each recipient, is consistent with the history of a single donor across the viral env, gag and pol genes by maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo based phylogenetic analyses. Based on an uncorrelated, lognormal relaxed clock of env gene evolution calibrated with other datasets, the time since the most recent common ancestor is estimated as 2.86 years prior to transmission (95% confidence interval 1.28 to 4.54 years). Conclusion Our results show that an effective design for a preventative vaccine will need to anticipate extensive HIV-1 diversity within an individual donor as well as diversity at the population level. PMID:21736738

  14. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in marine deep-sea shrimps of the family Oplophoridae (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Wong, Juliet M; Pérez-Moreno, Jorge L; Chan, Tin-Yam; Frank, Tamara M; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D

    2015-02-01

    Bioluminescence is essential to the survival of many organisms, particularly in the deep sea where light is limited. Shrimp of the family Oplophoridae exhibit a remarkable mechanism of bioluminescence in the form of a secretion used for predatory defense. Three of the ten genera possess an additional mode of bioluminescence in the form of light-emitting organs called photophores. Phylogenetic analyses can be useful for tracing the evolution of bioluminescence, however, the few studies that have attempted to reconcile the relationships within Oplophoridae have generated trees with low-resolution. We present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Oplophoridae to date, with 90% genera coverage using seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) across 30 oplophorid species. We use our resulting topology to trace the evolution of bioluminescence within Oplophoridae. Previous studies have suggested that oplophorid visual systems may be tuned to differentiate the separate modes of bioluminescence. While all oplophorid shrimp possess a visual pigment sensitive to blue-green light, only those bearing photophores have an additional pigment sensitive to near-ultraviolet light. We attempt to characterize opsins, visual pigment proteins essential to light detection, in two photophore-bearing species (Systellaspis debilis and Oplophorus gracilirostris) and make inferences regarding their function and evolutionary significance.

  15. Invasive species threat: parasite phylogenetics reveals patterns and processes of host-switching between non-native and native captive freshwater turtles.

    PubMed

    Verneau, O; Palacios, C; Platt, T; Alday, M; Billard, E; Allienne, J-F; Basso, C; DU Preez, L H

    2011-11-01

    One of the major threats to biodiversity involves biological invasions with direct consequences on the stability of ecosystems. In this context, the role of parasites is not negligible as it may enhance the success of invaders. The red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, has been globally considered among the worst invasive species. Since its introduction through the pet trade, T. s. elegans is now widespread and represents a threat for indigenous species. Because T. s. elegans coexists with Emys orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa in Europe, it has been suggested it may compete with the native turtle species and transmit pathogens. We examined parasite transfer from American captive to the two native species that co-exist in artificial pools of a Turtle Farm in France. As model parasite species we used platyhelminth worms of the family Polystomatidae (Monogenea) because polystomes have been described from American turtles in their native range. Phylogenetic relationships among polystomes parasitizing chelonian host species that are geographically widespread show patterns of diversification more complex than expected. Using DNA barcoding to identify species from adult and/or polystome eggs, several cases of host switching from exotic to indigenous individuals were illustrated, corroborating that parasite transmission is important when considering the pet trade and in reintroduction programmes to reinforce wild populations of indigenous species.

  16. A unique midgut-associated bacterial community hosted by the cave beetle Cansiliella servadeii (Coleoptera: Leptodirini) reveals parallel phylogenetic divergences from universal gut-specific ancestors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cansiliella servadeii (Coleoptera) is an endemic troglobite living in deep carbonate caves in North-Eastern Italy. The beetle constantly moves and browses in its preferred habitat (consisting in flowing water and moonmilk, a soft speleothem colonized by microorganisms) self-preens to convey material from elytra, legs, and antennae towards the mouth. We investigated its inner and outer microbiota using microscopy and DNA-based approaches. Results Abundant microbial cell masses were observed on the external appendages. Cansiliella’s midgut is fully colonized by live microbes and culture-independent analyses yielded nearly 30 different 16S phylotypes that have no overlap with the community composition of the moonmilk. Many of the lineages, dominated by Gram positive groups, share very low similarity to database sequences. However for most cases, notwithstanding their very limited relatedness with existing records, phylotypes could be assigned to bacterial clades that had been retrieved from insect or other animals’ digestive traits. Conclusions Results suggest a history of remote separation from a common ancestor that harboured a set of gut-specific bacteria whose functions are supposedly critical for host physiology. The phylogenetic and coevolutionary implications of the parallel occurrences of these prokaryotic guilds appear to apply throughout a broad spectrum of animal diversity. Their persistence and conservation underlies a possibly critical role of precise bacterial assemblages in animal-bacteria interactions. PMID:23758657

  17. Phylogenetic Patterns of Human Coxsackievirus B5 Arise from Population Dynamics between Two Genogroups and Reveal Evolutionary Factors of Molecular Adaptation and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mirand, Audrey; Richter, Jan; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Böttiger, Blenda; Diedrich, Sabine; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Christodoulou, Christina; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insights into the tempo and mode of the evolutionary processes that sustain genetic diversity in coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) and into the interplay with virus transmission. We estimated phylodynamic patterns with a large sample of virus strains collected in Europe by Bayesian statistical methods, reconstructed the ancestral states of genealogical nodes, and tested for selection. The genealogies estimated with the structural one-dimensional gene encoding the VP1 protein and nonstructural 3CD locus allowed the precise description of lineages over time and cocirculating virus populations within the two CVB5 clades, genogroups A and B. Strong negative selection shaped the evolution of both loci, but compelling phylogenetic data suggested that immune selection pressure resulted in the emergence of the two genogroups with opposed evolutionary pathways. The genogroups also differed in the temporal occurrence of the amino acid changes. The virus strains of genogroup A were characterized by sequential acquisition of nonsynonymous changes in residues exposed at the virus 5-fold axis. The genogroup B viruses were marked by selection of three changes in a different domain (VP1 C terminus) during its early emergence. These external changes resulted in a selective sweep, which was followed by an evolutionary stasis that is still ongoing after 50 years. The inferred population history of CVB5 showed an alternation of the prevailing genogroup during meningitis epidemics across Europe and is interpreted to be a consequence of partial cross-immunity. PMID:24006446

  18. Dynamics of multiple phases in a colossal-magnetoresistive manganite as revealed by dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhigao; Nakamura, Masao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-07-10

    Electronic phase separation is one of the key features in correlated electron oxides. The coexistence and competition of multiple phases give rise to gigantic responses to tiny stimuli producing dramatic changes in magnetic, transport and other properties of these compounds. To probe the physical properties of each phase separately is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of phase separation phenomena and for designing their device functions. Here we unravel, using a unique p-n junction configuration, dynamic properties of multiple phases in manganite thin films. The multiple dielectric relaxations have been detected and their corresponding multiple phases have been identified, while the activation energies of dielectric responses from different phases were extracted separately. Their phase evolutions with changing both temperature and applied magnetic field have been demonstrated by dielectric response. These results provide a guideline for exploring the electronic phase separation phenomena in correlated electron oxides.

  19. Multiple origins of parasitism in lice: phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicates that the Phthiraptera and Psocoptera are not monophyletic.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Anna; Barker, Stephen C

    2005-10-01

    The Paraneoptera (Hemipteroid Assemblage) comprises the orders Thysanoptera (thrips), Hemiptera (bugs), Phthiraptera (lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice). The phylogenetic relationships among the Psocodea (Phthiraptera and Psocoptera), Thysanoptera and Hemiptera are unresolved, as are some relationships within the Psocodea. Here, we present phylogenetic hypotheses inferred from SSU rDNA sequences; the most controversial of which is the apparent paraphyly of the Phthiraptera, which are parasites of birds and mammals, with respect to one family of Psocoptera, the Liposcelididae. The order Psocoptera and the suborder that contains the Liposcelididae, the Troctomorpha, are also paraphyletic. The two remaining psocopteran suborders, the Psocomorpha and the Trogiomorpha, are apparently monophyletic. The Liposcelididae is most closely related to lice from the suborder Amblycera. These results suggest that the taxonomy of the Psocodea needs revision. In addition, there are implications for the evolution of parasitism in insects; parasitism may have evolved twice in lice or have evolved once and been subsequently lost in the Liposcelididae.

  20. Multiple invasions of the Ryukyu Archipelago by Oriental frogs of the subgenus Odorrana with phylogenetic reassessment of the related subgenera of the genus Rana.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Shimada, Tomohiko; Ota, Hidetoshi; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2005-12-01

    The genus Rana, notably diversified in Oriental regions from China to Southeast Asia, includes a group of cascade frogs assigned to subgenera Odorrana and Eburana. Among them, R. ishikawae and the R. narina complex represent the northernmost members occurring from Taiwan to the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. Relationships of these frogs with the continental members, as well as the history of their invasions to islands, have been unclear. The taxonomic status of Odorrana and related genera varies among authors and no phylogenetic reassessment has been done. Using partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among 17 species of the section Hylarana including Odorrana and Eburana, and related species from the Ryukyus, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. We estimate that (1) Odorrana is monophyletic and encompasses species of Eburana and R. hosii, which is now placed in Chalcorana, (2) the ancestor of R. ishikawae separated from other Rana in the middle to late Miocene prior to its entry to the Ryukyu Archipelago, (3) the ancestor of the R. narina complex later diversified in continental Asia, and invaded the Ryukyu Archipelago through Taiwan, (4) the R. narina complex attained its current distribution within the Ryukyus through niche segregations, and (5) vicariance of R. hosii between Malay Peninsula and Borneo occurred much later than the divergence events in the R. narina complex. Current subgeneric classification of Rana, at least of Southeast Asian members, requires full reassessment in the light of phylogenetic relationships.

  1. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses reveal mammalian-like clockwork in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and shed new light on the molecular evolution of the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Elad B; Shemesh, Yair; Cohen, Mira; Elgavish, Sharona; Robertson, Hugh M; Bloch, Guy

    2006-11-01

    The circadian clock of the honey bee is implicated in ecologically relevant complex behaviors. These include time sensing, time-compensated sun-compass navigation, and social behaviors such as coordination of activity, dance language communication, and division of labor. The molecular underpinnings of the bee circadian clock are largely unknown. We show that clock gene structure and expression pattern in the honey bee are more similar to the mouse than to Drosophila. The honey bee genome does not encode an ortholog of Drosophila Timeless (Tim1), has only the mammalian type Cryptochrome (Cry-m), and has a single ortholog for each of the other canonical "clock genes." In foragers that typically have strong circadian rhythms, brain mRNA levels of amCry, but not amTim as in Drosophila, consistently oscillate with strong amplitude and a phase similar to amPeriod (amPer) under both light-dark and constant darkness illumination regimes. In contrast to Drosophila, the honey bee amCYC protein contains a transactivation domain and its brain transcript levels oscillate at virtually an anti-phase to amPer, as it does in the mouse. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the basal insect lineage had both the mammalian and Drosophila types of Cry and Tim. Our results suggest that during evolution, Drosophila diverged from the ancestral insect clock and specialized in using a set of clock gene orthologs that was lost by both mammals and bees, which in turn converged and specialized in the other set. These findings illustrate a previously unappreciated diversity of insect clockwork and raise critical questions concerning the evolution and functional significance of species-specific variation in molecular clockwork.

  2. Long-term survival of New Zealand rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus RNA in wild rabbits, revealed by RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Forrester, N L; Boag, B; Moss, S R; Turner, S L; Trout, R C; White, P J; Hudson, P J; Gould, E A

    2003-11-01

    Because Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is highly pathogenic for rabbits, farmers illegally introduced it as a bio-control agent onto New Zealand farms in 1997. The virus was dispersed rapidly, initially causing high fatality rates in rabbits. Nevertheless, many survived and these surviving rabbits have been investigated for evidence of infection by RHDV. Livers from healthy rabbits contained RHDV-specific RNA, as shown by nested RT-PCR sequencing. The sequences of the viral capsids were related closely to the released Czech strain of RHDV, although the sequence from one rabbit was related most closely to a Spanish strain of RHDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid sequences of 38 samples implied that there have been at least two introductions of the Czech virus into New Zealand, probably corresponding firstly to the original illegal introduction by farmers and secondly to the introduction of the same virus under governmental control. Genomic length sequence of two samples was obtained, suggesting that they may have retained the potential to be infectious, although this has not yet been demonstrated. The detection of genomic-length RNA in the liver of healthy rabbits suggests that even though a highly virulent virus was introduced into New Zealand, it rapidly established persistent or latent infections in a proportion of rabbits. This might account for their ability to survive in the face of virulent released virus. Moreover, the co-circulation of other strains of RHDV in the same rabbit population, such as the Spanish strain, might also impact on their susceptibility to the bio-control agent.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis and Polyphasic Characterization of Clavibacter michiganensis Strains Isolated from Tomato Seeds Reveal that Nonpathogenic Strains Are Distinct from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Karine; Orgeur, Geoffrey; Balidas, Samuel; Fricot, Céline; Bonneau, Sophie; Quillévéré, Anne; Audusseau, Corinne; Olivier, Valérie; Grimault, Valérie; Mathis, René

    2012-01-01

    The genus Clavibacter comprises one species and five subspecies of plant-pathogenic bacteria, four of which are classified as quarantine organisms due to the high economic threat they pose. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is one of the most important pathogens of tomato, but the recommended diagnostic tools are not satisfactory due to false-negative and/or -positive results. To provide a robust analysis of the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains, relatives (strains from the four other C. michiganensis subspecies), and nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains isolated from tomato, we performed multilocus sequence-based analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) based on six housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, ppK, recA, and rpoB). We compared this “framework” with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics such as pathogenicity on tomato, reaction to two antisera by immunofluorescence and to five PCR identification tests, and the presence of four genes encoding the main C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity determinants. We showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is monophyletic and is distinct from its closest taxonomic neighbors. The nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains were identified as C. michiganensis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains, while cross-reacting with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis identification tools, are phylogenetically distinct from the pathogenic strains but belong to the C. michiganensis clade. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis clonal complexes linked strains from highly diverse geographical origins and also strains isolated over long periods of time in the same location. This illustrates the importance of seed transmission in the worldwide dispersion of this pathogen and its survival and adaptation abilities in a new environment once introduced. PMID:23001675

  4. Conservation genomics reveals multiple evolutionary units within Bell’s Vireo (Vireo bellii).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klicka, Luke B.; Kus, Barbara E.; Title, Pascal O.; Burns, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Bell’s Vireo (Vireo bellii) is a widespread North American species of bird that has declined since the mid-1960s primarily due to habitat modification. Throughout its range, Bell’s Vireo populations are regulated under varying degrees of protection; however, the species has never been characterized genetically. Therefore, the current taxonomy used to guide management decisions may misrepresent the true evolutionary history for the species. We sequenced 86 individuals for ND2 and genotyped 48 individuals for genome-wide SNPs to identify distinct lineages within Bell’s Vireo. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered two distinct clades that are separated in the arid southwestern United States, near the border of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts. These clades diverged from each other approximately 1.11–2.04 mya. The timing of diversification, geographic location, and niche modeling of the east/west divergence suggest vicariance as a mode of diversification for these two lineages. Analyses of the SNP dataset provided additional resolution and indicated the Least Bell’s Vireo populations are a distinct evolutionary lineage. Our genetic evidence, together with information from morphology and behavior, suggests that the Bell’s Vireo complex involves two species, each containing two separate subspecies. This new information has implications for the federal, state and other listing status of Bell’s Vireo throughout its range.

  5. Dynamic nature of the proximal AZFc region of the human Y chromosome: multiple independent deletion and duplication events revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Balaresque, Patricia; Bowden, Georgina R; Parkin, Emma J; Omran, Ghada A; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Roewer, Lutz; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan; Carvalho-Silva, Denise R; Tyler-Smith, Chris; de Knijff, Peter; Jobling, Mark A

    2008-10-01

    The human Y chromosome shows frequent structural variants, some of which are selectively neutral, while others cause impaired fertility due to the loss of spermatogenic genes. The large-scale use of multiple Y-chromosomal microsatellites in forensic and population genetic studies can reveal such variants, through the absence or duplication of specific markers in haplotypes. We describe Y chromosomes in apparently normal males carrying null and duplicated alleles at the microsatellite DYS448, which lies in the proximal part of the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region, important in spermatogenesis, and made up of "ampliconic" repeats that act as substrates for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Physical mapping in 26 DYS448 deletion chromosomes reveals that only three cases belong to a previously described class, representing independent occurrences of an approximately 1.5-Mb deletion mediated by recombination between the b1 and b3 repeat units. The remainder belong to five novel classes; none appears to be mediated through homologous recombination, and all remove some genes, but are likely to be compatible with normal fertility. A combination of deletion analysis with binary-marker and microsatellite haplotyping shows that the 26 deletions represent nine independent events. Nine DYS448 duplication chromosomes can be explained by four independent events. Some lineages have risen to high frequency in particular populations, in particular a deletion within haplogroup (hg) C(*)(xC3a,C3c) found in 18 Asian males. The nonrandom phylogenetic distribution of duplication and deletion events suggests possible structural predisposition to such mutations in hgs C and G.

  6. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    SciTech Connect

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Stahlberg, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.

  7. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    DOE PAGES

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; ...

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7Amore » and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  8. Multiple oxygen entry pathways in globin proteins revealed by intrinsic pathway identification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    Each subunit of human hemoglobin (HbA) stores an oxygen molecule (O2) in the binding site (BS) cavity near the heme group. The BS is buried in the interior of the subunit so that there is a debate over the O2 entry pathways from solvent to the BS; histidine gate or multiple pathways. To elucidate the O2 entry pathways, we executed ensemble molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of T-state tetramer HbA in high concentration O2 solvent to simulate spontaneous O2 entry from solvent into the BS. By analyzing 128 independent 8 ns MD trajectories by intrinsic pathway identification by clustering (IPIC) method, we found 141 and 425 O2 entry events into the BS of the α and β subunits, respectively. In both subunits, we found that multiple O2 entry pathways through inside cavities play a significant role for O2 entry process of HbA. The rate constants of O2 entry estimated from the MD trajectories correspond to the experimentally observed values. In addition, by analyzing monomer myoglobin, we verified that the high O2 concentration condition can reproduce the ratios of each multiple pathway in the one-tenth lower O2 concentration condition. These indicate the validity of the multiple pathways obtained in our MD simulations.

  9. Ar-Ar Age of the L Chondrite Northwest Africa 091: More Evidence that Multiple Isochrons Reveal a Link to Fossil Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, J. R.; Isachsen, C. E.; Swindle, T. D.

    2011-03-01

    The multiple isochron approach on NWA 091 reveals impacts at 472 ± 6 and 799 ± 71 Ma, with different trapped components at different release temperatures. Two trapped components >1000°C suggests multiple high temperature K domains.

  10. Cross-species characterization of the promoter region of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene reveals multiple levels of regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Vuillaumier, S; Dixmeras, I; Messaï, H; Lapouméroulie, C; Lallemand, D; Gekas, J; Chehab, F F; Perret, C; Elion, J; Denamur, E

    1997-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is highly conserved within vertebrate species. Its pattern of expression in vivo seems to be tightly regulated both developmentally and in a tissue-specific manner, but shows differences with species. To identify transcriptional regulatory elements in the CFTR promoter region, we have used a combined approach based both on the analysis of the chromatin structure in vivo in rat tissues and on evolutionary clues (i.e. phylogenetic footprinting). In CFTR-expressing tissues, 15 DNase I-hypersensitive sites were identified within a 36 kb region encompassing exon 1. Eleven of them are clustered in a 3.5 kb region that exhibits eleven phylogenetic footprints observed when comparing sequences from eight mammalian species representing four orders (Primates, Artiodactylia, Lagomorpha and Rodentia). Comparison of the two sets of data allows the identification of two types of regulatory elements. Some are conserved between species, such as a non-consensus cAMP response element (CRE) and a PMA-responsive element (TRE) located respectively at positions -0.1 and -1.3 kb relative to ATG. Some are species-specific elements such as a 300 bp purine.pyrimidine (Pu.Py) stretch that is present only in rodents. Analysis of protein/DNA interactions in vitro with rat tissue protein extracts on the conserved elements revealed that the TRE site binds a specific heterodimeric complex composed of Fra-2, Jun D and a protein immunologically related to Jun/CRE-binding protein in the duodenum, whereas the CRE-like site binds ATF-1 ubiquitously. Functional analysis in Caco-2 cells showed that the CRE-like site supports a high basal transcriptional activity but is not able by itself to induce a response to cAMP, whereas the TRE site acts as a weak transactivator stimulated by PMA. Lastly, we found that the rodent-specific Pu.Py stretch confers nuclease S1 hypersensitivity under conditions of acidic pH and supercoiling. This

  11. Systems Analysis of Immunity to Influenza Vaccination across Multiple Years and in Diverse Populations Reveals Shared Molecular Signatures.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Helder I; Hagan, Thomas; Duraisingham, Sai S; Lee, Eva K; Kwissa, Marcin; Rouphael, Nadine; Frasca, Daniela; Gersten, Merril; Mehta, Aneesh K; Gaujoux, Renaud; Li, Gui-Mei; Gupta, Shakti; Ahmed, Rafi; Mulligan, Mark J; Shen-Orr, Shai; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Subramaniam, Shankar; Pulendran, Bali

    2015-12-15

    Systems approaches have been used to describe molecular signatures driving immunity to influenza vaccination in humans. Whether such signatures are similar across multiple seasons and in diverse populations is unknown. We applied systems approaches to study immune responses in young, elderly, and diabetic subjects vaccinated with the seasonal influenza vaccine across five consecutive seasons. Signatures of innate immunity and plasmablasts correlated with and predicted influenza antibody titers at 1 month after vaccination with >80% accuracy across multiple seasons but were not associated with the longevity of the response. Baseline signatures of lymphocyte and monocyte inflammation were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with antibody responses at 1 month. Finally, integrative analysis of microRNAs and transcriptomic profiling revealed potential regulators of vaccine immunity. These results identify shared vaccine-induced signatures across multiple seasons and in diverse populations and might help guide the development of next-generation vaccines that provide persistent immunity against influenza.

  12. Biochemical and Structural Characterizations of Two Dictyostelium Cellobiohydrolases from the Amoebozoa Kingdom Reveal a High Level of Conservation between Distant Phylogenetic Trees of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Haddad Momeni, Majid; Taylor, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes commonly employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life. IMPORTANCE GH7 CBHs are among the most important cellulolytic enzymes both in nature and for emerging industrial applications for

  13. Multiple causation of phylogeographical pattern as revealed by nested clade analysis of the bamboo viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri) within Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Creer, S; Malhotra, A; Thorpe, R S; Chou, W H

    2001-08-01

    In order to assess the utility of nested clade analysis, both standard phylogenetic algorithms and nested clade analysis were performed on a geographically widespread survey of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of the bamboo viper, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, within Taiwan. Gross tree topologies were congruent for all analyses and indicated the presence of two geographically overlapping clades within Taiwan. The smaller lineage was restricted to the north and east coasts, whereas the larger lineage occupied all but the northern range of the species within Taiwan including the Pacific offshore populations of Green and Orchid Islands. The phylogeographical pattern supports the existence of at least one colonization event from the continent since the initial isolation of Taiwan from the mainland in the Pliocene. However, determining the exact number of colonization events was not possible due to the simultaneous vicariant forces of hypothesized continental landbridge connections and the occurrence of dramatic in situ orogenesis throughout the Pleistocene. Nested clade analysis provided multiple temporal and spatial population historical inferences that are not possible with standard analyses and therefore should become widely applied to future phylogeographical studies.

