Science.gov

Sample records for physical activity age

  1. Physical activity in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Schroll, M

    2003-02-01

    This review over previously published articles, describes physical activity changes during ageing from age 50-85 in the 1914-cohort in Glostrup, Denmark, and analyses the association between physical activity and mortality, myocardial infarction, hip fractures and functional ability. The 1914-cohort in Glostrup was examined at age 50 in 1964 and re-examined 1974, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999. Some analyses were based on pooled data (CCPPS: Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies) from three longitudinal population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark: The Copenhagen County Centre for Preventive Medicine in Glostrup, The Copenhagen City Heart Study and The Copenhagen Male Study. Physical activity of work and leisure time was classified into four levels based on questions originally constructed by Saltin and Grimby. all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, hip fracture and functional ability (Avlund mobility index of dependency). The lifetime risk from a sedentary leisure time was analysed in multivariate regression analyses controlling for covariates describing gender, age, life style, education and chronic diseases. Less than one third of the population had a sedentary leisure time. Physical activity definitely influenced health and quality of life over the life course in a positive way: compared to the group of inactive men and women, the mortality was about 60%, the incidence of myocardial infarction 70% and the incidence of hip fractures 75% in the moderate active groups. On top the physically active persons gained independency in activities of daily living.

  2. [Physical activity and aging: opposing physiologic effects].

    PubMed

    Charansonney, O

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of physical activity in preventing premature mortality have been established by a large set of epidemiological studies. These benefits have been shown both in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Furthermore, the reduction of acute events such as myocardial infarction observed with higher levels of physical activity together with the increase in disease-free life expectancy among the most active individuals supports physical activity's antiaging effect. This review highlights two models supporting this effect. The first model describes the path to frailty and the second explains that immobilization is a stressor which triggers stress-responses responsible for many chronic diseases. Aging reduces the physiological reserve and can lead to frailty when this reserve cannot allow an appropriate adaptation of the aging body to environmental challenges. The components of this physiological reserve can easily be measured by cardiorespiratory testing. Among them are heart rate reserve and VO(2)max, the maximal body oxygen consumption. The opposite effects of exercise training and aging on the physiological reserve are detailed. Sedentary lifestyle accelerates the effects of aging in susceptible individuals. Sedentary lifestyle induces mechanisms which lead to risk factors of chronic diseases and, eventually, to premature death. These inappropriate mechanisms and their consequences constitute the sedentary lifestyle syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  4. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  5. [Activity, physical and psychological mobility in old age].

    PubMed

    Voelcker-Rehage, C; Godde, B; Staudinger, U M

    2006-06-01

    Old age and aging are accompanied by a number of physical and mental changes. However, these so-called age-dependent processes are not exclusively genetically determined or irreversible but can be partially delayed, prevented, or compensated and some can even be reversed. The goal of this article is to highlight the plasticity, or the "mobility", of physical and mental aging. We will point out in what respects an appropriate lifestyle or purposeful interventions can positively influence the reserve capacity of aging human beings and the aging process. Using the example of physical activity, we will illustrate how we can influence physiological development, cognitive performance, longevity, as well as the development and the occurrence of chronic diseases. Additionally, it is shown that cognitive development is malleable as well. It is facilitated or debilitated by behavior and activity-this covers not only cognitive but also physical activity. It is our particular concern to demonstrate the close interconnectedness of body and mind.

  6. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  7. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  8. Physical activity and parameters of aging: a physiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, K R; Meijer, E P

    2001-10-01

    Increasing age is associated with a decline in fat-free mass. The question is whether age-related changes in body composition can be delayed by an active life style. This analysis includes data where physical activity was assessed with doubly labeled water and body composition with hydrodensitometry or isotope dilution. Subjects were 136 women and 180 men over 20 years, who were tested in Maastricht University between 1983 and 1998. Increasing age was associated with lower activity levels and lower fat-free mass. After controlling for age there was no longer any association between physical activity and fat-free mass. A few exercise intervention studies showed that elderly subjects compensate for exercise training by a decline in spontaneous physical activity, in contrast to younger subjects. Although no effect of habitual activity level on changes in body composition are observed, training has a positive effect on muscle function. Elderly subjects with relatively high levels of physical activity are not different from those with low activity levels, as far as fat-free mass and fat mass are concerned. However, training might delay the age-induced impairment of personal mobility associated with a reduction in physical activity.

  9. Physical activity and aging: a life-long story.

    PubMed

    Charansonney, Olivier L

    2011-09-01

    The benefits of physical activity in preventing premature mortality have been established by a large set of epidemiological studies. These benefits have been shown both in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Furthermore, the reduction of acute events such as myocardial infarction observed with higher levels of physical activity together with the increase in disease-free life expectancy among the most active individuals supports physical activity's anti-aging effect. This review highlights two models supporting this effect. The first model describes the path to frailty and the second explains that immobilization is a stressor which triggers stress-responses responsible for many chronic diseases. Aging reduces the physiological reserve and can lead to frailty when this reserve cannot allow an appropriate adaptation of the aging body to environmental challenges. The components of this physiological reserve can easily be measured by cardiorespiratory testing. Among them are heart rate reserve and VO(2max), the maximal body oxygen consumption. The opposite effects of exercise training and aging on the physiological reserve are detailed. Underlying mechanisms of both exercise training and aging are described. Sedentary lifestyle accelerates the effects of aging in susceptible individuals. Sedentary lifestyle induces mechanisms which lead to risk factors of chronic diseases and, eventually, to premature death. These pathological mechanisms and their consequences constitute the sedentary lifestyle syndrome.

  10. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7 ± 8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002-2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life.

