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Sample records for physalaemus nattereri steindachner

  1. Osteology of Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae) with comments on intraspecific variation.

    PubMed

    Fratani, Jéssica; Woitovicz-Cardoso, Manoela; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne

    2017-02-02

    The cranium, postcranium, and osteological variation of Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner) are described. The main sources of variation involve the degree of mineralization of the nasal capsule and the lengths of dermal skull bones (e.g., vomer, sphenethmoid, and neopalatine). Osteologically, P. nattereri differs from its congeners by the anterior placement of the jaw articulation (which lies anterior to the intersection between the alae and cultriform process of parasphenoid), and by the separation of the frontoparietals from the anterior margins of exoccipitals. Descriptions of the nasal capsule, the auditory apparatus, and the iliosacral articulation are presented for the first time for this species. One putative morphological synapomorphy is presented for the P. signifer Clade.

  2. Skin secretion peptides: the molecular facet of the deimatic behavior of the four-eyed frog, Physalaemus nattereri (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eder Alves; Iembo, Tatiane; Martins, Graciella Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Prates, Maura Vianna; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Bloch, Carlos

    2015-11-15

    Amphibians can produce a large amount of bioactive peptides over the skin. In order to map the precise tissue localization of these compounds and evaluate their functions, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and gene expression studies were used to investigate a possible correlation between molecules involved in the antimicrobial defense mechanisms and anti-predatory behavior by Physalaemus nattereri. Total skin secretion of P. nattereri was analyzed by classical Protein Chemistry and proteomic techniques. Intact inguinal macroglands were dissected from the rest of the skin and both tissues were analyzed by MSI and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments. Peptides were primarily identified by de novo sequencing, automatic Edman degradation and cDNA data. Fifteen bradykinin (BK)-related peptides and two antimicrobial peptides were sequenced and mapped by MSI on the inguinal macrogland and the rest of P. nattereri skin. RT-PCR results revealed that BK-related peptide levels of expression were about 30,000 times higher on the inguinal macroglands than on the any other region of the skin, whilst antimicrobial peptide ions appear to be evenly distributed in both investigated regions. The presence of antimicrobial peptides in all investigated tissue regions is in accordance with the defensive role against microorganisms thoroughly demonstrated in the literature, whereas BK-related molecules are largely found on the inguinal macroglands suggesting an intriguing link between their noxious activities against potential predators of P. nattereri and the frog's deimatic behavior. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cytotoxic Activity and Antiproliferative Effects of Crude Skin Secretion from Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae) on in vitro Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz e Carvalho, Andréa; Prías Márquez, César Augusto; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Joanitti, Graziella Anselmo; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Fontes, Wagner; Castro, Mariana S.

    2015-01-01

    Anuran secretions are rich sources of bioactive molecules, including antimicrobial and antitumoral compounds. The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of Physalaemus nattereri skin secretion against skin cancer cells, and to assess its cytotoxic action mechanisms on the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Our results demonstrated that the crude secretion reduced the viability of B16F10 cells, causing changes in cell morphology (e.g., round shape and structure shrinkage), reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in phosphatidylserine exposure, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. Together, these changes suggest that tumor cells die by apoptosis. This skin secretion was also subjected to chromatographic fractioning using RP-HPLC, and eluted fractions were assayed for antiproliferative and antibacterial activities. Three active fractions showed molecular mass components in a range compatible with peptides. Although the specific mechanisms causing the reduced cell viability and cytotoxicity after the treatment with crude secretion are still unknown, it may be considered that molecules, such as the peptides found in the secretion, are effective against B16F10 tumor cells. Considering the growing need for new anticancer drugs, data presented in this study strongly reinforce the validity of P. nattereri crude secretion as a rich source of new anticancer molecules. PMID:26457717

  4. A new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adelerina) from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Borges-Leite, M Juliana; Maia, João P; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; da Rocha Braga, Roberta; Harris, D James

    2017-01-01

    Based on both unique morphological characteristics of the gamont, distinct changes caused to the host erythrocyte and analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new parasite of the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 is described from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil. The new species, Hepatozoon musa n. sp., is characterized by large and curved mature gamonts (18.9 ± 0.9 μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.3 μm in width) that considerably engorge infected host erythrocytes and displace the nucleus laterally, which become longer and thinner. Phylogenetic estimates indicate the new species is more closely related to the recently described Hepatozoon cuestensis O'Dwyer, Moço, Paduan, Spenassatto, Silva & Ribolla, 2013, from Brazilian rattlesnakes. These recent findings highlight the need for further studies of Hepatozoon to better determine the biodiversity of this common but poorly-studied parasite group.

  5. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  6. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons.

  7. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group.

  8. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  9. Phylogeny of frogs from the genus Physalaemus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Luciana B; Targueta, Cíntia P; Baldo, Diego; Nascimento, Juliana; Garcia, Paulo C A; Andrade, Gilda V; Haddad, Célio F B; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

    2015-11-01

    Although some species groups have been recognized in the leiuperine genus Physalaemus, no phylogenetic analysis has previously been performed. Here, we provide a phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 41 of the 46 species of Physalaemus. We employed the parsimony criterion using the software TNT and POY and the Bayesian criterion using the software MrBayes. Two major clades were recovered inside the monophyletic Physalaemus: (i) the highly supported Physalaemus signifer Clade, which included P. nattereri and the species previously placed in the P. deimaticus and P. signifer Groups; and (ii) the Physalaemus cuvieri Clade, which included the remaining species of Physalaemus. Five species groups were recognized in the P. cuvieri Clade: the P. biligonigerus Group, the P. cuvieri Group, the P. henselii Group, the P. gracilis Group and the P. olfersii Group. The P. gracilis Species Group was the same as that previously proposed by Nascimento et al. (2005). The P. henselii Group includes P. fernandezae and P. henselii, and was the sister group of a clade that comprised the remaining species of the P. cuvieri Clade. The P. olfersii Group included P. olfersii, P. soaresi, P. maximus, P. feioi and P. lateristriga. The P. biligonigerus Species Group was composed of P. biligonigerus, P. marmoratus, P. santafecinus and P. riograndensis. The P. cuvieri Group inferred here differed from that recognized by Nascimento et al. (2005) only by the inclusion of P. albifrons and the exclusion of P. cicada. The paraphyly of P. cuvieri with respect to P. ephippifer was inferred in all the analyses. Distinct genetic lineages were recognized among individuals currently identified as P. cuvieri and they were congruent with cytogenetic differences reported previously, supporting the hypothesis of occurrence of formally unnamed species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  11. Helminth fauna of two species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from an undisturbed fragment of the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A

    2013-10-01

    Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans.

  12. Lipopolysaccharides induce changes in the visceral pigmentation of Eupemphix nattereri (Anura: Leiuperidae).

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; de Oliveira, Classius

    2011-10-01

    Amphibians have an extracutaneous pigmentary system composed of melanin-containing cells in various tissues and organs. The functional role of these pigment cells in visceral organs has not yet been determined, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Our aim was to describe the visceral pigmentation in the frog Eupemphix nattereri under conditions of endotoxemia induced experimentally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Escherichia coli and to analyze the pigmentation on the organs' surface. We used 60 adult males of E. nattereri and analyzed the visceral pigmentation 2 (LPS 2h), 6 (LPS 6h), 12 (LPS 12h), 24 (LPS 24h) or 48 h (LPS 48 h) after the LPS inoculation. We observed pigmentation on the surface of several abdominal organs. The highest degree of pigmentation was found only on the testes of the animals in the LPS 2h, LPS 6h and LPS 12h groups. The pigmentation decreased in the animals of the LPS 24h and LPS 48 h groups. The LPS administration produced no changes in the pigmentation of the cardio-respiratory and digestive systems. Thus, the cells appear to have responded to LPS intoxication, producing a rapid increase of pigmentation on the surface of the testes and a subsequent decrease in the pigmentation. These changes are most likely related to the bactericidal role of melanin, which neutralizes the effects of LPS.

  13. Neutralizing antibodies obtained in a persistent immune response are effective against deleterious effects induced by the Thalassophryne nattereri fish venom.

    PubMed

    Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Komegae, Evilin Naname; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira; Fonseca, Luiz Alberto; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2007-06-01

    Thalassophryne nattereri envenoming represents a great cost to North and Northeast Brazilian communities in terms of public healths, leisure and tourism. Victims rapidally develop symptoms as pain, local swelling, erythema followed by intense necrosis that persist for long days. The aim of this work was tested the immune competence of neutralizing antibodies in pre-immunized mice against principal toxic activities induced by venom. During the primary antibody response in mice, an elevation of IgG antibody levels was only observed on day 28. After boosting, high antibody levels were detected between days 49 and 70, with a 12-fold increase in IgG level over control values at day 49. We confirmed the in vitro neutralizing capacity of T. nattereri anti-venom against toxic effects and thereafter we show that neutralizing antibodies obtained in a persistent immune response are more effective, inclusive against edematous reaction. After boosting during the secondary response mice with high antibody levels do not present any alterations in venule or arteriole after topical application of venom on cremaster muscle. In addition, CK activity diminished in these mice with high neutralizing antibody levels corroborating the attenuation of the myonecrotic effect by venom. In addition, we determined the presence of high IgG antibodies levels in patients 6 months after injury by T. nattereri. In conclusion, the presence of neutralizing antibodies against to T. nattereri venom in the serum of pre-immunized mice could change the outcome of lesion at site of posterior envenoming. Antigen-specific antibodies of high affinity in consequence to specific immune response, dependent of T lymphocyte activation, could minimize the symptoms of intense and immediate inflammatory reaction caused by T. nattereri venom. These finding prompt us to the possibility of development of immune therapeutic strategies using specific anti-venom as an efficient intervention for protecting human victims.

  14. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus).

    PubMed

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J; Wallingford, John B; Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2009-06-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physalaemus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. Developmental Dynamics 238:1444-1454, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Straminipilous organisms growing on herbivorous pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) and carnivorous piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Czeczuga, B; Godlewska, A; Mazalska, B; Muszyńska, E

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the growth of straminipilous organisms on the skin, muscles and liver of herbivorous pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) and carnivorous piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) in water of three different eutrophication levels. Sixteen straminipilous organism species were found growing on the investigated body parts of both species of fish used as baits. The higher number of species was found on the baits of carnivorous species (15) when compared with the ones from the herbivorous pirapitinga (10 species). The highest number of straminipilous organisms species developed on the skin of both species of fish. The highest number of species of straminipilous organisms was observed growing in the water of the BiaBa river (middle eutrophication), while the lowest number occurred in the baits of vessels with water from the Dojlidy pond (low eutrophication).

  16. Effects of thermal stress on hepatic melanomacrophages of Eupemphix nattereri (Anura).

    PubMed

    De Souza Santos, Lia Raquel; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Zieri, Rodrigo; Borges, Rinneu Elias; De Oliveira, Classius

    2014-05-01

    Melanomacrophages are the pigmented cells present in the hematopoietic organs. Besides melanin, hemosiderin and lipofuscin are also observed in the melanomacrophages. For the liver, however, numerous studies relate these cells to immunological and metabolic functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatic metabolism by quantifying melanin, hemosiderin and lipofuscin in the anuran Eupemphix nattereri submitted to varying thermal conditions. E. nattereri adult males were separated into three groups, as follows: (i) five animals in the control group were kept at room temperature (27°C); (ii) 30 animals were submitted to hyperthermic (35.1°C); and (iii) 30 to hypothermic (18.9°) conditions. In each experiment, the animals were analyzed and separated into two different treatments: (1) immediately after undergoing the stress; and, (2) after recovering from the stress caused by the stimulus, at three distinct times (12 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr). Both hyperthermia and hypothermia decreased hepatic pigmentation after thermal stress. The recovered animals of both experimental treatments showed as much pigmentation as the control animals. Thermal stress alters hemosiderin and lipofuscin as well, which may be related to liver function catabolism. In conclusion, liver pigmentation decreased due to temperature variation and duration of thermal stimulation to which the animals were exposed. The increase in temperature rather than hypothermia led to more drastic physiological disorders. In this study, we observed that thermal stress for a short period compromises the morphology and liver function, as observed by the changing pigmentation of melanomacrophages. These analyses can be used as biomarkers of environmental effects. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Antioxidant Defense System of Tadpoles (Eupemphix nattereri) Exposed to Changes in Temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliane S; Almeida, Eduardo A

    2016-04-01

    Amphibians are highly susceptible to environmental changes, mainly at the larval stage during which they are restricted to small and ephemeral aquatic habitats, which are subject to large fluctuations of abiotic parameters, such as temperature and pH. Consequently, tadpoles experience changes in biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes related to the maintenance of homeostasis, which may lead them to an oxidative stress state. In the present study, we investigated the effects of stress caused by changes in temperature and pH on the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in tadpoles of Eupemphix nattereri. The results show that changes in temperature and pH conditions induce an antioxidant response in tadpoles. GST and GR showed temperature-dependent activities; GST activity was higher in tadpoles exposed to 28°C, whereas GR exhibited increased activity in response to 28°C and 36°C. At 32°C, both GST and GR had the lowest activity. CAT was induced by treatments with acidic (pH 5.0) and alkaline (pH 8.5) pH. Tadpoles exposed to acidic pH also had increased GR activity. The G6PDH was not changed in either experiment. Our data demonstrate that E. nattereri possesses an efficient antioxidant defense system for coping with the damaging effects of heat and acidity/alkalinity conditions in water. The alterations in antioxidant enzymes are probably a result of immediate physiological adaptation of individuals in response to increased production of ROS under environmental stress conditions.

  18. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour by allowing identification of a much greater proportion of prey items often with increased taxonomic resolution. We used morphological analysis and Illumina-based second generation sequencing to study the winter diet of Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattereri) and compared the results obtained from these two approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. Results Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009–10 and 2010–11), indicated that M. nattereri forages throughout winter at least in a location with a mild winter climate. Through morphological analysis, arthropod fragments from seven taxonomic orders were identified. A high proportion of these was non-volant (67.9% of faecal pellets) and unexpectedly included many lepidopteran larvae. Molecular analysis identified 43 prey species from six taxonomic orders and confirmed the frequent presence of lepidopteran species that overwinter as larvae. Conclusions The winter diet of M. nattereri is substantially different from other times of the year confirming that this species has a wide and adaptable dietary niche. Comparison of DNA derived from the prey to an extensive reference dataset of potential prey barcode sequences permitted fine scale taxonomic resolution of prey

  19. The correct name for Oxyurichthys longicauda Steindachner and a few other errors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Helen K; Pezold, Frank L

    2016-01-14

    In 2015, Pezold and Larson published a revision of the gobiid genus Oxyurichthys, and made an error in their use of the name O. uronema (Weber) for one of the species. The reasons for this would make a fine example of one of Evenhuis' taxonomic impediments to nirvana (2007). Pezold and Larson first considered collaborating on this work in 1983, but this did not happen until nearly a decade later. Intensive work began in 1996; by then Larson had examined syntypes of both species in 1988 and determined that Gobius uronema Weber, 1909, was the same species as Gobius longicauda Steindachner, 1893.

  20. Major histocompatibility complex selection dynamics in pathogen-infected túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) populations

    PubMed Central

    Kosch, Tiffany A.; Bataille, Arnaud; Didinger, Chelsea; Eimes, John A.; Rodríguez-Brenes, Sofia; Ryan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-driven selection can favour major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles that confer immunological resistance to specific diseases. However, strong directional selection should deplete genetic variation necessary for robust immune function in the absence of balancing selection or challenges presented by other pathogens. We examined selection dynamics at one MHC class II (MHC-II) locus across Panamanian populations of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, infected by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We compared MHC-II diversity in highland túngara frog populations, where amphibian communities have experienced declines owing to Bd, with those in the lowland region that have shown no evidence of decline. Highland region frogs had MHC variants that confer resistance to Bd. Variant fixation appeared to occur by directional selection rather than inbreeding, as overall genetic variation persisted in populations. In Bd-infected lowland sites, however, selective advantage may accrue to individuals with only one Bd-resistance allele, which were more frequent. Environmental conditions in lowlands should be less favourable for Bd infection, which may reduce selection for specific Bd resistance in hosts. Our results suggest that MHC selection dynamics fluctuate in túngara frog populations as a function of the favourability of habitat to pathogen spread and the vulnerability of hosts to infection. PMID:27531158

  1. Biogeography of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus: a molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Lee A; Crawford, Andrew J; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Physalaemus pustulosus, a small leptodactylid frog with South American affinities, ranges across northern South America through Middle America to southern Mexico. To investigate its geographic variation and evolutionary origins, we analysed the presumptive gene products of 14 allozyme loci and sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial COI gene from individuals sampled throughout the distribution. Generally, allozyme dissimilarities and sequence divergences are correlated with each other and with geographic proximity. The greatest discontinuity in genetic variation was found between populations in Middle America vs. South America + Panama. Based on two Bayesian MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) divergence time estimates involving two independent temporal constraints, the timing of the separation of northern and southern túngara frog lineages is significantly older than the time since completion of the current Panama land bridge. P. pustulosus first invaded Middle America from South America about 6-10 million years ago giving rise to the northern lineage. The southern lineage then invaded Panama independently after land bridge completion. Despite millions of years of independent evolution, the multilocus allozyme data revealed that western Panama populations represent a contact zone containing individuals with alleles from both groups present.

  2. Major histocompatibility complex selection dynamics in pathogen-infected túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) populations.

    PubMed

    Kosch, Tiffany A; Bataille, Arnaud; Didinger, Chelsea; Eimes, John A; Rodríguez-Brenes, Sofia; Ryan, Michael J; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Pathogen-driven selection can favour major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles that confer immunological resistance to specific diseases. However, strong directional selection should deplete genetic variation necessary for robust immune function in the absence of balancing selection or challenges presented by other pathogens. We examined selection dynamics at one MHC class II (MHC-II) locus across Panamanian populations of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, infected by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We compared MHC-II diversity in highland túngara frog populations, where amphibian communities have experienced declines owing to Bd, with those in the lowland region that have shown no evidence of decline. Highland region frogs had MHC variants that confer resistance to Bd. Variant fixation appeared to occur by directional selection rather than inbreeding, as overall genetic variation persisted in populations. In Bd-infected lowland sites, however, selective advantage may accrue to individuals with only one Bd-resistance allele, which were more frequent. Environmental conditions in lowlands should be less favourable for Bd infection, which may reduce selection for specific Bd resistance in hosts. Our results suggest that MHC selection dynamics fluctuate in túngara frog populations as a function of the favourability of habitat to pathogen spread and the vulnerability of hosts to infection. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    PubMed

    Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.

  4. Phylogenetic influence on mating call preferences in female túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus.

    PubMed

    Ryan; Rand

    1999-04-01

    We evaluated how various phylogenetic models for estimating ancestral characters can influence studies of behavioural evolution. Previously we used a single model of evolution to estimate the values of call characters at ancestral nodes for the Physalaemus pustulosus species group and some close relatives (Ryan & Rand 1995, Science, 269, 390-392). We then synthesized these ancestral calls and measured the females' responses to such calls in phonotaxis experiments. We repeated the above procedure to determine the sensitivity of these results and conclusions to various models used to estimate the ancestral call characters. We asked whether: (1) different models gave different call estimates for the same nodes; (2) different call estimates at the same node were perceived as different by females; and (3) differences in female responses influenced previous conclusions. We used seven different models that varied in at least one of the following parameters: tree topology (bifurcating versus pectinate in-group trees), algorithms (local squared-change versus squared-change parsimony), tempo (gradual or punctuated evolution), and outgroups (two or three outgroup taxa used). Although different models often gave different call estimates for the same node, these different estimates often were not perceived as different by the females. These data reinforce our previous conclusions that: (1) the range of female preferences exceeds the known variation of the conspecific call; (2) females do not discriminate between the conspecific call and the call of their most recent ancestor; and (3) female responses may be context dependent, given that females differ in their responses to the same signal variation in discrimination and recognition experiments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  6. Characterization of the dopamine system in the brain of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Lauren A; Matthews, Bryan J; Ryan, Michael J; Hofmann, Hans A

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is an evolutionarily ancient neurotransmitter that plays an essential role in mediating behavior. In vertebrates, dopamine is central to the mesolimbic reward system, a neural network concerned with the valuation of stimulus salience, and to the nigrostriatal motor system and hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of locomotion and social behavior. In amphibians, dopaminergic neurons have been mapped out in several species, yet the distribution of dopaminoreceptive cells is unknown. The túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, is an excellent model system for the study of neural mechanisms by which valuations of stimuli salience and social decisions are made, especially in the context of mate choice. In order to better understand where dopamine acts to regulate social decisions in this species, we have determined the distribution of putative dopaminergic cells (using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry) and cells receptive to dopaminergic signaling (using DARPP-32 immunohistochemistry) throughout the brain of P. pustulosus. The distribution of dopaminergic cells was comparable to other anurans. DARPP-32 immunoreactivity was identified in key brain regions known to modulate social behavior in other vertebrates including the proposed anuran homologues of the mammalian amygdalar complex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, striatum, preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta. Due to its widespread distribution, DARPP-32 likely also plays many roles in non-limbic brain regions that mediate non-social information processing. These results significantly extend our understanding of the distribution of the dopaminergic system in the anuran brain and beyond. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Semiquantitative determination of total mercury in Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858 and sediment at the plateau of Upper Paraguai River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Ferreira, Clautenes Maria; Egler, Silvia Gonçalves; Yallouz, Allegra Viviane; Ignácio, Áurea Regina Alves

    2017-05-01

    In this study an environmental assessment of contamination by total mercury (THg) was carried out at the Plateau of the Upper Paraguai River. Total mercury was evaluated in sediment and muscle of the red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858, a piscivorous species at the top of the food chain consumed for subsistence and commercially. THg concentrations were below national guidelines established by WHO for sediments (100 ng g(-1)) and fish (100-600 ng g(-1)) for most of the sampled sites. Two sites located downstream of artisanal diamond and gold mines had THg concentrations in fish equal or greater than 600 ng g(-1).