  14. Next-generation sequencing reveals DGUOK mutations in adult patients with mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Caterina; Bordoni, Andreina; Gutierrez Rios, Purificacion; Calvo, Sarah E.; Ripolone, Michela; Ranieri, Michela; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Villa, Luisa; Magri, Francesca; Corti, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Moggio, Maurizio; DiMauro, Salvatore; Comi, Giacomo P.; Sciacco, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders still remains elusive in a large proportion of patients, but advances in next generation sequencing are significantly improving our chances to detect mutations even in sporadic patients. Syndromes associated with mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions are caused by different molecular defects resulting in a wide spectrum of predominantly adult-onset clinical presentations, ranging from progressive external ophthalmoplegia to multi-systemic disorders of variable severity. The mutations underlying these conditions remain undisclosed in half of the affected subjects. We applied next-generation sequencing of known mitochondrial targets (MitoExome) to probands presenting with adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy and harbouring mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions in skeletal muscle. We identified autosomal recessive mutations in the DGUOK gene (encoding mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase), which has previously been associated with an infantile hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA depletion. Mutations in DGUOK occurred in five independent subjects, representing 5.6% of our cohort of patients with mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions, and impaired both muscle DGUOK activity and protein stability. Clinical presentations were variable, including mitochondrial myopathy with or without progressive external ophthalmoplegia, recurrent rhabdomyolysis in a young female who had received a liver transplant at 9 months of age and adult-onset lower motor neuron syndrome with mild cognitive impairment. These findings reinforce the concept that mutations in genes involved in deoxyribonucleotide metabolism can cause diverse clinical phenotypes and suggest that DGUOK should be screened in patients harbouring mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. PMID:23043144

  15. [Foundations of the new phylogenetics].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2004-01-01

    of cladogram construing and thus made phylogenetic reconstructions operational and repetitive. The above phenetic formula "kinship = similarity" appeared to be a keystone for development of the genophyletics. Within numerical phyletics, a lot of computer programs were elaborated which allow to manipulate with evolutionary scenario during phylogenetic reconstructions. They make it possible to reconstruct both clado- and semogeneses based on the same formalized methods. Multiplicity of numerical approaches indicates that, just as in the case of numerical phenetics, choice of adequate method(s) should be based on biologically sound theory. The main input of genophyletics (= molecular phylogenetics) into the new phylogenetics was due to completely new factology which makes it possible to compare directly such far distant taxa as prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes. Genophyletics is based on the theory of neutral evolution borrowed from microevolutionary theory and on the molecular clock hypothesis which is now considered largely inadequate. The future developments of genophyletics will be aimed at clarification of such fundamental (and "classical" by origin) problems as application of character and homology concepts to molecular structures. The new phylogenetics itself is differentiated into several schools caused basically by diversity of various approaches existing within each of its "roots". Cladistics makes new phylogenetics splitted into evolutionary and parsimonious ontological viewpoints. Numerical phyletics divides it into statistical and (again) parsimonious methodologies. Molecular phylogenetics is opposite by its factological basis to morphological one. The new phylogenetics has significance impact onto the "newest" systematics. From one side, it gives ontological status back to macrotaxa they have lost due to "new" systematics based on population thinking. From another side, it rejects some basical principles of classical phylogenetic (originally Linnean

  16. Phylogenetic analyses of Norovirus strains detected in Uruguay reveal the circulation of the novel GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Álvaro; Tort, Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Fumian, Tulio M; Miagostovich, Marize P; Leite, José Paulo G; Cristina, Juan; Colina, Rodney

    2014-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are one of the major etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. Distinct NoV genotypes have been associated with different transmission patterns and disease severity in humans. Therefore, it is important to identify genetically different NoV genotypes circulating in a particular region. However, genotyping has become a challenge due to recombination events occurring mainly nearby ORF1/ORF2 junction of NoV genome, leading to distinct genotypes with polymerase and capsid regions derived from parenteral strains. Taking this into account, ORF1/ORF2 sequences were obtained from NoV strains collected from patients with AGE in Uruguay. This study reveals in silico evidences of recombination events taking place in four out of six strains analyzed for which its polymerase gene and its capsid region correspond to GII.P7 and to GII.6 genotype, respectively. These results also reveal the circulation of a GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant in the natural populations of NoV strains in the northwestern region of Uruguay. As far as we know this is the first report about the circulation of a NoV GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant in the Americas.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of glatiramer acetate therapy for multiple sclerosis reveals drug-response markers.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Iris; Avidan, Nili; Singer, Clara; Goldstaub, Dan; Hayardeny, Liat; Eyal, Eli; Ben-Asher, Edna; Paperna, Tamar; Pe'er, Itsik; Lancet, Doron; Beckmann, Jacques S; Miller, Ariel

    2007-08-01

    Genetic-based optimization of treatment prescription is becoming a central research focus in the management of chronic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, which incur a prolonged drug-regimen adjustment. This study was aimed to identify genetic markers that can predict response to glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) immunotherapy for relapsing multiple sclerosis. For this purpose, we genotyped fractional cohorts of two glatiramer acetate clinical trials for HLA-DRB1*1501 and 61 single nucleotide polymorphisms within a total of 27 candidate genes. Statistical analyses included single nucleotide polymorphism-by-single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype tests of drug-by-genotype effects in drug-treated versus placebo-treated groups. We report the detection of a statistically significant association between glatiramer acetate response and a single nucleotide polymorphism in a T-cell receptor beta (TRB@) variant replicated in the two independent cohorts (odds ratio=6.85). Findings in the Cathepsin S (CTSS) gene (P=0.049 corrected for all single nucleotide polymorphisms and definitions tested, odds ratio=11.59) in one of the cohorts indicate a possible association that needs to be further investigated. Additionally, we recorded nominally significant associations of response with five other genes, MBP, CD86, FAS, IL1R1 and IL12RB2, which are likely to be involved in glatiramer acetate's mode-of-action, both directly and indirectly. Each of these association signals in and of itself is consistent with the no-association null-hypothesis, but the number of detected associations is surprising vis-à-vis chance expectation. Moreover, the restriction of these associations to the glatiramer acetate-treated group, rather than the placebo group, clearly demonstrates drug-specific genetic effects. These findings provide additional progress toward development of pharmacogenetics-based personalized treatment for multiple sclerosis.

  18. Transcriptome analysis reveals crosstalk of responsive genes to multiple abiotic stresses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Na; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Ruan, Meng-Bin; Zhang, Li-Li; Meng, Zhao-Hong; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a major environmental factor that limits cotton growth and yield, moreover, this problem has become more and more serious recently, as multiple stresses often occur simultaneously due to the global climate change and environmental pollution. In this study, we sought to identify genes involved in diverse stresses including abscisic acid (ABA), cold, drought, salinity and alkalinity by comparative microarray analysis. Our result showed that 5790, 3067, 5608, 778 and 6148 transcripts, were differentially expressed in cotton seedlings under treatment of ABA (1 μM ABA), cold (4°C), drought (200 mM mannitol), salinity (200 mM NaCl) and alkalinity (pH=11) respectively. Among the induced or suppressed genes, 126 transcripts were shared by all of the five kinds of abiotic stresses, with 64 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated. These common members are grouped as stress signal transduction, transcription factors (TFs), stress response/defense proteins, metabolism, transport facilitation, as well as cell wall/structure, according to the function annotation. We also noticed that large proportion of significant differentially expressed genes specifically regulated in response to different stress. Nine of the common transcripts of multiple stresses were selected for further validation with quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, several well characterized TF families, for example, WRKY, MYB, NAC, AP2/ERF and zinc finger were shown to be involved in different stresses. As an original report using comparative microarray to analyze transcriptome of cotton under five abiotic stresses, valuable information about functional genes and related pathways of anti-stress, and/or stress tolerance in cotton seedlings was unveiled in our result. Besides this, some important common factors were focused for detailed identification and characterization. According to our analysis, it suggested that there was crosstalk of responsive genes or pathways to multiple

  19. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper

  20. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijie; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Silva, Ana Marta; Coombs, Graham H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts. PMID:26368322

  1. Multiple bases of human intelligence revealed by cortical thickness and neural activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu Yong; Shamosh, Noah A; Cho, Sun Hee; DeYoung, Colin G; Lee, Min Joo; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sun I; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Kyungjin; Gray, Jeremy R; Lee, Kun Ho

    2008-10-08

    We hypothesized that individual differences in intelligence (Spearman's g) are supported by multiple brain regions, and in particular that fluid (gF) and crystallized (gC) components of intelligence are related to brain function and structure with a distinct profile of association across brain regions. In 225 healthy young adults scanned with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging sequences, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on the basis of a correlation between g and either brain structure or brain function. In these ROIs, gC was more strongly related to structure (cortical thickness) than function, whereas gF was more strongly related to function (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal during reasoning) than structure. We further validated this finding by generating a neurometric prediction model of intelligence quotient (IQ) that explained 50% of variance in IQ in an independent sample. The data compel a nuanced view of the neurobiology of intelligence, providing the most persuasive evidence to date for theories emphasizing multiple distributed brain regions differing in function.

  2. Integrated Multiple “-omics” Data Reveal Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Chuanpeng; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most heterogeneous cancers, as reflected by its multiple grades and difficulty to subtype. In this study, we integrated copy number variation, DNA methylation, mRNA, and miRNA data with the developed “cluster of cluster” method and classified 256 HCC samples from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) into five major subgroups (S1-S5). We observed that this classification was associated with specific mutations and protein expression, and we detected that each subgroup had distinct molecular signatures. The subclasses were associated not only with survival but also with clinical observations. S1 was characterized by bulk amplification on 8q24, TP53 mutation, low lipid metabolism, highly expressed onco-proteins, attenuated tumor suppressor proteins and a worse survival rate. S2 and S3 were characterized by telomere hypomethylation and a low expression of TERT and DNMT1/3B. Compared to S2, S3 was associated with less copy number variation and some good prognosis biomarkers, including CRP and CYP2E1. In contrast, the mutation rate of CTNNB1 was higher in S3. S4 was associated with bulk amplification and various molecular characteristics at different biological levels. In summary, we classified the HCC samples into five subgroups using multiple “-omics” data. Each subgroup had a distinct survival rate and molecular signature, which may provide information about the pathogenesis of subtypes in HCC. PMID:27806083

  3. Meta-Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Microarray Data Reveals Dysregulation in RNA Splicing Regulatory Genes.

    PubMed

    Paraboschi, Elvezia Maria; Cardamone, Giulia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Gemmati, Donato; Spreafico, Marta; Duga, Stefano; Soldà, Giulia; Asselta, Rosanna

    2015-09-30

    Abnormalities in RNA metabolism and alternative splicing (AS) are emerging as important players in complex disease phenotypes. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests the existence of pathogenic links between multiple sclerosis (MS) and altered AS, including functional studies showing that an imbalance in alternatively-spliced isoforms may contribute to disease etiology. Here, we tested whether the altered expression of AS-related genes represents a MS-specific signature. A comprehensive comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of publicly-available microarray datasets (190 MS cases, 182 controls), followed by gene-ontology enrichment analysis, highlighted a significant enrichment for differentially-expressed genes involved in RNA metabolism/AS. In detail, a total of 17 genes were found to be differentially expressed in MS in multiple datasets, with CELF1 being dysregulated in five out of seven studies. We confirmed CELF1 downregulation in MS (p=0.0015) by real-time RT-PCRs on RNA extracted from blood cells of 30 cases and 30 controls. As a proof of concept, we experimentally verified the unbalance in alternatively-spliced isoforms in MS of the NFAT5 gene, a putative CELF1 target. In conclusion, for the first time we provide evidence of a consistent dysregulation of splicing-related genes in MS and we discuss its possible implications in modulating specific AS events in MS susceptibility genes.

  4. Three-Dimensional Structures Reveal Multiple ADP/ATP Binding Modes

    SciTech Connect

    C Simmons; C Magee; D Smith; L Lauman; J Chaput; J Allen

    2011-12-31

    The creation of synthetic enzymes with predefined functions represents a major challenge in future synthetic biology applications. Here, we describe six structures of de novo proteins that have been determined using protein crystallography to address how simple enzymes perform catalysis. Three structures are of a protein, DX, selected for its stability and ability to tightly bind ATP. Despite the addition of ATP to the crystallization conditions, the presence of a bound but distorted ATP was found only under excess ATP conditions, with ADP being present under equimolar conditions or when crystallized for a prolonged period of time. A bound ADP cofactor was evident when Asp was substituted for Val at residue 65, but ATP in a linear configuration is present when Phe was substituted for Tyr at residue 43. These new structures complement previously determined structures of DX and the protein with the Phe 43 to Tyr substitution [Simmons, C. R., et al. (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 649-658] and together demonstrate the multiple ADP/ATP binding modes from which a model emerges in which the DX protein binds ATP in a configuration that represents a transitional state for the catalysis of ATP to ADP through a slow, metal-free reaction capable of multiple turnovers. This unusual observation suggests that design-free methods can be used to generate novel protein scaffolds that are tailor-made for catalysis.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Maloideae species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maloideae is a highly diverse sub-family of the Rosaceae containing several agronomically important species (Malus sp. and Pyrus sp.) and their wild relatives. Previous phylogenetic work within the group has revealed extensive intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization. In order to develop...

  6. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  7. Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection

    PubMed Central

    Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Brosnahan, Cara; Morrison, Richard; Carson, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is a salmonid pathogen with widespread distribution in cool-temperate waters including Australia and New Zealand, two isolated environments with recently developed salmonid farming industries. Phylogenetic comparison of 58 isolates from Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile, Finland and China based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs revealed multiple deep-branching lineages, with a most recent common ancestor estimated at 18 500 years BP (12 355–24 757 95% HPD) and evidence of Australasian endemism. Evolution within the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon serotype O1b lineage has been slow, with 63 SNPs describing the variance over 27 years. Isolates from the prevailing lineage are poorly/non-motile compared to a lineage pre-vaccination, introduced in 1997, which is highly motile but has not been isolated since from epizootics. A non-motile phenotype has arisen independently in Tasmania compared to Europe and USA through a frameshift in fliI, encoding the ATPase of the flagella cluster. We report for the first time lipopolysaccharide O-antigen serotype O2 isolates in Tasmania. This phenotype results from deletion of the O-antigen cluster and consequent loss of high-molecular-weight O-antigen. This phenomenon has occurred independently on three occasions on three continents (Australasia, North America and Asia) as O2 isolates from the USA, China and Tasmania share the O-antigen deletion but occupy distant lineages. Despite the European and North American origins of the Australasian salmonid stocks, the lineages of Y. ruckeri in Australia and New Zealand are distinct from those of the northern hemisphere, suggesting they are pre-existing ancient strains that have emerged and evolved with the introduction of susceptible hosts following European colonization. PMID:28348835

  8. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S; Brugler, Mercer R; Crowley, Louise M; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders

  9. Single-molecule analysis reveals widespread structural variation in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditya; Place, Michael; Goldstein, Steven; Sarkar, Deepayan; Zhou, Shiguo; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Kim, Jaehyup; Flanagan, Claire; Li, Yang; Newton, Michael A.; Callander, Natalie S.; Hematti, Peiman; Bresnick, Emery H.; Ma, Jian; Asimakopoulos, Fotis; Schwartz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of plasma cells, is characterized by widespread genomic heterogeneity and, consequently, differences in disease progression and drug response. Although recent large-scale sequencing studies have greatly improved our understanding of MM genomes, our knowledge about genomic structural variation in MM is attenuated due to the limitations of commonly used sequencing approaches. In this study, we present the application of optical mapping, a single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, to discover new structural variants in a primary MM genome. Through our analysis, we have identified and characterized widespread structural variation in this tumor genome. Additionally, we describe our efforts toward comprehensive characterization of genome structure and variation by integrating our findings from optical mapping with those from DNA sequencing-based genomic analysis. Finally, by studying this MM genome at two time points during tumor progression, we have demonstrated an increase in mutational burden with tumor progression at all length scales of variation. PMID:26056298

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae causing septic arthritis with shock and revealing multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Riachy, Moussa Albert

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 43-year-old male who presented at the emergency department, with a mean arterial pressure of 48 mm of Hg, a sinus tachycardia of 142/min and shallow breathing at 30/min. Two days previously, he started a high-grade fever with a concomitant reddish and painful left knee and right elbow, without any treatment. Septic shock was diagnosed and the patient was started on empiric antibiotics combining ceftriaxone and vancomycin and vasopressors (norepinephrine). The painful knee and elbow joints were aspirated and cultures grew Streptococcus pneumoniae. The patient’s clinical condition improved progressively and after investigation, the diagnosis of multiple myeloma was concluded. Pneumococcal septic arthritis, an extraordinary cause of septic arthritis, is a manifestation of an underlying disease and can be responsible for septic shock. Its diagnosis should direct further investigations. It can occur in patients with joint disease but should emphasise the search of systemic immunosuppression. PMID:22694889

  11. Multiple time scales of adaptation in the auditory system as revealed by human evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Grimm, Sabine; Slabu, Lavinia; Díaz-Santaella, Francisco; Escera, Carles

    2011-06-01

    Single neurons in the primary auditory cortex of the cat show faster adaptation time constants to short- than long-term stimulus history. This ability to encode the complex past auditory stimulation in multiple time scales would enable the auditory system to generate expectations of the incoming stimuli. Here, we tested whether large neural populations exhibit this ability as well, by recording human auditory evoked potentials (AEP) to pure tones in a sequence embedding short- and long-term aspects of stimulus history. Our results yielded dynamic amplitude modulations of the P2 AEP to stimulus repetition spanning from milliseconds to tens of seconds concurrently, as well as amplitude modulations of the mismatch negativity AEP to regularity violations. A simple linear model of expectancy accounting for both short- and long-term stimulus history described our results, paralleling the behavior of neurons in the primary auditory cortex.

  12. Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-12-19

    Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution.

  13. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    PubMed

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  14. Zinc-induced oligomerization of zinc α2 glycoprotein reveals multiple fatty acid-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Henna; Miah, Layeque; Lau, Andy M; Brochard, Lea; Hati, Debolina; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Zinc α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with a class I MHC protein fold and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Although its intrinsic ligand remains unknown, ZAG binds the dansylated C11 fatty acid 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) in the groove between the α1 and α2 domains. The surface of ZAG has approximately 15 weak zinc-binding sites deemed responsible for precipitation from human plasma. In the present study the functional significance of these metal sites was investigated. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and CD showed that zinc, but not other divalent metals, causes ZAG to oligomerize in solution. Thus ZAG dimers and trimers were observed in the presence of 1 and 2 mM zinc. Molecular modelling of X-ray scattering curves and sedimentation coefficients indicated a progressive stacking of ZAG monomers, suggesting that the ZAG groove may be occluded in these. Using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity, these ZAG-zinc oligomers were again observed in the presence of the fluorescent boron dipyrromethene fatty acid C16-BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid). Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that ZAG binds C16-BODIPY. ZAG binding to C16-BODIPY, but not to DAUDA, was reduced by increased zinc concentrations. We conclude that the lipid-binding groove in ZAG contains at least two distinct fatty acid-binding sites for DAUDA and C16-BODIPY, similar to the multiple lipid binding seen in the structurally related immune protein CD1c. In addition, because high concentrations of zinc occur in the pancreas, the perturbation of these multiple lipid-binding sites by zinc may be significant in Type 2 diabetes where dysregulation of ZAG and zinc homoeostasis occurs.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among Synallaxini spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae) reveal a new biogeographic pattern across the Amazon and Paraná river basins.

    PubMed

    Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-09-01

    Relationships among genera in the tribe Synallaxini have proved difficult to resolve. In this study, I investigate relationships among Synallaxis, Certhiaxis and Schoeniophylax using DNA sequences from the mitochondrion and three nuclear regions. I implemented novel primers and protocols for amplifying and sequencing autosomal and sex-linked introns in Furnariidae that resolved basal relationships in the Synallaxini with strong support. Synallaxis propinqua is sister to Schoeniophylax phryganophilus, and together they form a clade with Certhiaxis. The results are robust to analytical approaches when all genomic regions are analyzed jointly (parsimony, maximum likelihood, and species-tree analysis) and the same basal relationships are recovered by most genomic regions when analyzed separately. A sister relationship between S. propinqua, an Amazonian river island specialist, and S. phryganophilus, from the Paraná River basin region, reveals a new biogeographic pattern shared by at least other four pairs of taxa with similar distributions and ecologies. Estimates of divergence times for these five pairs span from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene. Identification of the historical events that produced this pattern is difficult and further advances will require additional studies of the taxa involved and a better understanding of the recent environmental history of South America. A new classification is proposed for the Synallaxini, including the description of a new genus for S. propinqua.

  16. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews I. Multiple subdivisions revealed through acetylcholinesterase and Cat-301 chemoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Tree shrews are highly visual mammals closely related to primates. They have a large visual pulvinar complex, but its organization and relation to visual cortex is only partly known. We processed brain sections through the pulvinar with seven different procedures in an effort to reveal histologically distinct compartments. The results revealed three major subdivisions. A dorsal subdivision, Pd, stains darkly for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and occupies the dorsoposterior one-third of the pulvinar complex. A ventral subdivision, Pv, stains darkly when processed with the Cat-301 antibody and occupies the ventroanterior fifth of the pulvinar complex along the brachium of the superior colliculus. Unexpectedly, part of Pv is ventral to the brachium. A large central subdivision, Pc, stains moderately dark for AChE and cytochrome oxidase (CO), and very light for Cat-301. Pc includes about half of the pulvinar complex, with parts on both sides of the brachium of the superior colliculus. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions than previously described. The complex resembles the pulvinar of primates by having a portion ventral to the brachium and by having histochemically distinct nuclei; the number of nuclei is less than in primates, however.

  17. An integrated cell purification and genomics strategy reveals multiple regulators of pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Cecil M; Qu, Kun; Sugiyama, Takuya; Pauerstein, Philip T; Liu, Yinghua; Tsai, Jennifer; Gu, Xueying; Ghodasara, Amar; Arda, H Efsun; Zhang, Jiajing; Dekker, Joseph D; Tucker, Haley O; Chang, Howard Y; Kim, Seung K

    2014-10-01

    The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

  18. Genetic triple dissociation reveals multiple roles for dopamine in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael J; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Haughey, Heather M; Curran, Tim; Hutchison, Kent E

    2007-10-09

    What are the genetic and neural components that support adaptive learning from positive and negative outcomes? Here, we show with genetic analyses that three independent dopaminergic mechanisms contribute to reward and avoidance learning in humans. A polymorphism in the DARPP-32 gene, associated with striatal dopamine function, predicted relatively better probabilistic reward learning. Conversely, the C957T polymorphism of the DRD2 gene, associated with striatal D2 receptor function, predicted the degree to which participants learned to avoid choices that had been probabilistically associated with negative outcomes. The Val/Met polymorphism of the COMT gene, associated with prefrontal cortical dopamine function, predicted participants' ability to rapidly adapt behavior on a trial-to-trial basis. These findings support a neurocomputational dissociation between striatal and prefrontal dopaminergic mechanisms in reinforcement learning. Computational maximum likelihood analyses reveal independent gene effects on three reinforcement learning parameters that can explain the observed dissociations.

  19. Mutual information reveals multiple structural relaxation mechanisms in a model glass former

    PubMed Central

    Dunleavy, Andrew J.; Wiesner, Karoline; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Royall, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Among the key challenges to our understanding of solidification in the glass transition is that it is accompanied by little apparent change in structure. Recently, geometric motifs have been identified in glassy liquids, but a causal link between these motifs and solidification remains elusive. One ‘smoking gun’ for such a link would be identical scaling of structural and dynamic lengthscales on approaching the glass transition, but this is highly controversial. Here we introduce an information theoretic approach to determine correlations in displacement for particle relaxation encoded in the initial configuration of a glass-forming liquid. We uncover two populations of particles, one inclined to relax quickly, the other slowly. Each population is correlated with local density and geometric motifs. Our analysis further reveals a dynamic lengthscale similar to that associated with structural properties, which may resolve the discrepancy between structural and dynamic lengthscales. PMID:25608791

  20. Genome Mining for Radical SAM Protein Determinants Reveals Multiple Sactibiotic-Like Gene Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kiera; O'Sullivan, Orla; Rea, Mary C.; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Thuricin CD is a two-component bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis that kills a wide range of clinically significant Clostridium difficile. This bacteriocin has recently been characterized and consists of two distinct peptides, Trnβ and Trnα, which both possess 3 intrapeptide sulphur to α-carbon bridges and act synergistically. Indeed, thuricin CD and subtilosin A are the only antimicrobials known to possess these unusual structures and are known as the sactibiotics (sulplur to alpha carbon-containing antibiotics). Analysis of the thuricin CD-associated gene cluster revealed the presence of genes encoding two highly unusual SAM proteins (TrnC and TrnD) which are proposed to be responsible for these unusual post-translational modifications. On the basis of the frequently high conservation among enzymes responsible for the post-translational modification of specific antimicrobials, we performed an in silico screen for novel thuricin CD–like gene clusters using the TrnC and TrnD radical SAM proteins as driver sequences to perform an initial homology search against the complete non-redundant database. Fifteen novel thuricin CD–like gene clusters were identified, based on the presence of TrnC and TrnD homologues in the context of neighbouring genes encoding potential bacteriocin structural peptides. Moreover, metagenomic analysis revealed that TrnC or TrnD homologs are present in a variety of metagenomic environments, suggesting a widespread distribution of thuricin-like operons in a variety of environments. In-silico analysis of radical SAM proteins is sufficient to identify novel putative sactibiotic clusters. PMID:21760885

  1. Whole population cell analysis of a landmark-rich mammalian epithelium reveals multiple elongation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Andrew D.; Brock, Lara J.; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Green, Jeremy B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue elongation is a fundamental component of developing and regenerating systems. Although localised proliferation is an important mechanism for tissue elongation, potentially important contributions of other elongation mechanisms, specifically cell shape change, orientated cell division and cell rearrangement, are rarely considered or quantified, particularly in mammalian systems. Their quantification, together with proliferation, provides a rigorous framework for the analysis of elongation. The mammalian palatal epithelium is a landmark-rich tissue, marked by regularly spaced ridges (rugae), making it an excellent model in which to analyse the contributions of cellular processes to directional tissue growth. We captured confocal stacks of entire fixed mouse palate epithelia throughout the mid-gestation growth period, labelled with membrane, nuclear and cell proliferation markers and segmented all cells (up to ∼20,000 per palate), allowing the quantification of cell shape and proliferation. Using the rugae as landmarks, these measures revealed that the so-called growth zone is a region of proliferation that is intermittently elevated at ruga initiation. The distribution of oriented cell division suggests that it is not a driver of tissue elongation, whereas cell shape analysis revealed that both elongation of cells leaving the growth zone and apico-basal cell rearrangements do contribute significantly to directional growth. Quantitative comparison of elongation processes indicated that proliferation contributes most to elongation at the growth zone, but cell shape change and rearrangement contribute as much as 40% of total elongation. We have demonstrated the utility of an approach to analysing the cellular mechanisms underlying tissue elongation in mammalian tissues. It should be broadly applied to higher-resolution analysis of links between genotypes and malformation phenotypes. PMID:24173805

  2. Comparative Genomics Revealed Multiple Helicobacter pylori Genes Associated with Biofilm Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eng Guan; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Marshall, Barry J.; Ho, Bow; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai

    2016-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by Helicobacter pylori may be one of the factors influencing eradication outcome. However, genetic differences between good and poor biofilm forming strains have not been studied. Materials and Methods Biofilm yield of 32 Helicobacter pylori strains (standard strain and 31 clinical strains) were determined by crystal-violet assay and grouped into poor, moderate and good biofilm forming groups. Whole genome sequencing of these 32 clinical strains was performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Annotation and comparison of the differences between the genomic sequences were carried out using RAST (Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology) and SEED viewer. Genes identified were confirmed using PCR. Results Genes identified to be associated with biofilm formation in H. pylori includes alpha (1,3)-fucosyltransferase, flagellar protein, 3 hypothetical proteins, outer membrane protein and a cag pathogenicity island protein. These genes play a role in bacterial motility, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, Lewis antigen synthesis, adhesion and/or the type-IV secretion system (T4SS). Deletion of cagA and cagPAI confirmed that CagA and T4SS were involved in H. pylori biofilm formation. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that biofilm formation in H. pylori might be genetically determined and might be influenced by multiple genes. Good, moderate and poor biofilm forming strain might differ during the initiation of biofilm formation. PMID:27870886

  3. Multiple Posttranslational Modifications of Leptospira biflexa Proteins as Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, James A.; Olano, L. Rennee; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    The saprophyte Leptospira biflexa is an excellent model for studying the physiology of the medically important Leptospira genus, the pathogenic members of which are more recalcitrant to genetic manipulation and have significantly slower in vitro growth. However, relatively little is known regarding the proteome of L. biflexa, limiting its utility as a model for some studies. Therefore, we have generated a proteomic map of both soluble and membrane-associated proteins of L. biflexa during exponential growth and in stationary phase. Using these data, we identified abundantly produced proteins in each cellular fraction and quantified the transcript levels from a subset of these genes using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). These proteins should prove useful as cellular markers and as controls for gene expression studies. We also observed a significant number of L. biflexa membrane-associated proteins with multiple isoforms, each having unique isoelectric focusing points. L. biflexa cell lysates were examined for several posttranslational modifications suggested by the protein patterns. Methylation and acetylation of lysine residues were predominately observed in the proteins of the membrane-associated fraction, while phosphorylation was detected mainly among soluble proteins. These three posttranslational modification systems appear to be conserved between the free-living species L. biflexa and the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans, suggesting an important physiological advantage despite the varied life cycles of the different species. PMID:26655756

  4. Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses.