  11. The impact of physical and mental activity on cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Jak, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    With the aging of the population, there is continued emphasis on finding interventions that prevent or delay onset of cognitive disorders of aging. Pharmacological interventions have proven less effective than hoped in this capacity and a greater emphasis has therefore been placed on understanding behavioral interventions that will positively impact dementia risk. Building on a robust animal literature, a substantial volume of research has emerged, particularly over the last 5 years, to suggest that modifiable behaviors impact brain plasticity in both humans and animals. This chapter aims to provide a critical summary of this ever growing body of research, focusing specifically on participation in physical and cognitive activities among older adults and their impact on cognition, the brain, and cognitive aging outcomes. The animal literature on activity and cognition provides a series of hypotheses as to how exercise exerts its cognitive and brain benefits. Research in animals is briefly reviewed in the context of these hypotheses as it provides the groundwork for investigations in humans. The literature on physical and cognitive activity benefits to brain and cognition in humans is reviewed in more detail. The largely positive impact of physical and cognitive activities on cognition and brain health documented in epidemiological, cross sectional, and prospective randomized controlled studies are summarized. While most studies have targeted older adults in general, the implications of exercise and cognitive interventions in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are also described as is the evidence supporting the ability for physical activity to modify genetic risk. The connection between activity levels and brain volume, white matter integrity, and improved functionality is reviewed. Practical recommendations regarding the nature, duration, intensity and age of onset of physical or mental activity necessary to reap cognitive

  12. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  13. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  14. Prospective study of physical activity and physical function in early old age.

    PubMed

    Hillsdon, Melvyn M; Brunner, Eric J; Guralnik, Jack M; Marmot, Michael G

    2005-04-01

    In the elderly, higher levels of physical function have consistently been associated with higher levels of physical activity. In this study, we test the hypothesis that physical activity earlier in the life course preserves high physical function over an extended period of time, before the onset of major age-related declines in physical function. A cohort study with an average of 8.8 years of follow-up (1991-1993 to 2001). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting for long-standing illness, baseline physical function, smoking, body mass index, and employment grade. Participants were 6398 London-based civil servants aged 39 to 63 years at baseline, 90% of whom were working. The main outcome measure was physical function measured by the Short Form (SF-36) General Health Survey. Relatively fit and healthy, mainly working, middle-aged men and women who were physically active at recommended levels, were more likely to report high physical function at follow-up, compared to their sedentary counterparts (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.32-2.00). The association between initial level of physical activity and high physical function at follow-up remained after adjustment for baseline level of physical function and the presence of long-standing illness. Participation in a physically active lifestyle during mid-life appears to be critical to the maintenance of high physical function in those who are fit and well enough to work and do or do not report any long-standing illness.

  15. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that physical activity has a protective effect on brain functioning in older people. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that regular physical activity prevents dementia, but recent RCTs suggests an improvement of cognitive functioning in persons involved in aerobic programs, and evidence is accumulating from basic research. Future prevention of Alzheimer disease may depend on lifestyle habits such as physical activity.

  16. Physical activity, inflammation, and volume of the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Braskie, M N; Boyle, C P; Rajagopalan, P; Gutman, B A; Toga, A W; Raji, C A; Tracy, R P; Kuller, L H; Becker, J T; Lopez, O L; Thompson, P M

    2014-07-25

    Physical activity influences inflammation, and both affect brain structure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that older adults with greater reported physical activity intensity and lower serum levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) would have larger regional brain volumes on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In 43 cognitively intact older adults (79.3±4.8 years) and 39 patients with AD (81.9±5.1 years at the time of MRI) participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study, we examined year-1 reported physical activity intensity, year-5 blood serum TNFα measures, and year-9 volumetric brain MRI scans. We examined how prior physical activity intensity and TNFα related to subsequent total and regional brain volumes. Physical activity intensity was measured using the modified Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activities questionnaire at year 1 of the study, when all subjects included here were cognitively intact. Stability of measures was established for exercise intensity over 9 years and TNFα over 3 years in a subset of subjects who had these measurements at multiple time points. When considered together, more intense physical activity intensity and lower serum TNFα were both associated with greater total brain volume on follow-up MRI scans. TNFα, but not physical activity, was associated with regional volumes of the inferior parietal lobule, a region previously associated with inflammation in AD patients. Physical activity and TNFα may independently influence brain structure in older adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi; Rollo, Rodolfo; Sansolios, Sanne; Matusik, Pawel; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2011-10-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specific aim is to assess preschool children's physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy and Poland. The parents' and children's physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire filled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole's BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ(2) test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14.6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p < 0.0001). The Polish families show the highest rate of walking from home to kindergarten and back, followed by the Italians and, lastly, the Danish ones (p < 0.001). Almost all the Danish and Polish children, but only the 50.1 % of the Italians play outside (p < 0.001). During the weekdays, 34.9 % of Polish children, 22.2 % of Italians and 19.8 % of the Danish play outside more than one hour a day (p < 0.0001). During the weekend, 91.1 % of Polish children, 86.7 % of Danish children, but only 54.4 % of Italians play outside more than one hour (p < 0.0001). 53.5 % of Danish children, 31.9 % of Polish children, and 18.2 % of Italian ones practice sport (p < 0.0001). Danish children are the most active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access to playgrounds/parks, etc.) can play an important role, in addition to cultural and social family characteristics, to the development of overweight.