  8. Biochemical effects of fipronil and its metabolites on lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant defense in tadpoles (Eupemphix nattereri: Leiuperidae).

    PubMed

    Gripp, Hortênsia S; Freitas, Juliane S; Almeida, Eduardo A; Bisinoti, Márcia C; Moreira, Altair B

    2017-02-01

    Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental change and pollution because they have both aquatic and terrestrial life cycle stages and high skin permeability. Particularly during the larval stages, when these animals are restricted to small, transient ponds, exposure to high concentrations of pesticides is inevitable in agricultural areas. Given that pesticide application increases during the summer, which coincides with the reproductive season and the occurrence of most neotropical tadpoles in their natural environment, strong indications exist that tadpoles are developing in contaminated ponds. Fipronil is one of the primary insecticides used in sugarcane cultivation in Brazil, and little is known about its toxic effects on non-target organisms such as tadpoles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fipronil and its metabolites on oxidative stress in Eupemphix nattereri tadpoles after exposure in water and sediment at concentrations of 35, 120 and 180µgkg(-1). We assessed the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA). The results showed that fipronil has an inherent capacity to cause oxidative stress in tadpoles, as evidenced by a decrease in CAT activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels at all concentrations tested. Fipronil sulfone also produced elevated MDA levels at two of the tested concentrations and increased G6PDH activity in tadpoles exposed to the highest concentration of this metabolite but did not affect MDA levels. Our data showed that fipronil and its degradation products promoted oxidative stress in Eupemphix nattereri tadpoles exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations and could lead to a decrease in the long-term physiological performance of these animals, leading to detrimental effects at the population level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A persistent organic pollutant related with unusual high frequency of hermaphroditism in the neotropical anuran Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rafaela M; Margarido, Vladimir P; de Oliveira, Classius

    2014-07-01

    Representing a reflection of anthropic activity, the level of xenobiotic compounds in aquatic ecosystems has increased in recent years, bringing severe damage to the environment. The present work reports the occurrence of malformation in gonads of Physalaemus cuvieri individuals from a population of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil. Twenty male specimens were collected, which had their testicles removed, immersed in Karnovsky fixative solution, included in historesin for 2 μm cuts and stained with Hematoxylin-eosin. Four specimens showed intersexual gonads condition along with the presence of sperm and oocytes. In order to test a possible contamination of water, 2L were collected from the water body to check organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate compounds. The analysis of water showed the presence of agrotoxic Dieldrin in a concentration of 0.05 μg/L, representing a concentration above the recommended reference. This agrotoxic, in addition to acting as endocrine disrupter and commercially prohibited, has quite persistent residual effects, and may be responsible for the high frequency of P. cuvieri with intersexual gonads, which in the long term can represent a risk for this population due to the potential impact on its effective reproductive ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unraveling the variability and genetic structure of barker frog Physalaemus cuvieri (Leiuperinae) populations from different regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Conte, M; Targueta, C P; Zucchi, M I; Souza, A P; Recco-Pimentel, S M

    2014-02-21

    The barker frog Physalaemus cuvieri is widely distributed in South America and is found in all regions of Brazil. Significant intraspecific morphological variation in this species has been reported. To determine the genetic structure of the natural Brazilian populations of P. cuvieri, 10 different populations geographically separated by 99.41 to 2936.75 km were evaluated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data were analyzed to determine genetic distance between the populations. The genetic variation was found to be significant in most of the populations (HE ranged from 0.40 to 0.59, and allelic richness ranged from 2.07 to 3.54). An FST value of 0.27 indicated that high genetic structure was present among the P. cuvieri populations. STRUCTURE analyses grouped the 10 populations into nine clusters and indicated that only two of the populations were not genetically differentiated. The genetic distance calculated from the mitochondrial DNA data showed values <0.03 for seven of the populations.

  11. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic EST-SSR and genomic SSR markers in spotted mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachne).

    PubMed

    Dou, Y Q; Liang, X F; Yang, M; Tian, C X; He, S; Guo, W J

    2015-12-29

    Spotted mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachne) feed solely on live fry of other fish species once the fry start feeding in the wild. In the present study, 26 polymorphic transcriptome-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 14 genomic SSR markers were developed and characterized in S. scherzeri Steindachne by combining a biotin-enrichment protocol and transcriptome of F1 interspecies hybrids between S. chuatsi (♀) and S. scherzeri (♂). These 40 polymorphic SSRs amplified 168 alleles (mean 4.2). The number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content per locus were in the range of 2 to 7 (mean 4.3), 0.1111 to 1.000 (mean 0.6718), 0.3118 to 0.8276 (mean 0.6901), and 0.2735 to 0.7902 (mean 0.6298), respectively. Ten of these microsatellite loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.00125) after Bonferroni correction for multiple tests and no significant linkage disequilibrium (P < 0.00006) was observed. The microsatellite markers characterized from S. scherzeri could be a valuable tool in genetic evaluation for conservation and for assessment of the mechanism associated with unique food preference of S. scherzeri from a genetic point of view.

  12. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer’s Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Zeale, Matt R. K.; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E.; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer’s bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation. PMID:26771548

  13. Niche-specific cognitive strategies: object memory interferes with spatial memory in the predatory bat Myotis nattereri.

    PubMed

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2014-09-15

    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should rely more on object memory than on spatial memory for finding food and that the opposite is true of frugivorous and nectivorous species. Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations, these would interfere with their subsequent learning of a spatial memory task. We trained free-flying Myotis nattereri to approach palatable and unpalatable insect prey suspended below polystyrene objects. Experimentally naïve bats learned to associate different objects with palatable and unpalatable prey but performed no better than chance in a subsequent spatial memory experiment. Because experimental sequence was predicted to be of consequence, we introduced a second group of bats first to the spatial memory experiment. These bats learned to associate prey position with palatability. Control trials indicated that bats made their decisions based on information acquired through echolocation. Previous studies have shown that bat species that eat mainly nectar and fruit rely heavily on spatial memory, reflecting the relative consistency of distribution of fruit and nectar compared with insects. Our results support the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning.

  14. Infective pentastomid larvae from Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Pisces, Characidae) from the Miranda River, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with notes on their taxonomy and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Suely C; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Calitz, Frikkie; Lizama, Maria de los Angeles Perez; Junker, Kerstin

    2013-11-01

    During parasitological surveys of freshwater fish from the Miranda River, Brazil, 199 Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Characidae) were caught. Two pentastomid families, Subtriquetridae Fain, 1961, represented by its single genus Subtriquetra Sambon, 1922, and Sebekidae Sambon, 1922, represented by three genera, were present. Free-living larvae of Subtriquetra subtriquetra (Diesing, 1835) were collected from the swim bladder. Encysted larvae of Alofia Giglioli, 1922 were found in the abdominal cavity, chambers of the heart, musculature, on the surface of the gonads and swim bladder. Some Alofia larvae were moving freely in the swim bladder. Larvae of Sebekia Sambon, 1922 were encysted in the musculature. Some larvae of Leiperia Sambon, 1922 were found encysted in the musculature and on the surface of the pyloric caeca, whereas others occurred free in the abdominal cavity. In some of the latter, the head was buried deep in the wall of the intestine, stomach or ovaries, whereas the rest of their body remained free. Infective pentastomid larvae were present throughout the year with an overall prevalence of 77%. Both prevalence and intensity were higher in members of the Sebekidae than in Su. subtriquetra, possibly due to the latter's mode of transmission and its high pathogenicity. No sex-related, statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in prevalence or abundance were found. Fish weight and length had significant but weak positive correlations (r < or = 0.27) with the abundance of pentastomid larvae, possibly reflecting an increased likelihood of prior exposure in older fish. Parasite abundance had no significant effect on host body condition (p > or = 0.69). A higher prevalence and monthly mean abundance of pentastomids were seen in the dry season and might be due to increased host densities as habitats dry up. Pygocentrus nattereri represents a new intermediate host record for the genera Alofia, Leiperia and Subtriquetra.

  15. Responses of melanocytes and melanomacrophages of Eupemphix nattereri (Anura: Leiuperidae) to Nle⁴, D-Phe⁷-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Castrucci, Ana Maria de Lauro; de Oliveira, Classius

    2013-10-01

    Melanocytes are found in various organs of ectothermic animals, playing a protective role against bacteria and free radicals. It is known that pigment cells from hematopoietic organs have immune functions. However, the role of visceral melanocytes is not well understood. Cutaneous melanocytes are responsive to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which is associated with the dispersion of melanin granules within melanocytes. α-MSH has also been reported to inhibit most forms of inflammatory responses by decreasing the pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil migration. The present study evaluated the influence of an α-MSH analog (Nle(4), D-Phe(7)-α-MSH) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Escherichia coli on the liver and testicular tissues of the anuran Eupemphix nattereri. The tested hypotheses were: (i) the pigmented area will increase following hormone and LPS administration, (ii) pre-treatment with α-MSH will decrease the number of mast cells, and (iii) the hormone will have protective effects against LPS-induced responses. We found that hormone administration did not change hepatic pigmentation, but increased testicular pigmentation. Testicular pigmentation quickly increased after LPS administration, whereas there was a late response in the liver. The response of enhanced pigmentation was delayed and the number of mast cells decreased in animals previously treated with the α-MSH analog when compared to the LPS group. Hemosiderin and lipofuscin were found in melanomacrophages, but not in testicular melanocytes. Although both the liver and the testes of E. nattereri have pigmented cells, these are distinct in morphology, embryonic origin, and pigmentary substances. These differences may be responsible for the different responses of these cells to the α-MSH analog and LPS administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of the anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae Steindachner, 1897.

    PubMed

    Suíçmez, Menderes; Ulus, Emel

    2005-01-01

    The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae (Steindachner, 1897) were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological structure consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated basal epithelial cells, mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. It was observed that the J-shaped stomach had a meshwork of folds in the cardiac region, and longitudinal folds in the fundic and pyloric regions. A single layer of columnar cells, PAS positive only in their apical portions, forms the epithelium. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells, which have microvilli at the apical surface. The wall of the esophagus and stomach are thicker than that of the intestine because of the thick muscle layer. There were numerous goblet cells in the intestine. There were numerous gastric glands in the submucosa layer ofthe cardiac stomach, but none were present in the pyloric region of the stomach. There were no pyloric caeca between the stomach and intestine. The enterocytes with microvilli contained rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and rounded bodies, and the gastric cells contained a well-developed Golgi apparatus.

  17. Lack of association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovar and virulence in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.)×Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner).

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, C A; LaFrentz, B R

    2015-05-01

    Columnaris disease can be problematic in tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) production. An understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence of Flavobacterium columnare is needed to develop prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the virulence of genetically defined isolates of F. columnare in sex-reversed hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)×O. aureus (Steindachner). A series of immersion challenge trials were performed using isolates of the five established genomovars of F. columnare: I, II, II-B, III and I/II. The mean per cent mortality of fish challenged with genomovar I, II and III isolates ranged from 0 to 100, 3.3-78 and 3.3-75%, respectively. The mean per cent mortality of fish challenged with genomovar II-B ranged from 35 to 96.7%, and the only genomovar I/II isolate tested caused no mortality. Contrary to previous work in other fish species, there did not appear to be an association between F. columnare genomovar and virulence in tilapia. The challenge model used resulted in acute mortality. An alternative challenge model was tested by cohabitating healthy fish with dead fish infected with F. columnare. This method resulted in rapid appearance of clinical signs and mortality, suggesting the potential for F. columnare to increase in virulence upon growth on/in a fish host.

  18. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of consecutive breeding generations of golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Luo, X N; Yang, M; Liang, X F; Jin, K; Lv, L Y; Tian, C X; Yuan, Y C; Sun, J

    2015-09-25

    In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellites were inves-tigated to determine the genetic diversity and structure of 5 consecu-tive selected populations of golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner). The total numbers of alleles, average heterozyosity, and average polymorphism information content showed that the genetic diversity of these breeding populations was decreasing. Additionally, pairwise fixation index FST values among populations and Da values in-creased from F1 generation to subsequent generations (FST values from 0.0221-0.1408; Da values from 0.0608-0.1951). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most genetic variations arise from individuals within populations (about 92.05%), while variation among populations accounted for only 7.95%. The allele frequency of the loci SC75-220 and SC101-222 bp changed regularly in the 5 breeding generations. Their frequencies were gradually increased and showed an enrichment trend, indicating that there may be genetic correlations between these 2 loci and breeding traits. Our study indicated that microsatellite markers are effective for assessing the genetic variability in the golden mandarin fish breeding program.

  19. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Diogo Teruo Hashimoto Tatiana Aparecida; Paes, Ana Danyelle Noitel Valim de Arruda; Foresti, Fausto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability. PMID:24260658

  20. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae) populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A; Silva, R J

    2015-11-01

    Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda) and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea) while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala). Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  1. First description of B chromosomes in the Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae) genus: a hypothesis for the extra element of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882

    PubMed Central

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Hyphessobrycon are allocated in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family, one of the genera with more species of the group. The chromosomes of some species of Hyphessobrycon are known, and the diploid number most common for genus is 2n = 50 chromosomes. The aims of this study were to examine the karyotype macrostructure in the Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, and show a new origin hypothesis for B chromosomes. The diploid number observed for Hyphessobrycon eques was 2n = 52 chromosomes, and a karyotype formulae of 12m + 18sm + 8st + 14a, with FN (fundamental number) = 90 for both sexes. Only two females showed one B chromosome. The heterochromatin was observed mainly on centromeric regions, and in the long arm of the B chromosome. In this paper, the relationship of the B chromosome of Hyphessobrycon eques with an occasional chromosome rearrangement was discussed. PMID:26310656

  2. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Brazilian sardinella, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, J; Paschoal, F; Cezar, A D; Luque, J L

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2010 and August 2011 were necropsied 100 specimens of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879), from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22°51'S, 43°56'W), to study their community of metazoan parasites. All specimens of S. brasiliensis were parasitized by at least one species of metazoan parasite, with mean of 68.7 ± 71.2 parasites/fish. Eleven species were collected: 3 digeneans, 1 monogenean, 2 cestodes, 3 nematodes and 2 copepods. The digenean Myosaccium ecaude Montgomery was the most abundant, prevalent, and dominant species, representing 72.7% of metazoan parasites collected, showing positive correlation between host's total length and parasite abundance. Total parasite abundance was positively correlated with host's total length. Three pairs of adult endoparasites showed significant positive association and covariation. The parasite community of S. brasiliensis showed dominance by digeneans. Sardinella brasiliensis represents new host record for most found parasite species.

  3. [Population demography in Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) and Physalaemus biligonigerus (Anura: Leiuperidae) in agroecosystems in the province of Córdoba, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bionda, Clarisa; Lajmanovich, Rafael; Salas, Nancy; Martino, Adolfo; di Tada, Ismael

    2013-09-01

    The advancing agricultural frontier has led to an important loss of natural habitats, with significant consequences for biodiversity. The demography for two species of anurans, Physalaemus biligonigerus and Rhinella arenarum, both associated with agricultural systems in the central region of the C6rdoba Province, were analyzed and compared in this study. Four sites were sampled: three agroecosystems with different alteration degrees (C1, C2 and SM1) and a fourth site not cultivated (SM2). The sampling was conducted during two reproductive periods, from September 2008 to April 2009 and September 2009 to April 2010. Individuals were captured using live pitfall traps for the metamorphic, juveniles and adults; and visual encounter survey, for the capture of eggs and larvae. With the abundance data, the survival for each age class was estimated using the KNM method (Kiritani Nakasuki Manly). With survival rates and fertility population, Leslie matrices were elaborated to obtain a quantitative projection of the population size. Altered environments showed lower eggs and larvae survival. Population projections were favorable in the site SM2 and were less favorable and a tendency to extinction, in sites dominated by crops. This study showed that the agroecosystems of this region are possibly inhospitable environments for reproduction and survival of the species studied. The aquatic stages in the life cycle of both species would be the more affected, since water bodies deterioration is present or may occur in those areas. We can recognize species-specific effects of agricultural ecosystems; P. biligonigerus was the most affected species, possibly because of their life histories and habitat requirements. We suggested that environmental degradation caused by the cropland in the central region of Argentina would impact on the demographics of the anuran populations in the area.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis in the incertae sedis species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britzki, 2000 and Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper Paraná river basin

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emanuel R. M.; Alves, Anderson L.; Silveira, Sara M.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses were accomplished in two populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britzki, 2000 and one population of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, considered incertae sedis in Characidae family. Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Mogi-Guaçu and Tietê rivers) presented 2n=50, with the same karyotype formula: 6M+12SM+20ST+12A (FN=88). Hyphessobrycon eques from Capivara river presented 2n=52 and karyotype formula 14M+16SM+4ST+18A (FN=86). In each karyotype, the nucleolus organizer regions were detected at the end of the short arm of a single medium-sized subtelocentric chromosome. The Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) marking is coincident for the NORs in chromosomes of the two species and present additionally in two different chromosomes of Astyanax altiparanae thus showinginterpopulation differences in this species. In Hyphessobrycon eques, weak heterochromatic blocks in the position of centromeres and telomeres of most chromosomes and negative C-banding for the NOR bearing chromosome were visualized. The obtained results contribute both to the understanding of karyotype evolution of these species and to the clarifying their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24260651

  5. Distribution of mercury in the soft tissues of the Blue Tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) after acute exposure to mercury (II) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.

    1994-11-01

    Mercury has no known biological functions in the animal body and is described as an ultratrace element. Consequently, there is no well defined regulatory mechanism present in the animal body and it tends to accumulate readily if available in an animal's environment. Sources of mercury include the chloroalkali industry, the manufacture of electrical equipment, paint, fungicides and dentistry. The use of mercury in the gold mining industry has caused extensive pollution in the Amazon Basin. Whether fish take up organic or inorganic mercury, most of it accumulates in the tissues in the organic form. Most cases of mercury poisoning arising from fish consumption are due to methylmercury because mercury entering the aquatic system rapidly becomes methylated. Minamata disease in humans was first reported in 1956 due to consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish from Minamata Bay. Therefore it is important to monitor the mercury content of fish which are caught or farmed for human consumption. Since many commercial animal feeds contain a fish meal component, monitoring is important from the aspect of contamination of farm animals intended for human consumption. Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) is a species of tilapia often cultured in ponds and also in cages in North and Latin America. Therefore, it is a suitable model to use for studying the effects of mercury exposure on the distribution of mercury in different tissues of fish. Distribution is important, because different cultures consume different fish organs, not just the muscle portion alone. The tissues which have a high content of mercury will be most dangerous from a toxicological viewpoint. Removal of the tissues known to contain the highest concentrations of mercury would reduce the mercury content of fish meal. Since fish are often species-specific in their responses to heavy metals, it is important to study a species which is actually farmed and cultured as a food fish. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Rediscovery of Chonopeltis meridionalis Fryer, 1964 (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Labeo rosae Steindachner in the River Olifants, Mpumalanga, and the taxonomic status of C. victori Avenant-Oldewage, 1991 and C. koki Van As, 1992.

    PubMed

    van As, Liesl L; Smit, Nico J; van As, Jo G

    2017-06-21

    Chonopeltis Thiele, 1900 presently comprises 14 species, it is endemic to Africa and its species show a high degree of host-specificity towards fish families and in some cases, individual fish species. Chonopeltis meridionalis Fryer, 1964 was originally described from Labeo rosae Steindachner collected in the River Nuanetsi in Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, Limpopo River System. At the time of description C. meridionalis was the most southerly species of the genus. Chonopeltis victori Avenant-Oldewage, 1991 was described from the River Olifants, Mpumalanga, South Africa, which also forms part of the Limpopo River System. The host fish was Labeo rosae and Labeobarbus marequensis (A. Smith), whilst C. koki Van As, 1992 was described from Labeo cylindricus Peters, collected in the River Zambezi, Eastern Caprivi, Namibia. During surveys conducted in 2012, additional material of a species of Chonopeltis was collected from Labeo rosae in the River Olifants. Upon closer examination, the new material was identified as C. meridionalis. Further investigation revealed that C. victori and C. koki share a number of characteristics with C. meridionalis. This paper provides the first scanning electron microscopy of C. meridionalis, includes additional information on fully-mature as well as sub-adult males and females. Finally, it was concluded that C. victori and C. koki are junior synonyms of C. meridionalis.