    PubMed

    White, Crow; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kappel, Carrie V

    2012-03-20

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an emerging responsibility of resource managers around the United States and elsewhere. A key proposed advantage of MSP is that it makes tradeoffs in resource use and sector (stakeholder group) values explicit, but doing so requires tools to assess tradeoffs. We extended tradeoff analyses from economics to simultaneously assess multiple ecosystem services and the values they provide to sectors using a robust, quantitative, and transparent framework. We used the framework to assess potential conflicts among offshore wind energy, commercial fishing, and whale-watching sectors in Massachusetts and identify and quantify the value from choosing optimal wind farm designs that minimize conflicts among these sectors. Most notably, we show that using MSP over conventional planning could prevent >$1 million dollars in losses to the incumbent fishery and whale-watching sectors and could generate >$10 billion in extra value to the energy sector. The value of MSP increased with the greater the number of sectors considered and the larger the area under management. Importantly, the framework can be applied even when sectors are not measured in dollars (e.g., conservation). Making tradeoffs explicit improves transparency in decision-making, helps avoid unnecessary conflicts attributable to perceived but weak tradeoffs, and focuses debate on finding the most efficient solutions to mitigate real tradeoffs and maximize sector values. Our analysis demonstrates the utility, feasibility, and value of MSP and provides timely support for the management transitions needed for society to address the challenges of an increasingly crowded ocean environment.

  5. Hydrodynamics of horseradish peroxidase revealed by global analysis of multiple fluorescence probes.

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, J E; Vargas, V; Gratton, E; Jameson, D M

    1994-01-01

    Previous fluorescence studies of horseradish peroxidase conjugated with protoporphyrin IX suggested that the protein behaved hydrodynamically as a prolate ellipsoid of axial ratio 3 to 1. The present study, designed to further investigate the hydrodynamics of this protein, exploits a series of probes, noncovalently bound to the heme binding site of apo-horseradish peroxidase, having different orientations of the excitation and emission transition dipoles with respect to the protein's rotational axes. The probes utilized included protoporphyrin IX and the naphthalene probes 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate, 2-p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate, and 4,4'-bis(1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate). Time-resolved data were obtained using multifrequency phase fluorometry. The global analysis approach to the determination of molecular shape using multiple probes was evaluated by utilizing all data sets while maintaining a constant molecular shape for the protein. The results indicated that, in such analyses, probes exhibiting a single exponential decay and limited local motion have the major weight in the evaluation of the axial ratio. Probes that show complex decay patterns and local motions, such as the naphthalene derivatives, give rise to significant uncertainties in such global treatments. By explicitly accounting for the effect of such local motion, however, the shape of the protein can be reliably recovered. PMID:8161698

  6. Genetic analysis of yeast RPA1 reveals its multiple functions in DNA metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Umezu, K; Sugawara, N; Chen, C; Haber, J E; Kolodner, R D

    1998-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein identified as an essential factor for SV40 DNA replication in vitro. To understand the in vivo functions of RPA, we mutagenized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFA1 gene and identified 19 ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation- and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants and 5 temperature-sensitive mutants. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants showed up to 10(4) to 10(5) times increased sensitivity to these agents. Some of the UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants were killed by an HO-induced double-strand break at MAT. Physical analysis of recombination in one UV- and MMS-sensitive rfa1 mutant demonstrated that it was defective for mating type switching and single-strand annealing recombination. Two temperature-sensitive mutants were characterized in detail, and at the restrictive temperature were found to have an arrest phenotype and DNA content indicative of incomplete DNA replication. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the mutations altered amino acids that were conserved between yeast, human, and Xenopus RPA1. Taken together, we conclude that RPA1 has multiple roles in vivo and functions in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, like the single-stranded DNA-binding proteins of bacteria and phages. PMID:9539419

  7. Multiple-stage ambiguity in motion perception reveals global computation of local motion directions.

    PubMed

    Rider, Andrew T; Nishida, Shin'ya; Johnston, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The motion of a 1D image feature, such as a line, seen through a small aperture, or the small receptive field of a neural motion sensor, is underconstrained, and it is not possible to derive the true motion direction from a single local measurement. This is referred to as the aperture problem. How the visual system solves the aperture problem is a fundamental question in visual motion research. In the estimation of motion vectors through integration of ambiguous local motion measurements at different positions, conventional theories assume that the object motion is a rigid translation, with motion signals sharing a common motion vector within the spatial region over which the aperture problem is solved. However, this strategy fails for global rotation. Here we show that the human visual system can estimate global rotation directly through spatial pooling of locally ambiguous measurements, without an intervening step that computes local motion vectors. We designed a novel ambiguous global flow stimulus, which is globally as well as locally ambiguous. The global ambiguity implies that the stimulus is simultaneously consistent with both a global rigid translation and an infinite number of global rigid rotations. By the standard view, the motion should always be seen as a global translation, but it appears to shift from translation to rotation as observers shift fixation. This finding indicates that the visual system can estimate local vectors using a global rotation constraint, and suggests that local motion ambiguity may not be resolved until consistencies with multiple global motion patterns are assessed.

  8. Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses

    PubMed Central

    White, Crow; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kappel, Carrie V.

    2012-01-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an emerging responsibility of resource managers around the United States and elsewhere. A key proposed advantage of MSP is that it makes tradeoffs in resource use and sector (stakeholder group) values explicit, but doing so requires tools to assess tradeoffs. We extended tradeoff analyses from economics to simultaneously assess multiple ecosystem services and the values they provide to sectors using a robust, quantitative, and transparent framework. We used the framework to assess potential conflicts among offshore wind energy, commercial fishing, and whale-watching sectors in Massachusetts and identify and quantify the value from choosing optimal wind farm designs that minimize conflicts among these sectors. Most notably, we show that using MSP over conventional planning could prevent >$1 million dollars in losses to the incumbent fishery and whale-watching sectors and could generate >$10 billion in extra value to the energy sector. The value of MSP increased with the greater the number of sectors considered and the larger the area under management. Importantly, the framework can be applied even when sectors are not measured in dollars (e.g., conservation). Making tradeoffs explicit improves transparency in decision-making, helps avoid unnecessary conflicts attributable to perceived but weak tradeoffs, and focuses debate on finding the most efficient solutions to mitigate real tradeoffs and maximize sector values. Our analysis demonstrates the utility, feasibility, and value of MSP and provides timely support for the management transitions needed for society to address the challenges of an increasingly crowded ocean environment. PMID:22392996

  9. Accelerometry reveals differences in gait variability between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Huisinga, Jessie M.; Mancini, Martina; St. George, Rebecca; Horak, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Variability of movement reflects important information for the maintenance of the health of the system. For pathological populations, changes in variability during gait signal the presence of abnormal motor control strategies. For persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), extensive gait problems have been reported including changes in gait variability. While previous studies have focused on footfall variability, the present study used accelerometers on the trunk to measure variability during walking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the variability of the acceleration pattern of the upper and lower trunk in PwMS compared to healthy controls. We extracted linear and nonlinear measures of gait variability from 30s of steady state walking for 15 PwMS and 15 age-matched healthy controls. PwMS had altered variability compared to controls with greater Lyapunov exponent in the ML (p < 0.001) and AP (p < 0.001) directions, and greater frequency dispersion in the ML direction (p = 0.034). PwMS also demonstrated greater mean velocity in the ML direction (p = 0.045) and lower root mean square of acceleration in the AP direction (p = 0.040). These findings indicate that PwMS have altered structure of variability of the trunk during gait compared to healthy controls and agree with previous findings related to changes in gait variability in PwMS. PMID:23161166

  10. Multiple b-jets reveal top superpartners and the 125 GeV Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenstein, David; Liu, Tao; Perkins, Erik

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate that in supersymmetry with relatively light top superpartners, h→bb¯ can be a very promising channel to discover the Standard Model (SM)-like Higgs resonance at the LHC; although in general contexts, it is thought to be challenging because of its huge QCD background. In this scenario, the SM-like Higgs boson is mainly produced via cascade decays initiated by pair-produced stop or sbottom squarks. The good sensitivity to h→bb¯ owes a great deal to the application of multiple (≥4) b-jet tagging in removing the QCD background and color-flow variables for reconstructing the Higgs resonance. We show in two benchmark points that a SM-like Higgs resonance can be discovered at the 14 TeV LHC (with a signal-to-background ratio as high as 0.35), with ˜40fb-1 of data. Potentially, this strategy can be also applied to nonsupersymmetry theories with cascade decays of top partners for the SM-like Higgs search, such as little Higgs, composite Higgs, and Randall-Sundrum models.

  11. Benznidazole Biotransformation and Multiple Targets in Trypanosoma cruzi Revealed by Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Trochine, Andrea; Creek, Darren J.; Faral-Tello, Paula; Barrett, Michael P.; Robello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background The first line treatment for Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, involves administration of benznidazole (Bzn). Bzn is a 2-nitroimidazole pro-drug which requires nitroreduction to become active, although its mode of action is not fully understood. In the present work we used a non-targeted MS-based metabolomics approach to study the metabolic response of T. cruzi to Bzn. Methodology/Principal findings Parasites treated with Bzn were minimally altered compared to untreated trypanosomes, although the redox active thiols trypanothione, homotrypanothione and cysteine were significantly diminished in abundance post-treatment. In addition, multiple Bzn-derived metabolites were detected after treatment. These metabolites included reduction products, fragments and covalent adducts of reduced Bzn linked to each of the major low molecular weight thiols: trypanothione, glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteine, glutathionylspermidine, cysteine and ovothiol A. Bzn products known to be generated in vitro by the unusual trypanosomal nitroreductase, TcNTRI, were found within the parasites, but low molecular weight adducts of glyoxal, a proposed toxic end-product of NTRI Bzn metabolism, were not detected. Conclusions/significance Our data is indicative of a major role of the thiol binding capacity of Bzn reduction products in the mechanism of Bzn toxicity against T. cruzi. PMID:24853684

  12. Multiple LacI-mediated loops revealed by Bayesian statistics and tethered particle motion

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie; van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Phillips, Rob; Wiggins, Chris H.; Lindén, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial transcription factor LacI loops DNA by binding to two separate locations on the DNA simultaneously. Despite being one of the best-studied model systems for transcriptional regulation, the number and conformations of loop structures accessible to LacI remain unclear, though the importance of multiple coexisting loops has been implicated in interactions between LacI and other cellular regulators of gene expression. To probe this issue, we have developed a new analysis method for tethered particle motion, a versatile and commonly used in vitro single-molecule technique. Our method, vbTPM, performs variational Bayesian inference in hidden Markov models. It learns the number of distinct states (i.e. DNA–protein conformations) directly from tethered particle motion data with better resolution than existing methods, while easily correcting for common experimental artifacts. Studying short (roughly 100 bp) LacI-mediated loops, we provide evidence for three distinct loop structures, more than previously reported in single-molecule studies. Moreover, our results confirm that changes in LacI conformation and DNA-binding topology both contribute to the repertoire of LacI-mediated loops formed in vitro, and provide qualitatively new input for models of looping and transcriptional regulation. We expect vbTPM to be broadly useful for probing complex protein–nucleic acid interactions. PMID:25120267

  13. Population phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in wild boars and domestic pigs revealed multiple domestication events in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Qu, Kai-Xing; Ding, Zhao-Li; Li, Hui; Palanichamy, Malliya G; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Li, Ning; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Previously reported evidence indicates that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple places throughout the world. However, a detailed picture of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia has not yet been reported. Results Population phylogenomic analysis was conducted in domestic pigs and wild boars by screening the haplogroup-specific mutation motifs inferred from a phylogenetic tree of pig complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. All domestic pigs are clustered into single clade D (which contains subclades D1, D2, D3, and D4), with wild boars from East Asia being interspersed. Three haplogroups within D1 are dominant in the Mekong region (D1a2 and D1b) and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River (D1a1a), and may represent independent founders of domestic pigs. None of the domestic pig samples from North East Asia, the Yellow River region, and the upstream region of the Yangtze River share the same haplogroup status with the local wild boars. The limited regional distributions of haplogroups D1 (including its subhaplogroups), D2, D3, and D4 in domestic pigs suggest at least two different in situ domestication events. Conclusion The use of fine-grained mtDNA phylogenomic analysis of wild boars and domestic pigs is a powerful tool with which to discern the origin of domestic pigs. Our findings show that pig domestication in East Asia mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River. PMID:18021448

  14. Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Christopher A.

    A review of crocodylian phylogeny reveals a more complex history than might have been anticipated from a direct reading of the fossil record without consideration of phylogenetic relationships. The three main extant crocodylian lineagesGavialoidea, Alligatoroidea, Crocodyloideaare known from fossils in the Late Cretaceous, and the group is found nearly worldwide during the Cenozoic. Some groups have distributions that are best explained by the crossing of marine barriers during the Tertiary. Early Tertiary crocodylian faunas are phylogenetically composite, and clades tend to be morphologically uniform and geographically widespread. Later in the Tertiary, Old World crocodylian faunas are more endemic. Crocodylian phylogeneticists face numerous challenges, the most important being the phylogenetic relationships and time of divergence of the two living gharials (Gavialis gangeticus and Tomistoma schlegelii), the relationships among living true crocodiles (Crocodylus), and the relationships among caimans.

  15. Gene and Network Analysis of Common Variants Reveals Novel Associations in Multiple Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakka, Priyanka; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies typically lack power to detect genotypes significantly associated with complex diseases, where different causal mutations of small effect may be present across cases. A common, tractable approach for identifying genomic elements associated with complex traits is to evaluate combinations of variants in known pathways or gene sets with shared biological function. Such gene-set analyses require the computation of gene-level P-values or gene scores; these gene scores are also useful when generating hypotheses for experimental validation. However, commonly used methods for generating GWA gene scores are computationally inefficient, biased by gene length, imprecise, or have low true positive rate (TPR) at low false positive rates (FPR), leading to erroneous hypotheses for functional validation. Here we introduce a new method, PEGASUS, for analytically calculating gene scores. PEGASUS produces gene scores with as much as 10 orders of magnitude higher numerical precision than competing methods. In simulation, PEGASUS outperforms existing methods, achieving up to 30% higher TPR when the FPR is fixed at 1%. We use gene scores from PEGASUS as input to HotNet2 to identify networks of interacting genes associated with multiple complex diseases and traits; this is the first application of HotNet2 to common variation. In ulcerative colitis and waist–hip ratio, we discover networks that include genes previously associated with these phenotypes, as well as novel candidate genes. In contrast, existing methods fail to identify these networks. We also identify networks for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in which GWA studies have yet to identify any significant SNPs. PMID:27489002

  16. Systematic tracking of altered haematopoiesis during sporozoite-mediated malaria development reveals multiple response points.

    PubMed

    Vainieri, Maria L; Blagborough, Andrew M; MacLean, Adam L; Haltalli, Myriam L R; Ruivo, Nicola; Fletcher, Helen A; Stumpf, Michael P H; Sinden, Robert E; Celso, Cristina Lo

    2016-06-01

    Haematopoiesis is the complex developmental process that maintains the turnover of all blood cell lineages. It critically depends on the correct functioning of rare, quiescent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and more numerous, HSC-derived, highly proliferative and differentiating haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Infection is known to affect HSCs, with severe and chronic inflammatory stimuli leading to stem cell pool depletion, while acute, non-lethal infections exert transient and even potentiating effects. Both whether this paradigm applies to all infections and whether the HSC response is the dominant driver of the changes observed during stressed haematopoiesis remain open questions. We use a mouse model of malaria, based on natural, sporozoite-driven Plasmodium berghei infection, as an experimental platform to gain a global view of haematopoietic perturbations during infection progression. We observe coordinated responses by the most primitive HSCs and multiple HPCs, some starting before blood parasitaemia is detected. We show that, despite highly variable inter-host responses, primitive HSCs become highly proliferative, but mathematical modelling suggests that this alone is not sufficient to significantly impact the whole haematopoietic cascade. We observe that the dramatic expansion of Sca-1(+) progenitors results from combined proliferation of direct HSC progeny and phenotypic changes in downstream populations. We observe that the simultaneous perturbation of HSC/HPC population dynamics is coupled with early signs of anaemia onset. Our data uncover a complex relationship between Plasmodium and its host's haematopoiesis and raise the question whether the variable responses observed may affect the outcome of the infection itself and its long-term consequences on the host.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA reveals multiple Northern Hemisphere introductions of Caprella mutica (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Ashton, Gail V; Stevens, Mark I; Hart, Mark C; Green, David H; Burrows, Michael T; Cook, Elizabeth J; Willis, Kate J

    2008-03-01

    Caprella mutica (Crustacea, Amphipoda) has been widely introduced to non-native regions in the last 40 years. Its native habitat is sub-boreal northeast Asia, but in the Northern Hemisphere, it is now found on both coasts of North America, and North Atlantic coastlines of Europe. Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) was used to compare genetic variation in native and non-native populations of C. mutica. These data were used to investigate the invasion history of C. mutica and to test potential source populations in Japan. High diversity (31 haplotypes from 49 individuals), but no phylogeographical structure, was identified in four populations in the putative native range. In contrast, non-native populations showed reduced genetic diversity (7 haplotypes from 249 individuals) and informative phylogeographical structure. Grouping of C. mutica populations into native, east Pacific, and Atlantic groups explained the most among-region variation (59%). This indicates independent introduction pathways for C. mutica to the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America. Two dominant haplotypes were identified in eastern and western Atlantic coastal populations, indicating several dispersal routes within the Atlantic. The analysis indicated that several introductions from multiple sources were likely to be responsible for the observed global distribution of C. mutica, but the pathways were least well defined among the Atlantic populations. The four sampled populations of C. mutica in Japan could not be identified as the direct source of the non-native populations examined in this study. The high diversity within the Japan populations indicates that the native range needs to be assessed at a far greater scale, both within and among populations, to accurately assess the source of the global spread of C. mutica.

  18. Functional somatotopy revealed across multiple cortical regions using a model of complex motor task

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, David A.; Machado, Andre; Yue, Guang H.; Carey, Jim R.; Plow, Ela B.

    2014-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) possesses a functional somatotopic structure -representations of adjacent within-limb joints overlap to facilitate coordination while maintaining discrete centers for individuated movement. We examined whether similar organization exists across other sensorimotor cortices. Twenty-four right-handed healthy subjects underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while tracking complex targets with flexion/extension at right finger, elbow and ankle separately. Activation related to each joint at false discovery rate of .005 served as its representation across multiple regions. Within each region, we identified the Center of Mass (COM) for each representation, and overlap between representations of within-limb (finger and elbow) and between-limb joints (finger and ankle). Somatosensory (S1) and premotor cortices (PMC) demonstrated greater distinction of COM and minimal overlap for within- and between-limb representations. Contrarily, M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA) showed more integrative somatotopy with higher sharing for within-limb representations. Superior and inferior parietal lobule (SPL and IPL) possessed both types of structure. Some clusters exhibited extensive overlap of within- and between-limb representations, while others showed discrete COMs for within-limb representations. Our results help infer hierarchy in motor control. Areas as S1 may be associated with individuated movements, while M1 may be more integrative for coordinated motion; parietal associative regions may allow switch between both modes of control. Such hierarchy creates redundant opportunities to exploit in stroke rehabilitation. Use of complex rather than traditionally used simple movements was integral to illustrating comprehensive somatotopic structure; complex tasks can potentially help understand cortical representation of skill and learning-related plasticity. PMID:23920009

  19. Gene and Network Analysis of Common Variants Reveals Novel Associations in Multiple Complex Diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakka, Priyanka; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2016-10-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies typically lack power to detect genotypes significantly associated with complex diseases, where different causal mutations of small effect may be present across cases. A common, tractable approach for identifying genomic elements associated with complex traits is to evaluate combinations of variants in known pathways or gene sets with shared biological function. Such gene-set analyses require the computation of gene-level P-values or gene scores; these gene scores are also useful when generating hypotheses for experimental validation. However, commonly used methods for generating GWA gene scores are computationally inefficient, biased by gene length, imprecise, or have low true positive rate (TPR) at low false positive rates (FPR), leading to erroneous hypotheses for functional validation. Here we introduce a new method, PEGASUS, for analytically calculating gene scores. PEGASUS produces gene scores with as much as 10 orders of magnitude higher numerical precision than competing methods. In simulation, PEGASUS outperforms existing methods, achieving up to 30% higher TPR when the FPR is fixed at 1%. We use gene scores from PEGASUS as input to HotNet2 to identify networks of interacting genes associated with multiple complex diseases and traits; this is the first application of HotNet2 to common variation. In ulcerative colitis and waist-hip ratio, we discover networks that include genes previously associated with these phenotypes, as well as novel candidate genes. In contrast, existing methods fail to identify these networks. We also identify networks for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in which GWA studies have yet to identify any significant SNPs.

  20. Systematic tracking of altered haematopoiesis during sporozoite-mediated malaria development reveals multiple response points

    PubMed Central

    Vainieri, Maria L.; Blagborough, Andrew M.; MacLean, Adam L.; Haltalli, Myriam L. R.; Ruivo, Nicola; Fletcher, Helen A.; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Sinden, Robert E.; Celso, Cristina Lo

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoiesis is the complex developmental process that maintains the turnover of all blood cell lineages. It critically depends on the correct functioning of rare, quiescent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and more numerous, HSC-derived, highly proliferative and differentiating haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Infection is known to affect HSCs, with severe and chronic inflammatory stimuli leading to stem cell pool depletion, while acute, non-lethal infections exert transient and even potentiating effects. Both whether this paradigm applies to all infections and whether the HSC response is the dominant driver of the changes observed during stressed haematopoiesis remain open questions. We use a mouse model of malaria, based on natural, sporozoite-driven Plasmodium berghei infection, as an experimental platform to gain a global view of haematopoietic perturbations during infection progression. We observe coordinated responses by the most primitive HSCs and multiple HPCs, some starting before blood parasitaemia is detected. We show that, despite highly variable inter-host responses, primitive HSCs become highly proliferative, but mathematical modelling suggests that this alone is not sufficient to significantly impact the whole haematopoietic cascade. We observe that the dramatic expansion of Sca-1+ progenitors results from combined proliferation of direct HSC progeny and phenotypic changes in downstream populations. We observe that the simultaneous perturbation of HSC/HPC population dynamics is coupled with early signs of anaemia onset. Our data uncover a complex relationship between Plasmodium and its host's haematopoiesis and raise the question whether the variable responses observed may affect the outcome of the infection itself and its long-term consequences on the host. PMID:27335321

  1. Proteomic analysis reveals complex metabolic regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against multiple inhibitors stress.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ya-Jin; Wang, Xin; Ma, Qian; Bai, Xue; Li, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Weiwen; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Toxic compounds including acids, furans, and phenols (AFP) were generated from the pretreatment of lignocellulose. We cultivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a batch mode, besides the cell culture of original yeast strain in AFP-free medium which was referred as C0, three independent subcultures were cultivated under multiple inhibitors AFP and were referred as C1, C2, and C3 in time sequence. Comparing to C0, the cell density was lowered while the ethanol yield was maintained stably in the three yeast cultures under AFP stress, and the lag phase of C1 was extended while the lag phases of C2 and C3 were not extended. In proteomic analysis, 194 and 215 unique proteins were identified as differently expressed proteins at lag phase and exponential phase, respectively. Specifically, the yeast cells co-regulated protein folding and protein synthesis process to prevent the generation of misfolded proteins and to save cellular energy, they increased the activity of glycolysis, redirected metabolic flux towards phosphate pentose pathway and the biosynthesis of ethanol instead of the biosynthesis of glycerol and acetic acid, and they upregulated several oxidoreductases especially at lag phase and induced programmed cell death at exponential phase. When the yeast cells were cultivated under AFP stress, the new metabolism homeostasis in favor of cellular energy and redox homeostasis was generated in C1, then it was inherited and optimized in C2 and C3, enabling the yeast cells in C2 and C3 to enter the exponential phase in a short period after inoculation, which thus significantly shortened the fermentation time.