  18. Effect of aging and physical activity on left ventricular compliance.

    PubMed

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Dijk, Erika; Prasad, Anand; Fu, Qi; Torres, Pilar; Zhang, Rong; Thomas, James D; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D

    2004-09-28

    Left ventricular compliance appears to decrease with aging, which may contribute to the high incidence of heart failure in the elderly. However, whether this change is an inevitable consequence of senescence or rather secondary to reduced physical activity is unknown. Twelve healthy sedentary seniors (69.8+/-3 years old; 6 women, 6 men) and 12 Masters athletes (67.8+/-3 years old; 6 women, 6 men) underwent pulmonary artery catheterization to define Starling and left ventricular pressure-volume curves. Data were compared with those obtained in 14 young but sedentary control subjects (28.9+/-5 years old; 7 women, 7 men). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressures and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes by use of echocardiography were measured at baseline, during decreased cardiac filling by use of lower-body negative pressure (-15 and -30 mm Hg), and after saline infusion (15 and 30 mL/kg). Stroke volume for any given filling pressure was greater in Masters athletes compared with the age-matched sedentary subjects, whereas contractility, as assessed by preload recruitable stroke work, was similar. There was substantially decreased left ventricular compliance in healthy but sedentary seniors compared with the young control subjects, which resulted in higher cardiac pressures for a given filling volume and higher myocardial wall stress for a given strain. The pressure-volume curve for the Masters athletes was indistinguishable from that of the young, sedentary control subjects. A sedentary lifestyle during healthy aging is associated with decreased left ventricular compliance, leading to diminished diastolic performance. Prolonged, sustained endurance training preserves ventricular compliance with aging and may help to prevent heart failure in the elderly.

  19. Can physical activity mitigate the effects of aging in middle-aged women?

    PubMed

    Owens, J F; Matthews, K A; Wing, R R; Kuller, L H

    1992-04-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of women dying from coronary heart disease as well as from all causes combined. Alterations in the major biological risk factors for early coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality are frequently seen in aging. The present investigation tested the hypothesis that high levels of physical activity could protect against age-associated changes in biological risk factor levels. In the Healthy Women Study, 507 women were evaluated at study entry and 3 years later. Weekly physical activity level was measured at each examination via the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. During the 3-year period, women increased significantly in weight, blood pressure, levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and decreased significantly in levels of total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C. Consistent with the study hypothesis, women who reported higher levels of activity at baseline had less weight gain over time. Furthermore, women who increased their activity during the 3-year interval had the smallest increases in weight and tended to have the smallest decreases in total HDL-C and HDL2-C. The changes in lipids due to activity were largely independent of changes in body weight.

  20. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  1. Effect of physical activity and age on plasma copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium concentration in physically active healthy males.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, Gurseen; Masih, Daisy; Vats, Annu; Verma, Saroj K; Singh, Vijay K; Rana, Rashmi Tomar; Kirar, Vandana; Singh, Som Nath

    The concentration of nutritionally important minerals in circulation is under tight homeostatic control, however, physical activity and aging influence their body stores and nutritional requirement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both physical activity and age on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium. Stratified cluster sampling was used for selection of study participants (N = 360) belonging to three physical activity groups: sedentary, moderately active, and highly active on the basis of their physical activity levels as 1.53, 1.8, and 2.3, respectively. They were also divided into six different age groups (18-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, and 41-45 y). We assessed nutritional status by determining their body composition using bioelectrical impedance method and measuring intake levels. Fasting blood samples were taken to separate plasma for analysis of copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron. There was a major difference (P < 0.001) in the mean value of plasma copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron for the three activity groups. The plasma copper and iron concentrations were higher in the moderately active group (copper: 1.59 ± 0.05 mg/L, iron: 0.79 ± 0.22 mg/L) whereas zinc concentration was higher in the sedentary group (2.37 ± 0.29 mg/L). Both the highly and moderately active groups had higher plasma magnesium levels compared with the sedentary group. Plasma copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron levels also were influenced by age in a different pattern with respect to physical activity. Physical activity-related energy expenditure and age play a remarkable role in deciphering the plasma mineral levels in the healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  3. Physical activity, sedentary time and physical capability in early old age: British birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew J M; Simmons, Rebecca K; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1 standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary.

  4. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary. PMID:25961736

  5. Positive Aging Expectations Are Associated With Physical Activity Among Urban-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ryan M; Tan, Erwin J; Varma, Vijay R; Rebok, George W; Romani, William A; Seeman, Teresa E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C

    2017-08-01

    Regular physical activity is a key component of healthy aging, but few older adults meet physical activity guidelines. Poor aging expectations can contribute to this lack of activity, since negative stereotypes about the aging process can be internalized and affect physical performance. Although prior cross-sectional studies have shown that physical activity and aging expectations are associated, less is known about this association longitudinally, particularly among traditionally underrepresented groups. It is also unclear whether different domains of aging expectations are differentially associated with physical activity. The number of minutes/week of physical activity in which Baltimore Experience Corps Trial participants (N = 446; 92.6% African American) engaged were measured using the CHAMPS questionnaire, while their aging expectations were measured using the ERA-12 survey. Linear mixed effects models assessed the association between physical activity and aging expectations over 2 years, both in full and sex-stratified samples. Separate models were also fit for different ERA-12 domains. We found that higher overall expectations regarding aging are associated with higher engagement in moderate- to high-intensity physical activity over a 2-year period of time for women only. When the ERA-12 domains were examined separately, only the physical domain was associated with physical activity, both in women and overall. Low expectations regarding physical aging may represent a barrier to physical activity for older adults. Given that most older adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines, identifying factors that improve aging expectations may be a way to increase physical activity levels in aging populations.

  6. Physical Activity Among Persons Aging with Mobility Disabilities: Shaping a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Hoffman, Jeanne M.; Belza, Basia

    2011-01-01

    With the aging of the baby boomer population and their accompanying burden of disease, future disability rates are expected to increase. This paper summarizes the state of the evidence regarding physical activity and aging for individuals with mobility disability and proposes a healthy aging research agenda for this population. Using a previously published framework, we present evidence in order to compile research recommendations in four areas focusing on older adults with mobility disability: (1) prevalence of physical activity, (2) health benefits of physical activity, (3) correlates of physical activity participation, and, (4) promising physical activity intervention strategies. Overall, findings show a dearth of research examining physical activity health benefits, correlates (demographic, psychological, social, and built environment), and interventions among persons aging with mobility disability. Further research is warranted. PMID:21748010