  7. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus)

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J.; Wallingford, John B.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physaleamus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. PMID:19384855

  8. Sound production in red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study.

    PubMed

    Millot, Sandie; Vandewalle, Pierre; Parmentier, Eric

    2011-11-01

    Piranhas are known to be sound-producing animals. Nevertheless, the biological significance of piranha calls remains unclear because sounds have been recorded only when specimens were held by hand or trapped in a gill net. These sounds are generated by rapid contractions of sonic muscles that insert on a broad tendon surrounding ventrally the cranial sac of the swimbladder. The piranha swimbladder is thought to play an important role in sound production as an impedance-matching device and as a resonator. However, the vibratory capacities of the cranial and caudal sacs and the exact role of both sacs in sound production remain poorly understood. In this study, three sounds were each associated to a specific behaviour. The first sound (type 1) was produced during frontal display; it had numerous pulses and lasted 140!±17 ms, with a fundamental frequency of 120±4 Hz. It corresponded to the sound made by hand-held fishes. The second sound (type 2) was produced during circling and fighting behaviour; it was a single pulse lasting 36±8 ms, with a fundamental frequency of 43±10 Hz. The third sound (type 3) corresponded to chasing behaviour and comprised three to four pulses, each lasting 3±1 ms, with a fundamental frequency of 1739±18 Hz. Using a laser vibrometer to study the swimbladder displacement when stimulated at different frequencies, it was demonstrated that the first two sounds corresponded to the swimbladder mechanism. By contrast, the third sound was associated with the jaw mechanism. The vibrometer indicated that the swimbladder is a highly damping structure, simply copying the sonic muscle contraction rate. This study provides two interesting insights. First, it shows the relationships between three kinds of piranha sound and three specific behaviours. Second, using muscle stimulation at different rates, it shows which simultaneous conditions are required for production of sound in this species. Swimbladder calls were produced by a muscle contraction rate of approximately 100 Hz because this periodicity allowed the swimbladder to vibrate. At this frequency range, the contraction-relaxation cycles of the swimbladder muscles engendered wall displacements that had short amplitudes and with only a small variability between them.

  9. A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Flávio C T

    2017-01-22

    A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia

  10. Early sexing techniques in Lophiosilurus alexandri (Steindachner, 1876), a freshwater carnivorous catfish.

    PubMed

    Melillo Filho, Reinaldo; Gheller, Valentim Arabicano; Chaves, Glauco Vinício; de Souza E Silva, Walisson; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Figueiredo, Luis Gustavo; da Costa Julio, Gustavo Soares; Luz, Ronald Kennedy

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sexing techniques for juvenile Lophiosilurus alexandri. With this aim, we evaluated three techniques: coelioscopy, performed with the use of video surgery equipment; coeliotomy, a surgical procedure for direct visualization of the gonads; and sex determination using a urethral probe to compare the genital papillae. For coelioscopy, the survival rate was 100% 30 days after the procedure, and the fish restarted eating 10 days after surgery. This technique resulted in a 100% correct identification of individuals identified as females, whereas for males, it was 66.6%. There was no significant difference between males and females for anesthesia induction and recovery times. However, the procedure took longer for males because of the difficulty in observing the gonads, which can be attributed to the large amount of visceral fat in males. Coeliotomy also resulted in a 100% survival rate 30 days after surgery, and the efficiency of this technique was 96.3% for males and 93.9% for females. The fish restarted eating between 10 and 14 days after surgery, and there were no significant differences between males and females for anesthesia induction and recovery times for the surgical procedure to visualize the gonads (P > 0.05). The urethral probe technique was less efficient with an accuracy rate of 67.8% and 81.8% for males and females, respectively. We conclude that coeliotomy was more efficient for sexing both sexes of juvenile L. alexandri. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878) (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, J.A.; Affonso, P.R.A.M.; Giuliano-Caetano, L.; Dias, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D) of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae) from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of Hypostomus prope unae. PMID:24260639

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the Neotropical trans-Andean fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris, Steindachner 1879 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae).

    PubMed

    Landínez-García, Ricardo M; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J

    2016-05-01

    Ichthyoelephas longirostris is a trans-Andean migratory species belonging to Prochilodontidae family. In this work, the mitochondrial genome of I. longirostris was sequenced by Illumina technology. The 16,840 bp mitogenome encodes 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and present a conserved synteny with others species of the Order Characiformes.

  13. Mitochondrial genome of the Neotropical detritivore fish Curimata mivartii Steindachner 1878 (Characiformes, Curimatidae).

    PubMed

    Landínez-García, Ricardo M; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J

    2016-05-01

    Curimata mivartii is a detritivorous species Neotropical, which is of great importance to local fisheries and riverine ecosystems. In this work, the mitochondrial genome of C. mivartii was completely sequenced using a combination of 454 FLX(+) platform and Sanger/capillary sequencing. The mitogenome is 16,705 bp in length, encodes 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and exhibit perfect synteny with others Characiformes.

  14. Evaluation of PCBs and DDTs in endemic Iberian barbel Barbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864) populations.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Graciela G; Parra, Irene; Sáez, Mónica; Almodóvar, Ana; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-05-01

    PCB and DDT levels were evaluated in populations of endemic Iberian barbel (Barbus bocagei) in the Jarama River in Spain via a pollution gradient from well-preserved areas upstream to contaminated downstream areas. Age structure, abundance, recruitment and levels of morphological abnormalities and ectoparasites were assessed. Upstream to downstream PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 101.4 ng/g (ww) and from 0.9 to 19.6 ng/g ww for DDTs. The PCB pattern was dominated by the PCB 153, 138 and 180 congeners, and the less chlorinated ones had a relatively high contribution upstream. Barbels exposed to low PCB and DDT levels had a well-balanced population with a predominant cohort of young fish, indicating good recruitment. The most contaminated sites displayed a disrupted age distribution, where the proportion of young fish was clearly under-represented. Recruitment and total density of barbel populations decreased downstream where the highest PCB and DDT levels were found. In addition, a higher incidence of abnormalities and ectoparasites was observed at these sites. High concentrations of PCBs and DDTs most likely contribute to the reduction of Iberian barbel reproductive performance in the most contaminated sites, as shown by the disrupted age-distribution found in our study.

  15. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  16. Rediscovery of the holotype of Tetragonopterus vittatus Castelnau 1855, a senior synonym of Moenkhausia doceana (Steindachner 1887) (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Priscilla Caroline; Malabarba, Luiz Roberto

    2016-06-29

    The description of Tetragonopterus vittatus presented by Francis L. Castelnau (1855) was very concise and apparently based on a single specimen (not explicitly stated in the text, but deducible according to the single counts for the meristic data presented in the description). The type locality is recorded simply as "Bahia", with no specification of the drainage or nearby city. The existence of type specimens has been considered unknown (Lima et al., 2003; Eschmeyer & Fricke, 2015; Lucena & Soares, 2016), and have not been mentioned in published catalogues for type specimens of MNHN (e.g. Bertin, 1948).

  17. Lack of association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovar and virulence in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) x Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columnaris disease can be problematic in tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) production. An understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence of F. columnare is needed for the development of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the virulence of genetically defined isolates of Fl...

  18. Steganoderma szidati n. sp. (Trematoda: Zoogonidae) from Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) and G. platei Steindachner in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Viozzi, G; Flores, V; Ostrowski de Núñez, M

    2000-07-01

    Steganoderma szidati n. sp. is described from the intestine of two freshwater fishes, Galaxias maculatus and G. platei (Galaxiidae), from Andean lakes in Patagonia, Argentina. This freshwater zoogonid species fits in the genus Steganoderma (sensu Bray, 1987) because of the length of the caeca and the position of the vitelline follicles. The new species is characterised by possessing 6-13 vitelline follicles situated between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and the posterior margin of the testis. The gonads are in the anterior hindbody and the ovary is anterior to the right testis. The cirrus has two conspicuous spines at its distal end, and the seminal vesicle always exhibits a constriction. The excretory vesicle never reaches the level of the posterior margin of the testes.

  19. Appetite regulating peptides in red-bellied piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri: cloning, tissue distribution and effect of fasting on mRNA expression levels.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-06-01

    cDNAs encoding the appetite regulating peptides apelin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and orexin were isolated in red-bellied piranha and their mRNA tissue and brain distributions examined. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to that of other Characiforme fish, as well as to Cypriniformes. All peptides were widely expressed within the brain and in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract. In order to assess the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha, we compared the brain mRNA expression levels of these peptides, as well as the gut mRNA expression of CCK and PYY, between fed and 7-day fasted fish. Within the brain, fasting induced a significant increase in both apelin and orexin mRNA expressions and a decrease in CART mRNA expression, but there where were no significant differences for either PYY or CCK brain mRNA expressions between fed and fasted fish. Within the intestine, PYY mRNA expression was lower in fasted fish compared to fed fish but there was no significant difference for CCK intestine mRNA expression between fed and fasted fish. Our results suggest that these peptides, perhaps with the exception of CCK, play a major role in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha.

  20. First record of Hysterothylacium sp. Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993 larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infecting the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Acosta, A A; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    This study reports for the first time infection with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques from the Paranapanema River, Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. A sample of 33 specimens of H. eques was collected in October, 2011. Four specimens of H. eques were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the intestine and coelomic cavity, with prevalence of 12.1%, mean intensity of infection of 1, and mean abundance of 0.121 ± 0.05. A total of 40 unidentified free-living nematodes were found in the stomach content of 17 fish. This fish species is introduced in the Paranapanema River. Invasive species may affect the native fauna given the introduction of pathogens and parasites. This study also complements data on the diet of H. eques due to the records of free-living nematode as part of the stomach content. Infections with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae may affect the biology of this fish and bring about profit losses to aquarists.

  1. Diet of Ameerega braccata (Steindachner, 1864) (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Chapada dos Guimarães and Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, L R; Tissiani, A S O; Mott, T; Strüssmann, C

    2011-02-01

    The understanding of feeding habits is important for anurans in general, both from an ecological and a phylogenetic perspective. For diurnal poison frogs belonging to the Dendrobatidae family, diet aspects play a crucial role in their defense and survival. Herein, we investigated feeding habits, foraging behaviour, and overall effects of habitat, sex, and body size on the diet of individuals of Ameerega braccata, a poorly known dendrobatid species. Specimens were observed and collected in the type-locality, Chapada dos Guimarães, and in the neighbouring municipality of Cuiabá, both in the State of Mato Grosso, Midwestern Brazil. The most important prey categories for A. braccata were Formicidae, Isoptera, and Acari, whose representatives were caught during active foraging. Individuals from Chapada dos Guimarães population consumed more Acari but fewer Isoptera than individuals from Cuiabá. Despite this, niche breadth values were narrow and similar for the two populations. Individuals from two distinct habitats (campo sujo and cerrado stricto sensu) showed differences in their diet, probably as an effect of differential prey availability. Females consumed more Isoptera than males. The number of prey categories used as food was not influenced by the variation of body size of the target species. However, the abundance and the volume of consumed Acari were statistically correlated with body size. The main results suggest that Ameerega braccata has a narrow niche breadth, as well as a specialised diet in ants, termites, and mites, which reinforces the hypotheses of close association between Acari consumption and the presence of skin toxic alkaloids, already found in other species of Dendrobatidae. Although differences in prey consumption between sexes are uncommon among poisonous frogs, differences in the diet composition between age classes, which probably reduce intraspecific competition, are frequently reported.

  2. The karyotypes of the thorny catfishes Wertheimeria maculata Steindachner, 1877 and Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895 (Siluriformes: Doradidae) and their relevance in doradids chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Eler, Eduardo S; Dergam, Jorge A; Vênere, Paulo C; Paiva, Lílian C; Miranda, Gabriela A; Oliveira, Alessandro A

    2007-05-01

    We studied the karyotypes of two doradids, the rare and endangered Wertheimeria maculata and a derived Amazonian species, Hassar wilderi. Cytogenetic characterization was assessed using conventional staining (Giemsa), C-banding, and NOR banding. Both species had 2n = 58 chromosomes but differed in their chromosome formulae, 24 m + 14sm + 8st + 12a for W. maculata and 32 m + 16sm + 10st for H. wilderi. In W. maculata heterochromatin was mainly telomeric, and three chromosomes had a fully heterochromatic arm; in H. wilderi heterochromatin was also predominantly telomeric and evident in many more chromosomes. Hassar wilderi also presented one pair of homologues with a fully heterochromatic arm. In both species, nucleolar organizer regions were restricted to one pair of subtelocentric chromosomes. Assuming a basal position for W. maculata, we hypothesized that underlying conserved diploid and NOR-bearing chromosome numbers, chromosomal evolution in doradids has involved pericentric inversions and an increase of heterochromatic blocks.

  3. Disease resistance and immune-relevant gene expression in golden mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner, infected with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus-like agent.

    PubMed

    Shin, G W; White, S L; Dahms, H U; Jeong, H D; Kim, J H

    2014-12-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), family Iridoviridae, genus Megalocytivirus, may cause high mortality rates such as those seen in mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi. ISKNV has attracted much attention due to the possible environmental threat and economic losses it poses on both cultured and wild populations. We have investigated the pathogenicity of ISKNV-like agent Megalocytivirus, isolated from infected pearl gourami, in golden mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri - a member of the Percichthyidae family - and in another Percichthyidae species, S. chuatsi. Fish were challenged with four different doses of ISKNV-like agent Megalocytivirus (1, 10, 100 or 1000 μg per fish) over a 30-day period, and cumulative fish mortalities were calculated for each group. No significant mortality was observed for fish challenged with the lowest dose (1 μg per fish) relative to a control group. However, all other challenged groups showed 100% mortality over a 30-day period in proportion to the challenge dose. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure mRNA expression levels for six immune-related genes in golden mandarin fish following ISKNV-like agent challenge. mRNA expression levels for IRF1, Mx, viperin and interleukin 8 significantly increased, while mRNA levels for IRF2 and IRF7 remained constant or declined during the challenge period.

  4. External Morphology of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 during Early Stages of Development, and Its Implications for the Evolution of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Assega, Fernando Massayuki; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Bialetzki, Andréa; Shibatta, Oscar Akio

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopimelodidae are Neotropical catfishes characterized by having slightly to strongly depressed body in fully developed specimens. The largest species of the family with 500 mm SL, Lophiosilurus alexandri, experiences impressive changes in body shape during development, becoming extremely depressed when fully developed. Accordingly, Lophiosilurus alexandri is an ideal species to observe the morphological changes during ontogeny, and to seek solid interpretations on the polarity of characters. Specimens of distinct larval periods (yolk sac, flexion and postflexion; n = 186 specimens) and juvenile stages (n = 20) were analyzed. Changes in body shape, position of mouth and eye, morphology of fins and pigmentation were observed during the development of Lophiosilurus. Larvae (5.7–11.2 mm standard length) had pigmentation concentrated on the head and parts of body, eyes small and pigmented, short barbels, and well-developed finfold. Juveniles (15.9–28.1 mm standard length) had body shape similar to adult, with head depressed and bearing bony ridges, large mouth, dorsally-oriented eyes, small barbels and well-developed shoulder bulges (cleithral width). The greatest morphological changes in the development of L. alexandri occurred during the postflexion larval stage. Relative to standard length, measurements of snout length, head depth and body depth are smaller in juveniles than in larvae, but body width is larger. New interpretations on the phylogenetic characters related to these changes are provided in view of the two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of Pseudopimelodidae. PMID:27082430

  5. External Morphology of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 during Early Stages of Development, and Its Implications for the Evolution of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Assega, Fernando Massayuki; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Bialetzki, Andréa; Shibatta, Oscar Akio

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopimelodidae are Neotropical catfishes characterized by having slightly to strongly depressed body in fully developed specimens. The largest species of the family with 500 mm SL, Lophiosilurus alexandri, experiences impressive changes in body shape during development, becoming extremely depressed when fully developed. Accordingly, Lophiosilurus alexandri is an ideal species to observe the morphological changes during ontogeny, and to seek solid interpretations on the polarity of characters. Specimens of distinct larval periods (yolk sac, flexion and postflexion; n = 186 specimens) and juvenile stages (n = 20) were analyzed. Changes in body shape, position of mouth and eye, morphology of fins and pigmentation were observed during the development of Lophiosilurus. Larvae (5.7-11.2 mm standard length) had pigmentation concentrated on the head and parts of body, eyes small and pigmented, short barbels, and well-developed finfold. Juveniles (15.9-28.1 mm standard length) had body shape similar to adult, with head depressed and bearing bony ridges, large mouth, dorsally-oriented eyes, small barbels and well-developed shoulder bulges (cleithral width). The greatest morphological changes in the development of L. alexandri occurred during the postflexion larval stage. Relative to standard length, measurements of snout length, head depth and body depth are smaller in juveniles than in larvae, but body width is larger. New interpretations on the phylogenetic characters related to these changes are provided in view of the two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of Pseudopimelodidae.

  6. Comparative sperm ultrastructure of twelve leptodactylid frog species with insights into their phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Santos, Julio Sérgio; Introíni, Gisele Orlandi; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Blasco, Ailin; Rivera, Miryan; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-12-01

    The spermatozoa of representatives of three Neotropical frog subfamilies, Leiuperinae, Leptodactylinae and Paratelmatobiinae, were observed using Transmission Electron Microscopy, with the aim of identifying ultrastructural traits that provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships among these anurans, which are currently unclear. In the leiuperines, spermatozoa of Physalaemus albifrons, P. cicada, P. deimaticus and P. feioi were characterized by an acrosomal vesicle covering the subacrosomal cone that was not observed in the spermatozoa of Physalaemus centralis and P. cuvieri. The tail of the spermatozoa of P. albifrons, P. centralis, P. cicada, P. cuvieri, P. deimaticus, and P. feioi presented a long undulating membrane, whereas Engystomops petersi and E. freibergi, which form a sister clade to Physalaemus, had an axial fiber, which were absent in Physalaemus. Other leiuperine, E. puyango had an abaxonemal bulb-like swelling distally to the paraxonemal rod, which were also absent in Physalaemus. These differences support the revalidation of Engystomops as a true taxon, distinct from Physalaemus. The tail of the spermatozoa of E. petersi and E. freibergi was similar to that of Paratelmatobius poecilogaster (Paratelmatobiinae). The spermatozoa of Leptodactylus natalenis (Leptodactylinae) had undulating membrane and axial fiber, in contrast with Adenomera marmorata, which lacked these structures. Morphological differences between A. marmorata and L. natalensis sperm cells appeared to validate the allocation of A. marmorata into a genus distinct from Leptodactylus. Overall, dissimilarities in the spermatozoa of the leptodactylids provided an important phylogenetic signal for the understanding of their taxonomic relationships.

  7. Sympatric woodland Myotis bats form tight-knit social groups with exclusive roost home ranges.

    PubMed

    August, Tom A; Nunn, Miles A; Fensome, Amy G; Linton, Danielle M; Mathews, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. Social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. We therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric Myotis bats (M. nattereri (Natterer's bats) and M. daubentonii (Daubenton's bats)), and asked: (1) are there long-lasting social associations within species? (2) do the ranges occupied by roosting social groups overlap within or between species? (3) are M. daubentonii bachelor colonies excluded from roosting in areas used by maternity groups? Using data on 490 ringed M. nattereri and 978 M. daubentonii from 379 colonies, we found that both species formed stable social groups encompassing multiple colonies. M. nattereri formed 11 mixed-sex social groups with few (4.3%) inter-group associations. Approximately half of all M. nattereri were associated with the same individuals when recaptured, with many associations being long-term (>100 days). In contrast, M. daubentonii were sexually segregated; only a quarter of pairs were associated at recapture after a few days, and inter-sex associations were not long-lasting. Social groups of M. nattereri and female M. daubentonii had small roost home ranges (mean 0.2 km2 in each case). Intra-specific overlap was low, but inter-specific overlap was high, suggesting territoriality within but not between species. M. daubentonii bachelor colonies did not appear to be excluded from roosting areas used by females. Our data suggest marked species- and sex-specific patterns of disease and information transmission are likely between bats of the same genus despite sharing a common habitat. The clear partitioning of the woodland amongst social groups, and their apparent reliance on small patches of habitat for roosting, means that localised woodland management may be more important to bat

  8. Sympatric Woodland Myotis Bats Form Tight-Knit Social Groups with Exclusive Roost Home Ranges

    PubMed Central

    August, Tom A.; Nunn, Miles A.; Fensome, Amy G.; Linton, Danielle M.; Mathews, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Background The structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. Social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. We therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric Myotis bats (M. nattereri (Natterer's bats) and M. daubentonii (Daubenton's bats)), and asked: (1) are there long-lasting social associations within species? (2) do the ranges occupied by roosting social groups overlap within or between species? (3) are M. daubentonii bachelor colonies excluded from roosting in areas used by maternity groups? Results Using data on 490 ringed M. nattereri and 978 M. daubentonii from 379 colonies, we found that both species formed stable social groups encompassing multiple colonies. M. nattereri formed 11 mixed-sex social groups with few (4.3%) inter-group associations. Approximately half of all M. nattereri were associated with the same individuals when recaptured, with many associations being long-term (>100 days). In contrast, M. daubentonii were sexually segregated; only a quarter of pairs were associated at recapture after a few days, and inter-sex associations were not long-lasting. Social groups of M. nattereri and female M. daubentonii had small roost home ranges (mean 0.2 km2 in each case). Intra-specific overlap was low, but inter-specific overlap was high, suggesting territoriality within but not between species. M. daubentonii bachelor colonies did not appear to be excluded from roosting areas used by females. Conclusions Our data suggest marked species- and sex-specific patterns of disease and information transmission are likely between bats of the same genus despite sharing a common habitat. The clear partitioning of the woodland amongst social groups, and their apparent reliance on small patches of habitat for roosting, means that localised woodland management

  9. Un nouveau genre d'Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Acanthomorpha) du Cénomanien inférieur marin de Hgula (Liban): description et relations phylogénétiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga

    1997-09-01

    Freigichthys elleipsis nov. gen., nov. sp., from the Lower Cenomanian of Hgula (Lebanon) is described. Its phylogenetic relationships within the Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Ctenosquamata) are established. It is the plesiomorphic member of this superfamily that includes the genera Aipichthys Steindachner, 1860, ParaipichthysGaudant, 1978and Aipichthyoides Gayet 1980.