  2. Multiple genome sequences reveal adaptations of a phototrophic bacterium to sediment microenvironments.

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Larimer, Frank W; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Shin, Maria V; Vergez, Lisa; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Braatsch, Stephan; Beatty, Thomas; Pelletier, Dale A; Schaefer, Amy L; Harwood, Caroline S

    2008-11-01

    The bacterial genus Rhodopseudomonas is comprised of photosynthetic bacteria found widely distributed in aquatic sediments. Members of the genus catalyze hydrogen gas production, carbon dioxide sequestration, and biomass turnover. The genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 revealed a surprising richness of metabolic versatility that would seem to explain its ability to live in a heterogeneous environment like sediment. However, there is considerable genotypic diversity among Rhodopseudomonas isolates. Here we report the complete genome sequences of four additional members of the genus isolated from a restricted geographical area. The sequences confirm that the isolates belong to a coherent taxonomic unit, but they also have significant differences. Whole genome alignments show that the circular chromosomes of the isolates consist of a collinear backbone with a moderate number of genomic rearrangements that impact local gene order and orientation. There are 3,319 genes, 70% of the genes in each genome, shared by four or more strains. Between 10% and 18% of the genes in each genome are strain specific. Some of these genes suggest specialized physiological traits, which we verified experimentally, that include expanded light harvesting, oxygen respiration, and nitrogen fixation capabilities, as well as anaerobic fermentation. Strain-specific adaptations include traits that may be useful in bioenergy applications. This work suggests that against a backdrop of metabolic versatility that is a defining characteristic of Rhodopseudomonas, different ecotypes have evolved to take advantage of physical and chemical conditions in sediment microenvironments that are too small for human observation.

  3. Targeted next-generation sequencing reveals multiple deleterious variants in OPLL-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Guo, Jun; Cai, Tao; Zhang, Fengshan; Pan, Shengfa; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shaobo; Zhou, Feifei; Diao, Yinze; Zhao, Yanbin; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhongqiang; Liu, Zhongjun; Sun, Yu; Du, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL), which is characterized by ectopic bone formation in the spinal ligaments, can cause spinal-cord compression. To date, at least 11 susceptibility genes have been genetically linked to OPLL. In order to identify potential deleterious alleles in these OPLL-associated genes, we designed a capture array encompassing all coding regions of the target genes for next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a cohort of 55 unrelated patients with OPLL. By bioinformatics analyses, we successfully identified three novel and five extremely rare variants (MAF < 0.005). These variants were predicted to be deleterious by commonly used various algorithms, thereby resulting in missense mutations in four OPLL-associated genes (i.e., COL6A1, COL11A2, FGFR1, and BMP2). Furthermore, potential effects of the patient with p.Q89E of BMP2 were confirmed by a markedly increased BMP2 level in peripheral blood samples. Notably, seven of the variants were found to be associated with the patients with continuous subtype changes by cervical spinal radiological analyses. Taken together, our findings revealed for the first time that deleterious coding variants of the four OPLL-associated genes are potentially pathogenic in the patients with OPLL. PMID:27246988

  4. A single-cell imaging screen reveals multiple effects of secreted small molecules on bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salje, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria cells exist in close proximity to other cells of both the same and different species. Bacteria secrete a large number of different chemical species, and the local concentrations of these compounds at the surfaces of nearby cells may reach very high levels. It is fascinating to imagine how individual cells might sense and respond to the complex mix of signals at their surface. However, it is difficult to measure exactly what the local environmental composition looks like, or what the effects of individual compounds on nearby cells are. Here, an electron microscopy imaging screen was designed that would detect morphological changes induced by secreted small molecules. This differs from conventional approaches by detecting structural changes in individual cells rather than gene expression or growth rate changes at the population level. For example, one of the changes detected here was an increase in outer membrane vesicle production, which does not necessarily correspond to a change in gene expression. This initial study focussed on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Burkholderia dolosa, and revealed an intriguing range of effects of secreted small molecules on cells both within and between species. PMID:24910069

  5. Relative time scales reveal multiple origins of parallel disjunct distributions of African caecilian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Loader, Simon P; Pisani, Davide; Cotton, James A; Gower, David J; Day, Julia J; Wilkinson, Mark

    2007-10-22

    Parallel patterns of distribution in different lineages suggest a common cause. Explanations in terms of a single biogeographic event often imply contemporaneous diversifications. Phylogenies with absolute time scales provide the most obvious means of testing temporal components of biogeographic hypotheses but, in their absence, the sequence of diversification events and whether any could have been contemporaneous can be tested with relative date estimates. Tests using relative time scales have been largely overlooked, but because they do not require the calibration upon which absolute time scales depend, they make a large amount of existing molecular data of use to historical biogeography and may also be helpful when calibration is possible but uncertain. We illustrate the use of relative dating by testing the hypothesis that parallel, disjunct east/west distributions in three independent lineages of African caecilians have a common cause. We demonstrate that at least two biogeographic events are implied by molecular data. Relative dating analysis reveals the potential complexity of causes of parallel distributions and cautions against inferring common cause from common spatial patterns without considering the temporal dimension.

  6. A new phylogenetic test for comparing multiple high-dimensional evolutionary rates suggests interplay of evolutionary rates and modularity in lanternfishes (Myctophiformes; Myctophidae).

    PubMed

    Denton, John S S; Adams, Dean C

    2015-09-01

    The interplay between evolutionary rates and modularity influences the evolution of organismal body plans by both promoting and constraining the magnitude and direction of trait response to ecological conditions. However, few studies have examined whether the best-fit hypothesis of modularity is the same as the shape subset with the greatest difference in evolutionary rate. Here, we develop a new phylogenetic comparative method for comparing evolutionary rates among high-dimensional traits, and apply this method to analyze body shape evolution in bioluminescent lanternfishes. We frame the study of evolutionary rates and modularity through analysis of three hypotheses derived from the literature on fish development, biomechanics, and bioluminescent communication. We show that a development-informed partitioning of shape exhibits the greatest evolutionary rate differences among modules, but that a hydrodynamically informed partitioning is the best-fit modularity hypothesis. Furthermore, we show that bioluminescent lateral photophores evolve at a similar rate as, and are strongly integrated with, body shape in lanternfishes. These results suggest that overlapping life-history constraints on development and movement define axes of body shape evolution in lanternfishes, and that the positions of their lateral photophore complexes are likely a passive outcome of the interaction of these ecological pressures.

  7. Coast-wide recruitment dynamics of Olympia oysters reveal limited synchrony and multiple predictors of failure.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Kerstin; Hughes, Brent B; Berriman, John S; Chang, Andrew L; Deck, Anna K; Dinnel, Paul A; Endris, Charlie; Espinoza, Michael; Dudas, Sarah; Ferner, Matthew C; Grosholz, Edwin D; Kimbro, David; Ruesink, Jennifer L; Trimble, Alan C; Vander Schaaf, Dick; Zabin, Chela J; Zacherl, Danielle C

    2016-12-01

    Recruitment of new propagules into a population can be a critical determinant of adult density. We examined recruitment dynamics in the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida), a species occurring almost entirely in estuaries. We investigated spatial scales of interannual synchrony across 37 sites in eight estuaries along 2,500 km of Pacific North American coastline, predicting that high vs. low recruitment years would coincide among neighboring estuaries due to shared exposure to regional oceanographic factors. Such synchrony in recruitment has been found for many marine species and some migratory estuarine species, but has never been examined across estuaries in a species that can complete its entire life cycle within the same estuary. To inform ongoing restoration efforts for Olympia oysters, which have declined in abundance in many estuaries, we also investigated predictors of recruitment failure. We found striking contrasts in absolute recruitment rate and frequency of recruitment failure among sites, estuaries, and years. Although we found a positive relationship between upwelling and recruitment, there was little evidence of synchrony in recruitment among estuaries along the coast, and only limited synchrony of sites within estuaries, suggesting recruitment rates are affected more strongly by local dynamics within estuaries than by regional oceanographic factors operating at scales encompassing multiple estuaries. This highlights the importance of local wetland and watershed management for the demography of oysters, and perhaps other species that can complete their entire life cycle within estuaries. Estuaries with more homogeneous environmental conditions had greater synchrony among sites, and this led to the potential for estuary-wide failure when all sites had no recruitment in the same year. Environmental heterogeneity within estuaries may thus buffer against estuary-wide recruitment failure, analogous to the portfolio effect for diversity. Recruitment failure

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals the Character of Incomplete Dosage Compensation across Multiple Tissues in Flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Uebbing, Severin; Künstner, Axel; Mäkinen, Hannu; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Sex chromosome divergence, which follows the cessation of recombination and degeneration of the sex-limited chromosome, can cause a reduction in expression level for sex-linked genes in the heterozygous sex, unless some mechanisms of dosage compensation develops to counter the reduction in gene dose. Because large-scale perturbations in expression levels arising from changes in gene dose might have strong deleterious effects, the evolutionary response should be strong. However, in birds and in at least some other female heterogametic organisms, wholesale sex chromosome dosage compensation does not seem to occur. Using RNA-seq of multiple tissues and individuals, we investigated male and female expression levels of Z-linked and autosomal genes in the collared flycatcher, a bird for which a draft genome sequence recently has been reported. We found that male expression of Z-linked genes was on average 50% higher than female expression, although there was considerable variation in the male-to-female ratio among genes. The ratio for individual genes was well correlated among tissues and there was also a correlation in the extent of compensation between flycatcher and chicken orthologs. The relative excess of male expression was positively correlated with expression breadth, expression level, and number of interacting proteins (protein connectivity), and negatively correlated with variance in expression. These observations lead to a model of compensation occurring on a gene-by-gene basis, supported by an absence of clustering of genes on the Z chromosome with respect to the extent of compensation. Equal mean expression level of autosomal and Z-linked genes in males, and 50% higher expression of autosomal than Z-linked genes in females, is compatible with that partial compensation is achieved by hypertranscription from females’ single Z chromosome. A comparison with male-to-female expression ratios in orthologous Z-linked genes of ostriches, where Z–W recombination

  9. Historical comparisons reveal multiple drivers of decadal change of an ecosystem engineer at the range edge.

    PubMed

    Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Grant, Lisa M; Bush, Laura E; Davies, Andrew J; Frost, Matthew T; Moschella, Paula S; Burrows, Michael T; Cunningham, Paul N; Dye, Stephen R; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic reefs are important for habitat provision and coastal protection. Long-term datasets on the distribution and abundance of Sabellaria alveolata (L.) are available from Britain. The aim of this study was to combine historical records and contemporary data to (1) describe spatiotemporal variation in winter temperatures, (2) document short-term and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of S. alveolata and discuss these changes in relation to extreme weather events and recent warming, and (3) assess the potential for artificial coastal defense structures to function as habitat for S. alveolata. A semi-quantitative abundance scale (ACFOR) was used to compare broadscale, long-term and interannual abundance of S. alveolata near its range edge in NW Britain. S. alveolata disappeared from the North Wales and Wirral coastlines where it had been abundant prior to the cold winter of 1962/1963. Population declines were also observed following the recent cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Extensive surveys in 2004 and 2012 revealed that S. alveolata had recolonized locations from which it had previously disappeared. Furthermore, it had increased in abundance at many locations, possibly in response to recent warming. S. alveolata was recorded on the majority of artificial coastal defense structures surveyed, suggesting that the proliferation of artificial coastal defense structures along this stretch of coastline may have enabled S. alveolata to spread across stretches of unsuitable natural habitat. Long-term and broadscale contextual monitoring is essential for monitoring responses of organisms to climate change. Historical data and gray literature can be invaluable sources of information. Our results support the theory that Lusitanian species are responding positively to climate warming but also that short-term extreme weather events can have potentially devastating widespread and lasting effects on organisms. Furthermore, the proliferation of

  10. Assessment of snake DNA barcodes based on mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes revealed multiple putative cryptic species in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Laopichienpong, Nararat; Muangmai, Narongrit; Supikamolseni, Arrjaree; Twilprawat, Panupon; Chanhome, Lawan; Suntrarachun, Sunutcha; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-12-15

    DNA barcodes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), cytochrome b (Cytb) genes, and their combined data sets were constructed from 35 snake species in Thailand. No barcoding gap was detected in either of the two genes from the observed intra- and interspecific sequence divergences. Intra- and interspecific sequence divergences of the COI gene differed 14 times, with barcode cut-off scores ranging over 2%-4% for threshold values differentiated among most of the different species; the Cytb gene differed 6 times with cut-off scores ranging over 2%-6%. Thirty-five specific nucleotide mutations were also found at interspecific level in the COI gene, identifying 18 snake species, but no specific nucleotide mutation was observed for Cytb in any single species. This suggests that COI barcoding was a better marker than Cytb. Phylogenetic clustering analysis indicated that most species were represented by monophyletic clusters, suggesting that these snake species could be clearly differentiated using COI barcodes. However, the two-marker combination of both COI and Cytb was more effective, differentiating snake species by over 2%-4%, and reducing species numbers in the overlap value between intra- and interspecific divergences. Three species delimitation algorithms (general mixed Yule-coalescent, automatic barcoding gap detection, and statistical parsimony network analysis) were extensively applied to a wide range of snakes based on both barcodes. This revealed cryptic diversity for eleven snake species in Thailand. In addition, eleven accessions from the database previously grouped under the same species were represented at different species level, suggesting either high genetic diversity, or the misidentification of these sequences in the database as a consequence of cryptic species.

  11. Boron isotopes reveal multiple metasomatic events in the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Zhou; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2016-12-01

    additions to the mantle. We thus call upon multiple metasomatic events in the mantle beneath the eastern NCC in order to interpret its observed radiogenic and boron isotopic variability. The heavier δ11B, FME-enriched mantle source developed during an older event, while metasomatism by melts from the stagnant Pacific plate in the MTZ led to the development of a FME-depleted mantle source at greater depths with a lower δ11B.

  12. Cross-class metallo-β-lactamase inhibition by bisthiazolidines reveals multiple binding modes

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliffe, Philip; González, Mariano M.; Mojica, Maria F.; González, Javier M.; Castillo, Valerie; Saiz, Cecilia; Kosmopoulou, Magda; Tooke, Catherine L.; Llarrull, Leticia I.; Mahler, Graciela; Bonomo, Robert A.; Vila, Alejandro J.; Spencer, James

    2016-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) hydrolyze almost all β-lactam antibiotics and are unaffected by clinically available β-lactamase inhibitors (βLIs). Active-site architecture divides MBLs into three classes (B1, B2, and B3), complicating development of βLIs effective against all enzymes. Bisthiazolidines (BTZs) are carboxylate-containing, bicyclic compounds, considered as penicillin analogs with an additional free thiol. Here, we show both l- and d-BTZ enantiomers are micromolar competitive βLIs of all MBL classes in vitro, with Kis of 6–15 µM or 36–84 µM for subclass B1 MBLs (IMP-1 and BcII, respectively), and 10–12 µM for the B3 enzyme L1. Against the B2 MBL Sfh-I, the l-BTZ enantiomers exhibit 100-fold lower Kis (0.26–0.36 µM) than d-BTZs (26–29 µM). Importantly, cell-based time-kill assays show BTZs restore β-lactam susceptibility of Escherichia coli-producing MBLs (IMP-1, Sfh-1, BcII, and GOB-18) and, significantly, an extensively drug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolate expressing L1. BTZs therefore inhibit the full range of MBLs and potentiate β-lactam activity against producer pathogens. X-ray crystal structures reveal insights into diverse BTZ binding modes, varying with orientation of the carboxylate and thiol moieties. BTZs bind the di-zinc centers of B1 (IMP-1; BcII) and B3 (L1) MBLs via the free thiol, but orient differently depending upon stereochemistry. In contrast, the l-BTZ carboxylate dominates interactions with the monozinc B2 MBL Sfh-I, with the thiol uninvolved. d-BTZ complexes most closely resemble β-lactam binding to B1 MBLs, but feature an unprecedented disruption of the D120–zinc interaction. Cross-class MBL inhibition therefore arises from the unexpected versatility of BTZ binding. PMID:27303030

  13. Historical comparisons reveal multiple drivers of decadal change of an ecosystem engineer at the range edge

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Grant, Lisa M; Bush, Laura E; Davies, Andrew J; Frost, Matthew T; Moschella, Paula S; Burrows, Michael T; Cunningham, Paul N; Dye, Stephen R; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic reefs are important for habitat provision and coastal protection. Long-term datasets on the distribution and abundance of Sabellaria alveolata (L.) are available from Britain. The aim of this study was to combine historical records and contemporary data to (1) describe spatiotemporal variation in winter temperatures, (2) document short-term and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of S. alveolata and discuss these changes in relation to extreme weather events and recent warming, and (3) assess the potential for artificial coastal defense structures to function as habitat for S. alveolata. A semi-quantitative abundance scale (ACFOR) was used to compare broadscale, long-term and interannual abundance of S. alveolata near its range edge in NW Britain. S. alveolata disappeared from the North Wales and Wirral coastlines where it had been abundant prior to the cold winter of 1962/1963. Population declines were also observed following the recent cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Extensive surveys in 2004 and 2012 revealed that S. alveolata had recolonized locations from which it had previously disappeared. Furthermore, it had increased in abundance at many locations, possibly in response to recent warming. S. alveolata was recorded on the majority of artificial coastal defense structures surveyed, suggesting that the proliferation of artificial coastal defense structures along this stretch of coastline may have enabled S. alveolata to spread across stretches of unsuitable natural habitat. Long-term and broadscale contextual monitoring is essential for monitoring responses of organisms to climate change. Historical data and gray literature can be invaluable sources of information. Our results support the theory that Lusitanian species are responding positively to climate warming but also that short-term extreme weather events can have potentially devastating widespread and lasting effects on organisms. Furthermore, the proliferation of

  14. Phylogenetic fields of species: cross-species patterns of phylogenetic structure and geographical coexistence.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Rangel, Thiago F; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2013-04-07

    Differential coexistence among species underlies geographical patterns of biodiversity. Understanding such patterns has relied either on ecological or historical approaches applied separately. Recently, macroecology and community phylogenetics have tried to integrate both ecological and historical approaches. However, macroecology is mostly non-phylogenetic, whereas community phylogenetics is largely focused on local scales. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to link macroecology and community phylogenetics by exploring the evolutionary context of large-scale species coexistence, introducing the phylogenetic field concept. This is defined as the phylogenetic structure of species co-occurrence within a focal species' geographical range. We developed concepts and methods for analysing phylogenetic fields and applied them to study coexistence patterns of the bat family Phyllostomidae. Our analyses showed that phyllostomid bats coexist mostly with closely related species, revealing a north-south gradient from overdispersed to clustered phylogenetic fields. Patterns at different phylogenetic levels (i.e. all species versus close relatives only) presented the same gradient. Results support the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis, potentially mediated by higher speciation rates in the region of origin coupled with shared environmental preferences among species. The phylogenetic field approach enables species-based community phylogenetics, instead of those that are site-based, allowing the description of historical processes at more appropriate macroecological and biogeographic scales.

  15. Gait Analysis at Multiple Speeds Reveals Differential Functional and Structural Outcomes in Response to Graded Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Krizsan-Agbas, Dora; Winter, Michelle K.; Eggimann, Linda S.; Meriwether, Judith; Berman, Nancy E.; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Open-field behavioral scoring is widely used to assess spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes, but has limited usefulness in describing subtle changes important for posture and locomotion. Additional quantitative methods are needed to increase the resolution of locomotor outcome assessment. This study used gait analysis at multiple speeds (GAMS) across a range of mild-to-severe intensities of thoracic SCI in the rat. Overall, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores and subscores were assessed, and detailed automated gait analysis was performed at three fixed walking speeds (3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 cm/sec). Variability in hindpaw brake, propel, and stance times were analyzed further by integrating across the stance phase of stepping cycles. Myelin staining of spinal cord sections was used to quantify white matter loss at the injury site. Varied SCI intensity produced graded deficits in BBB score, BBB subscores, and spinal cord white matter and total volume loss. GAMS measures of posture revealed decreased paw area, increased limb extension, altered stance width, and decreased values for integrated brake, propel, and stance. Measures of coordination revealed increased stride frequency concomitant with decreased stride length, resulting in deviation from consistent forelimb/hindlimb coordination. Alterations in posture and coordination were correlated to impact severity. GAMS results correlated highly with functional and histological measures and revealed differential relationships between sets of GAMS dynamics and cord total volume loss versus epicenter myelin loss. Automated gait analysis at multiple speeds is therefore a useful tool for quantifying nuanced changes in gait as an extension of histological and observational methods in assessing SCI outcomes. PMID:24405378

  16. Gait analysis at multiple speeds reveals differential functional and structural outcomes in response to graded spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krizsan-Agbas, Dora; Winter, Michelle K; Eggimann, Linda S; Meriwether, Judith; Berman, Nancy E; Smith, Peter G; McCarson, Kenneth E

    2014-05-01

    Open-field behavioral scoring is widely used to assess spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes, but has limited usefulness in describing subtle changes important for posture and locomotion. Additional quantitative methods are needed to increase the resolution of locomotor outcome assessment. This study used gait analysis at multiple speeds (GAMS) across a range of mild-to-severe intensities of thoracic SCI in the rat. Overall, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores and subscores were assessed, and detailed automated gait analysis was performed at three fixed walking speeds (3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 cm/sec). Variability in hindpaw brake, propel, and stance times were analyzed further by integrating across the stance phase of stepping cycles. Myelin staining of spinal cord sections was used to quantify white matter loss at the injury site. Varied SCI intensity produced graded deficits in BBB score, BBB subscores, and spinal cord white matter and total volume loss. GAMS measures of posture revealed decreased paw area, increased limb extension, altered stance width, and decreased values for integrated brake, propel, and stance. Measures of coordination revealed increased stride frequency concomitant with decreased stride length, resulting in deviation from consistent forelimb/hindlimb coordination. Alterations in posture and coordination were correlated to impact severity. GAMS results correlated highly with functional and histological measures and revealed differential relationships between sets of GAMS dynamics and cord total volume loss versus epicenter myelin loss. Automated gait analysis at multiple speeds is therefore a useful tool for quantifying nuanced changes in gait as an extension of histological and observational methods in assessing SCI outcomes.

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus (L) from north-east India as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA.

    PubMed

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2014-12-01

    The north-eastern region of India is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of Citrus (L.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely Citrus indica, Citrus macroptera, Citrus latipes, Citrus ichagensis and Citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. In order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various Citrus species, a combined approach involving morphological, cytogenetical and molecular approaches were adopted in the present study. Cytogenetic approaches are known to resolve taxonomic riddles in a more efficient manner, by clearly delineating taxa at species and sub species levels. Male meiotic studies revealed a gametic chromosome number of n = 9, without any evidence of numerical variations. Bivalents outnumbered all other types of associations in pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed at diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I. Univalents were frequently encountered in nine species presently studied, though their presence appropriately did not influence the distributional pattern of the chromosomes at anaphases I and II. The molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data related to ITS 1, ITS 2 and ITS 1 + 5.8 s + ITS 2 of rDNA using maximum parsimony method and Bayesian inference have thrown light on species inter-relationship and evolution of Citrus species confirming our cytogenetical interpretations. The three true basic species i.e. Citrus medica, Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata with their unique status have been resolved into distinct clades with molecular approaches as well. C. indica which occupies a unique position in the phylogenetic ladder of the genus Citrus has been resolved as a distinct clade and almost behaving as an out-group. The presences of quadrivalents in C. indica also echo and support its unique position. From our study it is amply clear that C

  18. Acoustic telemetry and network analysis reveal the space use of multiple reef predators and enhance marine protected area design.