  7. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  8. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  9. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  10. Adiposity and Age Explain Most of the Association between Physical Activity and Fitness in Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sánchez, José A.; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Olmedillas, Hugo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquín; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine if there is an association between physical activity assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Methodology/Principal Findings One hundred and eighty-two young males (age range: 20–55 years) completed the short form of the IPAQ to assess physical activity. Body composition (dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry), muscular fitness (static and dynamic muscle force and power, vertical jump height, running speed [30 m sprint], anaerobic capacity [300 m running test]) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max: 20 m shuttle run test) were also determined in all subjects. Activity-related energy expenditure of moderate and vigorous intensity (EEPAmoderate and EEPAvigorous, respectively) was inversely associated with indices of adiposity (r = −0.21 to −0.37, P<0.05). Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was positively associated with LogEEPAmoderate (r = 0.26, P<0.05) and LogEEPAvigorous (r = 0.27). However, no association between VO2max with LogEEPAmoderate, LogEPPAvigorous and LogEEPAtotal was observed after adjusting for the percentage of body fat. Multiple stepwise regression analysis to predict VO2max from LogEEPAwalking, LogEEPAmoderate, LogEEPAvigorous, LogEEPAtotal, age and percentage of body fat (%fat) showed that the %fat alone explained 62% of the variance in VO2max and that the age added another 10%, while the other variables did not add predictive value to the model [VO2max  = 129.6−(25.1× Log %fat) − (34.0× Log age); SEE: 4.3 ml.kg−1. min−1; R2 = 0.72 (P<0.05)]. No positive association between muscular fitness-related variables and physical activity was observed, even after adjusting for body fat or body fat and age. Conclusions/Significance Adiposity and age are the strongest predictors of VO2max in healthy men. The energy expended in moderate and vigorous physical activities is inversely associated with

  11. Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca; Gallagher, Catherine L; Dowling, N M; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Rowley, Howard A; Christian, Brad T; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2014-11-04

    To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults. Three hundred seventeen enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent T1 MRI; a subset also underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 186) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (n = 152) imaging. Participants' responses on a self-report measure of current physical activity were used to classify them as either physically active or physically inactive based on American Heart Association guidelines. They also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the adverse effect of age on imaging and cognitive biomarkers was modified by physical activity. There were significant age × physical activity interactions for β-amyloid burden (p = 0.014), glucose metabolism (p = 0.015), and hippocampal volume (p = 0.025) such that, with advancing age, physically active individuals exhibited a lesser degree of biomarker alterations compared with the physically inactive. Similar age × physical activity interactions were also observed on cognitive domains of Immediate Memory (p = 0.042) and Visuospatial Ability (p = 0.016). In addition, the physically active group had higher scores on Speed and Flexibility (p = 0.002) compared with the inactive group. In a middle-aged, at-risk cohort, a physically active lifestyle is associated with an attenuation of the deleterious influence of age on key biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. However, because our observational, cross-sectional design cannot establish causality, randomized controlled trials/longitudinal studies will be necessary for determining whether midlife participation in structured physical exercise forestalls the development of AD and related disorders in later life. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. The Role of Age in Moderating the Association Between Disability and Light-Intensity Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Prizer, Lindsay P; Gay, Jennifer L; Gerst-Emerson, Kerstin; Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There's a lack of evidence on the association between light-intensity physical activity and disability. This study examines the relationships in activity by self-reported physical function in five domains (i.e., activities of daily living [ADL], instrumental ADL, leisure activities, lower extremity, and general activities), and whether this association varies by age. Cross-sectional. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 waves. Participants included 5700 men and women ages 20 to 85 years. Difficulty with various activities was measured with the Physical Functioning Questionnaire, accelerometer-measured physical activity, demographics, and self-rated health. Ordinary least squares regression models were run to examine the relationship between physical function in each domain, light-intensity activity, and the moderating effect of age. Analyses controlled for body mass index, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity, self-reported health, accelerometer wear time, and gender. Little variation was seen in light-intensity physical activity among younger adults regardless of disability status. Older adults reporting difficulty with activities engaged in significantly less light-intensity physical activity compared to those with no disability (271.8 vs. 316.5 minutes). Age significantly moderated the association between light-intensity physical activity and leisure activities (p = .048), and lower extremity mobility (p = .039). Age did not moderate other domains of disability. Younger age may be protective regarding the influence of disability on light-intensity activity. In addition, disability may be more debilitating for some older individuals. Interventions to increase light-intensity activity should aim to address disability at all ages, with increased attention for older adults.

  13. Sex-role stereotyping for selected sport and physical activities across age groups.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Karen S; Dornier, Lanie A; Owens, Mary S

    2002-06-01

    This investigation was designed to assess sex-role stereotyping across age groups. Participants (N=668) were girls and boys, students from Grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 at local public schools. All participants completed the Sport and Physical Activities Questionnaire on which were displayed pictures of 31 sport and physical activities. Participants were instructed to designate each activity as a boys' activity, a girls' activity, or a boys' and girls' activity. Chi-square analysis showed age-related differences in distribution of stereotyping of the activities. Over age groups there were more discrepancies between boys' and girls' ratings of activities as sex-specific. These findings suggest that sex-role stereotyping of sports and physical activities becomes more predominant across age groups.