  10. Chytridiomycosis in frogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Kolenc, Francisco; Aramburu, Andrea

    2009-04-06

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is reported in Uruguayan native amphibians for the first time. Histological evidence of infection was observed in tadpoles of Hypsiboas pulchellus, Odontophrynus maisuma, Physalaemus henselii, and Scinax squalirostris. The effects of chytridiomycosis on these species are still unknown. However, the disease is of potential concern for the conservation of the apparently declining species P. henselii and also for O. maisuma, given its restricted distribution in habitats which are being increasingly disturbed.

  11. Taxonomic review of Copella (Characiformes: Lebiasinidae) with an identification key for the species

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Naércio A.

    2017-01-01

    A taxonomic review of Copella is presented based on the analysis of the type material of all nominal species and extensive material from South American drainages. Six out of ten nominal species are recognized as valid: Copella arnoldi, C. callolepis, C. compta, C. eigenmanni, C. nattereri, and C. vilmae. Copella carsevennensis is a junior synonym of C. arnoldi, C. nigrofasciata and ‘Nannostomus’ stigmasemion are junior synonyms of C. callolepis, C. metae is junior synonym of C. eigenmanni, and C. meinkeni is junior synonym of C. nattereri. Species of Copella occur in the rio Amazonas and Orinoco basins, and coastal drainages of Guyana, French Guiana, Surinam, and Venezuela. An identification key is provided. PMID:28817598

  12. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  13. Characterization and Biomimcry of Avian Nanostructured Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-19

    and L. nattereri rump feathers had secondary peaks at shorter wavelengths, which unlike their primary peaks lost their polarization (peaks were...Osorio D, 2010. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules. Proc Roy Soc B 278:2098–2104...bird of paradise . Light: Science & Applications 4:e243. doi: doi:10.1038/lsa.2015.16. Stavenga DG, Tinbergen J, Leertouwer HL, Wilts BD, 2011

  14. Angiotensin converting enzymes in fish venom.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Dávida Maria Ribeiro Cardoso; de Souza, Cledson Barros; Pereira, Hugo Juarez Vieira

    2017-06-01

    Animal venoms are multifaceted mixtures, including proteins, peptides and enzymes produced by animals in defense, predation and digestion. These molecules have been investigated concerning their molecular mechanisms associated and possible pharmacological applications. Thalassophryne nattereri is a small venomous fish inhabiting the northern and northeastern coast of Brazil, and represents a relatively frequent cause of injuries. Its venom causes severe inflammatory response followed frequently by the necrosis of the affected area. Scorpaena plumieri is the most venomous fish in the Brazilian fauna and is responsible for relatively frequent accidents involving anglers and bathers. In humans, its venom causes edema, erythema, ecchymoses, nausea, vomiting, and syncope. Recently, the presence of a type of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the venom of Thalassophryne nattereri and Scorpaena plumieri, endemic fishes in northeastern coast of Brazil, has been described. The ACE converts angiotensin I (Ang I) into angiotensin II (Ang II) and inactivates bradykinin, there by regulating blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis, however, their function in these venoms remains an unknown. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge on ACE in the venoms of Thalassophryne nattereri and Scorpaena plumier.

  15. Manakins can produce iridescent and bright feather colours without melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2016-06-15

    Males of many species often use colourful and conspicuous ornaments to attract females. Among these, male manakins (family: Pipridae) provide classic examples of sexual selection favouring the evolution of bright and colourful plumage coloration. The highly iridescent feather colours of birds are most commonly produced by the periodic arrangement of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) within barbules. Melanin increases the saturation of iridescent colours seen from optimal viewing angles by absorbing back-scattered light; however, this may reduce the wide-angle brightness of these signals, contributing to a dark background appearance. We examined the nanostructure of four manakin species (Lepidothrix isidorei, L. iris, L. nattereri and L. coeruleocapilla) to identify how they produce their bright plumage colours. Feather barbs of all four species were characterized by dense and fibrous internal spongy matrices that likely increase scattering of light within the barb. The iridescent, yet pale or whitish colours of L. iris and L. nattereri feathers were produced not by periodically arranged melanosomes within barbules, but by periodic matrices of air and β-keratin within barbs. Lepidothrix iris crown feathers were able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely because of a periodic nanostructure, a flattened barb morphology and disorder at a microstructural level. We hypothesize that iridescent plumage ornaments of male L. iris and L. nattereri are under selection to increase brightness or luminance across wide viewing angles, which may potentially increase their detectability by females during dynamic and fast-paced courtship displays in dim light environments.

  16. New cystidicolid species (Nematoda) from Galaxias platei (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonian freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2008-08-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias platei Steindachner, 1898, from Patagonian Andean Lakes, a new species of Cystidicolidae was found in the stomach of fish. The new species was described using light and scanning electron microscopy; the species has characteristics of Ascarophis and is distinguishable from other species by a combination of the following features: well-developed pseudolabia with T-shaped inner extensions, bifurcate deirids, small ratio GE:ME, small left spicule, small ratio LS:RS, and larvigerous eggs with thick and fine filaments in both poles. Intraspecific variation in the morphology of larvigerous eggs was studied. This is the first species of Ascarophis described from freshwater fishes.

  17. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I; Trenczek, Tina E; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet.

  18. Two new and one known species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) with novel molecular characterisation for the genus.

    PubMed

    Wee, Nicholas Q-X; Cutmore, Scott C; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-09-02

    Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.

  19. Robots in the service of animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett A; Stein, Joey; Taylor, Ryan C

    2012-09-01

    As reading fiction can challenge us to better understand fact, using fake animals can sometimes serve as our best solution to understanding the behavior of real animals. The use of dummies, doppelgangers, fakes, and physical models have served to elicit behaviors in animal experiments since the early history of behavior studies, and, more recently, robotic animals have been employed by researchers to further coax behaviors from their study subjects. Here, we review the use of robots in the service of animal behavior, and describe in detail the production and use of one type of robot - "faux" frogs - to test female responses to multisensory courtship signals. The túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) has been a study subject for investigating multimodal signaling, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the faux frogs we have designed, with the larger aim of inspiring other scientists to consider the appropriate application of physical models and robots in their research.

  20. Signal perception in frogs and bats and the evolution of mating signals.

    PubMed

    Akre, Karin L; Farris, Hamilton E; Lea, Amanda M; Page, Rachel A; Ryan, Michael J

    2011-08-05

    Psychophysics measures the relationship between a stimulus's physical magnitude and its perceived magnitude. Because decisions are based on perception of stimuli, this relationship is critical to understanding decision-making. We tested whether psychophysical laws explain how female túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) and frog-eating bats (Trachops cirrhosus) compare male frog calls, and how this imposes selection on call evolution. Although both frogs and bats prefer more elaborate calls, they are less selective as call elaboration increases, because preference is based on stimulus ratios. Thus, as call elaboration increases, both relative attractiveness and relative predation risk decrease because of how receivers perceive and compare stimuli. Our data show that female cognition can limit the evolution of sexual signal elaboration.

  1. Risky ripples allow bats and frogs to eavesdrop on a multisensory sexual display.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, W; Jones, P L; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A

    2014-01-24

    Animal displays are often perceived by intended and unintended receivers in more than one sensory system. In addition, cues that are an incidental consequence of signal production can also be perceived by different receivers, even when the receivers use different sensory systems to perceive them. Here we show that the vocal responses of male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) increase twofold when call-induced water ripples are added to the acoustic component of a rival's call. Hunting bats (Trachops cirrhosus) can echolocate this signal by-product and prefer to attack model frogs when ripples are added to the acoustic component of the call. This study illustrates how the perception of a signal by-product by intended and unintended receivers through different sensory systems generates both costs and benefits for the signaler.

  2. Robots in the service of animal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett A.; Stein, Joey; Taylor, Ryan C.

    2012-01-01

    As reading fiction can challenge us to better understand fact, using fake animals can sometimes serve as our best solution to understanding the behavior of real animals. The use of dummies, doppelgangers, fakes, and physical models have served to elicit behaviors in animal experiments since the early history of behavior studies, and, more recently, robotic animals have been employed by researchers to further coax behaviors from their study subjects. Here, we review the use of robots in the service of animal behavior, and describe in detail the production and use of one type of robot – “faux” frogs – to test female responses to multisensory courtship signals. The túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) has been a study subject for investigating multimodal signaling, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the faux frogs we have designed, with the larger aim of inspiring other scientists to consider the appropriate application of physical models and robots in their research. PMID:23181162

  3. Records of new localities and hosts for crustacean parasites in fish from the eastern Amazon in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Neves, Lígia Rigor; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parasites crustacean fauna in Arapaima gigas, Cichla monoculus, Cichla ocellaris, Cichla jariina, Satanoperca jurupari, Leporinus friderici, Leporinus fasciatus, Hoplias malabaricus, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, Serrasalmus altispinis, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and Potamotrygon motoro of the State Amapá and Pará, in northern Brazil. A total of 242 parasites, including Argulus elongatus, Argulus multicolor,Argulus juparanaensis, Argulus nattereri, Dolops discoidalis, Dolops longicauda, Braga patagonica, Braga fluviatilis, Livoneca guianensis and undetermined Lernaeidae, were collected from these hosts. The Argulus species had the greatest richness among the community of parasitic crustaceans. There was a low abundance of parasites among the hosts, other than D. discoidalis, was most abundant in the integument of A. gigas and P. tigrinum. Finally, the present study reported nine new hosts for the crustacean parasite species and expanded knowledge of the occurrence of some parasite species in the Jari River basin, in eastern Amazon.

  4. Bats eavesdrop on the sound of copulating flies.

    PubMed

    Siemers, Björn M; Kriner, Eva; Kaipf, Ingrid; Simon, Matthias; Greif, Stefan

    2012-07-24

    The idea that copulation might increase predation risk is a classic suggestion, but empirical evidence to support it is surprisingly scarce. While some early work found decreased vulnerability to predation during mating, two lab and one very recent field study documented increased predation during mating in freshwater amphipods, water striders and locusts. Decreased vigilance, less efficient escape responses, and increased conspicuousness of mating pairs have been suggested as mechanisms that might underpin elevated predation risk during copulation. However, these putative mechanisms have never been investigated empirically. Here we describe a bat-insect system within which copulation greatly increases predation risk. We experimentally demonstrate that wild Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) 'eavesdrop' on acoustic cues emanating from copulating flies (Musca domestica) in a cowshed (). With this evidence, we pinpoint increased conspicuousness as a relevant mechanism for elevated predation risk during mating.

  5. Insectivorous Bats Digest Chitin in the Stomach Using Acidic Mammalian Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I.; Trenczek, Tina E.; Encarnação, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  6. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.

  7. Comparative cytogenetics of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Nannacara, Ivanacara and Cleithracara) indicates evolutionary reduction of diploid chromosome numbers

    PubMed Central

    Hodaňová, Lucie; Kalous, Lukáš; Musilová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in five species of a monophyletic clade of neotropical Cichlasomatine cichlids, namely Cleithracara maronii Steindachner, 1881, Ivanacara adoketa (Kullander & Prada-Pedreros, 1993), Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905, N. aureocephalus Allgayer, 1983 and N. taenia Regan, 1912. Karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics were revealed by CDD banding and mapped onto the phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular analyses of four genes, namely cyt b, 16S rRNA, S7 and RAG1. The diploid numbers of chromosomes ranged from 44 to 50, karyotypes were composed predominantly of monoarmed chromosomes and one to three pairs of CMA3 signal were observed. The results showed evolutionary reduction in this monophyletic clade and the cytogenetic mechanisms (fissions/fusions) were hypothesized and discussed. PMID:25349669

  8. A new parasitic copepod (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) from a ponyfish (Leiognathidae) caught in Egyptian Mediterranean waters, with a review of hosts and key to species of Nothobomolochus.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2014-02-01

    A new bomolochid copepod belonging to the genus Nothobomolochus Vervoort, 1962 is described from a Red Sea fish species, a ponyfish of the family Leiognathidae that has become established in the Eastern Mediterranean. The new species, N. leiognathicola n. sp., is based on material obtained from the gill chamber of the Red Sea immigrant ponyfish Leiognathus klunzingeri (Steindachner), caught in Egyptian waters off the Alexandria coast at Abuqir. A second new species, N. monodi n. sp., is established to accommodate some material previously described as N. denticulatus (Bassett-Smith, 1898), from the host Hemiramphus far Forsskål. A review of host records reveals that Nothobomolochus species utilise hosts representing five different orders, but are most commonly found on beloniform, clupeiform and perciform fishes. A newly constructed key to the 37 valid species of Nothobomolochus is presented.

  9. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Demonstrating Two Species of Helicometrina Linton 1910 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) in Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Marcelo E; Valdivia, Isabel M; Chavez, Rosa A; Molina, Horacio; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-12-01

    The opecoelid Helicometrina nimia Linton, 1910 has been reported from numerous marine fishes along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. Along the Chilean coast, H. nimia is found in fishes belonging to at least 9 families. This surprisingly low host specificity of H. nimia raises question about the correct identification of specimens assigned to this species. Here we evaluate whether H. nimia specimens isolated from sympatric fish species in northern Chile but with different diets and found in different habitats (water column and demersal) are the same species. Our results demonstrate that specimens from the shallow benthic fish Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner) do not correspond to H. nimia but instead belong to a new species of Helicometrina. This species is described and distinguished from H. nimia using morphological descriptions and 2 molecular markers (the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene). The new species Helicometrina labrisomi (Digenea: Opecoelidae), is found in the intestine of L. philippii (Steindachner, 1866) (Pisces: Labrisomidae), a shallow benthic fish that inhabits the northern coast of Chile. We also studied the related Helicometrina nimia Linton, 1910 from the benthopelagic fishes Paralabrax humeralis (Valenciennes, 1828) and Acanthistius pictus (Tschudi, 1846) (Serranidae). The new species differs from H. nimia by a combination of characters that include ovary shape, number of uterine loops, and position of the genital pore. Our results indicate that morphological characteristics, such as body size, extent of the vitellarium, shape of the testes, and cirrus sac size and extent, traditionally used in the taxonomy of Helicometrina are highly variable. In contrast, meristic and morphological characteristics, such as a lobed ovary, the number of uterine loops, dimensions of the pharynx, and the opening of the genital pore, are highly constant.

  10. Sexual selection drives speciation in an Amazonian frog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boul, K.E.; Funk, W.C.; Darst, C.R.; Cannatella, D.C.; Ryan, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    One proposed mechanism of speciation is divergent sexual selection, whereby divergence in female preferences and male signals results in behavioural isolation. Despite the appeal of this hypothesis, evidence for it remains inconclusive. Here, we present several lines of evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation among populations of an Amazonian frog (Physalaemus petersi). First, sexual selection has promoted divergence in male mating calls and female preferences for calls between neighbouring populations, resulting in strong behavioural isolation. Second, phylogenetic analysis indicates that populations have become fixed for alternative call types several times throughout the species' range, and coalescent analysis rejects genetic drift as a cause for this pattern, suggesting that this divergence is due to selection. Finally, gene flow estimated with microsatellite loci is an average of 30 times lower between populations with different call types than between populations separated by a similar geographical distance with the same call type, demonstrating genetic divergence and incipient speciation. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation, supporting sexual selection as a cause for speciation in the wild. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  11. Diversity and associations between coastal habitats and anurans in southernmost Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mauro C L M; Dos Santos, Maurício B; Loebmann, Daniel; Hartman, Alexandre; Tozetti, Alexandro M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the relationship between habitat and the composition of anuran species in dune and restinga habitats in southernmost Brazil. The habitats were sampled between April 2009 and March 2010 using pitfalls with drift fence. We have captured 13,508 individuals of 12 anuran species. Species richness was lower in the dunes and dominance was higher in the resting. Apparently the less complex plant cover, water availability, and wide daily thermal variation in dunes act as an environmental filter for frogs. This hypothesis is reinforced by the fact that the most abundant species (Physalaemus biligonigerus and Odonthoprynus maisuma) bury themselves in the sand, minimizing these environmental stresses. Despite being in the Pampa biome, the studied community was more similar to those of coastal restinga environment of southeast Brazil than with other of the Pampa biome. The number of recorded species is similar to those observed in other open habitats in Brazil, showing the importance of adjacent ones to the shoreline for the maintenance of the diversity of anurans in southernmost Brazil.

  12. Crossmodal comparisons of signal components allow for relative-distance assessment.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Page, Rachel A; Taylor, Ryan C; Wilson, Preston S; Ryan, Michael J

    2014-08-04

    Animals have multiple senses through which they detect their surroundings and often integrate sensory information across different modalities to generate perceptions. Animal communication, likewise, often consists of signals containing stimuli processed by different senses. Stimuli with different physical forms (i.e., from different sensory modalities) travel at different speeds. As a consequence, multimodal stimuli simultaneously emitted at a source can arrive at a receiver at different times. Such differences in arrival time can provide unique information about the distance to the source. Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) call from ponds to attract females and to repel males. Production of the sound incidentally creates ripples on the water surface, providing a multimodal cue. We tested whether male frogs attend to distance-dependent cues created by a calling rival and whether their response depends on crossmodal comparisons. In a first experiment, we showed distance-dependent changes in vocal behavior: males responded more strongly with decreasing distance to a mimicked rival. In a second experiment, we showed that males can discriminate between relatively near and far rivals by using a combination of unimodal cues, specifically amplitude changes of sound and water waves, as well as crossmodal differences in arrival time. Our data reveal that animals can compare the arrival time of simultaneously emitted multimodal cues to obtain information on relative distance to a source. We speculate that communicative benefits from crossmodal comparison may have been an important driver of the evolution of elaborate multimodal displays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Female Túngara Frogs do not Experience the Continuity Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Alexander T.; Ryan, Michael J.; Bernal, Ximena E.; Rand, A. Stanley; Bee, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In humans and some non-human vertebrates, a sound containing brief silent gaps can be rendered perceptually continuous by inserting noise into the gaps. This so-called ‘continuity illusion’ arises from a phenomenon known as ‘auditory induction’ and results in the perception of complete auditory objects despite fragmentary or incomplete acoustic information. Previous studies of auditory induction in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis) have demonstrated an absence of this phenomenon. These treefrog species produce pulsatile (non-continuous) vocalizations, whereas studies of auditory induction in other taxa, including humans, often present continuous sounds (e.g., frequency-modulated sweeps). This study investigated the continuity illusion in a frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) with an advertisement vocalization that is naturally continuous and thus similar to the tonal sweeps used in human psychophysical studies of auditory induction. In a series of playback experiments, female subjects were presented with sets of stimuli that included complete calls, calls with silent gaps, and calls with silent gaps filled with noise. The results failed to provide evidence of auditory induction. Current evidence, therefore, suggests that mammals and birds experience auditory induction, but frogs may not. This emerging pattern of taxonomic differences is considered in light of potential methodological, neurophysiological, and functional explanations. PMID:26692450

  14. Female túngara frogs do not experience the continuity illusion.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Alexander T; Ryan, Michael J; Bernal, Ximena E; Rand, A Stanley; Bee, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    In humans and some nonhuman vertebrates, a sound containing brief silent gaps can be rendered perceptually continuous by inserting noise into the gaps. This so-called "continuity illusion" arises from a phenomenon known as "auditory induction" and results in the perception of complete auditory objects despite fragmentary or incomplete acoustic information. Previous studies of auditory induction in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis) have demonstrated an absence of this phenomenon. These treefrog species produce pulsatile (noncontinuous) vocalizations, whereas studies of auditory induction in other taxa, including humans, often present continuous sounds (e.g., frequency-modulated sweeps). This study investigated the continuity illusion in a frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) with an advertisement vocalization that is naturally continuous and thus similar to the tonal sweeps used in human psychophysical studies of auditory induction. In a series of playback experiments, female subjects were presented with sets of stimuli that included complete calls, calls with silent gaps, and calls with silent gaps filled with noise. The results failed to provide evidence of auditory induction. Current evidence, therefore, suggests that mammals and birds experience auditory induction, but frogs may not. This emerging pattern of taxonomic differences is considered in light of potential methodological, neurophysiological, and functional explanations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Task differences confound sex differences in receiver permissiveness in túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2009-04-07

    In many mating systems, both sexes respond to the same sexual signal. In frogs, males typically call in response to advertisement calls, while females approach male calls in choosing a mate. The costs of signal detection errors are expected to differ between the sexes. Missed opportunities are costly for males because ignoring a signal results in failing to compete with rivals for mates, while their cost for misidentification is lower (time and energy displaying to the incorrect target). By contrast, for females, the cost of misidentification is high (mating with incorrect species or low-quality partner), while their cost for missed opportunity is lower because the operational sex ratio puts females at a premium. Consequently, females should be more selective in their response to signal variation than males. We report that presumed sexual differences in selectivity in túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) are task-specific rather than sex-specific. As predicted, male túngara frogs are less selective in their vocal responses than are females in their phonotactic responses. Males exhibiting phonotaxis to the same calls, however, are as selective as females, and are significantly more selective than when they respond vocally to the same calls. Our study shows that apparent differences between the sexes emerge from differences in the behaviours themselves and are not intrinsic to each sex. Analogous behavioural differences might confound sex differences in other systems; thus, we suggest consideration of the behavioural plasticity of sex as well as its stereotypy.