    PubMed

    Lea, James S E; Humphries, Nicolas E; von Brandis, Rainer G; Clarke, Christopher R; Sims, David W

    2016-07-13

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are commonly employed to protect ecosystems from threats like overfishing. Ideally, MPA design should incorporate movement data from multiple target species to ensure sufficient habitat is protected. We used long-term acoustic telemetry and network analysis to determine the fine-scale space use of five shark and one turtle species at a remote atoll in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, and evaluate the efficacy of a proposed MPA. Results revealed strong, species-specific habitat use in both sharks and turtles, with corresponding variation in MPA use. Defining the MPA's boundary from the edge of the reef flat at low tide instead of the beach at high tide (the current best in Seychelles) significantly increased the MPA's coverage of predator movements by an average of 34%. Informed by these results, the larger MPA was adopted by the Seychelles government, demonstrating how telemetry data can improve shark spatial conservation by affecting policy directly.

  19. Genome-wide allelic methylation analysis reveals disease-specific susceptibility to multiple methylation defects in imprinting syndromes.

    PubMed

    Court, Franck; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Romanelli, Valeria; Garin, Intza; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Salafsky, Ira; Guitart, Miriam; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Lapunzina, Pablo; Monk, David

    2013-04-01

    Genomic imprinting is the parent-of-origin-specific allelic transcriptional silencing observed in mammals, which is governed by DNA methylation established in the gametes and maintained throughout the development. The frequency and extent of epimutations associated with the nine reported imprinting syndromes varies because it is evident that aberrant preimplantation maintenance of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) may affect multiple loci. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate array targeting 27 imprinted DMRs, we profiled allelic methylation in 65 imprinting defect patients. We identify multilocus hypomethylation in numerous Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B patients, and an individual with Silver-Russell syndrome. Our data reveal a broad range of epimutations exist in certain imprinting syndromes, with the exception of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome patients that are associated with solitary SNRPN-DMR defects. A mutation analysis identified a 1 bp deletion in the ZFP57 gene in a TNDM patient with methylation defects at multiple maternal DMRs. In addition, we observe missense variants in ZFP57, NLRP2, and NLRP7 that are not consistent with maternal effect and aberrant establishment or methylation maintenance, and are likely benign. This work illustrates that further extensive molecular characterization of these rare patients is required to fully understand the mechanism underlying the etiology of imprint establishment and maintenance.

  20. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae–Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. PMID:27604225

  2. Phylogenetic typing of Bacillus anthracis isolated in Japan by multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats and the comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Okutani, Akiko; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Yamada, Akio; Kuroda, Makoto; Inoue, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains of Bacillus anthracis isolated in Japan were subjected to multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis using 25 marker loci (MLVA25). The results showed that Japanese strains could be divided into two distinct genetic clusters, A3a and A3b. By using newly devised comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis, Japanese strains were also divided into two groups. The results obtained by the MLVA25 and plasmids SNP analysis well coincided, indicating that both methods were highly sensitive to discriminate B. anthracis strains. These results suggested that MLVA25 had sufficient discrimination power to identify B. anthracis at the strain level, and that MLVA25 as well as comprehensive SNPs analysis could facilitate further studies of B. anthracis strains including Japanese and other Asian strains.

  3. Concordance of seven gene genealogies compared to phenotypic data reveals multiple cryptic species in Australian dermocyboid Cortinarius (Agaricales).

    PubMed

    Stefani, Franck O P; Jones, Rodney H; May, Tom W

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to delimit species of Australian dermocyboid fungi (Cortinarius, Agaricales) using genealogical concordance on well-characterised phenotypic species and to assess the utility of seven loci for DNA barcoding Australian Cortinarius taxa. Eighty-six collections of dermocyboid Cortinarius were sampled from across southern Australia. Phenotypic species were first recognised by performing clustering analyses on a comprehensive phenotypic dataset including morphological, colour and pigment data. Then phylogenetic species were delimited from the concordance of seven locus genealogies (ITS, nLSU, gpd, mcm7, rpb1, rpb2 and tef1). Seventeen phenotypic species were recognised while the concordance of gene genealogies recovered 35 phylogenetic species. All loci except for LSU recovered most phylogenetic species, although only rpb1 correctly identified all phylogenetic species. The ITS region is confirmed as an effective barcode for Cortinarius and a standard pairwise distance threshold of 2.0% is proposed to DNA barcode Australian Cortinarius taxa. Australian dermocyboid fungi belong in separate clades to the boreal clade Dermocybe, mostly in the clade Splendidi. This study provides a solid foundation for future ecological, taxonomic and systematic research on one of the most diverse genera of mushrooms worldwide.

  4. A novel molecular mechanism involved in multiple myeloma development revealed by targeting MafB to haematopoietic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; González-Herrero, Inés; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Abollo-Jiménez, Fernando; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Gutierrez, Norma C; Orfao, Alberto; Marín, Nieves; Villar, Luisa María; Criado, Ma Carmen Fernández; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Alonso-López, Diego; De Las Rivas, Javier; Jiménez, Rafael; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Lossos, Izidore S; Cobaleda, César; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cellular origin of cancer can help to improve disease prevention and therapeutics. Human plasma cell neoplasias are thought to develop from either differentiated B cells or plasma cells. However, when the expression of Maf oncogenes (associated to human plasma cell neoplasias) is targeted to mouse B cells, the resulting animals fail to reproduce the human disease. Here, to explore early cellular changes that might take place in the development of plasma cell neoplasias, we engineered transgenic mice to express MafB in haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs). Unexpectedly, we show that plasma cell neoplasias arise in the MafB-transgenic mice. Beyond their clinical resemblance to human disease, these neoplasias highly express genes that are known to be upregulated in human multiple myeloma. Moreover, gene expression profiling revealed that MafB-expressing HS/PCs were more similar to B cells and tumour plasma cells than to any other subset, including wild-type HS/PCs. Consistent with this, genome-scale DNA methylation profiling revealed that MafB imposes an epigenetic program in HS/PCs, and that this program is preserved in mature B cells of MafB-transgenic mice, demonstrating a novel molecular mechanism involved in tumour initiation. Our findings suggest that, mechanistically, the haematopoietic progenitor population can be the target for transformation in MafB-associated plasma cell neoplasias. PMID:22903061

  5. SUNPLIN: Simulation with Uncertainty for Phylogenetic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative analyses usually rely on a single consensus phylogenetic tree in order to study evolutionary processes. However, most phylogenetic trees are incomplete with regard to species sampling, which may critically compromise analyses. Some approaches have been proposed to integrate non-molecular phylogenetic information into incomplete molecular phylogenies. An expanded tree approach consists of adding missing species to random locations within their clade. The information contained in the topology of the resulting expanded trees can be captured by the pairwise phylogenetic distance between species and stored in a matrix for further statistical analysis. Thus, the random expansion and processing of multiple phylogenetic trees can be used to estimate the phylogenetic uncertainty through a simulation procedure. Because of the computational burden required, unless this procedure is efficiently implemented, the analyses are of limited applicability. Results In this paper, we present efficient algorithms and implementations for randomly expanding and processing phylogenetic trees so that simulations involved in comparative phylogenetic analysis with uncertainty can be conducted in a reasonable time. We propose algorithms for both randomly expanding trees and calculating distance matrices. We made available the source code, which was written in the C++ language. The code may be used as a standalone program or as a shared object in the R system. The software can also be used as a web service through the link: http://purl.oclc.org/NET/sunplin/. Conclusion We compare our implementations to similar solutions and show that significant performance gains can be obtained. Our results open up the possibility of accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty in evolutionary and ecological analyses of large datasets. PMID:24229408

  6. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits.

  7. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits. PMID

  8. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  9. Profiling phylogenetic informativeness.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2007-04-01

    The resolution of four controversial topics in phylogenetic experimental design hinges upon the informativeness of characters about the historical relationships among taxa. These controversies regard the power of different classes of phylogenetic character, the relative utility of increased taxonomic versus character sampling, the differentiation between lack of phylogenetic signal and a historical rapid radiation, and the design of taxonomically broad phylogenetic studies optimized by taxonomically sparse genome-scale data. Quantification of the informativeness of characters for resolution of phylogenetic hypotheses during specified historical epochs is key to the resolution of these controversies. Here, such a measure of phylogenetic informativeness is formulated. The optimal rate of evolution of a character to resolve a dated four-taxon polytomy is derived. By scaling the asymptotic informativeness of a character evolving at a nonoptimal rate by the derived asymptotic optimum, and by normalizing so that net phylogenetic informativeness is equivalent for all rates when integrated across all of history, an informativeness profile across history is derived. Calculation of the informativeness per base pair allows estimation of the cost-effectiveness of character sampling. Calculation of the informativeness per million years allows comparison across historical radiations of the utility of a gene for the inference of rapid adaptive radiation. The theory is applied to profile the phylogenetic informativeness of the genes BRCA1, RAG1, GHR, and c-myc from a muroid rodent sequence data set. Bounded integrations of the phylogenetic profile of these genes over four epochs comprising the diversifications of the muroid rodents, the mammals, the lobe-limbed vertebrates, and the early metazoans demonstrate the differential power of these genes to resolve the branching order among ancestral lineages. This measure of phylogenetic informativeness yields a new kind of information

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of CRM1-Nup214 Interactions Reveals Multiple FG-Binding Sites Involved in Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Port, Sarah A; Monecke, Thomas; Dickmanns, Achim; Spillner, Christiane; Hofele, Romina; Urlaub, Henning; Ficner, Ralf; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2015-10-27

    CRM1 is the major nuclear export receptor. During translocation through the nuclear pore, transport complexes transiently interact with phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats of multiple nucleoporins. On the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore, CRM1 tightly interacts with the nucleoporin Nup214. Here, we present the crystal structure of a 117-amino-acid FG-repeat-containing fragment of Nup214, in complex with CRM1, Snurportin 1, and RanGTP at 2.85 Å resolution. The structure reveals eight binding sites for Nup214 FG motifs on CRM1, with intervening stretches that are loosely attached to the transport receptor. Nup214 binds to N- and C-terminal regions of CRM1, thereby clamping CRM1 in a closed conformation and stabilizing the export complex. The role of conserved hydrophobic pockets for the recognition of FG motifs was analyzed in biochemical and cell-based assays. Comparative studies with RanBP3 and Nup62 shed light on specificities of CRM1-nucleoporin binding, which serves as a paradigm for transport receptor-nucleoporin interactions.

  11. Quantitative superresolution microscopy reveals differences in nuclear DNA organization of multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Sathitruangsak, Chirawadee; Righolt, Christiaan H; Klewes, Ludger; Tammur, Pille; Ilus, Tiiu; Tamm, Anu; Punab, Mari; Olujohungbe, Adebayo; Mai, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian nucleus has a distinct substructure that cannot be visualized directly by conventional microscopy. In this study, the organization of the DNA within the nucleus of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, their precursor cells (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; MGUS) and control lymphocytes of the representative patients is visualized and quantified by superresolution microscopy. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) increases the spatial resolution beyond the limits of conventional widefield fluorescence microscopy. 3D-SIM reveals new insights into the nuclear architecture of cancer as we show for the first time that it resolves organizational differences in intranuclear DNA organization of myeloma cells in MGUS and in MM patients. In addition, we report a significant increase in nuclear submicron DNA structure and structure of the DNA-free space in myeloma nuclei compared to normal lymphocyte nuclei. Our study provides previously unknown details of the nanoscopic DNA architecture of interphase nuclei of the normal lymphocytes, MGUS and MM cells. This study opens new avenues to understanding the disease progression from MGUS to MM.

  12. Phylogeography of Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Ranidae) and multiple refugia on the Tibetan Plateau revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Cuimin; Fu, Dongli; Hu, Xiaoju; Xie, Xiangmo; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Meng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic changes have been recognized to influence the distribution patterns and evolutionary histories of extant organisms, but their effects on alpine species are not well understood. To investigate the Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the genetic structure of amphibians, we sequenced one mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA fragments in Nanorana parkeri, a frog endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, across its distribution range in the southern plateau. Mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and three nuclear genes (c-Myc2, Rhod, and Tyr) revealed two distinct lineages (i.e. the lineages East and West), which were strongly geographically structured. The split of the two divergent lineages was dated back earlier than the Middle Pleistocene, probably being associated with climatic and ecological factors. Species distribution modeling, together with the phylogeographic structuring, supported the hypothesis of multiple refugia for N. parkeri on the Tibetan Plateau during the Pleistocene glaciations, and suggested the Yarlung Zangbo valley and the Kyichu catchment to be the potential refugia. Our findings indicate that Pleistocene climatic changes have had a great impact on the evolution and demographic history of N. parkeri. Our study has important implications for conservation of this and other frog species in the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25985205

  13. Comparative proteomic profiling of refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma reveals biomarkers involved in resistance to bortezomib-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Tomasz; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Brzezniakiewicz, Katarzyna; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Giannopoulos, Krzysztof; Przybylowicz-Chalecka, Anna; Ratajczak, Blazej; Czerwinska-Rybak, Joanna; Nowicki, Adam; Joks, Monika; Czechowska, Elzbieta; Zawartko, Magdalena; Szczepaniak, Tomasz; Grzasko, Norbert; Morawska, Marta; Bochenek, Maciej; Kubicki, Tadeusz; Morawska, Michalina; Tusznio, Katarzyna; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biomarkers of the resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) is a key research challenge. We aimed to identify proteins that differentiate plasma cells in patients with refractory/relapsed MM (RRMM) who achieved at least very good partial response (VGPR) and in those with reduced response to PAD chemotherapy (bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone). Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on pretreatment plasma cells from 77 proteasome inhibitor naïve patients treated subsequently with PAD due to RRMM. To increase data confidence we used two independent proteomic platforms: isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and label free (LF). Proteins were considered as differentially expressed when their accumulation between groups differed by at least 50% in iTRAQ and LF. The proteomic signature revealed 118 proteins (35 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated in ≥ VGPR group). Proteins were classified into four classes: (1) involved in proteasome function; (2) involved in the response to oxidative stress; (3) related to defense response; and (4) regulating the apoptotic process. We confirmed the differential expression of proteasome activator complex subunit 1 (PSME1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Increased expression of proteasomes and proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress (eg., TXN, TXNDC5) plays a major role in bortezomib resistance. PMID:27527861

  14. A functional dissociation between language and multiple-demand systems revealed in patterns of BOLD signal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Blank, Idan; Kanwisher, Nancy; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between language and other high-level cognitive functions? Neuroimaging studies have begun to illuminate this question, revealing that some brain regions are quite selectively engaged during language processing, whereas other "multiple-demand" (MD) regions are broadly engaged by diverse cognitive tasks. Nonetheless, the functional dissociation between the language and MD systems remains controversial. Here, we tackle this question with a synergistic combination of functional MRI methods: we first define candidate language-specific and MD regions in each subject individually (using functional localizers) and then measure blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations in these regions during two naturalistic conditions ("rest" and story-comprehension). In both conditions, signal fluctuations strongly correlate among language regions as well as among MD regions, but correlations across systems are weak or negative. Moreover, data-driven clustering analyses based on these inter-region correlations consistently recover two clusters corresponding to the language and MD systems. Thus although each system forms an internally integrated whole, the two systems dissociate sharply from each other. This independent recruitment of the language and MD systems during cognitive processing is consistent with the hypothesis that these two systems support distinct cognitive functions.

  15. Preliminary whole-exome sequencing reveals mutations that imply common tumorigenicity pathways in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Minerva Angélica Romero; Fowler, Richard G.; Lucas, F. Anthony San; Shen, Jie; Rich, Thereasa A.; Grubbs, Elizabeth G.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Scheet, Paul; Perrier, Nancy D.; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole-exome sequencing studies have not established definitive somatic mutation patterns among patients with sporadic hyperparathyroidism (HPT). No sequencing has evaluated multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related HPT. We sought to perform whole-exome sequencing in HPT patients to identify somatic mutations and associated biological pathways and tumorigenic networks. Methods Whole-exome sequencing was performed on blood and tissue from HPT patients (MEN1 and sporadic) and somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified. Stop-gain and stop-loss SNVs were analyzed with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was also assessed. Results Sequencing was performed on 4 MEN1 and 10 sporadic cases. Eighteen stop-gain/stop-loss SNV mutations were identified in 3 MEN1 patients. One complex network was identified on IPA: Cellular function and maintenance, tumor morphology, and cardiovascular disease (IPA score = 49). A nonsynonymous SNV of TP53 (lysine-to-glutamic acid change at codon 81) identified in a MEN1 patient was suggested to be a driver mutation (Cancer-specific High-throughput Annotation of Somatic Mutations; P = .002). All MEN1 and 3/10 sporadic specimens demonstrated LOH of chromosome 11. Conclusion Whole-exome sequencing revealed somatic mutations in MEN1 associated with a single tumorigenic network, whereas sporadic pathogenesis seemed to be more diverse. A somatic TP53 mutation was also identified. LOH of chromosome 11 was seen in all MEN1 and 3 of 10 sporadic patients. PMID:25456907

  16. Quantitative proteome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli exposed to tetracycline reveals multiple affected metabolic and peptidoglycan processes.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Moura, Inês Barata; Manageiro, Vera; Igrejas, Gilberto; Caniça, Manuela; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-03-06

    Tetracyclines are among the most commonly used antibiotics administrated to farm animals for disease treatment and prevention, contributing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Although tetracycline mechanisms of resistance are well known, the role of metabolism in bacterial reaction to antibiotic stress is still an important assignment and could contribute to the understanding of tetracycline related stress response. In this study, spectral counts-based label free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study the response to tetracycline of the environmental-borne Escherichia coli EcAmb278 isolate soluble proteome. A total of 1484 proteins were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry at a false discovery rate threshold of 1%, of which 108 were uniquely identified under absence of tetracycline whereas 126 were uniquely identified in presence of tetracycline. These proteins revealed interesting difference in e.g. proteins involved in peptidoglycan-based cell wall proteins and energy metabolism. Upon treatment, 12 proteins were differentially regulated showing more than 2-fold change and p<0.05 (p value corrected for multiple testing). This integrated study using high resolution mass spectrometry based label-free quantitative proteomics to study tetracycline antibiotic response in the soluble proteome of resistant E. coli provides novel insight into tetracycline related stress.

  17. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  18. Phylogeography of Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Ranidae) and multiple refugia on the Tibetan Plateau revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Cuimin; Fu, Dongli; Hu, Xiaoju; Xie, Xiangmo; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Meng-Hua

    2015-05-18

    Quaternary climatic changes have been recognized to influence the distribution patterns and evolutionary histories of extant organisms, but their effects on alpine species are not well understood. To investigate the Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the genetic structure of amphibians, we sequenced one mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA fragments in Nanorana parkeri, a frog endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, across its distribution range in the southern plateau. Mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and three nuclear genes (c-Myc2, Rhod, and Tyr) revealed two distinct lineages (i.e. the lineages East and West), which were strongly geographically structured. The split of the two divergent lineages was dated back earlier than the Middle Pleistocene, probably being associated with climatic and ecological factors. Species distribution modeling, together with the phylogeographic structuring, supported the hypothesis of multiple refugia for N. parkeri on the Tibetan Plateau during the Pleistocene glaciations, and suggested the Yarlung Zangbo valley and the Kyichu catchment to be the potential refugia. Our findings indicate that Pleistocene climatic changes have had a great impact on the evolution and demographic history of N. parkeri. Our study has important implications for conservation of this and other frog species in the Tibetan Plateau.

  19. A functional dissociation between language and multiple-demand systems revealed in patterns of BOLD signal fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Kanwisher, Nancy; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2014-01-01

    What is the relationship between language and other high-level cognitive functions? Neuroimaging studies have begun to illuminate this question, revealing that some brain regions are quite selectively engaged during language processing, whereas other “multiple-demand” (MD) regions are broadly engaged by diverse cognitive tasks. Nonetheless, the functional dissociation between the language and MD systems remains controversial. Here, we tackle this question with a synergistic combination of functional MRI methods: we first define candidate language-specific and MD regions in each subject individually (using functional localizers) and then measure blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations in these regions during two naturalistic conditions (“rest” and story-comprehension). In both conditions, signal fluctuations strongly correlate among language regions as well as among MD regions, but correlations across systems are weak or negative. Moreover, data-driven clustering analyses based on these inter-region correlations consistently recover two clusters corresponding to the language and MD systems. Thus although each system forms an internally integrated whole, the two systems dissociate sharply from each other. This independent recruitment of the language and MD systems during cognitive processing is consistent with the hypothesis that these two systems support distinct cognitive functions. PMID:24872535

  20. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Maxwell, Peter; Huttley, Gavin A

    2005-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational processes, DNA repair and

  1. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomophthoromycota Humber is one of five major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular st...

  2. Physiological Stress Responses in Amphibian Larvae to Multiple Stressors Reveal Marked Anthropogenic Effects even below Lethal Levels.

    PubMed

    Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    Natural and anthropogenic disturbances cause profound alterations in organisms, inducing physiological adjustments to avoid, reduce, or remedy the impact of disturbances. In vertebrates, the stress response is regulated via neuroendocrine pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects on multiple physiological pathways, affecting the metabolic rate, reactive oxygen species production, or immune system. Determining the extent to which natural and anthropogenic environmental factors induce stress responses in vertebrates is of great importance in ecology and conservation biology. Here we study the physiological stress response in spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) against three levels of a series of natural and anthropogenic stressors common to many aquatic systems: salinity (0, 6, and 9 ppt), herbicide (0, 1, and 2 mg/L acid equivalent of glyphosate), water acidity (pH 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5), predators (absent, native, and invasive), and temperature (21°, 25°, and 29°C). The physiological stress response was assessed examining corticosterone levels, standard metabolic rate, activity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative cellular damage in lipids, and immunological status. We found that common stressors substantially altered the physiological state of tadpoles. In particular, salinity and herbicides cause dramatic physiological changes in tadpoles. Moreover, tadpoles reduced corticosterone levels in the presence of natural predators but did not do so against invasive predators, indicating a lack of innate recognition. Corticosterone and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase were the most sensitive parameters to stress in this study. Anthropogenic perturbations of aquatic systems pose serious threats to larval amphibians even at nonlethal concentrations, judging from the marked physiological stress responses generated, and reveal the importance of

  3. Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse

    PubMed Central

    Krzeminski, Patryk; Corchete, Luis A.; García, Juan L.; López-Corral, Lucía; Fermiñán, Encarna; García, Eva M.; Martín, Ana A.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.; García-Sanz, Ramón; Miguel, Jesús F. San; Gutiérrez, Norma C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse. PMID:27811368

  4. Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse.

    PubMed

    Krzeminski, Patryk; Corchete, Luis A; García, Juan L; López-Corral, Lucía; Fermiñán, Encarna; García, Eva M; Martín, Ana A; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F; Gutiérrez, Norma C

    2016-12-06

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse.

  5. The Yellow-green Bush-tanager is neither a bush-tanager nor a sparrow:
    Molecular phylogenetics reveals that Chlorospingus flavovirens is a tanager (Aves: Passeriformes; Thraupidae).

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Barker, F Keith; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2016-07-06

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the genus Chlorospingus (Aves: Emberizidae) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic because Chlorospingus flavovirens is actually a member of the tanager family (Thraupidae), in which its closest relatives are members of the genus Bangsia. We thus propose that C. flavovirens be transferred to Thraupidae and to the genus Bangsia.

  6. Point estimates in phylogenetic reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Philipp; Bačák, Miroslav; Bourguignon, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The construction of statistics for summarizing posterior samples returned by a Bayesian phylogenetic study has so far been hindered by the poor geometric insights available into the space of phylogenetic trees, and ad hoc methods such as the derivation of a consensus tree makeup for the ill-definition of the usual concepts of posterior mean, while bootstrap methods mitigate the absence of a sound concept of variance. Yielding satisfactory results with sufficiently concentrated posterior distributions, such methods fall short of providing a faithful summary of posterior distributions if the data do not offer compelling evidence for a single topology. Results: Building upon previous work of Billera et al., summary statistics such as sample mean, median and variance are defined as the geometric median, Fréchet mean and variance, respectively. Their computation is enabled by recently published works, and embeds an algorithm for computing shortest paths in the space of trees. Studying the phylogeny of a set of plants, where several tree topologies occur in the posterior sample, the posterior mean balances correctly the contributions from the different topologies, where a consensus tree would be biased. Comparisons of the posterior mean, median and consensus trees with the ground truth using simulated data also reveals the benefits of a sound averaging method when reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Availability and implementation: We provide two independent implementations of the algorithm for computing Fréchet means, geometric medians and variances in the space of phylogenetic trees. TFBayes: https://github.com/pbenner/tfbayes, TrAP: https://github.com/bacak/TrAP. Contact: philipp.benner@mis.mpg.de PMID:25161244

  7. A practical guide to phylogenetics for nonexperts.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien

    2014-02-05

    Many researchers, across incredibly diverse foci, are applying phylogenetics to their research question(s). However, many researchers are new to this topic and so it presents inherent problems. Here we compile a practical introduction to phylogenetics for nonexperts. We outline in a step-by-step manner, a pipeline for generating reliable phylogenies from gene sequence datasets. We begin with a user-guide for similarity search tools via online interfaces as well as local executables. Next, we explore programs for generating multiple sequence alignments followed by protocols for using software to determine best-fit models of evolution. We then outline protocols for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships via maximum likelihood and Bayesian criteria and finally describe tools for visualizing phylogenetic trees. While this is not by any means an exhaustive description of phylogenetic approaches, it does provide the reader with practical starting information on key software applications commonly utilized by phylogeneticists. The vision for this article would be that it could serve as a practical training tool for researchers embarking on phylogenetic studies and also serve as an educational resource that could be incorporated into a classroom or teaching-lab.