  14. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  15. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (<150 min/week) group. Multiple linear regression models were performed with physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the

  16. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  17. Intergenerational Activities for Teaching About Aging and the Aged in Health, Physical Education and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, Linda; And Others

    It is proposed that the most effective technique for teaching about aging and the aged at the secondary level is through the use of intergenerational activities, providing opportunities for the interaction of young and old. Including older adults in various class activities is suggested. Using these individuals as guest instructors and aides in…

  18. Age differences in the association of physical activity, sociocognitive engagement, and TV viewing on face memory.

    PubMed

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Vandermorris, Susan; Wu, Johnny; McIntosh, Anthony R; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    Physical and sociocognitive lifestyle activities promote aspects of cognitive function in older adults. Very little is known about the relation between these lifestyle activities and cognitive function in young adults. One aspect of cognitive function that is critical for everyday function is episodic memory. The present study examined the relationship between lifestyle activities and episodic memory in younger and older adults. Participants were 62 younger (mean age = 24 years) and older adults (mean age = 74 years). The augmented Victoria Longitudinal Study Activities Questionnaire was used to quantify level of engagement in physical activity, sociocognitive activity, and TV viewing. Episodic memory was assessed using the old-new face recognition paradigm in which memory for younger and older faces was tested. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported being less physically and sociocognitively active while engaging in more passive behaviors such as TV viewing. A positive association was observed between physical activity and episodic memory for young adults but not for older adults. Interestingly, TV viewing was negatively associated with episodic memory in older adults but not younger adults. No relationship was found between sociocognitive activity and episodic memory for either younger or older adults. Although the own-age effect was observed for older adults, face age did not interact with lifestyle activities. The positive cognitive benefits of physical activity extend to younger adults; however, the interplay between physical activity and cognition may differ across the life span. Furthermore, TV viewing may be particularly detrimental to cognitive performance later in life.

  19. Using electronic diaries to examine physical activity and other health behaviors of adults age 50+.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Audie A; Oliveira, Brian; Fogg, B J; King, Abby C

    2006-04-01

    This pilot investigation used portable electronic diaries to assess the physical activity and other health behaviors of 20 adults age 50+ (mean age = 61 years). Study aims were to examine whether computerized cognitive-behavioral strategies could increase adherence to the assessments, the acceptability of electronic diaries to assess everyday health, and the relationship between computerized physical activity assessments with a standardized physical activity measure. Although approximately two thirds of participants had never used an electronic diary, results indicated that a large majority (83%) reported enjoying the use of the electronic diaries, and most (72%) reported enjoying answering all of the health questions. The cognitive-behavioral strategies employed did not enhance assessment adherence, but electronic-diary-based activity levels corresponded more strongly with the poststudy standardized activity measure than the baseline standardized measure, providing evidence of temporal convergence. Findings suggest that the use of portable electronic technology in physical activity assessment of middle-aged and older adults deserves further study.

  20. Effect of diagnosis with a chronic disease on physical activity behavior in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Dontje, Manon L; Krijnen, Wim P; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Peeters, Geeske G M E E; Stolk, Ronald P; van der Schans, Cees P; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    Although regular physical activity is an effective secondary prevention strategy for patients with a chronic disease, it is unclear whether patients change their daily physical activity after being diagnosed. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) describe changes in levels of physical activity in middle-aged women before and after diagnosis with a chronic disease (heart disease, diabetes, asthma, breast cancer, arthritis, depression); and to (2) examine whether diagnosis with a chronic disease affects levels of physical activity in these women. Data from 5 surveys (1998-2010) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were used. Participants (N=4840, born 1946-1951) completed surveys every three years, with questions about diseases and leisure time physical activity. The main outcome measure was physical activity, categorized as: nil/sedentary, low active, moderately active, highly active. At each survey approximately half the middle-aged women did not meet the recommended level of physical activity. Between consecutive surveys, 41%-46% of the women did not change, 24%-30% decreased, and 24%-31% increased their physical activity level. These proportions of change were similar directly after diagnosis with a chronic disease, and in the years before or after diagnosis. Generalized estimating equations showed that there was no statistically significant effect of diagnosis with a chronic disease on levels of physical activity in women. Despite the importance of physical activity for the management of chronic diseases, most women did not increase their physical activity after diagnosis. This illustrates a need for tailored interventions to enhance physical activity in newly diagnosed patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal and bidirectional associations between physical activity and sleep in primary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Grace E; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R; Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-03-01

    The directionality of the relationship between children's physical activity and sleep is unclear. This study examined the temporal and bidirectional associations between objectively measured physical activity, energy expenditure, and sleep in primary school-aged children. A subgroup of children (n = 65, aged 8-11 years) from the Fitness, Activity and Skills Testing Study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, had their sleep and physical activity assessed using the SenseWear Pro Armband for 8 consecutive days. Outcome measures included time spent in light-intensity physical activiy (LPA), moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), activity energy expenditure (AEE), time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Multilevel analyses were conducted using generalized linear latent mixed models to determine whether physical activity on 1 day was associated with sleep outcomes that night, and whether sleep during 1 night was associated with physical activity the following day. No significant associations were observed between time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency with LPA, MVPA, and AEE in either direction. This study found no temporal or bidirectional associations between objectively measured physical activity, AEE, and sleep. Future research is needed to understand other sleep dimensions that may impact on or be influenced by physical activity to provide potential intervention targets to improve these outcomes.

  2. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Maureen; Husson, Heather; DeCorby, Kara; LaRocca, Rebecca L

    2013-02-28

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.9 million deaths worldwide are attributable to physical inactivity and at least 2.6 million deaths are a result of being overweight or obese. In addition, WHO estimates that physical inactivity causes 10% to 16% of cases each of breast cancer, colon, and rectal cancers as well as type 2 diabetes, and 22% of coronary heart disease and the burden of these and other chronic diseases has rapidly increased in recent decades. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence of the effectiveness of school-based interventions in promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. The search strategy included searching several databases to October 2011. In addition, reference lists of included articles and background papers were reviewed for potentially relevant studies, as well as references from relevant Cochrane reviews. Primary authors of included studies were contacted as needed for additional information. To be included, the intervention had to be relevant to public health practice (focused on health promotion activities), not conducted by physicians, implemented, facilitated, or promoted by staff in local public health units, implemented in a school setting and aimed at increasing physical activity, included all school-attending children, and be implemented for a minimum of 12 weeks. In addition, the review was limited to randomized controlled trials and those that reported on outcomes for children and adolescents (aged 6 to 18 years). Primary outcomes included: rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the school day, time engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity during the school day, and time spent watching television. Secondary outcomes related to physical health status measures including: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and pulse rate. Standardized tools were used by two