  16. Integration of sensory and motor processing underlying social behaviour in túngara frogs

    PubMed Central

    Hoke, Kim L; Ryan, Michael J; Wilczynski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Social decision making involves the perception and processing of social stimuli, the subsequent evaluation of that information in the context of the individual's internal and external milieus to produce a decision, and then culminates in behavioural output informed by that decision. We examined brain networks in an anuran communication system that relies on acoustic signals to guide simple, stereotyped motor output. We used egr-1 mRNA expression to measure neural activation in male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, following exposure to conspecific and heterospecific calls that evoke competitive or aggressive behaviour. We found that acoustically driven activation in auditory brainstem nuclei is transformed into activation related to sensory–motor interactions in the diencephalon, followed by motor-related activation in the telencephalon. Furthermore, under baseline conditions, brain nuclei typically have correlated egr-1 mRNA levels within brain divisions. Hearing conspecific advertisement calls increases correlations between anatomically distant brain divisions; no such effect was observed in response to calls that elicit aggressive behaviour. Neural correlates of social decision making thus take multiple forms: (i) a progressive shift from sensory to motor encoding from lower to higher stages of neural processing and (ii) the emergence of correlated activation patterns among sensory and motor regions in response to behaviourally relevant social cues. PMID:17254988

  17. Arginine vasotocin promotes calling behavior and call changes in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Davis, Ellen S; Marler, Catherine A

    2007-01-01

    In the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, males alter calling behavior with changes in their social environment, adding 'chucks' to their advertisement calls in response to the calls of conspecific males. Other studies demonstrate that adding chucks increases the attractiveness of calls to females but also increases the risk of bat predation. In the current study, subcutaneous injections of the neuropeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) significantly increased chuck production in male túngara frogs. The effects of AVT on chuck production did not depend on the presence of playback stimuli, suggesting that AVT increased either the males' general motivation to produce chucks or their responsiveness to the calls of distant males. Injections of AVT also increased the probability that males would call and decreased the latency to call after injection, supporting the hypothesis that AVT influences motivation to call. Finally, AVT inhibited a drop in call rate after the termination of a playback stimulus and increased call rate at a lower dose of AVT. The effects of AVT on chucks and call rate appear to be independent of each other, as there was no correlation between change in chuck production and change in call rate in individual males. We conclude that AVT may play an important role in socially-mediated call changes that result from competition for mates. The behavioral changes induced by AVT might increase a male's attractiveness to females, and also may be consistent with an aggressive response to another túngara frog male. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Harmonic calls and indifferent females: no preference for human consonance in an anuran

    PubMed Central

    Akre, Karin L.; Bernal, Ximena; Rand, A. Stanley; Ryan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The human music faculty might have evolved from rudimentary components that occur in non-human animals. The evolutionary history of these rudimentary perceptual features is not well understood and rarely extends beyond a consideration of vertebrates that possess a cochlea. One such antecedent is a preferential response to what humans perceive as consonant harmonic sounds, which are common in many animal vocal repertoires. We tested the phonotactic response of female túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) to variations in the frequency ratios of their harmonically structured mating call to determine whether frequency ratio influences attraction to acoustic stimuli in this vertebrate that lacks a cochlea. We found that the ratio of frequencies present in acoustic stimuli did not influence female response. Instead, the amount of inner ear stimulation predicted female preference behaviour. We conclude that the harmonic relationships that characterize the vocalizations of these frogs did not evolve in response to a preference for frequency intervals with low-integer ratios. Instead, the presence of harmonics in their mating call, and perhaps in the vocalizations of many other animals, is more likely due to the biomechanics of sound production rather than any preference for ‘more musical’ sounds. PMID:24990679

  19. Wind- and Rain-Induced Vibrations Impose Different Selection Pressures on Multimodal Signaling.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Ryan, Michael J; Wilson, Preston S

    2016-09-01

    The world is a noisy place, and animals have evolved a myriad of strategies to communicate in it. Animal communication signals are, however, often multimodal; their components can be processed by multiple sensory systems, and noise can thus affect signal components across different modalities. We studied the effect of environmental noise on multimodal communication in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males communicate with rivals using airborne sounds combined with call-induced water ripples. We tested males under control as well as noisy conditions in which we mimicked rain- and wind-induced vibrations on the water surface. Males responded more strongly to a multimodal playback in which sound and ripples were combined, compared to a unimodal sound-only playback, but only in the absence of rain and wind. Under windy conditions, males decreased their response to the multimodal playback, suggesting that wind noise interferes with the detection of rival ripples. Under rainy conditions, males increased their response, irrespective of signal playback, suggesting that different noise sources can have different impacts on communication. Our findings show that noise in an additional sensory channel can affect multimodal signal perception and thereby drive signal evolution, but not always in the expected direction.

  20. History influences signal recognition: neural network models of túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Phelps, S M; Ryan, M J

    2000-08-22

    Animals often attend to only a few of the cues provided by the complex displays of conspecifics. We suggest that these perceptual biases are influenced by mechanisms of signal recognition inherited from antecedent species. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the evolutionary history of artificial neural networks, observing how the resulting networks respond to many novel stimuli and comparing these responses to the behaviour of females in phonotaxis experiments. Networks with different evolutionary histories proved equally capable of evolving to recognize the call of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, but exhibited distinct responses to novel stimuli. History influenced the ability of networks to predict known responses of túngara frogs; network accuracy was determined by how closely the network history approximated the hypothesized history of the túngara frog. Our findings emphasize the influence of past selection pressures on current perceptual mechanisms, and demonstrate how neural network models can be used to address behavioural questions that are intractable through traditional methods.

  1. Treatment with arginine vasotocin alters mating calls and decreases call attractiveness in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Ryan, Michael J; Rand, A Stanley; Marler, Catherine A

    2010-01-15

    The peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its mammalian homolog arginine vasopressin modulate a variety of social behaviors in vertebrates. In anurans, AVT influences the production of advertisement calls, the acoustic signals that males use to attract females and repel rival males. In this study, we investigate the effects of AVT on call characteristics in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Túngara frogs produce a "whine" that is important for species recognition; they may also produce a second, attractive call component, the "chuck". We used a field playback experiment to determine changes in male calling behavior following treatment with AVT. A previous study showed that AVT alters call rate and the production of chucks; in the current analysis, we focus on changes in the whine. Males produce shorter whines with higher initial frequencies following treatment with AVT. Call changes do not vary with a social stimulus. We also used female phonotaxis experiments to investigate the effects of call changes on female mate choice. Females disfavor the calls produced by males treated with exogenous AVT. We suggest that AVT influences motivation to call and the motor control of call production, but that over-stimulation of the vocal system limited the production of attractive calls in this experimental context.

  2. Vasotocin induces sexually dimorphic effects on acoustically-guided behavior in a tropical frog.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Alexander T; Ryan, Michael J

    2017-03-10

    The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) promotes sexual advertisement and influences vocalization structure in male anuran amphibians. In the present study, we used wild túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) to investigate the effects of AVT on phonotaxis in males and females-thereby controlling for potential task differences between the sexes. Using a combined within- and between-subjects design, we showed that acoustic choice behavior in female frogs is not influenced by injection per se (vehicle) or by AVT. Latency to choice in females, however, tends to decrease after AVT injection, supporting the hypothesis that AVT promotes female sexual arousal. In contrast, male choice behavior and latencies are negatively impacted by injection (vehicle) but rescued to pre-injection levels if administered with AVT. The sexes differed in area restricted searching (ARS) following choice-a measure of locomotor perseverance-with females but not males exhibiting ARS. AVT did not influence ARS behavior but ARS frequency was positively associated with the attractiveness of the acoustic stimulus. Finally, we showed that a female's latency behavior is correlated with her partner's behavior. Collectively we show that AVT promotes phonotaxis in both sexes in a dimorphic manner-a result that is consistent with sex differences in the neural vasotocin system.

  3. Changes in localization and expression levels of Shroom2 and spectrin contribute to variation in amphibian egg pigmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanjae; Le, Minh-Phuong; Cannatella, David; Wallingford, John B

    2009-06-01

    One contributing factor in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations is thought to be the exposure of eggs to UV light. Enrichment of pigment in the animal hemisphere of eggs laid in the sunlight defends against UV damage, but little is known about the cell biological mechanisms controlling such polarized pigment patterns. Even less is known about how such mechanisms were modified during evolution to achieve the array of amphibian egg pigment patterns. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the gamma-tubulin regulator, Shroom2, is sufficient to induce co-accumulation of pigment granules, spectrin, and dynactin in Xenopus blastomeres. Shroom2 and spectrin are enriched and co-localize specifically in the pigmented animal hemisphere of Xenopus eggs and blastulae. Moreover, Shroom2 messenger RNA (mRNA) is expressed maternally at high levels in Xenopus. In contrast to Xenopus, eggs and blastulae of Physalaemus pustulosus have very little surface pigmentation. Rather, we find that pigment is enriched in the perinuclear region of these embryos, where it co-localizes with spectrin. Moreover, maternal Shroom2 mRNA was barely detectable in Physaleamus, though zygotic levels were comparable to Xenopus. We therefore suggest that a Shroom2/spectrin/dynactin-based mechanism controls pigment localization in amphibian eggs and that variation in maternal Shroom2 mRNA levels accounts in part for variation in amphibian egg pigment patterns during evolution.

  4. Spread of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus across Lowland Populations of Túngara Frogs in Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Brenes, Sofía; Rodriguez, David; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ryan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats (> 500 meters above sea level, m a.s.l.) of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the spread (2009 to 2014) of Bd across lowland habitats east of the Panamá Canal (< 500 m a.s.l.) with a focus on the Túngara frog (Physalaemus [Engystomops] pustulosus), one of the most common and abundant frog species in this region. Highland populations in western Panamá were already infected with Bd at the start of the study, which was consistent with previous studies indicating that Bd is enzootic in this region. In central Panamá, we collected the first positive samples in 2010, and by 2014, we detected Bd from remote sites in eastern Panamá (Darién National Park). We discuss the importance of studying Bd in lowland species, which may serve as potential reservoirs and agents of dispersal of Bd to highland species that are more susceptible to chytridiomycosis. PMID:27176629

  5. Social regulation of plasma estradiol concentration in a female anuran.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Wilczynski, Walter

    2006-06-01

    The behavior of an individual within a social aggregation profoundly influences behavior and physiology of other animals within the aggregation in such a way that these social interactions can enhance reproductive success, survival and fitness. This phenomenon is particularly important during the breeding season when males and female must synchronize their reproductive efforts. We examined whether exposure to conspecific social cues can elevate sex steroid levels, specifically estradiol and androgens, in female túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus). We compared plasma estradiol and androgen concentrations in wild-caught females before and after exposure to either natural mate choruses or random tones. After exposure to mate choruses for 10 consecutive nights, estradiol concentrations were significantly elevated whereas there was no significant elevation in estradiol concentrations in the group of females exposed to random tones for 10 nights. Plasma androgen concentrations were not significantly changed after exposure to either natural mate choruses or random tones for 10 consecutive nights. Social modulation of estradiol concentrations may be important in maintaining a female's reproductive state while males are chorusing. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate social regulation of estradiol concentration in female anurans.

  6. Spread of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus across Lowland Populations of Túngara Frogs in Panamá.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Brenes, Sofía; Rodriguez, David; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ryan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats (> 500 meters above sea level, m a.s.l.) of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the spread (2009 to 2014) of Bd across lowland habitats east of the Panamá Canal (< 500 m a.s.l.) with a focus on the Túngara frog (Physalaemus [Engystomops] pustulosus), one of the most common and abundant frog species in this region. Highland populations in western Panamá were already infected with Bd at the start of the study, which was consistent with previous studies indicating that Bd is enzootic in this region. In central Panamá, we collected the first positive samples in 2010, and by 2014, we detected Bd from remote sites in eastern Panamá (Darién National Park). We discuss the importance of studying Bd in lowland species, which may serve as potential reservoirs and agents of dispersal of Bd to highland species that are more susceptible to chytridiomycosis.

  7. Characterization of the fishes and of subsistence fishing in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R D; de B Nogueira, F M

    2000-08-01

    Fishing is one of the oldest human activities in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso in Central Brazil. In the of Bento Gomes River Basin (Pantanal of Poconé) the presence of fishermen is very common. The objective of this study is to describe the fishing activity in the basin in view of the elaboration of proposals for the sustainable use of this natural resource. Of the 256 fishermen that were registered most are fishing for their subsistence (92%) and the rest (8%) are occasional fishermen (locally called "de lufada" fishermen). "Traíra" (Hoplias malabaricus) and "piranhas" (Serrasalmus marginatus, Serrasalmus spilopleura and Pygocentrus nattereri) were the species most frequently captured for human consumption. The fishing is more intensive during the ebb season and at the beginning of the drought season, when the waters begin to recede for the river channel, as the catch is facilitated by the concentration of fishes at the river margin. The fishermen and their families consume fish three to four times a week, twice a day. Fish meat is one of the only means of obtaining animal protein for dozens of poor families in the area. The number of fishermen, as well as the actual number of catches do not appear to compromise the natural fish stocks, although no specific capture criteria is obeyed by the fishing activity.

  8. The inverted trophic cascade in tropical plankton communities: impacts of exotic fish in the Middle Rio Doce lake district, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Coelho, R M; Bezerra-Neto, J F; Miranda, F; Mota, T G; Resck, R; Santos, A M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Mello, N A S T; Marques, M M; Campos, M O; Barbosa, F A R

    2008-11-01

    The present study deals with the ecological impacts of the introduction of two alien species of piscivorous fish in several lakes of the Middle Rio Doce lake district in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was demonstrated that these effects were not restricted only to the fish community. The introduction of the predatory red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and the tucunaré Cichla cf. ocellaris caused not only a sharp decrease in the number of native fish species, but also major shifts in other trophic levels. Just after the fish were introduced, most lakes began to show conspicuous changes in phytoplankton species composition, in which Cyanophyceae gradually came to dominate. The zooplankton community lost several species, and in some cases, such as Lake Carioca, all the cladoceran species disappeared. On the other hand, invertebrate predators, represented by the dipteran Chaoboridae, boomed in the lake, with higher densities of exotic species, probably as a result of the 'ecological release' by reduction of the original fish fauna. There was a general trend of species loss in different trophic levels. All these changes are apparently associated with decreases in water quality. The present situation in these lakes demands new approaches to the management and conservation of these ecosystems.

  9. Insectivorous bats carry host specific astroviruses and coronaviruses across different regions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kerstin; Zeus, Veronika; Kwasnitschka, Linda; Kerth, Gerald; Haase, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Recently several infectious agents with a zoonotic potential have been detected in different bat species. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the transmission dynamics within and between bat species, as well as from bats to other mammals. To better understand these processes, it is important to compare the phylogenetic relationships between different agents to that of their respective hosts. In this study, we analysed more than 950 urine, faeces and oral swab samples collected from 653 bats from mainly four species (Myotis nattereri, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) for the presence of coronavirus, paramyxovirus and astrovirus related nucleic acids located in three different regions of Germany. Using hemi-nested reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification of fragments within the highly conserved regions of the respective RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, we detected astrovirus sequences at an overall detection rate of 25.8% of the analysed animals, with a maximum of 65% in local populations. The detection rates for coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses were distinctly lower, ranging between 1.4% and 3.1%. Interestingly, the sequence similarities in samples collected from the same bat species in different geographical areas were distinctly larger than the sequence similarities between samples from different species sampled at the same location. This indicates that host specificity may be more important than host ecology for the presence of certain viruses in bats.

  10. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong

    2006-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula. PMID:17106229

  11. Lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Teifke, J P; Mettenleiter, T C; Aue, A; Stiefel, D; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2014-02-21

    In Germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) and the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) for which Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. Lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. Moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental data still hamper attempts to understand the distribution, prevalence, and in particular transmission of the virus. In an experimental study in E. serotinus a heterogeneous dissemination of EBLV-1 in tissues was detected. However, it is not clear whether the EBLV-1 distribution is similar in naturally infected animals. In an attempt to further analyze virus dissemination and viral loads within naturally infected hosts we investigated tissues of 57 EBLV-1 positive individuals of E. serotinus from Germany by RT-qPCR and compared the results with those obtained experimentally. Additionally, tissue samples were investigated with immunohistochemistry to detect lyssavirus antigen in defined structures. While in individual animals virus RNA was present only in the brain, in the majority of E. serotinus viral RNA was found in various tissues with highest relative viral loads detected in the brain. Interestingly, viral antigen was confirmed in various tissues in the tongue including deep intralingual glands, nerves, muscle cells and lingual papillae. So, the tongue appears to be a prominent site for virus replication and possibly shedding.

  12. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species.

    PubMed

    Fragoso-Moura, E N; Oporto, L T; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2016-01-22

    The introduction of species has become an important problem for biodiversity and natural ecosystem conservation. The lake system of the middle Rio Doce (MG, Brazil) comprises c. 200 lakes at various conservation states, of which 50 are located within the Rio Doce State Park (PERD). Previous studies had verified several of these lakes suffered non-native fishes introductions and the presence of these species needs for the implementation of actions aiming at not only their control but also the preservation of the native species. This study discusses the effects of non-native fish species in the largest conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil, using data from 1983 to 2010 distributed as follow: data prior to 2006 were obtained from previous studies, and data from September 2006 to July 2010 were obtained in Lake Carioca at four sampling stations using gillnets, seine nets and sieve. A total of 17 fish species was collected (2006-2010) of which five were introduced species. Among the small to medium size native species (30 to 2000 mm standard length) seven had disappeared, two are new records and one was recaptured. The non-native species Cichla kelberi (peacock bass) and Pygocentrus nattereri (red piranha) are within the most abundant captured species. Integrated with other actions, such as those preventing new introductions, a selective fishing schedule is proposed as an alternative approach to improve the conservation management actions and the local and regional biodiversity maintenance.

  13. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species.

    PubMed

    Fragoso-Moura, E N; Oporto, L T; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of species has become an important problem for biodiversity and natural ecosystem conservation. The lake system of the middle Rio Doce (MG, Brazil) comprises c. 200 lakes at various conservation states, of which 50 are located within the Rio Doce State Park (PERD). Previous studies had verified several of these lakes suffered non-native fishes introductions and the presence of these species needs for the implementation of actions aiming at not only their control but also the preservation of the native species. This study discusses the effects of non-native fish species in the largest conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil, using data from 1983 to 2010 distributed as follow: data prior to 2006 were obtained from previous studies, and data from September 2006 to July 2010 were obtained in Lake Carioca at four sampling stations using gillnets, seine nets and sieve. A total of 17 fish species was collected (2006-2010) of which five were introduced species. Among the small to medium size native species (30 to 2000 mm standard length) seven had disappeared, two are new records and one was recaptured. The non-native species Cichla kelberi (peacock bass) and Pygocentrus nattereri (red piranha) are within the most abundant captured species. Integrated with other actions, such as those preventing new introductions, a selective fishing schedule is proposed as an alternative approach to improve the conservation management actions and the local and regional biodiversity maintenance.