  8. A Practical Guide to Phylogenetics for Nonexperts

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers, across incredibly diverse foci, are applying phylogenetics to their research question(s). However, many researchers are new to this topic and so it presents inherent problems. Here we compile a practical introduction to phylogenetics for nonexperts. We outline in a step-by-step manner, a pipeline for generating reliable phylogenies from gene sequence datasets. We begin with a user-guide for similarity search tools via online interfaces as well as local executables. Next, we explore programs for generating multiple sequence alignments followed by protocols for using software to determine best-fit models of evolution. We then outline protocols for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships via maximum likelihood and Bayesian criteria and finally describe tools for visualizing phylogenetic trees. While this is not by any means an exhaustive description of phylogenetic approaches, it does provide the reader with practical starting information on key software applications commonly utilized by phylogeneticists. The vision for this article would be that it could serve as a practical training tool for researchers embarking on phylogenetic studies and also serve as an educational resource that could be incorporated into a classroom or teaching-lab. PMID:24562012

  9. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Evan L; Matthews, Luke J; Hare, Brian A; Nunn, Charles L; Anderson, Rindy C; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M; Emery, Nathan J; Haun, Daniel B M; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F; Platt, Michael L; Rosati, Alexandra G; Sandel, Aaron A; Schroepfer, Kara K; Seed, Amanda M; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P; Wobber, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution.

  10. Genome-wide comparison and taxonomic relatedness of multiple Xylella fastidiosa strains reveal the occurrence of three subspecies and a new Xylella species.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A total of 21 Xylella fastidiosa strains were assessed by comparing their genomes to infer their taxonomic relationships. The whole-genome-based average nucleotide identity and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient analyses were performed. In addition, a consensus tree based on comparisons of 956 core gene families, and a genome-wide phylogenetic tree and a Neighbor-net network were constructed with 820,088 nucleotides (i.e., approximately 30-33 % of the entire X. fastidiosa genome). All approaches revealed the occurrence of three well-demarcated genetic clusters that represent X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, with the latter appeared to diverge. We suggest that the proposed but never formally described subspecies 'sandyi' and 'morus' are instead members of the subspecies fastidiosa. These analyses support the view that the Xylella strain isolated from Pyrus pyrifolia in Taiwan is likely to be a new species. A widely used multilocus sequence typing analysis yielded conflicting results.

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia phenocopy revealed as a co-occurring neuroendocrine tumor and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Silje; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Nissen, Peter H; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Rolighed, Lars; Ladefoged, Søren A; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism and/or suspected multiple neoplasia syndrome, as correct diagnosis will spare the patients for going through multiple futile parathyroidectomies and for the worry of being diagnosed with a cancer susceptibility syndrome.

  12. Visual exploration of parameter influence on phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Hess, Martin; Bremm, Sebastian; Weissgraeber, Stephanie; Hamacher, Kay; Goesele, Michael; Wiemeyer, Josef; von Landesberger, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships between organisms are frequently derived as phylogenetic trees inferred from multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). The MSA parameter space is exponentially large, so tens of thousands of potential trees can emerge for each dataset. A proposed visual-analytics approach can reveal the parameters' impact on the trees. Given input trees created with different parameter settings, it hierarchically clusters the trees according to their structural similarity. The most important clusters of similar trees are shown together with their parameters. This view offers interactive parameter exploration and automatic identification of relevant parameters. Biologists applied this approach to real data of 16S ribosomal RNA and protein sequences of ion channels. It revealed which parameters affected the tree structures. This led to a more reliable selection of the best trees.

  13. The phylogenetic likelihood library.

    PubMed

    Flouri, T; Izquierdo-Carrasco, F; Darriba, D; Aberer, A J; Nguyen, L-T; Minh, B Q; Von Haeseler, A; Stamatakis, A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Phylogenetic Likelihood Library (PLL), a highly optimized application programming interface for developing likelihood-based phylogenetic inference and postanalysis software. The PLL implements appropriate data structures and functions that allow users to quickly implement common, error-prone, and labor-intensive tasks, such as likelihood calculations, model parameter as well as branch length optimization, and tree space exploration. The highly optimized and parallelized implementation of the phylogenetic likelihood function and a thorough documentation provide a framework for rapid development of scalable parallel phylogenetic software. By example of two likelihood-based phylogenetic codes we show that the PLL improves the sequential performance of current software by a factor of 2-10 while requiring only 1 month of programming time for integration. We show that, when numerical scaling for preventing floating point underflow is enabled, the double precision likelihood calculations in the PLL are up to 1.9 times faster than those in BEAGLE. On an empirical DNA dataset with 2000 taxa the AVX version of PLL is 4 times faster than BEAGLE (scaling enabled and required). The PLL is available at http://www.libpll.org under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

  14. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Li, Fan; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Morosawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sungmin; Koo, Hyeyoung; Kim, Won; Lee, Jae-Seong; He, Shunping; Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin; Miya, Masaki; Sado, Tetsuya; Uehara, Kazuhiko; Lavoué, Sébastien; Chen, Wei-Jen; Mayden, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Bitterlings are relatively small cypriniform species and extremely interesting evolutionarily due to their unusual reproductive behaviors and their coevolutionary relationships with freshwater mussels. As a group, they have attracted a great deal of attention in biological studies. Understanding the origin and evolution of their mating system demands a well-corroborated hypothesis of their evolutionary relationships. In this study, we provide the most comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of species relationships of the group based on partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods using DNA sequence variation of nuclear and mitochondrial genes on 41 species, several subspecies and three undescribed species. Our findings support the monophyly of the Acheilognathidae. Two of the three currently recognized genera are not monophyletic and the family can be subdivided into six clades. These clades are further regarded as genera based on both their phylogenetic relationships and a reappraisal of morphological characters. We present a revised classification for the Acheilognathidae with five genera/lineages: Rhodeus, Acheilognathus (new constitution), Tanakia (new constitution), Paratanakia gen. nov., and Pseudorhodeus gen. nov. and an unnamed clade containing five species currently referred to as "Acheilognathus". Gene trees of several bitterling species indicate that the taxa are not monophyletic. This result highlights a potentially dramatic underestimation of species diversity in this family. Using our new phylogenetic framework, we discuss the evolution of the Acheilognathidae relative to classification, taxonomy and biogeography.

  16. Phylogenetic conservatism of extinctions in marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kaustuv; Hunt, Gene; Jablonski, David

    2009-08-07

    Evolutionary histories of species and lineages can influence their vulnerabilities to extinction, but the importance of this effect remains poorly explored for extinctions in the geologic past. When analyzed using a standardized taxonomy within a phylogenetic framework, extinction rates of marine bivalves estimated from the fossil record for the last approximately 200 million years show conservatism at multiple levels of evolutionary divergence, both within individual families and among related families. The strength of such phylogenetic clustering varies over time and is influenced by earlier extinction history, especially by the demise of volatile taxa in the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Analyses of the evolutionary roles of ancient extinctions and predictive models of vulnerability of taxa to future natural and anthropogenic stressors should take phylogenetic relationships and extinction history into account.

  17. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  18. Phylogenetic relationships between chlorophytes, chrysophytes, and oomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, J H; Elwood, H; Ingold, A; Kindle, K; Sogin, M L

    1987-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the chrysophyte Ochromonas danica, and the oomycete Achyla bisexualis were explored by comparing the sequences of their small-subunit ribosomal RNA coding regions. Comparisons of similarity values or inspection of phylogenetic trees constructed by distance matrix methods reveal a very close relationship between oomycetes and chrysophytes. The separation of chrysophytes from chlorophytes is comparable to that of plants from animals, and both separations are far antedated by the divergence of a number of other protist groups. PMID:3475703

  19. How Diverse Is the Genus Wolbachia? Multiple-Gene Sequencing Reveals a Putatively New Wolbachia Supergroup Recovered from Spider Mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Vera I. D.; Fleming, Vicki M.; Feil, Edward J.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.

    2009-01-01

    At least 20% of all arthropods and some nematode species are infected with intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. This highly diverse genus has been subdivided into eight “supergroups” (A to H) on the basis of nucleotide sequence data. Here, we report the discovery of a new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from the spider mite species Bryobia species V (Acari: Tetranychidae), based on the sequences of three protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA, and groEL) and the 16S rRNA gene. Other tetranychid mites possess supergroup B Wolbachia strains. The discovery of another Wolbachia supergroup expands the known diversity of Wolbachia and emphasizes the high variability of the genus. Our data also clarify the existing supergroup structure and highlight the use of multiple gene sequences for robust phylogenetic analysis. In addition to previous reports of recombination between the arthropod-infecting supergroups A and B, we provide evidence for recombination between the nematode-infecting supergroups C and D. Robust delineation of supergroups is essential for understanding the origin and spread of this common reproductive parasite and for unraveling mechanisms of host adaptation and manipulation across a wide range of hosts. PMID:19098217

  20. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  1. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  2. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure.

  3. Refuting phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bucknam, James; Boucher, Yan; Bapteste, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic methods are philosophically grounded, and so can be philosophically biased in ways that limit explanatory power. This constitutes an important methodologic dimension not often taken into account. Here we address this dimension in the context of concatenation approaches to phylogeny. Results We discuss some of the limits of a methodology restricted to verificationism, the philosophy on which gene concatenation practices generally rely. As an alternative, we describe a software which identifies and focuses on impossible or refuted relationships, through a simple analysis of bootstrap bipartitions, followed by multivariate statistical analyses. We show how refuting phylogenetic relationships could in principle facilitate systematics. We also apply our method to the study of two complex phylogenies: the phylogeny of the archaea and the phylogeny of the core of genes shared by all life forms. While many groups are rejected, our results left open a possible proximity of N. equitans and the Methanopyrales, of the Archaea and the Cyanobacteria, and as well the possible grouping of the Methanobacteriales/Methanoccocales and Thermosplasmatales, of the Spirochaetes and the Actinobacteria and of the Proteobacteria and firmicutes. Conclusion It is sometimes easier (and preferable) to decide which species do not group together than which ones do. When possible topologies are limited, identifying local relationships that are rejected may be a useful alternative to classical concatenation approaches aiming to find a globally resolved tree on the basis of weak phylogenetic markers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Mark Ragan, Eugene V Koonin and J Peter Gogarten. PMID:16956399

  4. Alu elements and hominid phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Salem, Abdel-Halim; Ray, David A; Xing, Jinchuan; Callinan, Pauline A; Myers, Jeremy S; Hedges, Dale J; Garber, Randall K; Witherspoon, David J; Jorde, Lynn B; Batzer, Mark A

    2003-10-28

    Alu elements have inserted in primate genomes throughout the evolution of the order. One particular Alu lineage (Ye) began amplifying relatively early in hominid evolution and continued propagating at a low level as many of its members are found in a variety of hominid genomes. This study represents the first conclusive application of short interspersed elements, which are considered nearly homoplasy-free, to elucidate the phylogeny of hominids. Phylogenetic analysis of Alu Ye5 elements and elements from several other subfamilies reveals high levels of support for monophyly of Hominidae, tribe Hominini and subtribe Hominina. Here we present the strongest evidence reported to date for a sister relationship between humans and chimpanzees while clearly distinguishing the chimpanzee and human lineages.

  5. P-wave travel-time tomography reveals multiple mantle upwellings beneath the northern East-Africa Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Civiero, C.; Goes, S. D. B.; Ahmed, A.; Ayele, A.; Doubre, C.; Goitom, B.; Keir, D.; Kendall, M.; Leroy, S. D.; Ogubazghi, G.; Rumpker, G.; Stuart, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) shows evidence for active magmatism from the eruption of flood basalts 30 Ma to active volcanism associated with rifting today. Mantle plumes have been invoked as the likely cause. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed models ranging from a single broad plume, the African Superplume, connected to the LLSVP beneath Southern Africa, to multiple distinct sources of upwelling along the East-Africa Rift. We present a new relative travel-time tomography model that images detailed P-wave velocities below the northern East-African rift from the surface to lower mantle depths. Data comes from 439 stations that cover the area from Tanzania to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated dataset allows us to image for the first time low-velocity structures of ~ 100-km length scales down to depths of 900 km beneath this region. Our images provide evidence of at least two separate low-velocity structures with a diameter of ~200 km that continue through the transition zone and into the lower mantle: the first, and most pronounced, is beneath the Afar Depression, which extends to at least 900 km depth and a second is located beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift that extends to at least 750 km. Taking into account seismic sensitivity to temperature and thermally controlled phase boundary topography, we interpret these features as multiple focused upwellings from below the transition zone with excess temperatures of ~ 100-150 K. Such temperatures are also fully consistent with previous petrological and other geophysical estimates. Furthermore, the separate structures could explain differences in geochemistry of erupted magmas along the rift zone, as well as the dynamic topography seen at the surface. Our findings thus support the involvement of multiple plumes in the evolution of the EAR and a direct connection between lower mantle features and the volcanism at the surface.

  6. Analysis of Multiple Tsetse Fly Populations in Uganda Reveals Limited Diversity and Species-Specific Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Telleria, Erich L.; Echodu, Richard; Wu, Yineng; Okedi, Loyce M.; Weiss, Brian L.; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate microbiome contributes to multiple aspects of host physiology, including nutrient supplementation and immune maturation processes. We identified and compared gut microbial abundance and diversity in natural tsetse flies from Uganda using five genetically distinct populations of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and multiple tsetse species (Glossina morsitans morsitans, G. f. fuscipes, and Glossina pallidipes) that occur in sympatry in one location. We used multiple approaches, including deep sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and bacterium-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR), to investigate the levels and patterns of gut microbial diversity from a total of 151 individuals. Our results show extremely limited diversity in field flies of different tsetse species. The obligate endosymbiont Wigglesworthia dominated all samples (>99%), but we also observed wide prevalence of low-density Sodalis (tsetse's commensal endosymbiont) infections (<0.05%). There were also several individuals (22%) with high Sodalis density, which also carried coinfections with Serratia. Albeit in low density, we noted differences in microbiota composition among the genetically distinct G. f. fuscipes flies and between different sympatric species. Interestingly, Wigglesworthia density varied in different species (104 to 106 normalized genomes), with G. f. fuscipes having the highest levels. We describe the factors that may be responsible for the reduced diversity of tsetse's gut microbiota compared to those of other insects. Additionally, we discuss the implications of Wigglesworthia and Sodalis density variations as they relate to trypanosome transmission dynamics and vector competence variations associated with different tsetse species. PMID:24814785

  7. Genetic analysis across different spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Darling, John A; Folino-Rorem, Nadine C

    2009-12-01

    Discerning patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. The globally invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora produces propagules both sexually and vegetatively and is associated with multiple potential dispersal mechanisms, making it a promising system to investigate complex patterns of population structure generated throughout the course of rapid range expansion. Here, we explore genetic patterns associated with the spread of this taxon within the North American Great Lakes basin. We collected intensively from eight harbours in the Chicago area in order to conduct detailed investigation of local population expansion. In addition, we collected from Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, as well as Lake Cayuga in the Finger Lakes of upstate New York in order to assess genetic structure on a regional scale. Based on data from eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci we examined the spatial extent of clonal genotypes, assessed levels of neutral genetic diversity, and explored patterns of migration and dispersal at multiple spatial scales through assessment of population level genetic differentiation (pairwise F(ST) and factorial correspondence analysis), Bayesian inference of population structure, and assignment tests on individual genotypes. Results of these analyses indicate that Cordylophora populations in this region spread predominantly through sexually produced propagules, and that while limited natural larval dispersal can drive expansion locally, regional expansion likely relies on anthropogenic dispersal vectors.

  8. A cell protection screen reveals potent inhibitors of multiple stages of the hepatitis C virus life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Simeon, Rudo L.; Rice, Charles M.; Chen, Zhilei

    2010-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle involves multiple steps, but most current drug candidates target only viral replication. The inability to systematically discover inhibitors targeting multiple steps of the HCV life cycle has hampered antiviral development. We present a simple screen for HCV antivirals based on the alleviation of HCV-mediated cytopathic effect in an engineered cell line—n4mBid. This approach obviates the need for a secondary screen to avoid cytotoxic false-positive hits. Application of our screen to 1280 compounds, many in clinical trials or approved for therapeutic use, yielded >200 hits. Of the 55 leading hits, 47 inhibited one or more aspects of the HCV life cycle by >40%. Six compounds blocked HCV entry to levels similar to an antibody (JS-81) targeting the HCV entry receptor CD81. Seven hits inhibited HCV replication and/or infectious virus production by >100-fold, with one (quinidine) inhibiting infectious virus production by 450-fold relative to HCV replication levels. This approach is simple and inexpensive and should enable the rapid discovery of new classes of HCV life cycle inhibitors. PMID:20142494

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of ALAD and MGP genes related to lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shaik, A P; Khan, M; Jamil, K

    2009-07-01

    Experimental studies in our laboratory have established the role of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP) gene polymorphisms in the etiology of lead toxicity. Polymorphisms in these genes influenced the levels of lead in subjects exposed to this metal. In extension to our studies, we aimed to investigate the possible role of these proteins in evolution by studying the phylogenetic relationship and divergence of ALAD and MGP genes using computational phylogenetic methods. The human ALAD and MGP protein sequences from various species were retrieved from Swiss-Prot database and were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Multiple sequence alignment was carried out using ClustalW with defaults, and phylogenetic trees for both the genes were built using neighbor-joining method as in Mega software. Our study indicated that ALAD is a highly conserved protein with the same metal binding site distributed in all the phyla (from archaea to chordates). Phylogenetic analysis of MGP gene revealed that it had an important role in the evolution of endogenous skeleton in contrast to exoskeleton of insects. Occurrence of these genes in evolution with conserved metal binding sites strengthens the role of ALAD and MGP genes in regulating heme biosynthesis and mineralization, respectively, in evolution and helps in better understanding of lead poisoning.

  10. Multiple sulphur and oxygen isotopes reveal microbial sulphur cycling in spring waters in the Lower Engadin, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Harald; Chmiel, Hannah; Christ, Andreas; Fugmann, Artur; Hanselmann, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas; Königer, Paul; Lutter, Andreas; Siedenberg, Katharina; Teichert, Barbara M A

    2016-01-01

    Highly mineralized springs in the Scuol-Tarasp area of the Lower Engadin and in the Albula Valley near Alvaneu, Switzerland, display distinct differences with respect to the source and fate of their dissolved sulphur species. High sulphate concentrations and positive sulphur (δ(34)S) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopic compositions argue for the subsurface dissolution of Mesozoic evaporitic sulphate. In contrast, low sulphate concentrations and less positive or even negative δ(34)S and δ(18)O values indicate a substantial contribution of sulphate sulphur from the oxidation of sulphides in the crystalline basement rocks or the Jurassic sedimentary cover rocks. Furthermore, multiple sulphur (δ(34)S, Δ(33)S) isotopes support the identification of microbial sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation in the subsurface, the latter is also evident through the presence of thick aggregates of sulphide-oxidizing Thiothrix bacteria.

  11. Fine mapping analysis of HLA-DP/DQ gene clusters on chromosome 6 reveals multiple susceptibility loci for HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jingjing; Su, Kunkai; Yu, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Bingxun; Luo, Rui; Yao, Jian; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhan, Yan; Ye, Chao; Yuan, Wenji; Jiang, Xianzhong; Cui, Wenyan; Li, Ming D; Li, Lianjuan

    2015-12-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 as a susceptibility locus for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a finding subsequently replicated in independent samples. However, only limited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in most of these studies, and it remains to be determined which SNPs contribute to the detected association. After genotyping 140 SNPs within this genomic region in a total of 1657 HBV-positive patients and 1456 HBV-negative controls, we conducted a series of genetic epidemiological and bioinformatics analysis, including individual SNP-based association analysis, haplotype-based association analysis, and conditional analysis. We identified 76 SNPs and 5 LD blocks in HLA-DP/DQ clusters that are significantly associated with HBV infection, with the smallest P value being 3.88 × 10(-18) for rs9277535 in HLA-DPB1. With conditional analysis, we further revealed that the genes contributing to the effects of variants in HLA-DP/DQ on infection are independent of each other, and the LD block 5 in the 3'-UTR region of HLA-DPB1 had a predominant effect in the association of HLA-DP with HBV infection. We also found that the SNPs in the 3'-UTR region of HLA-DPB1 were significant between the subgroups of inactive HBV carrier, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatic cirrhosis from the case group and the spontaneous HBV-clearance subgroup from the control group. Finally, we did further association analysis of SNPs in this region with different subgroups from the case group, which revealed no association of these SNPs with the progression of HBV-related diseases. In sum, we showed, for the first time, that the HLA-DP/DQ clusters contribute independently to HBV infection, and the 3'-UTR region of HLA-DPB1 represents an important functional region involved in HBV infection.

  12. Validation and Genotyping of Multiple Human Polymorphic Inversions Mediated by Inverted Repeats Reveals a High Degree of Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Cristina; Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Villatoro, Sergi; Oliva, Meritxell; Izquierdo, David; Giner-Delgado, Carla; Montalvo, Víctor; García-González, Judit; Martínez-Fundichely, Alexander; Capilla, Laia; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Estivill, Xavier; Puig, Marta; Cáceres, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In recent years different types of structural variants (SVs) have been discovered in the human genome and their functional impact has become increasingly clear. Inversions, however, are poorly characterized and more difficult to study, especially those mediated by inverted repeats or segmental duplications. Here, we describe the results of a simple and fast inverse PCR (iPCR) protocol for high-throughput genotyping of a wide variety of inversions using a small amount of DNA. In particular, we analyzed 22 inversions predicted in humans ranging from 5.1 kb to 226 kb and mediated by inverted repeat sequences of 1.6–24 kb. First, we validated 17 of the 22 inversions in a panel of nine HapMap individuals from different populations, and we genotyped them in 68 additional individuals of European origin, with correct genetic transmission in ∼12 mother-father-child trios. Global inversion minor allele frequency varied between 1% and 49% and inversion genotypes were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. By analyzing the nucleotide variation and the haplotypes in these regions, we found that only four inversions have linked tag-SNPs and that in many cases there are multiple shared SNPs between standard and inverted chromosomes, suggesting an unexpected high degree of inversion recurrence during human evolution. iPCR was also used to check 16 of these inversions in four chimpanzees and two gorillas, and 10 showed both orientations either within or between species, providing additional support for their multiple origin. Finally, we have identified several inversions that include genes in the inverted or breakpoint regions, and at least one disrupts a potential coding gene. Thus, these results represent a significant advance in our understanding of inversion polymorphism in human populations and challenge the common view of a single origin of inversions, with important implications for inversion analysis in SNP-based studies. PMID:24651690

  13. Genetic Dissection of a Genomic Region with Pleiotropic Effects on Domestication Traits in Maize Reveals Multiple Linked QTL

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Zachary H.; Doebley, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The domesticated crop maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, have been used in numerous experiments to investigate the nature of divergent morphologies. This study examines a poorly understood region on the fifth chromosome of maize associated with a number of traits under selection during domestication, using a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping population specific to the fifth chromosome. In contrast with other major domestication loci in maize where large-effect, highly pleiotropic, single genes are responsible for phenotypic effects, our study found the region on chromosome five fractionates into multiple-QTL regions, none with singularly large effects. The smallest 1.5-LOD support interval for a QTL contained 54 genes, one of which was a MADS MIKCC transcription factor, a family of proteins implicated in many developmental programs. We also used simulated trait data sets to investigate the power of our mapping population to identify QTL for which there is a single underlying causal gene. This analysis showed that while QTL for traits controlled by single genes can be accurately mapped, our population design can detect no more than ∼4.5 QTL per trait even when there are 100 causal genes. Thus when a trait is controlled by ≥5 genes in the simulated data, the number of detected QTL can represent a simplification of the underlying causative factors. Our results show how a QTL region with effects on several domestication traits may be due to multiple linked QTL of small effect as opposed to a single gene with large and pleiotropic effects. PMID:24950893

  14. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Boag, Brian; Eden, John-Sebastian; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-03-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  15. LUT REVEALS AN ALGOL-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY WITH THREE ADDITIONAL STELLAR COMPANIONS IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.; Hu, J.-Y.

    2016-04-15

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i′ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M{sub ⊙}. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  16. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Boag, Brian; Ghedin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954–1955) and between 2008–2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms. PMID:28253375

  17. LUT Reveals an Algol-type Eclipsing Binary With Three Additional Stellar Companions in a Multiple System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Hu, J.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.