  3. The orexin neuropeptide system: physical activity and hypothalamic function throughout the aging process

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Anastasia N.; Perez-Leighton, Claudio Esteban; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising medical need for novel therapeutic targets of physical activity. Physical activity spans from spontaneous, low intensity movements to voluntary, high-intensity exercise. Regulation of spontaneous and voluntary movement is distributed over many brain areas and neural substrates, but the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for mediating overall activity levels are not well understood. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of physical activity, which is executed through coordination of multiple signaling systems, including the orexin neuropeptides. Orexin producing neurons integrate physiological and metabolic information to coordinate multiple behavioral states and modulate physical activity in response to the environment. This review is organized around three questions: (1) How do orexin peptides modulate physical activity? (2) What are the effects of aging and lifestyle choices on physical activity? (3) What are the effects of aging on hypothalamic function and the orexin peptides? Discussion of these questions will provide a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding hypothalamic orexin regulation of physical activity during aging and provide a platform on which to develop improved clinical outcomes in age-associated obesity and metabolic syndromes. PMID:25408639

  4. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-06-01

    Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is measured with accelerometers, was conducted in healthy subjects under daily living conditions over intervals of one or more weeks. Activity energy expenditure as a fraction of daily energy expenditure is highest in adults at the reproductive age. Then, activity energy expenditure is a function of fat-free mass. Excess body mass as fat does not affect daily activity energy expenditure, but body movement decreases with increasing fatness. Overweight and obesity possibly affect daily physical activity energy expenditure through endurance. Physical activity is affected by energy availability; a negative energy balance induces a reduction of activity expenditure. Optimal performance and health require prevention of excess body fat and maintenance of energy balance, where energy balance determines physical activity rather than physical activity affecting energy balance.

  5. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  6. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  7. Physical Activity in School-Aged Children with Asthma in an Urban City of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ka-Mei; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Wang, Li-Chieh; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Gau, Bih-Shya; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that physical activity is limited in children with asthma. The aims of this study were to compare and quantify the physical activity levels between asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Factors associated with limitation of physical activity in asthmatic children were also investigated. A total of 120 asthmatic children and 262 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Clinical phenotype including severity and lung function were obtained from medical records. A questionnaire addressing physical activity, asthma diagnosis, symptoms, parental health beliefs, physician's advice and, community resources was accomplished by children and their parents. The physical activity levels of children with and without asthma were compared. Factors that might limit the activity level were analyzed. Children with asthma were less active than their peers. The significant difference was between normal controls and moderate-to-severe asthmatic children, but not children with mild asthma. Among children with asthma, physical activity was associated with the severity level but not parental health beliefs, physician's advice, or the convenience for physical activity. Children with moderate or severe persistent asthma were more likely to be inactive. Children with asthma had a lower level of physical activity, particularly those with moderate-to-severe asthma. To achieve an appropriate level of physical activity, improvement of asthma management and control is considered important. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  9. Can practice of Dancesport as physical activity be associated with the concept of "successful aging"?

    PubMed

    Marini, M; Monaci, M; Manetti, M; Piazza, M; Paternostro, F; Sgambati, E

    2015-10-01

    Regular and structured physical activity is known to be effective in preventing and/or reducing the physical and mental decline associated with aging. Indeed, such usefulness of physical activity has been associated with the concept of "successful aging". The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible physical and cognitive effects deriving from the practice of Dancesport in comparison with the participation in adapted physical activity (APA) programs and sedentarity. A total of 150 healthy older adults were enrolled, consisting of three groups: 1) Dancesport (non-competitive Latin American and Standard dancers); 2) APA (subjects practicing a multicomponent training program adapted to elderly); 3) control (sedentary subjects). All participants were assessed with cognitive computerized tests and underwent motor tests (Tinetti Test [TT] and Sit and Reach [SR] Test), and filled out a questionnaire to evaluate leisure cognitive activities and Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire to assess quality of life. Subjects practicing Dancesport and APA performed significantly better in all proposed tests than sedentary subjects. In particular, dancers reported better scores in both cognitive and motor tests as well as in SF-12 compared to APA. Given its peculiar characteristics, Dancesport represents a feasible, attractive and alternative physical activity to preserve cognitive and physical functions during aging. Increased self-esteem, social contact and psychophysical wellness significantly ameliorate the quality of life during aging.

  10. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  11. Beliefs about age-related changes in physical functioning across the adult life span and their relationship with physical activity levels of older adults.

    PubMed

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Kugler, Jennifer; Rabellino, Alessandra; Stephan, Yannick

    2017-07-28

    Physical activity declines across the adult life span despite the well-established links between physical activity and health-related, psychological, cognitive, and social benefits. We contrasted the beliefs young and older adults hold about how aging affects both physical abilities and physical activity and determined whether older adults' beliefs about physical aging relate to their engagement in physical activity. Using visual rating scales, 56 young and 49 community-dwelling older adults indicated the extent to which a typical woman or typical man aged 20-90 possesses six different physical abilities and engages in three different types of physical activity. Stereotypes of physical aging were ability- and activity-specific, and older adults endorsed more positive views than their younger peers. Stereotypical beliefs predicted older adults' engagement in moderate-intensity activity. This study offers intriguing avenues for future research and suggests that better understanding physical aging stereotypes may contribute toward designing interventions that promote lifelong physical activity.