  14. European Bat Lyssavirus Infection in Spanish Bat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:11971777

  15. Host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three European bat species.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, J; Kerth, G

    2017-02-01

    For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season. The three investigated hosts differ considerably in their social system, most notably in maternity colony size, mating system, and degree of male summer aggregation. We observed marked differences in parasite infection during the autumn mating period between the species, closely mirroring the predictions made based on the social systems of the hosts. Increased host aggregation sizes in summer yielded higher overall parasite prevalence and intensity, both in male and female hosts. Moreover, parasite levels in male hosts differentially increased throughout the autumn mating season in concordance with the degree of contact with female hosts afforded by the different mating systems of the hosts. Critically, the observed host-specific differences have important consequences for parasite population structure and will thus affect the coevolutionary dynamics between the interacting species. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize host-parasite dynamics in hosts with complex social systems, a holistic approach that investigates parasite infection and transmission across all periods is warranted.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  17. Hybridogenetic Reproduction and Maternal Ancestry of Polyploid Iberian Fish: The Tropidophoxinellus Alburnoides Complex

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, J. A.; Sanjur, O. I.; Doadrio, I.; Machordom, A.; Vrijenhoek, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    Iberian minnows collectively known as the Tropidophoxinellus alburnoides STEINDACHNER complex comprise diploid and polyploid forms with highly female biased sex ratios. Previous investigators suggested that all-female clonal reproduction and interspecific hybridization may occur in this complex. We examined nuclear (allozymes) and cytoplasmic genes (mtDNA) to assess the evolutionary origins, relationships, and reproductive modes of T. alburnoides from western Spain. The multi-locus allozyme data clearly revealed the hybrid nature of all polyploid forms of this fish and some diploid forms as well. Diagnostic markers identified fish from the genus Leuciscus as the paternal ancestor of hybrids in the Duero and Guadiana River Basins. Additionally, analysis of nuclear markers revealed that hybridogenetic reproduction occurs in the diploid and triploid hybrids. The hybrids fully express the paternal Leuciscus genome and then discard it during oogenesis. Hybridogenetic ova contain only maternal nuclear genes and mtDNA from a non-hybrid T. alburnoides ancestor. Apparently diploid and triploid hybrids of T. alburnoides persist as sperm parasites on males of a sexually reproducing Leuciscus host species. PMID:9215902

  18. Co-located 18S/5S rDNA arrays: an ancient and unusual chromosomal trait in Julidini species (Labridae, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Karlla Danielle Jorge; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Soares, Rodrigo Xavier; de Souza, Allyson Santos; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wrasses (Labridae) are extremely diversified marine fishes, whose species exhibit complex interactions with the reef environment. They are widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Their species have displayed a number of karyotypic divergent processes, including chromosomal regions with complex structural organization. Current cytogenetic information for this family is phylogenetically and geographically limited and mainly based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, the distribution patterns of heterochromatin, GC-specific chromosome regions and Ag-NORs, and the organization of 18S and 5S rDNA sites of the Atlantic species Thalassoma noronhanum (Boulenger, 1890), Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner, 1867), Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791) and Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913, belonging to the tribe Julidini were analyzed. All the species exhibited 2n=48 chromosomes with variation in the number of chromosome arms among genera. Thalassoma noronhanum has 2m+46a, while species of the genus Halichoeres Rüppell, 1835 share karyotypes with 48 acrocentric chromosomes. The Halichoeres species exhibit differences in the heterochromatin distribution patterns and in the number and distribution of 18S and 5S rDNA sites. The occurrence of 18S/5S rDNA syntenic arrangements in all the species indicates a functionally stable and adaptive genomic organization. The phylogenetic sharing of this rDNA organization highlights a marked and unusual chromosomal singularity inside the family Labridae. PMID:28123678

  19. Host specificity and metamorphosis of the glochidium of the freshwater mussel Unio tumidiformis (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Reis, Joaquim; Collares-Pereira, Maria João; Araujo, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The glochidium larvae of freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae need to find suitable hosts to attach themselves and metamorphose into free-living juveniles. The specificity of the host-parasite relationship was investigated for the Iberian Unio tumidiformis Castro, 1885 by means of experimental infections and also by analyzing naturally infected fish. The process of encapsulation of glochidia was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Unio tumidiformis has proven to be an unusual host-specific unionid mussel, apparently parasitizing only fish of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837. Successful encapsulation or complete metamorphosis was observed in five fish taxa: S. aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues et Collares-Pereira), S. caroliterti (Doadrio), S. pyrenaicus (Günther), S. torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues et Collares-Pereira) and S. alburnoides (Steindachner) complex (only for the nuclear hybrids with at least one copy of the S. pyrenaicus genome). Complete metamorphose was achieved in 6 to 14 days at mean temperatures ranging from 21.8 to 26.1 degrees C. The current study provides support for cell migration being the main force of cyst formation and shows the influence of potential host's genome in response to the infection process to determine the success of the metamorphosis.

  20. Two new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from anuran amphibians in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago de; Filho, Heriberto Figueira da Silva; Nascimento Dos Santos, Jeannie

    2016-05-03

    Two new lung-dwelling nematode species of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 were discovered in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará state, Brazil. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. was found in a dendrobatid frog Adelphobates galactonotus (Steindachner). The species is characterised by the regularly folded inner surface of the anterior part of the buccal capsule seen in apical view, flask-shaped oesophageal bulb and narrow, elongated tail. Rhabdias stenocephala sp. n. from two species of leptodactylid frogs, Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti) (type host) and L. paraensis (Heyer), is characterised by a narrow anterior end that is separated from the remaining body by a constriction. Both species possess six small but distinct lips, a cuticle that is inflated along the whole body, a doliiform buccal capsule separated into a longer anterior and a shallow, ring-shaped posterior part, lateral pores in the body cuticle and zones of spermatogenesis in the syngonia. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. is the first species of the genus found in Dendrobatidae; R. stenocephala sp. n. is the second species described from Leptodactylidae in eastern Amazonia.

  1. Sex-specific differences in the synaptonemal complex in the genus Oreochromis (Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Harvey, Simon C; Penman, David J

    2009-04-01

    Total synaptonemal complex (SC) lengths were estimated from Oreochromis aureus Steindachner (which has a WZ/ZZ sex determination system), O. mossambicus Peters and O. niloticus L. (both of which have XX/XY sex determination systems). The total SC length in oocytes was greater than that in spermatocytes in all three species (194 +/- 30 microm and 134 +/- 13 microm, 187 +/- 22 microm and 127 +/- 17 microm, 193 +/- 37 microm and 144 +/- 19 microm, respectively). These sex-specific differences did not appear to be influenced by the type of sex determination system (the female/male total SC length ratio was 1.45 in O. aureus, 1.47 in O. mossambicus and 1.34 in O. niloticus) and do not correlate with the lack of any overall sex-specific length differences in the current Oreochromis linkage map. Although based on data from relatively few species, there appears to be no consistent relationship between sex-specific SC lengths and linkage map lengths in fish. Neomale (hormonally masculinized genetic female) O. aureus and O. mossambicus had total SC lengths of 138 +/- 13 microm and 146 +/- 13 microm respectively, more similar to normal males than to normal females. These findings agree with data from other vertebrate species that suggest that phenotypic sex, rather than genotype, determines traits such as total SC length, chiasmata position and recombination pattern, at least for the autosomes.

  2. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  3. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  4. Gonadal Development of the Piau Leporinus copelandii (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in a Tropical River in South-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Nascimento, A A; Sales, A

    2015-08-01

    Histological analysis of the gonadal development of Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875, a rheophilic Characiformes species in the Paraiba do Sul River, South-eastern Brazil, was described. We expect that this species adapt gonadal development to succeed in this river basin that has its longitudinal profile blocked by several impoundments. Fishes were examined by routine macroscopic and histological techniques. Stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development were described, and gonadal maturation was proposed. Mean oocyte diameter obtained from histological observations increased from the pre-spawning (4.2-175.5 μm) to spawning (148.5-262.0 μm) phases, followed by a sharp decrease in the post-spawning (27.0-56.7 μm) phase. Based on occurrence of different oocytes phases and oocyte size distribution, this species has group-synchronic development of oocytes. Further studies are necessary to clarify the spawning grounds for L. copelandii in the Paraíba do Sul River basin, especially considering that several impoundments obliterate the natural river course and this could limit spawning grounds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  6. Global Analysis of the Small RNA Transcriptome in Different Ploidies and Genomic Combinations of a Vertebrate Complex – The Squalius alburnoides

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Angela; Pinho, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia Matos; Comai, Luca; Coelho, Maria Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The Squalius alburnoides complex (Steindachner) is one of the most intricate hybrid polyploid systems known in vertebrates. In this complex, the constant switch of the genome composition in consecutive generations, very frequently involving a change on the ploidy level, promotes repetitive situations of potential genomic shock. Previously in this complex, it was showed that in response to the increase in genome dosage, triploids hybrids could regulate gene expression to a diploid state. In this work we compared the small RNA profiles in the different genomic compositions interacting in the complex in order to explore the miRNA involvement in gene expression regulation of triploids. Using high-throughput arrays and sequencing technologies we were able to verify that diploid and triploid hybrids shared most of their sequences and their miRNA expression profiles were high correlated. However, an overall view indicates an up-regulation of several miRNAs in triploids and a global miRNA expression in triploids higher than the predicted from an additive model. Those results point to a participation of miRNAs in the cellular functional stability needed when the ploidy change. PMID:22815952

  7. Host-parasite relationships of Rhabdochona kidderi Pearse, 1936 (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) in fishes of the Lacantún River in the Lacandon rain forest of Chiapas State, southern Mexico, with a key to Mexican species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; González-Solís, David; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan M

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, the nematode Rhabdochona kidderi kidderi Pearse, 1936 (Rhabdochonidae) was recorded from fishes of the Lacantún River (Usumacinta River basin) in the Lacandon rain forest, Chiapas State, southern Mexico. Amphilophus nourissati (Allgayer) and Theraps irregularis Günther (both Perciformes: Cichlidae) were found to be the only definitive hosts in the locality, whereas Eugerres mexicanus (Steindachner) (Perciformes: Gerreidae), Ariopsis sp., Cathorops aguadulce (Meek) and Potomarius nelsoni (Evermann & Goldsborough) (all Siluriformes: Ariidae), Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes) (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) and Strongylura hubbsi Collette (Beloniformes: Belonidae) all harboured the nematode's fourth-stage larva and only served as paratenic hosts. All these fish species represent new host records for this parasite. The morphology of both adults and larvae was studied in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy, and some conspecific museum specimens from three other host species were also examined for comparison. Rhabdochona ictaluri Aguilar-Aguilar, Rosas-Valdez & Pérez-Ponce de León, 2010 is considered here to be a junior synonym of R. kidderi kidderi. A high degree of the variability of some morphological and biometrical features (deirid shape, left spicule length) and an unusually wide range of hosts suggest that R. kidderi may represent a species complex, but further studies are necessary in this respect. A key to Rhabdochona species and subspecies occurring in Mexico is provided.

  8. Redescription of Spinitectus tabascoensis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from fishes of the Lacandon rain forest in Chiapas, southern Mexico, with remarks on Spinitectus macrospinosus and S. osorioi.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan M; González-Solís, David

    2009-12-01

    Two little-known species of Spinitectus (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) were, for the first time, recorded from fishes of the Lacantún River (Usumacinta River basin) in the Lacandon rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico: S. tabascoensis Moravec, Garcia-Magaña et Salgado-Maldonado, 2002 in intestines of Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes) (Ictaluridae) (adults and juveniles), Cathorops aguadulce (Meek) and Potamarius nelsoni (Evermann et Goldsborough) (both Ariidae) (in both only juveniles), and S. osorioi Choudhury et Pérez-Ponce de León, 2001 in Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo) (Atherinopsidae) (adults in intestine) and Eugerres mexicanus (Steindachner) (Gerreidae) (adults and juveniles in stomach). Eugerres mexicanus, C. aguadulce and P. nelsoni represent new host records. Detailed light and electron microscopical studies of S. tabascoensis revealed some taxonomically important, previously not observed features, such as cuticular spines arranged in four sectors, the cephalic structure, the number (2) of ventral precloacal ridges or the structure of the male caudal end. Therefore, Spinitectus tabascoensis is redescribed. Spinitectus macrospinosus Choudhury et Perryman, 2003, described from ictalurids in Canada and the USA, is considered its junior synonym. Spinitectus tabascoensis seems to be a specific parasite of Ictalurus spp., whereas C. aguadulce and P. nelsoni, as well as some other fishes, serve only as its paratenic hosts. The definitive hosts of S. osorioi are atherinopsid fish (A. alvarezi, Chirostoma spp.), whereas the gerreid E. mexicanus probably serves only as its postcyclic host.

  9. Modeling sensitive parrotfish (Labridae: Scarini) habitats along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Roos, Natalia C; Carvalho, Adriana R; Lopes, Priscila F M; Pennino, M Grazia

    2015-09-01

    In coral reef environments, there is an increasing concern over parrotfish (Labridae: Scarini) due to their rising exploitation by commercial small-scale fisheries, which is leading to significant changes in the reefs' community structure. Three species, Scarus trispinosus (Valenciennes, 1840), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831) and Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878), currently labeled as threatened, have been intensively targeted in Brazil, mostly on the northeastern coast. Despite their economic importance, ecological interest and worrisome conservation status, not much is known about which variables determine their occurrence. In this study, we adopted a hierarchical Bayesian spatial-temporal approach to map the distribution of these three species along the Brazilian coast, using landing data from three different gears (gillnets, spear guns, and handlines) and environmental variables (bathymetry, shore distance, seabed slope, Sea Surface Temperature and Net Primary Productivity). Our results identify sensitive habitats for parrotfish along the Brazilian coast that would be more suitable to the implementation of spatial-temporal closure measures, which along with the social component fishers could benefit the management and conservation of these species.

  10. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  11. A new species of Suezichthys (Teleostei: Perciformes: Labridae) from the south-eastern Pacific, with a redefinition of the genus and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the fish family Labridae, Suezichthys rosenblatti, is described from specimens collected at Isla San Felix, Isla Juan Fernandez and Isla San Ambrosio, off the coast of Chile. Suezichthys rosenblatti is distinct in having a combination of 11 dorsal fin soft rays and 11 anal fin soft rays. It falls in the group of species that has 1½ scale rows above the lateral line and lack a scaly sheath at the base of the dorsal and anal fins (S. aylingi Russell, S. caudovittatus Russell, S. gracilis (Steindachner & Döderlein) and S. soelae Russell). Unlike other members of this group, S. rosenblatti has haemal arches on vertebrae 10-11 (versus haemal arch only on vertebra 10). The monotypic Nelabrichthys ornatus (Carmichael) is now included in the genus Suezichthys and a revised generic description and key to species of Suezichthys is provided. The occurrence of S. rosenblatti in the south-eastern Pacific and S. ornatus in the south-western Indian Ocean and south Atlantic Ocean represent major range extensions of the genus Suezichthys.

  12. [Microcosm Simulation Study and Methylmercury Forming Mechanism at Landscape Water of City].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-hong; Si, You-bin; Guo, Zi-wei; Du, Cheng-zhu; Zhu, Cong-cong

    2016-04-15

    Mercury is harmful to the environment, which has gradually become one of the research hotspots. Sediments, as a main repository of pollutants, have an important impact on water quality and the internal organisms, which deserves our research. In this paper, we focused on Hefei landscape water sediment and tried to investigate the status of inorganic mercury and methylmercury pollutions in the sediment. To study the conversion process from inorganic mercury to methylmercury and their enrichment levels and mechanism, we established the ecological chain of "sediment-water-grass-fish" through analog microcosm examination. The results were as follows: from ten water and sediment samples in Hefei landscape water sediment, we found that the contents of inorganic mercury and methylmercury ranged 11.74-13.12 µg · kg⁻¹ and 0.37-2.23 µg · kg⁻¹, respectively. The microcosm examination showed that: with increasing culture time, inorganic mercury in sediments gradually decreased. There was a phenomenon that the content of methylmercury increased at first and then decreased to reach the balance later. Both the inorganic mercury and methylmercury in water change showed an increasing trend. The enrichment contents of inorganic mercury in Egeria densa Planch, and golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) were low while their enrichment of methylmercury could he great. In addition, we found that both the bioaccumulation ability and the enrichment coefficient of methylmercury in the body of golden mandarin fish were the maximum during the same period.

  13. [Trophic range of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Infiernillo dam, Michoacán-Guerrero, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Badillo, M L; Nepita-Villanueva, M R

    2000-01-01

    The trophic spectrum of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864), was determined by stomach content analysis in 153 organisms collected during 1993 in Michoacán-Guerrero, México. The feeding status of the fish at the time of observation was evaluated by the examination of fat surrounding the gut, gastric replection and the condition coefficient. The quantitative evaluation of the food items was carried out by the combination of the following analysis: Frequency of Occurrence, Volumetric Method, Volumetric Mean Index and Relative Importance Index. Diet consisted of: detritus and vascular plant residues as a primary food; unicellular algae as secondary food; and remains of insects and fish, graminean seeds, filamentous algae, cladocerans, ostracods, rotifers and copepods as occasional food. We detected a difference in food preferences between juveniles and adults and a variation in the consumption proportions of some food items during the rainy and dry seasons. Thus, we concluded that O. aureus is an omnivorous species with preference for detritus and vascular plant remain. Feeding seems to be determined by the abundance of food items found in the habitat and adults showed a trend to eat only detritus. Feeding does not seem to be a limiting factor in the development of the tilapia in Infiernillo dam.

  14. Contributions to the herpetofauna of the Albertine Rift: Two new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from an isolated montane forest, south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Colin R; Tolley, Krystal A

    2015-01-13

    Two new species of chameleons from the genera Rhampholeon and Kinyongia are described from an isolated montane forest remnant situated toward the southern end of the Albertine Rift bordering Lake Tanganyika. The closest known localities of species from these genera are 200km and 400km to the north respectively, separated by large intervening tracts of lowland savannah and Brachystegia (Miombo) woodland - habitats not normally inhabited by species of these genera. Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. and Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. bear superficial resemblances to previously described species (Rh. boulengeri Steindachner and K. adolfifriderici  (Sternfeld)). Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. has a relatively smooth supra-orbital ridge, deep axillary but absent inguinal mite pockets, prominent white spots on the base of the tail and a uniquely derived hemipenal morphology with billowing parasulcal evaginations. Like K. adolfifriderici, Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. is devoid of a rostral appendage but differs in having a longer and narrower head, a higher upper labial scale count and by the absence of a dorsal crest in the male. To place these new chameleons within the context of their respective genera, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were carried out utilising two mitochondrial (ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear marker (RAG1).  Both chameleons were found to have morphological features that distinguish them from other congeners. Based on phylogenetic analysis they are clearly separate evolutionary lineages and are described as new species. 

  15. Molecular survey and microscopic examination of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in lacertid lizards from the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Maia, João P M C; Perera, Ana; Harris, D James

    2012-12-01

    The genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) is composed of intracellular haemogregarine parasites that are widely distributed among all tetrapod groups. The present study combines microscopic and molecular data on haemogregarine parasites from lizards in the western Mediterranean. We screened tissue samples and examined blood smears for the presence of species of Hepatozoon from four lizards, namely Algyroides marchi Valverde, endemic to Southeast Spain, Podarcis bocagei Seoane from Spain and Portugal, P hispanica Steindachner from Spain, and P lilfordi Günther from Cabrera, Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon parasites vary between and within lizard species from different regions. Algyroides marchi and P bocagei from Spain had the lowest values, whereas P hispanica had the highest. Phylogeny based on 18S rRNA gene sequences indicates that most of the new Hepatozoon sequences are part of a clade exclusive from North African and Iberian lizards, except for a single P bocagei isolate that is found related to another clade including isolates from other reptile host species and rodents. Interestingly, isolates from Algyroides form a distinct monophyletic subgroup, which could be a signal of strict host-specificity within this host genus.

  16. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 53. Gyrodactylus corydori sp. n. and redescription of Gyrodactylus anisopharynx (Gyrodactylidea: Gyrodactylidae), parasites of Corydoras spp. (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A

    2009-03-01

    Morphometric analyses are used to evaluate the taxonomic status of two sympatric variants of Gyrodactylus anisopharynx Popazoglo et Boeger, 2000 (forma "large-pharynx" and forma "small-pharynx"). The parasites were collected from the Piraquara River and the Miringuava River, State of Paraná, Brazil, between February 2005 and May 2006. A total of 132 parasites were measured from two hosts, Corydoras ehrhardti Steindachner and Corydoras paleatus (Jenyns). Eleven morphological features of the haptoral sclerites and pharynx were measured and analysed by discriminant analysis and principal components analysis. The results indicate that the observed morphological variation cannot be associated to intraspecific variation or phenotypic plasticity (P < 0.0001). Consequently, the two variants previously allocated in G. anisopharynx represent two independent species. Since the holotype was defined as the variant "large-pharynx", Gyrodactylus corydori sp. n. is proposed to accommodate specimens previously reported as "small-pharynx" variant of G. anisopharynx. Morphometric analyses showed that the hook, the anchor, and the pharyngeal bulb are significantly distinct (P < 0.0001) between G. corydori sp. n. and G. anisopharynx (s.s.). The new species is characterized by having hooks with point moderately curved, robust convex heel, convex shelf, toe concave moderately pointed with depression; deep bar with two submedial, posterior projections; anchors with robust superficial root; superficial bar with two small anterolateral projections; and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets.