    2016-04-01

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson-Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O-C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i‧ ˜ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M⊙. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Rhizoctonia fungi within the Cantharellales

    PubMed Central

    Gónzalez, Dolores; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Boekhout, Teun; Stalpers, Joost; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Nakatani, Andreia K.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Cubeta, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Rhizoctonia fungi within the order Cantharellales were studied using sequence data from portions of the ribosomal DNA cluster regions ITS-LSU, rpb2, tef1 and atp6 for 50 taxa, and public sequence data from the rpb2 locus for 165 taxa. Data sets were analyzed individually and combined using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference methods. All analyses supported the monophyly of the family Ceratobasidiaceae, which comprises the genera Ceratobasidium and Thanatephorus. Multi-locus analysis revealed 10 well supported monophyletic groups that were consistent with previous separation into anastomosis groups based on hyphal fusion criteria. This analysis coupled with analyses of a larger sample of 165 rpb2 sequences of fungi in the Cantharellales supported a sister relationship between the Botryobasidiaceae and Ceratobasidiaceae and a sister relationship of the Tulasnellaceae with the rest of the Cantharellales. The inclusion of additional sequence data did not clarify incongruences observed in previous studies of Rhizoctonia fungi in the Cantharellales based on analyses of a single or multiple genes. The diversity of ecological and morphological characters associated with these fungi requires further investigation on character evolution for re-evaluating homologous and homoplasious characters. PMID:27020160

  19. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    PubMed

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-02-13

    filtering hypothesis. Our study demonstrates the importance of integrating multiple forms of diversity for understanding the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation, and further reveals that TIB could be extended to community measures by moving beyond assumptions of species equivalency in colonisation rates and extinction susceptibilities.

  20. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry reveals multiple clinically relevant masses in colorectal cancer using large-scale tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Andrea; Buchholz, Malte; Odinga, Sinje; Borkowski, Carina; Koop, Christina; Izbicki, Jacob R; Wurlitzer, Marcus; Krech, Till; Wilczak, Waldemar; Steurer, Stefan; Jacobsen, Frank; Burandt, Eike-Christian; Stahl, Phillip; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2017-01-24

    For identification of clinically relevant masses to predict status, grade, relapse and prognosis of colorectal cancer we applied MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to a tissue micro array (TMA) containing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 349 patients. Analysis of our MALDI-IMS data revealed 27 different m/z signals associated with epithelial structures. Comparison of these signals showed significant association with status, grade and Ki-67 labeling index. 15 out of 27 IMS signals revealed a significant association with survival. For 7 signals (m/z 654, 776, 788, 904, 944, 975, and 1013) the absence, and for 8 signals (m/z 643, 678, 836, 886, 898, 1095, 1459, and 1477) the presence was associated with decreased life expectancy, including 5 masses (m/z 788, 836, 904, 944, and 1013) that provided prognostic information independently from the established prognosticators pT and pN. Combination of these 5 masses resulted in a 3-step classifier that provided prognostic information superior to univariate analysis. In addition, a total of 19 masses were associated with tumor stage, grade, metastasis, and cell proliferation. Our data demonstrate the suitability of combining IMS and large-scale TMAs to simultaneously identify and validate clinically useful molecular marker.

  1. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  2. Simultaneous PET-MRI reveals brain function in activated and resting state on metabolic, hemodynamic and multiple temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Wehrl, Hans F; Hossain, Mosaddek; Lankes, Konrad; Liu, Chih-Chieh; Bezrukov, Ilja; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Reischl, Gerald; Pichler, Bernd J

    2013-09-01

    Combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new tool to study functional processes in the brain. Here we study brain function in response to a barrel-field stimulus simultaneously using PET, which traces changes in glucose metabolism on a slow time scale, and functional MRI (fMRI), which assesses fast vascular and oxygenation changes during activation. We found spatial and quantitative discrepancies between the PET and the fMRI activation data. The functional connectivity of the rat brain was assessed by both modalities: the fMRI approach determined a total of nine known neural networks, whereas the PET method identified seven glucose metabolism-related networks. These results demonstrate the feasibility of combined PET-MRI for the simultaneous study of the brain at activation and rest, revealing comprehensive and complementary information to further decode brain function and brain networks.

  3. A Quantitative Model of Motility Reveals Low-Dimensional Variation in Exploratory Behavior Across Multiple Nematode Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, Stephen; Avery, Leon; Stephens, Greg; Shimizu, Tom

    2014-03-01

    Animal behavior emerges from many layers of biological organization--from molecular signaling pathways and neuronal networks to mechanical outputs of muscles. In principle, the large number of interconnected variables at each of these layers could imply dynamics that are complex and hard to control or even tinker with. Yet, for organisms to survive in a competitive, ever-changing environment, behavior must readily adapt. We applied quantitative modeling to identify important aspects of behavior in chromadorean nematodes ranging from the lab strain C. elegans N2 to wild strains and distant species. We revealed subtle yet important features such as speed control and heavy-tailed directional changes. We found that the parameters describing this behavioral model varied among individuals and across species in a correlated way that is consistent with a trade-off between exploratory and exploitative behavior.

  4. Characterization of expressed class II MHC sequences in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) reveals multiple DRB loci.

    PubMed

    Busch, Joseph D; Waser, Peter M; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are exceptionally polymorphic due to the combined effects of natural and sexual selection. Most research in wild populations has focused on the second exon of a single class II locus (DRB), but complete gene sequences can provide an illuminating backdrop for studies of intragenic selection, recombination, and organization. To this end, we characterized class II loci in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Seven DRB-like sequences (provisionally named MhcDisp-DRB*01 through *07) were isolated from spleen cDNA and most likely comprise > or =5 loci; this multiformity is quite unlike the situation in muroid rodents such as Mus, Rattus, and Peromyscus. In silico translation revealed the presence of important structural residues for glycosylation sites, salt bonds, and CD4+ T-cell recognition. Amino-acid distances varied widely among the seven sequences (2-34%). Nuclear DNA sequences from the Disp-DRB*07 locus (approximately 10 kb) revealed a conventional exon/intron structure as well as a number of microsatellites and short interspersed nuclear elements (B4, Alu, and IDL-Geo subfamilies). Rates of nucleotide substitution at Disp-DRB*07 are similar in both exons and introns (pi = 0.015 and 0.012, respectively), which suggests relaxed selection and may indicate that this locus is an expressed pseudogene. Finally, we performed BLASTn searches against Dipodomys ordii genomic sequences (unassembled reads) and find 90-97% nucleotide similarity between the two kangaroo rat species. Collectively, these data suggest that class II diversity in heteromyid rodents is based on polylocism and departs from the muroid architecture.

  5. Multiple Sex-Associated Regions and a Putative Sex Chromosome in Zebrafish Revealed by RAD Mapping and Population Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jennifer L.; Rodríguez Marí, Adriana; Braasch, Ingo; Amores, Angel; Hohenlohe, Paul; Batzel, Peter; Postlethwait, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate), the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA) wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag) markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome. PMID:22792396

  6. Comparative analyses of lipidomes and transcriptomes reveal a concerted action of multiple defensive systems against photooxidative stress in Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Yunho; Hwang, Yong-sic; Wang, Baobei; Kim, Minju; Jeong, Jooyeon; Lee, Choul-Gyun; Hu, Qiang; Han, Danxiang; Jin, EonSeon

    2014-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis cells predominantly remain in the macrozooid stage under favourable environmental conditions but are rapidly differentiated into haematocysts upon exposure to various environmental stresses. Haematocysts are characterized by massive accumulations of astaxanthin sequestered in cytosolic oil globules. Lipidomic analyses revealed that synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated under high irradiance. Simultaneously, remodelling of membrane glycerolipids occurred as a result of dramatic reductions in chloroplast membrane glycolipids but remained unchanged or declined slightly in extraplastidic membrane glycerolipids. De novo assembly of transcriptomes revealed the genomic and metabolic features of this unsequenced microalga. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that so-called resting cells (haematocysts) may be more active than fast-growing vegetative cells (macrozooids) regarding metabolic pathways and functions. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of astaxanthin biosynthesis suggested that the non-mevalonate pathway mediated the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, as the majority of genes involved in subsequent astaxanthin biosynthesis were substantially up-regulated under high irradiance, with the genes encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and β-carotene hydroxylase identified as the most prominent regulatory components. Accumulation of TAG under high irradiance was attributed to moderate up-regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis at the gene level as well as to moderate elevation of the TAG assembly pathways. Additionally, inferred from transcriptomic differentiation, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, a decrease in ROS production, and the relaxation of over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain will work together to protect against photooxidative stress in H. pluvialis under high irradiance. PMID:24821952

  7. Comparative analyses of lipidomes and transcriptomes reveal a concerted action of multiple defensive systems against photooxidative stress in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Yunho; Hwang, Yong-sic; Wang, Baobei; Kim, Minju; Jeong, Jooyeon; Lee, Choul-Gyun; Hu, Qiang; Han, Danxiang; Jin, EonSeon

    2014-08-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis cells predominantly remain in the macrozooid stage under favourable environmental conditions but are rapidly differentiated into haematocysts upon exposure to various environmental stresses. Haematocysts are characterized by massive accumulations of astaxanthin sequestered in cytosolic oil globules. Lipidomic analyses revealed that synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated under high irradiance. Simultaneously, remodelling of membrane glycerolipids occurred as a result of dramatic reductions in chloroplast membrane glycolipids but remained unchanged or declined slightly in extraplastidic membrane glycerolipids. De novo assembly of transcriptomes revealed the genomic and metabolic features of this unsequenced microalga. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that so-called resting cells (haematocysts) may be more active than fast-growing vegetative cells (macrozooids) regarding metabolic pathways and functions. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of astaxanthin biosynthesis suggested that the non-mevalonate pathway mediated the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, as the majority of genes involved in subsequent astaxanthin biosynthesis were substantially up-regulated under high irradiance, with the genes encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and β-carotene hydroxylase identified as the most prominent regulatory components. Accumulation of TAG under high irradiance was attributed to moderate up-regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis at the gene level as well as to moderate elevation of the TAG assembly pathways. Additionally, inferred from transcriptomic differentiation, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, a decrease in ROS production, and the relaxation of over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain will work together to protect against photooxidative stress in H. pluvialis under high irradiance.

  8. The Distribution of Thermophilic Sulfate-reducing Bacteria Along an Estuarine Gradient Reveals Multiple Origins of Endospores in Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    Cold marine sediments harbour inactive spores of thermophilic bacteria. These misplaced thermophiles are genetically similar to microorganisms detected in deep biosphere environments, leading to the hypothesis that seabed fluid flow transports thermophiles out of warm subsurface environments and into the ocean. Estuaries form the transition between the marine and the terrestrial biosphere and are influenced by tidal currents, surface run-off and groundwater seepage. Endospores from thermophilic bacteria present in estuarine sediments could therefore originate from a number of sources that may influence the estuary differently. We have therefore tested the hypothesis that this will lead to a gradient in the composition of thermophilic endospore populations in estuarine sediments. The distribution of thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria along an estuarine gradient from freshwater (River Tyne, UK) to marine (North Sea) was investigated. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed changes in the thermophilic population enriched at different locations within the estuary. Certain species were only detected at the marine end, highlighting possible links to deep marine biosphere habitats such as oil reservoirs that harbour closely related Desulfotomaculum spp. Conversely, other taxa were predominantly observed in the freshwater reaches of the estuary indicating dispersal from an upstream or terrestrial source. Different endospore populations were enriched dependent on incubation temperature and spore heat-resistance. Microcosms incubated at 50, 60 or 70°C showed a shift in the dominant species of Desulfotomaculum enriched as the temperature increased. Microcosms triple-autoclaved at 121°C prior to incubation still showed rapid and reproducible sulfate-reduction and some Desulfotomaculum spp. remained active after autoclaving at 130°C. These results show that temperature physiology and biogeographic patterns can be used to

  9. Cells Respond to Distinct Nanoparticle Properties with Multiple Strategies As Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Xie, Yumei; Melby, Eric S.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Taylor, Ronald C.; Grate, Eva K.; Cooley, Scott K.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Orr, Galya

    2016-11-22

    The impact of distinct nanoparticle (NP) properties on cellular response and ultimately human health is unclear. This gap is partially due to experimental difficulties in achieving uniform NP loads in the studied cells, creating heterogeneous populations with some cells “overloaded” while other cells are loaded with few or no NPs. Yet gene expression studies have been conducted in the population as a whole, identifying generic responses, while missing unique responses due to signal averaging across many cells, each carrying different loads. Here we applied single-cell RNA-Seq to alveolar epithelial cells carrying defined loads of aminated or carboxylated quantum dots (QDs), showing higher or lower toxicity, respectively. Interestingly, cells carrying lower loads responded with multiple strategies, mostly with upregulated processes, which were nonetheless coherent and unique to each QD type. In contrast, cells carrying higher loads responded more uniformly, with mostly downregulated processes that were shared across QD types. Strategies unique to aminated QDs showed strong upregulation of stress responses, coupled in some cases with regulation of cell cycle, protein synthesis and organelle activities. In contrast, strategies unique to carboxylated QDs showed upregulation of DNA repair and RNA activities, and decreased regulation of cell division, coupled in some cases with upregulation of stress responses and ATP related functions. Together, our studies suggest scenarios where higher NP loads lock cells into uniform responses, mostly shutdown of cellular processes, whereas lower loads allow for unique responses to each NP type that are more diversified, proactive defenses or repairs of the NP insults.

  10. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W.; Eyun, Seong-il; Noriega, Daniel D.; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest. PMID:26949943

  11. Sandcastle: software for revealing latent information in multiple experimental ChIP-chip datasets via a novel normalisation procedure

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Mark; Evans, Katie Ellen; Yu, Shirong; Teng, Yumin; Webster, Richard M.; Powell, James; Waters, Raymond; Reed, Simon H.

    2015-01-01

    ChIP-chip is a microarray based technology for determining the genomic locations of chromatin bound factors of interest, such as proteins. Standard ChIP-chip analyses employ peak detection methodologies to generate lists of genomic binding sites. No previously published method exists to enable comparative analyses of enrichment levels derived from datasets examining different experimental conditions. This restricts the use of the technology to binary comparisons of presence or absence of features between datasets. Here we present the R package Sandcastle — Software for the Analysis and Normalisation of Data from ChIP-chip AssayS of Two or more Linked Experiments — which allows for comparative analyses of data from multiple experiments by normalising all datasets to a common background. Relative changes in binding levels between experimental datasets can thus be determined, enabling the extraction of latent information from ChIP-chip experiments. Novel enrichment detection and peak calling algorithms are also presented, with a range of graphical tools, which facilitate these analyses. The software and documentation are available for download from http://reedlab.cardiff.ac.uk/sandcastle. PMID:26307543

  12. Multilocus sequence analyses reveal extensive diversity and multiple origins of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis from tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Yan; Guo, Hong; Wang, Hua-Min; Yi, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Li-Min; He, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Candida tropicalis is among the most prevalent human pathogenic yeast species, second only to C. albicans in certain geographic regions such as East Asia and Brazil. However, compared to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the patterns of genetic variation in C. tropicalis. This study analyzed the genetic diversity and relationships among isolates of C. tropicalis from the southern Chinese island of Hainan. A total of 116 isolates were obtained from seven geographic regions located across the Island. For each isolate, a total of 2677 bp from six gene loci were sequenced and 79 (2.96%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were found in our sample. Comparisons with strains reported from other parts of the world identified significant novel diversities in Hainan, including an average of six novel sequences (with a range 1 to 14) per locus and 80 novel diploid sequence types. Most of the genetic variation was found within individual strains and there was abundant evidence for gene flow among the seven geographic locations within Hainan. Interestingly, our analyses identified no significant correlation between the diploid sequence types at the six loci and fluconazole susceptibility, consistent with multiple origins of fluconazole resistance in the Hainan population of C. tropicalis. PMID:28186162

  13. Analyses of transcriptome sequences reveal multiple ancient large-scale duplication events in the ancestor of Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Devos, Nicolas; Szövényi, Péter; Weston, David J; Rothfels, Carl J; Johnson, Matthew G; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate whether there has been a whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the ancestry of Sphagnum (peatmoss) or the class Sphagnopsida, and to determine if the timing of any such duplication(s) and patterns of paralog retention could help explain the rapid radiation and current ecological dominance of peatmosses. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data were generated for nine taxa in Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta). Analyses of frequency plots for synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks ) between paralogous gene pairs and reconciliation of 578 gene trees were conducted to assess evidence of large-scale or genome-wide duplication events in each transcriptome. Both Ks frequency plots and gene tree-based analyses indicate multiple duplication events in the history of the Sphagnopsida. The most recent WGD event predates divergence of Sphagnum from the two other genera of Sphagnopsida. Duplicate retention is highly variable across species, which might be best explained by local adaptation. Our analyses indicate that the last WGD could have been an important factor underlying the diversification of peatmosses and facilitated their rise to ecological dominance in peatlands. The timing of the duplication events and their significance in the evolutionary history of peat mosses are discussed.

  14. High-Throughput Analysis of Stimulus-Evoked Behaviors in Drosophila Larva Reveals Multiple Modality-Specific Escape Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Tomoko; Jovanic, Tihana; Denisov, Gennady; Dang, Tam C.; Hoffmann, Dominik; Kerr, Rex A.; Zlatic, Marta

    2013-01-01

    All organisms react to noxious and mechanical stimuli but we still lack a complete understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms by which somatosensory information is transformed into appropriate motor outputs. The small number of neurons and excellent genetic tools make Drosophila larva an especially tractable model system in which to address this problem. We developed high throughput assays with which we can simultaneously expose more than 1,000 larvae per man-hour to precisely timed noxious heat, vibration, air current, or optogenetic stimuli. Using this hardware in combination with custom software we characterized larval reactions to somatosensory stimuli in far greater detail than possible previously. Each stimulus evoked a distinctive escape strategy that consisted of multiple actions. The escape strategy was context-dependent. Using our system we confirmed that the nociceptive class IV multidendritic neurons were involved in the reactions to noxious heat. Chordotonal (ch) neurons were necessary for normal modulation of head casting, crawling and hunching, in response to mechanical stimuli. Consistent with this we observed increases in calcium transients in response to vibration in ch neurons. Optogenetic activation of ch neurons was sufficient to evoke head casting and crawling. These studies significantly increase our understanding of the functional roles of larval ch neurons. More generally, our system and the detailed description of wild type reactions to somatosensory stimuli provide a basis for systematic identification of neurons and genes underlying these behaviors. PMID:23977118

  15. Conditional Creation and Rescue of Nipbl-Deficiency in Mice Reveals Multiple Determinants of Risk for Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Russell E.; Lopez-Burks, Martha E.; Choi, Hojae; Wikenheiser, Jamie; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lander, Arthur D.; Calof, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the causes of congenital heart defects is made difficult by the complex morphogenesis of the mammalian heart, which takes place early in development, involves contributions from multiple germ layers, and is controlled by many genes. Here, we use a conditional/invertible genetic strategy to identify the cell lineage(s) responsible for the development of heart defects in a Nipbl-deficient mouse model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, in which global yet subtle transcriptional dysregulation leads to development of atrial septal defects (ASDs) at high frequency. Using an approach that allows for recombinase-mediated creation or rescue of Nipbl deficiency in different lineages, we uncover complex interactions between the cardiac mesoderm, endoderm, and the rest of the embryo, whereby the risk conferred by genetic abnormality in any one lineage is modified, in a surprisingly non-additive way, by the status of others. We argue that these results are best understood in the context of a model in which the risk of heart defects is associated with the adequacy of early progenitor cell populations relative to the sizes of the structures they must eventually form. PMID:27606604

  16. Multiple conformational states and gate opening of outer membrane protein TolC revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2014-09-01

    Outer membrane protein TolC serves as an exit duct for exporting substances out of cell. The occluded periplasmic entrance of TolC is required to open for substrate transport, although the opening mechanism remains elusive. In this study, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for wild type TolC and six mutants were performed to explore the conformational dynamics of TolC. The periplasmic gate was shown to sample multiple conformational states with various degrees of gating opening. The gate opening was facilitated by all mutations except Y362F, which adopts an even more closed state than wild type TolC. The interprotomer salt-bridge R367-D153 is turned out to be crucial for periplasmic gate opening. The mutations that disrupt the interactions at the periplasmic tip may affect the stability of the trimeric assembly of TolC. Structural asymmetry of the periplasmic gate was observed to be opening size dependent. Asymmetric conformations are found in moderately opening states, while the most and the least opening states are often more symmetric. Finally, it is shown that lowering pH can remarkably stabilize the closed state of the periplasmic gate.

  17. Systems responses of rats to aflatoxin B1 exposure revealed with metabonomic changes in multiple biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Ye, Yangfang; An, Yanpeng; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2011-02-04

    Exposure to aflatoxins causes liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma posing a significant health risk for human populations and livestock. To understand the mammalian systems responses to aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) exposure, we analyzed the AFB1-induced metabonomic changes in multiple biological matrices (plasma, urine, and liver) of rats using (1)H NMR spectroscopy together with clinical biochemistry and histopathologic assessments. We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevation of glucose, amino acids, and choline metabolites (choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) in plasma but reduction of plasma lipids. AFB1 also induced elevation of liver lipids, amino acids (tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine), choline, and nucleic acid metabolites (inosine, adenosine, and uridine) together with reduction of hepatic glycogen and glucose. AFB1 further caused decreases in urinary TCA cycle intermediates (2-oxoglutarate and citrate) and elevation of gut microbiota cometabolites (phenylacetylglycine and hippurate). These indicated that AFB1 exposure caused hepatic steatosis accompanied with widespread metabolic changes including lipid and cell membrane metabolisms, protein biosynthesis, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and gut microbiota functions. This implied that AFB1 exposure probably caused oxidative-stress-mediated impairments of mitochondria functions. These findings provide an overview of biochemical consequences of AFB1 exposure and comprehensive insights into the metabolic aspects of AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  18. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  19. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive

  20. Quantifying MCMC Exploration of Phylogenetic Tree Space

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks. PMID:25631175

  1. Quantifying MCMC exploration of phylogenetic tree space.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A

    2015-05-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from moss, lycophyte and vascular plant lineages reveals that GRAS genes arose and underwent substantial diversification in the ancestral lineage common to bryophytes and vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    GRAS genes are a large family of streptophyte specific transcription factors that function in a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. GRAS proteins of the HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) sub-family are required for maintenance of shoot and root indeterminacy. The transcriptional targets of HAM proteins and the signaling inputs regulating HAM activity are completely unknown. Understanding the relationship of HAM proteins to other members of the GRAS family may inform hypotheses relating to cellular level HAM functions. Here I report a phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins employing the complete set of known and probable GRAS proteins from the sequenced genomes of the flowering plants Arabidopsis and Rice, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. HAM proteins are most closely related to DELLA proteins, key components of gibberellin perception. However, GRAS proteins diversified into a minimum of 12 discreet monophyletic lineages, including the HAM and DELLA subfamilies, prior to divergence of the moss and flowering plant lineages. Substantial diversification of GRAS proteins at so early a point in land plant evolution suggests that relative relatedness among GRAS protein sub-families may not substantially reflect shared protein function. PMID:21543899

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from moss, lycophyte and vascular plant lineages reveals that GRAS genes arose and underwent substantial diversification in the ancestral lineage common to bryophytes and vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric M

    2011-06-01

    GRAS genes are a large family of streptophyte specific transcription factors that function in a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. GRAS proteins of the HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) sub-family are required for maintenance of shoot and root indeterminacy. The transcriptional targets of HAM proteins and the signaling inputs regulating HAM activity are completely unknown. Understanding the relationship of HAM proteins to other members of the GRAS family may inform hypotheses relating to cellular level HAM functions. I here report a phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins employing the complete set of known and probable GRAS proteins from the sequenced genomes of the flowering plants Arabidopsis and Rice, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. HAM proteins are most closely related to DELLA proteins, key components of gibberellin perception. However, GRAS proteins diversified into a minimum of twelve discreet monophyletic lineages, including the HAM and DELLA subfamilies, prior to divergence of the moss and flowering plant lineages. Substantial diversification of GRAS proteins at so early a point in land plant evolution suggests that relative relatedness sequence homology among GRAS proteins sub-families may not substantially reflect shared protein function. 