  12. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  13. Running for REST: Physical activity attenuates neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Karine Mathilde Campestrini; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Silva, Rodrigo Augusto; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Latini, Alexandra; Aguiar, Aderbal Silva

    2017-03-01

    Exercise improves mental health and synaptic function in the aged brain. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in exercise-induced healthy brain aging are not well understood. Evidence supports the role of neurogenesis and neurotrophins in exercise-induced neuroplasticity. The gene silencing transcription factor neuronal RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and an anti-inflammatory role of exercise are also candidate mechanisms. We evaluate the effect of 8weeks of physical activity on running wheels (RW) on motor and depressive-like behavior and hippocampal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), REST, and interleukins IL-1β and IL-10 of adult and aged C57BL/6 mice. The aged animals exhibited impaired motor function and a depressive-like behavior: decreased mobility in the RW and open field and severe immobility in the tail suspension test. The gene expression of REST, IL-1β, and IL-10 was increased in the hippocampus of aged mice. Physical activity was anxiolytic and antidepressant and improved motor behavior in aged animals. Physical activity also boosted BDNF and REST expression and decreased IL-1β and IL-10 expression in the hippocampus of aged animals. These results support the beneficial role of REST in the aged brain, which can be further enhanced by regular physical activity.

  14. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  15. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  16. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  17. The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another.

  18. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  19. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (p<.05). The results of the three-way hierarchical regression revealed that body image was a statistically significant positive predictor of MVPA for adolescents, regardless of BMI. Additionally, body image was a stronger predictor of MVPA in boys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity.

  20. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  1. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in women aged 20-54 years.

    PubMed

    Verloop, J; Rookus, M A; van der Kooy, K; van Leeuwen, F E

    2000-01-19

    Although several studies have suggested that physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, such a decrease has not been found consistently, perhaps because physical activity was assessed in different ways and for restricted periods. Few studies have assessed the risk of breast cancer in relation to lifetime physical activity. We used data from a population-based, case-control study, including 918 case subjects (aged 20-54 years) and 918 age-matched population control subjects, to examine associations between breast cancer risk and physical activity at ages 10-12 years and 13-15 years, lifetime recreational activity, and title of longest held job. Women who were more active than their peers at ages 10-12 years had a lower risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49-0.94). Women who had ever engaged in recreational physical activity had a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with inactive women (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Neither very early recreational activity (before age 20 years) nor recent activity (last 5 years) was associated with a greater reduction in risk than recreational activity in the intermediate period. Furthermore, women who started recreational activities after age 20 years and women who started earlier and continued their activities throughout adult life experienced a similar reduction in risk. Lean women, i.e., women with a body mass index (weight in kg/[height in m](2)) less than 21. 8 kg/m(2), appeared to have a lower risk associated with recreational physical activity than women with a body mass index greater than 24.5 kg/m(2) (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.40-0.82] and OR = 0. 92 [95% CI = 0.65-1.29], respectively). Our findings support the hypothesis that recreational physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. Physical activity in early or recent life does not appear to be associated with additional beneficial effects.

  2. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Cook, E Francis; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R(2) = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  3. Biological age versus physical fitness age.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Moritani, T; Kanetaka, A

    1989-01-01

    A population of healthy middle-aged (n = 69) and elderly men (n = 12), who participated in a health promotion program, was studied to determine whether really physically fit individuals are in good biological condition, and also whether improvement of physical fitness in the middle-aged and the elderly reduces their "rate of aging". Biological and physical fitness ages of the individuals studied were estimated from the data for 18 physiological function tests and 5 physical fitness tests, respectively, by a principal component model. The correlation coefficient between the estimated biological and physical fitness ages was 0.72 (p less than 0.01). Detailed analyses of the relationship between the estimated biological and physical fitness ages revealed that those who manifested a higher ("older") physical fitness age did not necessarily have a higher biological age, but those who manifested a lower ("younger") physical fitness age were also found to have a lower biological age. These results suggested that there were considerable individual variations in the relationship between biological condition and physical fitness among individuals with an old physical fitness age, but those who were in a state of high physical fitness maintained a relatively good biological condition. The data regarding the elderly men who had maintained a regular exercise program indicated that their estimated biological ages were considerably younger than the expected values. This might suggest that in older individuals regular physical activity may provide physiological improvements which in turn might reduce "the rate of aging".

  4. Energy Cost Expression for a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Rationale for Using Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, K A; Watson, K B; McMurray, R G; Bassett, D R; Butte, N F; Crouter, S E; Herrmann, S D; Trost, S G; Ainsworth, B E; Fulton, J E; Berrigan, D

    2017-08-08

    This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using two methods of accounting for age dependency versus one standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from five studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n=929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as METy) associated with using age-groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) and age-in-years (each year of chronological age (e.g., 12=12.0-12.99 years)) versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age-groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled and moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other two methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2-1.7 METy across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2-21.7% for age-groups and -0.23-18.2% for age-in-years, compared to the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.

  5. Aging, retirement, and changes in physical activity: prospective cohort findings from the GLOBE study.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Annabelle S; van Lenthe, Frank J; Jukema, J Wouter; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Looman, Caspar; Giskes, Katrina; Huisman, Martijn; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mackenbach, Johan P; Brug, Johannes

    2007-06-15

    There is increased recognition that determinants of health should be investigated in a life-course perspective. Retirement is a major transition in the life course and offers opportunities for changes in physical activity that may improve health in the aging population. The authors examined the effect of retirement on changes in physical activity in the GLOBE Study, a prospective cohort study known by the Dutch acronym for "Health and Living Conditions of the Population of Eindhoven and surroundings," 1991-2004. They followed respondents (n = 971) by postal questionnaire who were employed and aged 40-65 years in 1991 for 13 years, after which they were still employed (n = 287) or had retired (n = 684). Physical activity included 1) work-related transportation, 2) sports participation, and 3) nonsports leisure-time physical activity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that retirement was associated with a significantly higher odds for a decline in physical activity from work-related transportation (odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.97, 4.65), adjusted for sex, age, marital status, chronic diseases, and education, compared with remaining employed. Retirement was not associated with an increase in sports participation (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.75) or nonsports leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.19). In conclusion, retirement introduces a reduction in physical activity from work-related transportation that is not compensated for by an increase in sports participation or an increase in nonsports leisure-time physical activity.