  17. A review of the Callogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Delventhal, Naomi R; Mooi, Randall D; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-10-31

    Five species of Callogobius Bleeker have been previously reported from the Red Sea: C. amikami Goren, Miroz & Baranes, C. clarki (Goren), C. dori Goren, C. flavobrunneus (Smith), and C. maculipinnis (Fowler). Records of C. bifasciatus (Smith) in the Red Sea are referable to C. clarki. Callogobius amikami has been previously known only from a single specimen, the holotype from the Red Sea, and two photographs, a live juvenile from Oman and a live specimen at an aquarium at Coral World, Eilat. We obtained a possible additional juvenile from the Red Sea, although we are unable to definitively determine its identity. Red Sea specimens previously identified as C. maculipinnis [or C. irrasus (Smith)] represent a new species, distinguished from the latter by normally having four sets of transverse mandibular rows on each side (rather than three); this species is described here as Callogobius pilosimentum sp. nov. Four specimens of an additional, undescribed species of Callogobius, C. sp. A, have been collected from the Red Sea, but we withhold a formal description because this species is currently under study by colleagues. Callogobius sclateri (Steindachner), previously known from the Indo-West Pacific, is reported from the Red Sea for the first time. A key to all seven species is provided. Each species is photographed, habitat is described and a brief description with detailed comparisons is provided. The new species and C. clarki are endemic to the Red Sea.

  18. Component population study of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala) in fishes from Lake Moreno, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G

    2003-03-01

    Seasonal samples of all fish species from Lake Moreno were taken in order to determine the presence of paratenia, to evaluate the status of the hosts and to characterise the transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) at the component population level. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity, numbers of gravid females, relative abundance of the different fish species, relative output of eggs and relative flow rates for each host species were computed. Acanthocephalus tumescens showed low host specificity, successfully parasitizing six out of eight fish species present in the lake. No paratenic infection was registered. If prevalence, mean abundance, and number of gravid females are considered, host species can be placed in a continuum from the most to least suitable as follows: Galaxias platei Steindachner, Diplomystes viedmensis (Mac Donagh), Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), Percichthys trucha (Cuvier et Valenciennes) and Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). However, when parasite flow rates and egg output were calculated, including relative abundance of each fish species, the continuum was rearranged as follows: P. trucha, O. mykiss, G. platei / G. maculatus, S. fontinalis and D. viedmensis. The first four species would be the main contributors to the population of A. tumescens in this lake, P. trucha being the major one. Different regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms are suggested.

  19. A new hedrurid species (Nematoda) from galaxiid fishes in Patagonia (Argentina) and infection of amphipods as intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2010-02-01

    During a parasite survey of galaxiid fishes (Galaxiidae) from Patagonian Andean lakes, a new species of nematode, Hedruris suttonae n. sp. was collected from the stomach of the native Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) and G. platei (Steindachner). Specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy, especially head morphology, female caudal prehensile structure, and distribution of spines. The new species is distinguished by body and tail size, morphology and size of spicules, the arrangement of caudal papillae in the male, the female caudal hook, and size of eggs. Hyalella patagonica (Ortmann), a Neotropical species of Amphipoda, is reported as its natural intermediate host. Data regarding prevalence and mean intensity in the intermediate and definitive hosts are included. The diet and habitat of the hosts, the percentage of gravid females, the high values of prevalence, and mean intensity in galaxiid fishes, as well as the wide distribution of H. suttonae , collectively indicate that, in these oligotrophic Andean lakes, G. maculatus and G. platei are true definitive hosts of this nematode.

  20. Kassina senegalensis skin tachykinins: molecular cloning of kassinin and (Thr2, Ile9)-kassinin biosynthetic precursor cDNAs and comparative bioactivity of mature tachykinins on the smooth muscle of rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Lynch, Laura; Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Tachykinins are among the most widely-studied families of regulatory peptides characterized by a highly-conserved C-terminal -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met.amide motif, which also constitutes the essential bioactive core. The amphibian skin has proved to be a rich source of these peptides with physalaemin from the skin of Physalaemus fuscomaculatus representing the archetypal aromatic tachykinin (X=Tyr or Phe) and kassinin from the skin of Kassina senegalensis representing the archetypal aliphatic tachykinin in which X=Val or Ile. Despite the primary structures of both mature peptides having been known for at least 30 years, neither the structures nor organizations of their biosynthetic precursors have been reported. Here we report the structure and organization of the biosynthetic precursor of kassinin deduced from cDNA cloned from a skin secretion library. In addition, a second precursor cDNA encoding the novel kassinin analog (Thr(2), Ile(9))-kassinin was identified as was the predicted mature peptide in skin secretion. Both transcripts exhibited a high degree of nucleotide sequence similarity and of open-reading frame translated amino acid sequences of putative precursor proteins. The translated preprotachykinins each consisted of 80 amino acid residues encoding single copies of either kassinin or its site-substituted analog. Synthetic replicates of each kassinin were found to be active on rat urinary bladder smooth muscle at nanomolar concentrations. The structural organization of both preprotachykinins differs from that previously reported for those of Odorrana grahami skin indicating a spectrum of diversity akin to that established for amphibian skin preprobradykinins.

  1. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rhebergen, F.; Taylor, R. C.; Ryan, M. J.; Page, R. A.; Halfwerk, W.

    2015-01-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  2. Mosaic evolution of neural development in anurans: acceleration of spinal cord development in the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that spinal cord development in direct developing frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus, which have evolutionarily lost the tadpole stage, differs from that in biphasically developing anurans (with the larval and the adult stage separated by metamorphosis). The present study of spinal cord development in Eleutherodactylus coqui provides additional information about neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and growth analyzed by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), in situ hybridization for NeuroD, and morphometric measurements in various developmental stages. Furthermore, spinal cord development in the frogs Discoglossus pictus, Xenopus laevis, and Physalaemus pustulosus, which belong to different anuran families but all exhibit biphasic development, was similarly analyzed. This comparative analysis allows inference of the ancestral anuran pattern of spinal cord development and how it has been modified during the evolution of Eleutherodactylus. All biphasically developing frogs analyzed share a similar pattern of spinal cord development, suggesting that this is ancestral for anurans: after neural tube closure, levels of proliferation and neurogenesis in the spinal cord were low throughout embryogenesis until they were upregulated drastically at early larval stages followed by development of the lateral motor columns. In contrast, no such quiescent embryonic period exists in E. coqui, where rapid growth, high levels of proliferation and neurogenesis, and early formation of lateral motor columns occur shortly after neural tube closure, while other parts of the central nervous system develop more slowly. Thus, spinal cord development has been accelerated during the evolution of Eleutherodactylus relative to the development of other parts of the central nervous system, probably related to the precocious development of limbs in this lineage.

  3. Neural Activity Patterns in Response to Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation in Mating Calls in the Túngara Frog

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Sabrina S.

    2010-01-01

    Background During mate choice, individuals must classify potential mates according to species identity and relative attractiveness. In many species, females do so by evaluating variation in the signals produced by males. Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) can produce single note calls (whines) and multi-note calls (whine-chucks). While the whine alone is sufficient for species recognition, females greatly prefer the whine-chuck when given a choice. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand how the brain responds to variation in male mating signals, we mapped neural activity patterns evoked by interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in túngara frogs by measuring expression of egr-1. We predicted that egr-1 responses to conspecific calls would identify brain regions that are potentially important for species recognition and that at least some of those brain regions would vary in their egr-1 responses to mating calls that vary in attractiveness. We measured egr-1 in the auditory brainstem and its forebrain targets and found that conspecific whine-chucks elicited greater egr-1 expression than heterospecific whines in all but three regions. We found no evidence that preferred whine-chuck calls elicited greater egr-1 expression than conspecific whines in any of eleven brain regions examined, in contrast to predictions that mating preferences in túngara frogs emerge from greater responses in the auditory system. Conclusions Although selectivity for species-specific signals is apparent throughout the túngara frog brain, further studies are necessary to elucidate how neural activity patterns vary with the attractiveness of conspecific mating calls. PMID:20877560

  4. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, F; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A; Halfwerk, W

    2015-09-07

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them.

  5. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: evidence of virulent skin invasion for bats under natural conditions, Europe.

    PubMed

    Bandouchova, H; Bartonicka, T; Berkova, H; Brichta, J; Cerny, J; Kovacova, V; Kolarik, M; Köllner, B; Kulich, P; Martínková, N; Rehak, Z; Turner, G G; Zukal, J; Pikula, J

    2015-02-01

    While Pseudogymnoascus destructans has been responsible for mass bat mortalities from white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America, its virulence in Europe has been questioned. To shed the light on the issue of host-pathogen interaction between European bats and P. destructans, we examined seventeen bats emerging from the fungus-positive underground hibernacula in the Czech Republic during early spring 2013. Dual wing-membrane biopsies were taken from Barbastella barbastellus (1), Myotis daubentonii (1), Myotis emarginatus (1), Myotis myotis (11), Myotis nattereri (1) and Plecotus auritus (2) for standard histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. Non-lethal collection of suspected WNS lesions was guided by trans-illumination of the wing membranes with ultraviolet light. All bats selected for the present study were PCR-positive for P. destructans and showed microscopic findings consistent with the histopathological criteria for WNS diagnosis. Ultramicroscopy revealed oedema of the connective tissue and derangement of the fibroblasts and elastic fibres associated with skin invasion by P. destructans. Extensive fungal infection induced a marked inflammatory infiltration by neutrophils at the interface between the damaged part of the wing membrane replaced by the fungus and membrane tissue not yet invaded by the pathogen. There was no sign of keratinolytic activity in the stratum corneum. Here, we show that lesions pathognomonic for WNS are common in European bats and may also include overwhelming full-thickness fungal growth through the wing membrane equal in severity to reports from North America. Inter-continental differences in the outcome of WNS in bats in terms of morbidity/mortality may therefore not be due to differences in the pathogen itself. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Predicting Species Distributions Using Record Centre Data: Multi-Scale Modelling of Habitat Suitability for Bat Roosts

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Chloe; Altringham, John

    2015-01-01

    Conservation increasingly operates at the landscape scale. For this to be effective, we need landscape scale information on species distributions and the environmental factors that underpin them. Species records are becoming increasingly available via data centres and online portals, but they are often patchy and biased. We demonstrate how such data can yield useful habitat suitability models, using bat roost records as an example. We analysed the effects of environmental variables at eight spatial scales (500 m – 6 km) on roost selection by eight bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Nyctalus noctula, Myotis mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. nattereri, M. daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) using the presence-only modelling software MaxEnt. Modelling was carried out on a selection of 418 data centre roost records from the Lake District National Park, UK. Target group pseudoabsences were selected to reduce the impact of sampling bias. Multi-scale models, combining variables measured at their best performing spatial scales, were used to predict roosting habitat suitability, yielding models with useful predictive abilities. Small areas of deciduous woodland consistently increased roosting habitat suitability, but other habitat associations varied between species and scales. Pipistrellus were positively related to built environments at small scales, and depended on large-scale woodland availability. The other, more specialist, species were highly sensitive to human-altered landscapes, avoiding even small rural towns. The strength of many relationships at large scales suggests that bats are sensitive to habitat modifications far from the roost itself. The fine resolution, large extent maps will aid targeted decision-making by conservationists and planners. We have made available an ArcGIS toolbox that automates the production of multi-scale variables, to facilitate the application of our methods to other taxa and locations. Habitat suitability modelling has

  7. Evaporative water loss is a plausible explanation for mortality of bats from white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Willis, Craig K R; Menzies, Allyson K; Boyles, Justin G; Wojciechowski, Michal S

    2011-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused alarming declines of North American bat populations in the 5 years since its discovery. Affected bats appear to starve during hibernation, possibly because of disruption of normal cycles of torpor and arousal. The importance of hydration state and evaporative water loss (EWL) for influencing the duration of torpor bouts in hibernating mammals recently led to "the dehydration hypothesis," that cutaneous infection of the wing membranes of bats with the fungus Geomyces destructans causes dehydration which in turn, increases arousal frequency during hibernation. This hypothesis predicts that uninfected individuals of species most susceptible to WNS, like little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), exhibit high rates of EWL compared to less susceptible species. We tested the feasibility of this prediction using data from the literature and new data quantifying EWL in Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri), a species that is, like other European bats, sympatric with G. destructans but does not appear to suffer significant mortality from WNS. We found that little brown bats exhibited significantly higher rates of normothermic EWL than did other bat species for which comparable EWL data are available. We also found that Natterer's bats exhibited significantly lower rates of EWL, in both wet and dry air, compared with values predicted for little brown bats exposed to identical relative humidity (RH). We used a population model to show that the increase in EWL required to cause the pattern of mortality observed for WNS-affected little brown bats was small, equivalent to a solitary bat hibernating exposed to RH of ∼95%, or clusters hibernating in ∼87% RH, as opposed to typical near-saturation conditions. Both of these results suggest the dehydration hypothesis is plausible and worth pursuing as a possible explanation for mortality of bats from WNS.

  8. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  9. Predicting Species Distributions Using Record Centre Data: Multi-Scale Modelling of Habitat Suitability for Bat Roosts.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Chloe; Altringham, John

    2015-01-01

    Conservation increasingly operates at the landscape scale. For this to be effective, we need landscape scale information on species distributions and the environmental factors that underpin them. Species records are becoming increasingly available via data centres and online portals, but they are often patchy and biased. We demonstrate how such data can yield useful habitat suitability models, using bat roost records as an example. We analysed the effects of environmental variables at eight spatial scales (500 m - 6 km) on roost selection by eight bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Nyctalus noctula, Myotis mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. nattereri, M. daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) using the presence-only modelling software MaxEnt. Modelling was carried out on a selection of 418 data centre roost records from the Lake District National Park, UK. Target group pseudoabsences were selected to reduce the impact of sampling bias. Multi-scale models, combining variables measured at their best performing spatial scales, were used to predict roosting habitat suitability, yielding models with useful predictive abilities. Small areas of deciduous woodland consistently increased roosting habitat suitability, but other habitat associations varied between species and scales. Pipistrellus were positively related to built environments at small scales, and depended on large-scale woodland availability. The other, more specialist, species were highly sensitive to human-altered landscapes, avoiding even small rural towns. The strength of many relationships at large scales suggests that bats are sensitive to habitat modifications far from the roost itself. The fine resolution, large extent maps will aid targeted decision-making by conservationists and planners. We have made available an ArcGIS toolbox that automates the production of multi-scale variables, to facilitate the application of our methods to other taxa and locations. Habitat suitability modelling has the

  10. Integrated Operational Taxonomic Units (IOTUs) in Echolocating Bats: A Bridge between Molecular and Traditional Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Galimberti, Andrea; Spada, Martina; Russo, Danilo; Mucedda, Mauro; Agnelli, Paolo; Crottini, Angelica; Ferri, Emanuele; Martinoli, Adriano; Casiraghi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Background Nowadays, molecular techniques are widespread tools for the identification of biological entities. However, until very few years ago, their application to taxonomy provoked intense debates between traditional and molecular taxonomists. To prevent every kind of disagreement, it is essential to standardize taxonomic definitions. Along these lines, we introduced the concept of Integrated Operational Taxonomic Unit (IOTU). IOTUs come from the concept of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) and paralleled the Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit (MOTU). The latter is largely used as a standard in many molecular-based works (even if not always explicitly formalized). However, while MOTUs are assigned solely on molecular variation criteria, IOTUs are identified from patterns of molecular variation that are supported by at least one more taxonomic characteristic. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the use of IOTUs on the widest DNA barcoding dataset of Italian echolocating bats species ever assembled (i.e. 31 species, 209 samples). We identified 31 molecular entities, 26 of which corresponded to the morphologically assigned species, two MOTUs and three IOTUs. Interestingly, we found three IOTUs in Myotis nattereri, one of which is a newly described lineage found only in central and southern Italy. In addition, we found a level of molecular variability within four vespertilionid species deserving further analyses. According to our scheme two of them (i.e. M. bechsteinii and Plecotus auritus) should be ranked as unconfirmed candidate species (UCS). Conclusions/Significance From a systematic point of view, IOTUs are more informative than the general concept of OTUs and the more recent MOTUs. According to information content, IOTUs are closer to species, although it is important to underline that IOTUs are not species. Overall, the use of a more precise panel of taxonomic entities increases the clarity in the systematic field and has the potential to fill the gaps

  11. Genetic population structure of Natterer's bats explained by mating at swarming sites and philopatry.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Nicola M; Butlin, Roger K; Altringham, John D

    2005-12-01

    During autumn 'swarming', large numbers of temperate bats chase each other in and around underground sites. Swarming has been proposed to be a mating event, allowing interbreeding between bats from otherwise isolated summer colonies. We studied the population structure of the Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri), a swarming species in northern England, by sampling bats at seven sites in two swarming areas and at 11 summer colonies. Analysis of molecular variance (amova) and genetic assignment analyses showed that the swarming areas (60 km apart) support significantly different populations. A negative correlation was found between the distance of a summer colony from a swarming area and the assignment of bats to that area. High gene diversity was found at all sites (HE = 0.79) suggesting high gene flow. This was supported by a low FST (0.017) among summer colonies and the absence of isolation by distance or substructure among colonies which visit one swarming area. The FST, although low, was significantly different from zero, which could be explained by a combination of female philopatry and male-mediated gene flow through mating at swarming sites with bats from other colonies. Modelling suggested that if effective size of the summer colonies (Ne) was low to moderate (10-30), all mating must occur at the swarming sites to account for the observed FST. If the Ne was higher (50), in addition to random mating during swarming, there may be nonrandom mating at swarming sites or some within-colony mating. Conservation of swarming sites that support potentially large populations is discussed.

  12. Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2013-02-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed.

  13. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Waters, D A

    2000-01-01

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

  14. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  15. Mercury distribution in organs of fish species and the associated risk in traditional subsistence villagers of the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Ceccatto, Ana P S; Testoni, Magalei C; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Santos-Filho, Manoel; Malm, Olaf; Díez, Sergi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the risk to human health from mercury (Hg) exposure through fish consumption in the Pantanal, Brazil. In order to address these risks, Hg concentrations and accumulation patterns were determined in target organs of predatory fish (Crenicichla lepidota and Pygocentrus nattereri). Levels of Hg were analysed during the two phases of the flood pulse (flood and drought) in fish from different local ecosystems, such as the Bento Gomes and Paraguay rivers. Although the former study area is directly affected by gold mining, a higher, but not significantly different, Hg concentration in fish was found compared with fish at the Paraguay River, which is regarded as pristine area. Moreover, no seasonal variability was found in either river. Although total mercury levels in fish did not exceed the maximum FAO/WHO threshold (0.5 μg g(-1)), according to dietary habits in riverine communities of the Pantanal (up to 6 oz of fish per day), there is reason for concern over the potential for deleterious health effects that could be caused by high Hg intake. In fact, the estimated daily intake in the present study ranged from 0.49 to 1.08 μg Hg kg(-1) day(-1), for adults (including women of childbearing age) and children, respectively. Because of high Hg intakes in riverine groups, which exceed the recommended reference dose value, these communities could be considered at risk. Therefore, it is necessary to consider regulatory measures and public education regarding fish consumption, particularly in vulnerable groups (i.e. children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age).

  16. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers.

  17. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

    PubMed

    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-05-05

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal.

  18. Redescription and first genetic characterisation of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), including re-evaluation of the species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) from marine fishes off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Carla J; Pereira, Felipe B; Luque, José L

    2017-07-01

    Newly collected specimens of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 from the intestine of Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are redescribed and genetically characterised. Additionally, all congeners deposited in the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC) parasitic in marine fishes of the South Atlantic, including types of P. (S.) macaensis, were re-evaluated. The following features are described for the first time in P. (S.) macaensis: morphology and arrangement of cephalic structures, shape of deirids and location of phasmids. The position of the excretory pore, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae in males, the structure of the spicules and of tail end in both males and females are rectified. Most specimens deposited in the CHIOC identified as P. (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 were transferred to P. (S.) macaensis and others were designated as Procamallanus (S.) sp. Procamallanus (S.) cruzi Guimarães, Cristófaro & Rodrigues, 1976 is considered a species inquirenda due to its poor description and the lack of match of its original description with the type-material re-examined. Moreover, several taxonomic problems were noted after observations of the specimens (mostly poorly preserved), including inadequate morphological reports as well as misidentifications. Phylogenies inferred using sequences of the SSU rDNA from camallanids (Nematoda: Camallanidae) mostly generated weakly supported clades; however, Camallanus Railliet & Henry, 1915 and Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 do not seem to be monophyletic. Based on the present results and the lack of molecular data, it would be pertinent to adopt the widely-used classification for the subgenera of Procamallanus.