  4. Evidence for phylogenetic correlation of plant–AMF assemblages?

    PubMed Central

    Montesinos-Navarro, A.; Segarra-Moragues, J. G.; Valiente-Banuet, A.; Verdú, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Specificity in biotic interactions is mediated' by functional traits inducing shifts in the community species composition. Functional traits are often evolutionarily conserved, resulting in closely related species tending to interact with similar species. This tendency may initially shape the phylogenetic composition of coexisting guilds, but other intraguild ecological processes may either blur or promote the mirroring of the phylogenetic compositions between guilds. The roles of intra- and interguild interactions in shaping the phylogenetic community composition are largely unknown, beyond the mere selectivity in the interguild interactions. Plant facilitation is a phylogenetically structured species-specific process involving interactions not only between the same guild of plants, but also between plants and other guilds such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In this study it is hypothesized that reciprocal plant–AMF interactions will leave an interdependent phylogenetic signal in the community composition of both plants and AMF. Methods A correlation was used to test for a relationship between the phylogenetic composition of plant and AMF assemblages in a patchy xeric shrubland environment shaped by plant facilitation. In addition, a null model was used to test whether this correlation can be solely explained by selectivity in plant–AMF interactions. Key Results A significant correlation was observed between the phylogenetic composition of plant and AMF assemblages. Plant phylogenetic composition in a patch was related to the predominance of plant species with high nursery quality that can influence the community assembly. AMF phylogenetic composition was related to the AMF phylogenetic diversity in each patch. Conclusions This study shows that shifts in the phylogenetic composition of plants and AMF assemblages do not occur independently. It is suggested that besides selectivity in plant–AMF interactions, inter-related succession

  5. Pharmacogenomics and chemical library screens reveal a novel SCF(SKP2) inhibitor that overcomes Bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Malek, E; Abdel-Malek, M A Y; Jagannathan, S; Vad, N; Karns, R; Jegga, A G; Broyl, A; van Duin, M; Sonneveld, P; Cottini, F; Anderson, K C; Driscoll, J J

    2017-03-01

    While clinical benefit of the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib (BTZ) for multiple myeloma (MM) patients remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and drug resistance limit the long-term utility. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp1-Cullin-1-Skp2 (SCF(Skp2)) promotes proteasomal degradation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 to enhance tumor growth. Increased SKP2 expression and reduced p27 levels are frequent in human cancers and are associated with therapeutic resistance. SCF(Skp2) activity is increased by the Cullin-1-binding protein Commd1 and the Skp2-binding protein Cks1B. Here we observed higher CUL1, COMMD1 and SKP2 mRNA levels in CD138(+) cells isolated from BTZ-resistant MM patients. Higher CUL1, COMMD1, SKP2 and CKS1B mRNA levels in patient CD138(+) cells correlated with decreased progression-free and overall survival. Genetic knockdown of CUL1, COMMD1 or SKP2 disrupted the SCF(Skp2) complex, stabilized p27 and increased the number of annexin-V-positive cells after BTZ treatment. Chemical library screens identified a novel compound, designated DT204, that reduced Skp2 binding to Cullin-1 and Commd1, and synergistically enhanced BTZ-induced apoptosis. DT204 co-treatment with BTZ overcame drug resistance and reduced the in vivo growth of myeloma tumors in murine models with survival benefit. Taken together, the results provide proof of concept for rationally designed drug combinations that incorporate SCF(Skp2) inhibitors to treat BTZ resistant disease.

  6. Expression Profiling of Macrophages Reveals Multiple Populations with Distinct Biological Roles in an Immunocompetent Orthotopic Model of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poczobutt, Joanna M.; De, Subhajyoti; Yadav, Vinod K.; Nguyen, Teresa T.; Li, Howard; Sippel, Trisha R.; Weiser-Evans, Mary C.M.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent an important component of the tumor microenvironment and play a complex role in cancer progression. These cells are characterized by a high degree of plasticity, and alter their phenotype in response to local environmental cues. While the M1/M2 classification of macrophages has been widely used, the complexity of macrophage phenotypes has not been well studied, particularly in lung cancer. In this study we employed an orthotopic immunocompetent model of lung adenocarcinoma in which murine lung cancer cells are directly implanted into the left lobe of syngeneic mice. Using multi-marker flow cytometry, we defined and recovered several distinct populations of monocytes/macrophages from tumors at different stages of progression. We used RNA-seq transcriptional profiling to define distinct features of each population and determine how they change during tumor progression. We defined an alveolar resident macrophage population that does not change in number and expresses multiple genes related to lipid metabolism and lipid signaling. We also defined a population of tumor-associated macrophages that increase dramatically with tumor, and selectively expresses a panel of chemokine genes. A third population, which resembles tumor-associated monocytes, expresses a large number of genes involved in matrix remodeling. By correlating transcriptional profiles with clinically prognostic genes, we show that specific monocyte/macrophage populations are enriched in genes that predict outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma, implicating these subpopulations as critical determinants of patient survival. Our data underscore the complexity of monocytes/macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, and suggest that distinct populations play specific roles in tumor progression. PMID:26873985

  7. Pharmacogenomics and chemical library screens reveal a novel SCFSKP2 inhibitor that overcomes Bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Malek, E; Abdel-Malek, M A Y; Jagannathan, S; Vad, N; Karns, R; Jegga, A G; Broyl, A; van Duin, M; Sonneveld, P; Cottini, F; Anderson, K C; Driscoll, J J

    2017-01-01

    While clinical benefit of the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib (BTZ) for multiple myeloma (MM) patients remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and drug resistance limit the long-term utility. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp1–Cullin-1–Skp2 (SCFSkp2) promotes proteasomal degradation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 to enhance tumor growth. Increased SKP2 expression and reduced p27 levels are frequent in human cancers and are associated with therapeutic resistance. SCFSkp2 activity is increased by the Cullin-1-binding protein Commd1 and the Skp2-binding protein Cks1B. Here we observed higher CUL1, COMMD1 and SKP2 mRNA levels in CD138+ cells isolated from BTZ-resistant MM patients. Higher CUL1, COMMD1, SKP2 and CKS1B mRNA levels in patient CD138+ cells correlated with decreased progression-free and overall survival. Genetic knockdown of CUL1, COMMD1 or SKP2 disrupted the SCFSkp2 complex, stabilized p27 and increased the number of annexin-V-positive cells after BTZ treatment. Chemical library screens identified a novel compound, designated DT204, that reduced Skp2 binding to Cullin-1 and Commd1, and synergistically enhanced BTZ-induced apoptosis. DT204 co-treatment with BTZ overcame drug resistance and reduced the in vivo growth of myeloma tumors in murine models with survival benefit. Taken together, the results provide proof of concept for rationally designed drug combinations that incorporate SCFSkp2 inhibitors to treat BTZ resistant disease. PMID:27677741

  8. Multiple open channel states revealed by lidocaine and QX-314 on rat brain voltage-dependent sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have recently reported that brain sodium channels display periods with high (low-Kd) and low (high-Kd) levels of lidocaine-induced open channel block (Salazar, B.C., D.O. Flash, J.L. Walewski, and E. Recio- Pinto. 1995. Brain Res. 699:305-314). In the present study, we further characterize this phenomenon by studying the effects of the permanently charged lidocaine analogue, QX-314. We found that the detection of high- and low-Kd periods does not require the presence of the uncharged form of lidocaine. The level of block, for either period, at various QX-314 concentrations indicated the presence of a single local anesthetic binding site. Increasing the concentration of QX-314 decreased the lifetime of the high-Kd periods while it increased the lifetime of the low-Kd periods. These results could be best fitted to a model with two open channel conformations that display different local anesthetic Kd values (low and high Kd), and in which the channel area defining the local anesthetic Kd consists of multiple interacting regions. Amplitude distribution analysis showed that changes in the Kd values reflected changes in the kon rates, without changes in the koff rates. Both lidocaine and QX-314 were found to be incapable of blocking small- channel subconductance states (5-6 pS). Changes in the local anesthetic kon rates for blocking the fully open state and the lack of local anesthetic block of the small subconductance state are consistent with the presence of channel conformational changes involving the intracellular permeation pathway leading to the local anesthetic binding site. PMID:8783074

  9. Cells Respond to Distinct Nanoparticle Properties with Multiple Strategies As Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Hugh D; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B; Gaffrey, Matthew J; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J; Xie, Yumei; Melby, Eric S; Dohnalkova, Alice; Taylor, Ronald C; Grate, Eva K; Cooley, Scott K; McDermott, Jason E; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Orr, Galya

    2016-11-22

    The impact of distinct nanoparticle (NP) properties on cellular response and ultimately human health is unclear. This gap is partially due to experimental difficulties in achieving uniform NP loads in the studied cells, creating heterogeneous populations with some cells "overloaded" while other cells are loaded with few or no NPs. Yet gene expression studies have been conducted in the population as a whole, identifying generic responses, while missing unique responses due to signal averaging across many cells, each carrying different loads. Here, we applied single-cell RNA-Seq to alveolar epithelial cells carrying defined loads of aminated or carboxylated quantum dots (QDs), showing higher or lower toxicity, respectively. Interestingly, cells carrying lower loads responded with multiple strategies, mostly with up-regulated processes, which were nonetheless coherent and unique to each QD type. In contrast, cells carrying higher loads responded more uniformly, with mostly down-regulated processes that were shared across QD types. Strategies unique to aminated QDs showed strong up-regulation of stress responses, coupled in some cases with regulation of cell cycle, protein synthesis, and organelle activities. In contrast, strategies unique to carboxylated QDs showed up-regulation of DNA repair and RNA activities and decreased regulation of cell division, coupled in some cases with up-regulation of stress responses and ATP-related functions. Together, our studies suggest scenarios where higher NP loads lock cells into uniform responses, mostly shutdown of cellular processes, whereas lower loads allow for unique responses to each NP type that are more diversified proactive defenses or repairs of the NP insults.

  10. Multiple Time Courses of Vestibular Set-Point Adaptation Revealed by Sustained Magnetic Field Stimulation of the Labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Jareonsettasin, Prem; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Schubert, Michael C; Zee, David S

    2016-05-23

    A major focus in neurobiology is how the brain adapts its motor behavior to changes in its internal and external environments [1, 2]. Much is known about adaptively optimizing the amplitude and direction of eye and limb movements, for example, but little is known about another essential form of learning, "set-point" adaptation. Set-point adaptation balances tonic activity so that reciprocally acting, agonist and antagonist muscles have a stable platform from which to launch accurate movements. Here, we use the vestibulo-ocular reflex-a simple behavior that stabilizes the position of the eye while the head is moving-to investigate how tonic activity is adapted toward a new set point to prevent eye drift when the head is still [3, 4]. Set-point adaptation was elicited with magneto-hydrodynamic vestibular stimulation (MVS) by placing normal humans in a 7T MRI for 90 min. MVS is ideal for prolonged labyrinthine activation because it mimics constant head acceleration and induces a sustained nystagmus similar to natural vestibular lesions [5, 6]. The MVS-induced nystagmus diminished slowly but incompletely over multiple timescales. We propose a new adaptation hypothesis, using a cascade of imperfect mathematical integrators, that reproduces the response to MVS (and more natural chair rotations), including the gradual decrease in nystagmus as the set point changes over progressively longer time courses. MVS set-point adaptation is a biological model with applications to basic neurophysiological research into all types of movements [7], functional brain imaging [8], and treatment of vestibular and higher-level attentional disorders by introducing new biases to counteract pathological ones [9].

  11. The analysis of mutant alleles of different strength reveals multiple functions of topoisomerase 2 in regulation of Drosophila chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Mengoli, Valentina; Bucciarelli, Elisabetta; Lattao, Ramona; Piergentili, Roberto; Gatti, Maurizio; Bonaccorsi, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Topoisomerase II is a major component of mitotic chromosomes but its role in the assembly and structural maintenance of chromosomes is rather controversial, as different chromosomal phenotypes have been observed in various organisms and in different studies on the same organism. In contrast to vertebrates that harbor two partially redundant Topo II isoforms, Drosophila and yeasts have a single Topo II enzyme. In addition, fly chromosomes, unlike those of yeast, are morphologically comparable to vertebrate chromosomes. Thus, Drosophila is a highly suitable system to address the role of Topo II in the assembly and structural maintenance of chromosomes. Here we show that modulation of Top2 function in living flies by means of mutant alleles of different strength and in vivo RNAi results in multiple cytological phenotypes. In weak Top2 mutants, meiotic chromosomes of males exhibit strong morphological abnormalities and dramatic segregation defects, while mitotic chromosomes of larval brain cells are not affected. In mutants of moderate strength, mitotic chromosome organization is normal, but anaphases display frequent chromatin bridges that result in chromosome breaks and rearrangements involving specific regions of the Y chromosome and 3L heterochromatin. Severe Top2 depletion resulted in many aneuploid and polyploid mitotic metaphases with poorly condensed heterochromatin and broken chromosomes. Finally, in the almost complete absence of Top2, mitosis in larval brains was virtually suppressed and in the rare mitotic figures observed chromosome morphology was disrupted. These results indicate that different residual levels of Top2 in mutant cells can result in different chromosomal phenotypes, and that the effect of a strong Top2 depletion can mask the effects of milder Top2 reductions. Thus, our results suggest that the previously observed discrepancies in the chromosomal phenotypes elicited by Topo II downregulation in vertebrates might depend on slight differences

  12. Cells respond to distinct nanoparticle properties with multiple strategies as revealed by single-cell RNA-Seq

    DOE PAGES

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; ...

    2016-10-27

    The impact of distinct nanoparticle (NP) properties on cellular response and ultimately human health is unclear. This gap is partially due to experimental difficulties in achieving uniform NP loads in the studied cells, creating heterogeneous populations with some cells “overloaded” while other cells are loaded with few or no NPs. Yet gene expression studies have been conducted in the population as a whole, identifying generic responses, while missing unique responses due to signal averaging across many cells, each carrying different loads. In this paper, we applied single-cell RNA-Seq to alveolar epithelial cells carrying defined loads of aminated or carboxylated quantummore » dots (QDs), showing higher or lower toxicity, respectively. Interestingly, cells carrying lower loads responded with multiple strategies, mostly with up-regulated processes, which were nonetheless coherent and unique to each QD type. In contrast, cells carrying higher loads responded more uniformly, with mostly down-regulated processes that were shared across QD types. Strategies unique to aminated QDs showed strong up-regulation of stress responses, coupled in some cases with regulation of cell cycle, protein synthesis, and organelle activities. In contrast, strategies unique to carboxylated QDs showed up-regulation of DNA repair and RNA activities and decreased regulation of cell division, coupled in some cases with up-regulation of stress responses and ATP-related functions. Finally, together, our studies suggest scenarios where higher NP loads lock cells into uniform responses, mostly shutdown of cellular processes, whereas lower loads allow for unique responses to each NP type that are more diversified proactive defenses or repairs of the NP insults.« less

  13. Cells respond to distinct nanoparticle properties with multiple strategies as revealed by single-cell RNA-Seq

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Xie, Yumei; Melby, Eric S.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Taylor, Ronald C.; Grate, Eva K.; Cooley, Scott K.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Orr, Galya

    2016-10-27

    The impact of distinct nanoparticle (NP) properties on cellular response and ultimately human health is unclear. This gap is partially due to experimental difficulties in achieving uniform NP loads in the studied cells, creating heterogeneous populations with some cells “overloaded” while other cells are loaded with few or no NPs. Yet gene expression studies have been conducted in the population as a whole, identifying generic responses, while missing unique responses due to signal averaging across many cells, each carrying different loads. In this paper, we applied single-cell RNA-Seq to alveolar epithelial cells carrying defined loads of aminated or carboxylated quantum dots (QDs), showing higher or lower toxicity, respectively. Interestingly, cells carrying lower loads responded with multiple strategies, mostly with up-regulated processes, which were nonetheless coherent and unique to each QD type. In contrast, cells carrying higher loads responded more uniformly, with mostly down-regulated processes that were shared across QD types. Strategies unique to aminated QDs showed strong up-regulation of stress responses, coupled in some cases with regulation of cell cycle, protein synthesis, and organelle activities. In contrast, strategies unique to carboxylated QDs showed up-regulation of DNA repair and RNA activities and decreased regulation of cell division, coupled in some cases with up-regulation of stress responses and ATP-related functions. Finally, together, our studies suggest scenarios where higher NP loads lock cells into uniform responses, mostly shutdown of cellular processes, whereas lower loads allow for unique responses to each NP type that are more diversified proactive defenses or repairs of the NP insults.

  14. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (ΔXP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ΔXP-HT for multiple isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ΔXP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ΔXP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ΔXP-HT was more positive for δ13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the δ15N and δ34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ΔXP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed.

  15. Entanglement, Invariants, and Phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, J. G.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis develops and expands upon known techniques of mathematical physics relevant to the analysis of the popular Markov model of phylogenetic trees required in biology to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of taxonomic units from biomolecular sequence data. The techniques of mathematical physics are plethora and have been developed for some time. The Markov model of phylogenetics and its analysis is a relatively new technique where most progress to date has been achieved by using discrete mathematics. This thesis takes a group theoretical approach to the problem by beginning with a remarkable mathematical parallel to the process of scattering in particle physics. This is shown to equate to branching events in the evolutionary history of molecular units. The major technical result of this thesis is the derivation of existence proofs and computational techniques for calculating polynomial group invariant functions on a multi-linear space where the group action is that relevant to a Markovian time evolution. The practical results of this thesis are an extended analysis of the use of invariant functions in distance based methods and the presentation of a new reconstruction technique for quartet trees which is consistent with the most general Markov model of sequence evolution.

  16. The gene orders on human chromosome 15 and chicken chromosome 10 reveal multiple inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Crooijmans, R P; Dijkhof, R J; Veenendaal, T; van der Poel, J J; Nicholls, R D; Bovenhuis, H; Groenen, M A

    2001-11-01

    Comparative mapping between the human and chicken genomes has revealed a striking conservation of synteny between the genomes of these two species, but the results have been based on low-resolution comparative maps. To address this conserved synteny in much more detail, a high-resolution human-chicken comparative map was constructed from human chromosome 15. Mapping, sequencing, and ordering of specific chicken bacterial artificial chromosomes has improved the comparative map of chromosome 15 (Hsa15) and the homologous regions in chicken with almost 100 new genes and/or expressed sequence tags. A comparison of Hsa15 with chicken identified seven conserved chromosomal segments between the two species. In chicken, these were on chromosome 1 (Gga1; two segments), Gga5 (two segments), and Gga10 (three segments). Although four conserved segments were also observed between Hsa15 and mouse, only one of the underlying rearrangement breakpoints was located at the same position as in chicken, indicating that the rearrangements generating the other three breakpoints occurred after the divergence of the rodent and the primate lineages. A high-resolution comparison of Gga10 with Hsa15 identified 19 conserved blocks, indicating the presence of at least 16 intrachromosomal rearrangement breakpoints in the bird lineage after the separation of birds and mammals. These results improve our knowledge of the evolution and dynamics of the vertebrate genomes and will aid in the clarification of the mechanisms that underlie the differentiation between the vertebrate species.

  17. Systems Biology Approach in Chlamydomonas Reveals Connections between Copper Nutrition and Multiple Metabolic Steps[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Castruita, Madeli; Casero, David; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Kropat, Janette; Vieler, Astrid; Hsieh, Scott I.; Yan, Weihong; Cokus, Shawn; Loo, Joseph A.; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we query the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii copper regulon at a whole-genome level. Our RNA-Seq data simulation and analysis pipeline validated a 2-fold cutoff and 10 RPKM (reads per kilobase of mappable length per million mapped reads) (~1 mRNA per cell) to reveal 63 CRR1 targets plus another 86 copper-responsive genes. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses captured 25% of the corresponding proteins, whose abundance was also dependent on copper nutrition, validating transcriptional regulation as a major control mechanism for copper signaling in Chlamydomonas. The impact of copper deficiency on the expression of several O2-dependent enzymes included steps in lipid modification pathways. Quantitative lipid profiles indicated increased polyunsaturation of fatty acids on thylakoid membrane digalactosyldiglycerides, indicating a global impact of copper deficiency on the photosynthetic apparatus. Discovery of a putative plastid copper chaperone and a membrane protease in the thylakoid suggest a mechanism for blocking copper utilization in the chloroplast. We also found an example of copper sparing in the N assimilation pathway: the replacement of copper amine oxidase by a flavin-dependent backup enzyme. Forty percent of the targets are previously uncharacterized proteins, indicating considerable potential for new discovery in the biology of copper. PMID:21498682

  18. Phenotypic, histological and proteomic analyses reveal multiple differences associated with chloroplast development in yellow and variegated variants from Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chengying; Cao, Junxi; Li, Jianke; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Jinchi; Miao, Aiqing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf colour variation is observed in several plants. We obtained two types of branches with yellow and variegated leaves from Camellia sinensis. To reveal the mechanisms that underlie the leaf colour variations, combined morphological, histological, ionomic and proteomic analyses were performed using leaves from abnormal branches (variants) and normal branches (CKs). The measurement of the CIE-Lab coordinates showed that the brightness and yellowness of the variants were more intense than the CKs. When chloroplast profiles were analysed, HY1 (branch with yellow leaves) and HY2 (branch with variegated leaves) displayed abnormal chloroplast structures and a reduced number and size compared with the CKs, indicating that the abnormal chloroplast development might be tightly linked to the leaf colour variations. Moreover, the concentration of elemental minerals was different between the variants and the CKs. Furthermore, DEPs (differentially expressed proteins) were identified in the variants and the CKs by a quantitative proteomics analysis using the label-free approach. The DEPs were significantly involved in photosynthesis and included PSI, PSII, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport, LHC and F-type ATPase. Our results suggested that a decrease in the abundance of photosynthetic proteins might be associated with the changes of leaf colours in tea plants. PMID:27633059

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis XF-1 reveals mechanisms for biological control and multiple beneficial properties in plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shengye; Li, Xingyu; He, Pengfei; Ho, Honhing; Wu, Yixin; He, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis XF-1 is a gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium that stimulates plant growth and produces secondary metabolites that suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. In particular, it is especially highly efficient at controlling the clubroot disease of cruciferous crops. Its 4,061,186-bp genome contains an estimated 3853 protein-coding sequences and the 1155 genes of XF-1 are present in most genome-sequenced Bacillus strains: 3757 genes in B. subtilis 168, and 1164 in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Analysis using the Cluster of Orthologous Groups database of proteins shows that 60 genes control bacterial mobility, 221 genes are related to cell wall and membrane biosynthesis, and more than 112 are genes associated with secondary metabolites. In addition, the genes contributed to the strain's plant colonization, bio-control and stimulation of plant growth. Sequencing of the genome is a fundamental step for developing a desired strain to serve as an efficient biological control agent and plant growth stimulator. Similar to other members of the taxon, XF-1 has a genome that contains giant gene clusters for the non-ribosomal synthesis of antifungal lipopeptides (surfactin and fengycin), the polyketides (macrolactin and bacillaene), the siderophore bacillibactin, and the dipeptide bacilysin. There are two synthesis pathways for volatile growth-promoting compounds. The expression of biosynthesized antibiotic peptides in XF-1 was revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

  20. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2016-06-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  1. Peptidome analysis of human milk from women delivering macrosomic fetuses reveals multiple means of protection for infants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xianwei; Li, Yun; Yang, Lei; You, Lianghui; Wang, Xing; Shi, Chunmei; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. While macrosomic infants have a higher risk of developing obesity and other metabolic disorders. Breast milk may contain special nutrients to meet the different growth needs of different infants. Whether mothers make breast milk different to meet the requirement of macrosomic infants is still unknown. Here, we conducted a comparison between mothers delivering macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants in colostrum endogenous peptides. More than 400 peptides, originating from at least 34 protein precursors, were identified by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Out of these, 29 peptides found to be significant differently expressed (|fold change| ≥ 3, P < 0.01). Blastp analysis revealed 41 peptides may have established biological activities, which exhibit immunomodulating, antibacterial action, antioxidation, opioid agonist and antihypertensive activity. Furthermore, we found that peptide located at β-Casein 24-38 AA has antimicrobial effect against E. coli, Y. enterocolitica and S. aureus. While, κ-Casein 89-109 AA-derived peptide plays as a regulator of preadipocyte proliferation. The profile of endogenous peptides from macrosomic term infants is different from non-macrosomic terms. This different peptide expression potentially has specific physiological function to benefit macrosomic infants. Finally, we believe that our research is a meaningfull finding which may add to the understanding of milk peptide physiological action. PMID:27566575

  2. Deep sequencing of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs reveals multiple mechanisms of resistance within a single population.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Zach N; Kilcullen, Kathleen A; Koganemaru, Reina; Anderson, Michelle A E; Anderson, Troy D; Miller, Dini M

    2011-01-01

    A frightening resurgence of bed bug infestations has occurred over the last 10 years in the U.S. and current chemical methods have been inadequate for controlling this pest due to widespread insecticide resistance. Little is known about the mechanisms of resistance present in U.S. bed bug populations, making it extremely difficult to develop intelligent strategies for their control. We have identified bed bugs collected in Richmond, VA which exhibit both kdr-type (L925I) and metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Using LD(50) bioassays, we determined that resistance ratios for Richmond strain bed bugs were ∼5200-fold to the insecticide deltamethrin. To identify metabolic genes potentially involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids, we performed deep-sequencing of the adult bed bug transcriptome, obtaining more than 2.5 million reads on the 454 titanium platform. Following assembly, analysis of newly identified gene transcripts in both Harlan (susceptible) and Richmond (resistant) bed bugs revealed several candidate cytochrome P450 and carboxylesterase genes which were significantly over-expressed in the resistant strain, consistent with the idea of increased metabolic resistance. These data will accelerate efforts to understand the biochemical basis for insecticide resistance in bed bugs, and provide molecular markers to assist in the surveillance of metabolic resistance.

  3. Deep Sequencing of Pyrethroid-Resistant Bed Bugs Reveals Multiple Mechanisms of Resistance within a Single Population

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Zach N.; Kilcullen, Kathleen A.; Koganemaru, Reina; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Anderson, Troy D.; Miller, Dini M.

    2011-01-01

    A frightening resurgence of bed bug infestations has occurred over the last 10 years in the U.S. and current chemical methods have been inadequate for controlling this pest due to widespread insecticide resistance. Little is known about the mechanisms of resistance present in U.S. bed bug populations, making it extremely difficult to develop intelligent strategies for their control. We have identified bed bugs collected in Richmond, VA which exhibit both kdr-type (L925I) and metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Using LD50 bioassays, we determined that resistance ratios for Richmond strain bed bugs were ∼5200-fold to the insecticide deltamethrin. To identify metabolic genes potentially involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids, we performed deep-sequencing of the