  19. Taxonomic status of Woodland's enigmatic tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Amazonian catfishes: back to museum collections.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Poorly known proteocephalidean cestodes of peculiar morphology, described by Woodland (1934) from pimelodid catfishes in Amazonia, Brazil, were studied. Re-examination of their type-specimens and evaluation of newly-collected material from Brazil and Peru made it possible to clarify their taxonomic status. Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934), the type-species of the monotypic Brayela Rego, 1984, which has never been recorded since its original description, is redescribed and its scolex morphology, which has been misinterpreted in the original description, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actual definitive host of B. karuatayi is not a species of Glanidium Lütken (Auchenipteridae), but coroatá, Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine) (Pimelodidae). Peru is a new geographical record for B. karuatayi. The definitive host of other two proteocephalidean cestodes, Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 and Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, is not a species of Rhamdia Bleeker (family Heptapteridae), but the pimelodid Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt) [syn. Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner)]. Proteocephalus jandia is in fact conspecific with Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanelli, 1987, type-species of Travassiella Rego & Pavanelli, 1987. As a result, a new combination, Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934), is proposed. Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 is considered conspecific with M. brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985 described from the congeneric host [Zungaro jahu (Ihering)] from the Paraná River in Brazil; the latter species becomes its new junior synonym. The validity of M. travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992, a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz) in the Paraná River basin in Brazil, is confirmed by a study of its type- and voucher specimens. The present account provides strong arguments to always study museum specimens in taxonomic studies; it also represents an evidence of the importance of depositing types and vouchers in

  20. The rediscovery of a long described species reveals additional complexity in speciation patterns of poeciliid fishes in sulfide springs.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maura; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Plath, Martin; Eifert, Constanze; Lerp, Hannes; Lamboj, Anton; Voelker, Gary; Tobler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes of Poecilia mexicana, others, like P. sulphuraria, have been described as highly endemic species. Our study particularly focused on elucidating the taxonomy of the long described sulfide spring endemic, Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863, and investigates if similar evolutionary patterns of phenotypic trait divergence and reproductive isolation are present as observed in other sulfidic species of Poecilia. We applied a geometric morphometric approach to assess body shape similarity to other sulfidic and non-sulfidic fish of the genus Poecilia. We also conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to establish the phylogenetic relationships of P. thermalis and used a population genetic approach to determine levels of gene flow among Poecilia from sulfidic and non-sulfidic sites. Our results indicate that P. thermalis' body shape has evolved in convergence with other sulfide spring populations in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses placed P. thermalis as most closely related to one population of P. sulphuraria, and population genetic analyses demonstrated that P. thermalis is genetically isolated from both P. mexicana ecotypes and P. sulphuraria. Based on these findings, we make taxonomic recommendations for P. thermalis. Overall, our study verifies the role of hydrogen sulfide as a main factor shaping convergent, phenotypic evolution and the emergence of reproductive isolation between Poecilia populations

  1. The Rediscovery of a Long Described Species Reveals Additional Complexity in Speciation Patterns of Poeciliid Fishes in Sulfide Springs

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Maura; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Plath, Martin; Eifert, Constanze; Lerp, Hannes; Lamboj, Anton; Voelker, Gary; Tobler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes of Poecilia mexicana, others, like P. sulphuraria, have been described as highly endemic species. Our study particularly focused on elucidating the taxonomy of the long described sulfide spring endemic, Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863, and investigates if similar evolutionary patterns of phenotypic trait divergence and reproductive isolation are present as observed in other sulfidic species of Poecilia. We applied a geometric morphometric approach to assess body shape similarity to other sulfidic and non-sulfidic fish of the genus Poecilia. We also conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to establish the phylogenetic relationships of P. thermalis and used a population genetic approach to determine levels of gene flow among Poecilia from sulfidic and non-sulfidic sites. Our results indicate that P. thermalis' body shape has evolved in convergence with other sulfide spring populations in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses placed P. thermalis as most closely related to one population of P. sulphuraria, and population genetic analyses demonstrated that P. thermalis is genetically isolated from both P. mexicana ecotypes and P. sulphuraria. Based on these findings, we make taxonomic recommendations for P. thermalis. Overall, our study verifies the role of hydrogen sulfide as a main factor shaping convergent, phenotypic evolution and the emergence of reproductive isolation between Poecilia populations

  2. Species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from cichlids from Zambezi and Limpopo river basins in Zimbabwe and South Africa: evidence for unexplored species richness.

    PubMed

    Zahradníčková, Petra; Barson, Maxwell; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Přikrylová, Iva

    2016-09-01

    New findings on Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising African cichlids in southern Africa are presented, comprising data from Zimbabwe and South Africa. Morphometry of opisthaptoral hard parts in combination with nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the presence of six species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832. Three new species are described from fishes in Zimbabwe: Gyrodactylus chitandiri n. sp. from the gill arches of Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger) and Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Weber); Gyrodactylus occupatus n. sp. from the fins of Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Pharyngochromis acuticeps (Steindachner) and P. philander; and Gyrodactylus parisellei n. sp. from the fins of O. niloticus, P. philander and Tilapia sp. Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973 was also identified from the gills of O. niloticus and C. rendalli collected from two localities in Zimbabwe; these findings represent new host and locality records for this parasite. Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri Vanhove, Snoeks, Volckaert & Huyse, 2011 was identified from P. philander collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe thereby providing new host and locality records for this parasite. Finally, Gyrodactylus yacatli García-Vásquez, Hansen, Christison, Bron & Shinn, 2011 was collected from the fins of O. niloticus and P. philander studied in Zimbabwe; this represents the first record of this species from the continent of Africa. Notably, this study improves upon the knowledge of Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising cichlids from these southern African regions. All species studied were recorded from at least two different cichlid host species indicating trend for a wide range of Gyrodactylus hosts in Africa. Accordingly, this supports the idea of intensive host switching in the course of their evolution.

  3. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall.

  4. Choice matters: incipient speciation in Gyrodactylus corydori (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A; Pie, Marcio R

    2011-05-01

    We investigated how Gyrodactylus corydoriBueno-Silva and Boeger, 2009 exploits two sympatric host species, Corydoras paleatus (Jenyns, 1842) and Corydoras ehrhardti Steindachner, 1910. Specimens of G. corydori were collected from the Piraquara and Miringuava Rivers, State of Paraná, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. A total of 167 parasites was measured from both host species. Nine morphometric features of the haptoral sclerites were measured and analyzed by discriminant analysis, cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) (∼740 bp) and the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) (∼1200 bp) of G. corydori were sequenced. Bayesian and parsimony analyses of COI recognized two genetically structured clades of G. corydori, which corresponded closely with the two species of Corydoras. Twenty-eight haplotypes were detected (18 were exclusive to C. ehrhardti and seven were exclusive to C. paleatus). The same general pattern between parasites and host species was observed in the morphometric analyses. Nevertheless, poor correlation of genetic and morphometric variation strongly supports the plastic nature of the morphological variation of haptoral sclerites. The existence of two clades with limited gene flow would suggest that G. corydori already represents two cryptic species. However, the morphometric and molecular data showed that there is insufficient evidence to support two valid species. The low COI (0.1-6.2%) and ITS (0.09-3.5%) divergence within G. corydori suggest a recent separation of the lineages between distinct host species (less than 1 million years). As the hypothesis of secondary contact of the parasite demographic history was rejected, our results point to the possibility of sympatric incipient ongoing speciation of G. corydori to form distinct parasite lineages adapted to C. ehrhardti and C. paleatus. This may be a common event within the Gyrodactylidae, adding a yet

  5. Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For anurans, knowledge of 5S rDNA is scarce. For Engystomops species, chromosomal homeologies are difficult to recognize due to the high level of inter- and intraspecific cytogenetic variation. In an attempt to better compare the karyotypes of the Amazonian species Engystomops freibergi and Engystomops petersi, and to extend the knowledge of 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amazonian Engystomops species were isolated, characterized, and mapped. Results Two types of 5S rDNA, which were readily differentiated by their NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sizes and compositions, were isolated from specimens of E. freibergi from Brazil and E. petersi from two Ecuadorian localities (Puyo and Yasuní). In the E. freibergi karyotypes, the entire type I 5S rDNA repeating unit hybridized to the pericentromeric region of 3p, whereas the entire type II 5S rDNA repeating unit mapped to the distal region of 6q, suggesting a differential localization of these sequences. The type I NTS probe clearly detected the 3p pericentromeric region in the karyotypes of E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo and the 5p pericentromeric region in the karyotype of E. petersi from Yasuní, but no distal or interstitial signals were observed. Interestingly, this probe also detected many centromeric regions in the three karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. The type II NTS probe detected only distal 6q regions in the three karyotypes, corroborating the differential distribution of the two types of 5S rDNA. Conclusions Because the 5S rDNA types found in Engystomops are related to those of Physalaemus with respect to their nucleotide sequences and chromosomal locations, their origin likely preceded the evolutionary divergence of these genera. In addition, our data indicated homeology between Chromosome 5 in E. petersi from Yasuní and Chromosomes 3 in E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo. In addition, the chromosomal location

  6. Perceived Synchrony of Frog Multimodal Signal Components Is Influenced by Content and Order.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ryan C; Page, Rachel A; Klein, Barrett A; Ryan, Michael J; Hunter, Kimberly L

    2017-06-05

    Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component). Using a robotic frog, we tested female responses to variation in the temporal arrangement between acoustic and visual components. When the visual component lagged a complex call (whine + chuck), females largely rejected this asynchronous multisensory signal in favor of the complex call absent the visual cue. When the chuck component was removed from one call, but the robofrog inflation lagged the complex call, females responded strongly to the asynchronous multimodal signal. When the chuck component was removed from both calls, females reversed preference and responded positively to the asynchronous multisensory signal. When the visual component preceded the call, females responded as often to the multimodal signal as to the call alone. These data show that asynchrony of a normally fixed signal does reduce receiver responsiveness. The magnitude and overall response, however, depend on specific temporal interactions between the acoustic and visual components. The sensitivity of túngara frogs to lagging visual cues, but not leading ones, and the influence of acoustic signal content on the perception of visual asynchrony is similar to those reported in human psychophysics literature. Virtually all acoustically communicating animals must conduct auditory scene analyses and identify the source of signals. Our data suggest that some basic

  7. Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Débora Silva; Rivera, Miryan; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2012-03-20

    For anurans, knowledge of 5S rDNA is scarce. For Engystomops species, chromosomal homeologies are difficult to recognize due to the high level of inter- and intraspecific cytogenetic variation. In an attempt to better compare the karyotypes of the Amazonian species Engystomops freibergi and Engystomops petersi, and to extend the knowledge of 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amazonian Engystomops species were isolated, characterized, and mapped. Two types of 5S rDNA, which were readily differentiated by their NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sizes and compositions, were isolated from specimens of E. freibergi from Brazil and E. petersi from two Ecuadorian localities (Puyo and Yasuní). In the E. freibergi karyotypes, the entire type I 5S rDNA repeating unit hybridized to the pericentromeric region of 3p, whereas the entire type II 5S rDNA repeating unit mapped to the distal region of 6q, suggesting a differential localization of these sequences. The type I NTS probe clearly detected the 3p pericentromeric region in the karyotypes of E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo and the 5p pericentromeric region in the karyotype of E. petersi from Yasuní, but no distal or interstitial signals were observed. Interestingly, this probe also detected many centromeric regions in the three karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. The type II NTS probe detected only distal 6q regions in the three karyotypes, corroborating the differential distribution of the two types of 5S rDNA. Because the 5S rDNA types found in Engystomops are related to those of Physalaemus with respect to their nucleotide sequences and chromosomal locations, their origin likely preceded the evolutionary divergence of these genera. In addition, our data indicated homeology between Chromosome 5 in E. petersi from Yasuní and Chromosomes 3 in E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo. In addition, the chromosomal location of the type II 5S r

  8. Low total mercury in Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) as compared to carnivorous, and non-carnivorous fish consumed by Amazonian indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S J; Pacheco, L F; Achá, D; Molina, C I; Miranda-Chumacero, G

    2016-11-01

    Mercury contamination in the River Beni basin is an important health risk factor, primarily for indigenous communities that live along the river. Among them are the Tacana, living in their original territory with sustainable use of their natural resources, consuming fish, Caiman yacare, and other riverine resources as their main source of protein. To assess mercury exposure to Tacana people, total mercury (THg) was evaluated in the muscle of seven commercial fish, and Caiman yacare (yacare caiman) during 2007 and 2008. THg was extracted by acid digestion and concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean mercury concentrations in C. yacare was 0.21 ± 0.22 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. (wet weight), which is lower than expected given its high trophic level, and its long life-span. It is possible that mercury in C. yacare is accumulated in other organs, not included in this study; but it is also possible that physiological mechanisms are involved that help caimans get rid of ingested mercury, or simply that C. yacare's diverse diet reduces THg accumulation. Carnivorous fishes (Pygocentrus nattereri, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, Zungaro zungaro, Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Leiarius marmoratus) had the highest total mercury concentrations, ranging from 0.35 to 1.27 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. moreover, most were above the limit recommended by WHO (0.5 μg g(-1)Hg w.w.); except for Leiarius marmuratus, which presented a mean of 0.353 ± 0.322 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. The two non-carnivorous fish species (Prochilodus nigricans, and Piaractus brachypomus) present mean concentrations of 0.099 ± 0.027, and 0.041 ± 0.019 μg g(-1)Hg w.w., respectively. Finally, recommendations on the consumption habits of Tacana communities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The New World filarial genus Molinema Freitas & Lent, 1939 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), with a description of four new species parasitic in the Echimyidae (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Bain, O

    2001-03-01

    Four new species of Molinema (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae), parasites of echimyid rodents in South America, are described: M. algardneri n. sp. from Proechimys amphichoricus, M. barbarae n. sp. from P. cayennensis, both in Venezuela (Rio Negro and Cerro La Neblina, respectively), M. peruviensis n. sp. from P. steerei in Peru (lower Urubamba), and M. nattereri n. sp. (= Filaria diacantha Molin, 1858 pro parte) from Echimys ? didelphoides (= Loncheres rufa) in Brazil (Matto Grosso). They differ from each other and from the previously described species in the following characters: flat or concave head, cephalic ratio (distance between cephalic papillae in median view/lateral view), size and shape of the buccal capsule, length of the oesophagus, cuticular ornamentation of the female body, length of the ovijector, thick or slim female tail, area rugosa, long or short filament in the left spicule, heel in the right spicule, respective position of postcloacal papilla pairs 5 and 6, shape of the caudal lappets, terminal point present or absent, and the microfilariae. Molinema, which belongs to the worldwide Dipetalonema line, is distributed in two of the ten families of the Caviomorpha (South American Hystrichognathi have extended their distribution in South America since the early Oligocene). Nine species are parasitic in the Echimyidae (suborder Caviida); they have a short oesophagus and a complete or reduced set of precloacal papillae (four or three pairs). Two species are parasitic in the Erethizontidae (Erethizontida) and might be more primitive in having a well-developed oesophagus. However, the type-species M. diacantha, of which a female specimen was studied, has a large buccal capsule and has evolved concave head, while M. arbuta has a reduced buccal capsule and primitive flat head. This last species is a parasite of a Nearctic porcupine and probably represents a small line of Molinema which migrated to the north with its hosts when communications were established

  10. Development of the ultrastructure of sonic muscles: a kind of neoteny?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drumming muscles of some sound-producing fish are ‘champions’ of contraction speed, their rate setting the fundamental frequency. In the piranha, contraction of these muscles at 150 Hz drives a sound at the same frequency. Drumming muscles of different not closely related species show evolutionary convergences. Interestingly, some characters of sonic muscles can also be found in the trunk muscles of newly hatched larvae that are able to maintain tail beat frequencies up to 100 Hz. The aim of this work was to study the development of sound production and sonic and epaxial muscles simultaneously in the red bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) to seek for possible common characteristics. Results Call, pulse and period durations increased significantly with the fish size, but the call dominant frequencies decreased, and the number of pulses and the call amplitude formed a bell curve. In epaxial muscles, the fibre diameters of younger fish are first positioned in the graphical slope corresponding to sonic muscles, before diverging. The fibre diameter of older fish trunk muscles was bigger, and the area of the myofibrils was larger than in sonic muscles. Moreover, in two of the biggest fish, the sonic muscles were invaded by fat cells and the sonic muscle ultrastructure was similar to the epaxial one. These two fish were also unable to produce any sound, meaning they lost their ability to contract quickly. Conclusions The volume occupied by myofibrils determines the force of contraction, the volume of sarcoplasmic reticulum sets the contraction frequency, and the volume of mitochondria sets the level of sustained performance. The functional outcomes in muscles are all attributable to shifts in the proportions of those structures. A single delay in the development restricts the quantity of myofibrils, maintains a high proportion of space in the sarcoplasm and develops sarcoplasmic reticulum. High-speed sonic muscles could thus be skeletal muscles with

  11. Cytogenetic and Molecular Data Demonstrate that the Bryconinae (Ostariophysi, Bryconidae) Species from Southeastern Brazil Form a Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Unit

    PubMed Central

    Travenzoli, Natália Martins; Silva, Priscilla Caroline; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José Cola; Oliveira, Claudio; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-01-01

    Brycon spp. occur in Neotropical watersheds to the west and east of the Andes, and as they are sensitive to anthropogenic changes, many these species are endangered in southeastern Brazil. Coastal rivers in southeastern Brazil are characterized by the presence of relatively few freshwater fish species and high endemism of this fauna. The objective of this study was to examine whether Brycon spp. occurring in the coastal basins of southeastern Brazil are monophyletic, using cytogenetic data, mitochondrial, and nuclear molecular markers. All the species showed a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, a conserved number within the subfamily Bryconinae. However, the karyotypic formulas were unique to most species, including Brycon devillei (26m+22sm+2st), Brycon ferox (26m+12sm+12st), Brycon insignis (22m+20sm+8st), Brycon opalinus, and Brycon vermelha (24m+20sm+6st), indicating the prevalence of pericentric and paracentric inversions in the chromosomal evolution of these species. All of them had nucleolar organizer regions in the first pair of subtelocentric chromosomes and no equilocal distribution of heterochromatin in the first pair of chromosomes of the karyotype. These two features, not seen in any other Brycon spp. examined to date, indicate that Bryconinae species from the Brazilian southeastern coastal basins, including the monotypic genus Henochilus, are monophyletic. Also, this is the first study that reports NOR location and C-banding patterns as synapomorphies for a Neotropical fish species group. The monophyly was also supported by a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA (16S), cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), alpha-myosin (MYH6) genes and S72 intron molecular data. Our results partially corroborate the “Brycon acuminatus” group proposed by Howes in 1982: our proposed clade keeps B. devillei, B. ferox, and B. insignis; but it also includes B. opalinus, B. vermelha, and H. weatlandii whereas it excludes B. nattereri. The phylogeographic unit formed by

  12. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    PubMed Central

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  13. Effects of dam operation on the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis, related to mesohabitats, microhabitat availability and water temperature regime, in the river Cabriel (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Diego Alcaraz-Hernandez, Juan; Hernandez-Mascarell, Aina

    2010-05-01

    The presence of large dams affects habitat availability, often regarded as the primary factor that limits population and community recovery in rivers. Physical habitat is often targeted in restoration, but there is often a paucity of useful information. Habitat degradation has reduced the complexity and connectivity of the Mediterranean streams in Spain. These changes have diminished the historical range of the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866), isolated the populations of this species, and probably contributed to its risk of extinction. In the Júcar River basin (Spain), where this fish is endemic, the populations are mainly restricted to the river Cabriel, which is fragmented in two segments by the large dam of Contreras. In this river, 3 main lines of research were developed from 2006 to 2008, i.e., microhabitat suitability, mesohabitat suitability, and water temperature, in order to relate such kind of variables with the flow regime. The main goal of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, was to detect the main reasons of the species decline, and to propose dam operation improvements to contribute to the recovery of the species. The flow and water temperature regimes were also studied in the river Cabriel, upstream and downstream the large dam of Contreras. During the three years of study, below the dam it was observed a small and not significant variation in the proportions of slow and fast habitats; the regulated flow regime was pointed out as the main reason of such variations. At the microhabitat scale, optimal ranges for average depth and velocity were defined; these data allowed us to develop an estimation of weighted useable area under natural and regulated conditions. The Júcar nase were found majorly at depths no greater than 1,15 meters with slow water velocities. It was possible to observe a clear alteration of the flow and water temperature regime below the dam, due to the cold

  14. [Special indications for the use of soft contact lenses as a drug-release-system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bietti, G B; De Caro, G; Giraldi, J P; Romani, E

    1976-01-01

    Research has been performed, both experimentally and clinically, to establish the value of the association of soft contact lenses and some types of eye drops. The use of soft contact lenses with eye drops may be useful in some special cases: a) more prolonged and more sustained effect compared with the usual way of administration of eye drops (especially antiglaucomatous substances, antimetabolites, mydriatics); b) possibility of reducing the concentration to avoid local discomfort or systemic side-effects, without loss of their effectiveness on the eye conditions to be treated. The combined use of soft lenses (12.5-15 mm in diameter) with eye drops may be obtained either by presoaking the lens in the liquid or by regular instillation of eye drops after insertion of the lens; the two techniques may of course be associated. In the present research the advantages of utilizing hydrophylic lenses with osmotically active substances, to obtain a better and more protracted dehydration of the cornea, were first examined, in vitro and in vivo. The following substances were tested: 10% propylenglycol, 10% glycerol, 10% glucose and 5% natrium chloride. The clearing effect of the different types of treatment was evaluated in 45 patients with edematous bullous keratopathy with an instrument which measured the infrared light emitted by an optic fiber and reflected by the cornea. The effects were more marked for the epithelial than for the stromal oedema. Another group of investigations was performed with two polypeptides with high molecular weight: Eledoisin, extracted from a mediterranean octopus, Eledone moschata, and Physalaemin, extracted from the skin of a south american batrachian, Physalaemus fuscomaculatus, both of these stimulate the lacrimal secretion and were previously successfully employed topically by the authors against keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The increase of the amount of fluid was however short-lived. Eledoisin at a concentration of 200 mug/ml, was examined