  6. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  7. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  8. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Kalasky, Martha J; Proctor, David N

    2010-09-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences-or perhaps even as an underlying cause-the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription.

  9. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Kalasky, Martha J.; Proctor, David N.

    2010-01-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences—or perhaps even as an underlying cause—the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription. PMID:20480371

  10. Does a physically active lifestyle attenuate decline in all cognitive functions in old age?

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Reales, Jose Manuel

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the performance of a group of 20 physically active older adults was compared with that of a group of 20 sedentary healthy older adults while performing a series of cognitive tasks. These tasks were designed to assess processes that deteriorate most with age, namely executive control (assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) and processing speed (simple and choice reaction time tasks). A repetition priming task that does not decline with age, involving attended and unattended picture outlines at encoding, was also included as a control task. The results show that a physically active lifestyle has a positive influence on executive control, processing speed, and controlled processing. As expected, a physically active lifestyle did not enhance repetition priming for attended stimuli, nor did it produce priming for unattended stimuli at encoding. Both groups exhibited robust priming for attended stimuli and no priming for unattended ones. Executive control functions are of vital importance for independent living in old age. These results have practical implications for enhancing the cognitive processes that decline most in old age. Promoting a physically active lifestyle throughout adulthood could significantly reduce the decline of effortful executive control functions in old age.

  11. Both age and physical activity level impact on eye-hand coordination.

    PubMed

    Van Halewyck, Florian; Lavrysen, Ann; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Elliott, Digby; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-08-01

    Aging impacts on our ability to perform goal-directed aiming movements. Older adults generally make slower and shorter initial impulses towards the end target, and therefore require more time for corrections in the final movement stage. Recent studies however suggest that a physically active lifestyle may attenuate these age-related changes. Also, it remains unclear whether eye-movement control exhibits a similar pattern of adaptation in older adults. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to describe how age and physical activity level impact eye-hand coordination during discrete manual aiming. Young and older participants were divided into physically active and sedentary subgroups, and performed discrete aiming movements while hand and eye movements were recorded. Secondly, to determine whether older adults depend more on vision during aiming, the task was repeated without visual feedback. The results revealed that the typical age-related hand movement adaptations were not only observed in older, but also in sedentary young participants. Older and sedentary young participants also spent more hand movement time after the eyes fixated the end target. This finding does not necessarily reflect an augmented reliance on vision, as all groups showed similar aiming errors when visual feedback was removed. In conclusion, both age and physical activity level clearly impacted eye-hand coordination during discrete manual aiming. This adapted coordination pattern seems to be caused by other factors than an increased reliance on vision.

  12. Physical activity and body mass index: the contribution of age and workplace characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Candace C; Wagner, Gregory R; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Buxton, Orfeu M; Kenwood, Christopher T; Sabbath, Erika L; Hashimoto, Dean M; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-03-01

    The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging, and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility, and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  14. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17–19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents. PMID:27973615

  15. The effects of knee direction, physical activity and age on knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Relph, Nicola; Herrington, Lee

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has suggested a decline in knee proprioception with age. Furthermore, regular participation in physical activity may improve proprioceptive ability. However, there is no large scale data on uninjured populations to confirm these theories. The aim of this study was to provide normative knee joint position data (JPS) from healthy participants aged 18-82years to evaluate the effects of age, physical activity and knee direction. A sample of 116 participants across five age groups was used. The main outcome measures were knee JPS absolute error scores into flexion and extension, Tegner activity levels and General Practitioner Physical Activity Questionnaire results. Absolute error scores in to knee flexion were 3.6°, 3.9°, 3.5°, 3.7° and 3.1° and knee extension were 2.7°, 2.5°, 2.9°, 3.4° and 3.9° for ages 15-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-74 and 75 years old respectively. Knee extension and flexion absolute error scores were significantly different when age group data were pooled. There was a significant effect of age and activity level on joint position sense into knee extension. Age and lower Tegner scores were also negatively correlated to joint position sense into knee extension. The results provide some evidence for a decline in knee joint position sense with age. Further, active populations may have heightened static proprioception compared to inactive groups. Normative knee joint position sense data is provided and may be used by practitioners to identify patients with reduced proprioceptive ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heart rate variability and intensity of habitual physical activity in middle-aged persons.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Simon, Chantal; Charloux, Anne; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Piquard, François; Brandenberger, Gabrielle

    2005-09-01

    In the middle-aged, it has been shown that moderate physical activity is associated with increased global HR variability (HRV) and vagal-related HRV indexes. However, the relative effect of quantity and intensity of physical activity on HRV is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare HRV indexes in three groups of subjects presenting different long-term physical activity profiles: sedentary subjects (SED) with low-energy expenditure (PAEE) and two groups of subjects with equivalent moderate PAEE, but differing in terms of intensity of physical activity (active (ACT) and sportive (SP) individuals). Forty-three middle-aged subjects (61.2 +/- 4.3 yr) were divided into the three groups on the basis of a physical activity questionnaire (Modified Baecke Questionnaire for Older Adults). Physical activity was evaluated by accelerometry for 1 wk. Time and frequency domain HRV indexes were determined during quiet periods in the morning on 5-min stationary R-R interval segments under controlled breathing. Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire. SP spent more time in moderate to very high activities than ACT (2.1 +/- 0.1 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 h.wk(-1); P < 0.05) and less time in very light to light activities (62.8 +/- 2.0 vs 73.7 +/- 1.7 h.wk(-1); P < 0.05). SP presented higher vagal-related HRV indexes than SED (P < 0.05), whereas increases in ACT were less marked. ACT and SP had similar health status scores, which were higher than for SED (P < 0.05). In older adults with different lifestyles, habitual moderate PAEE is associated with better self-estimated overall health status and higher vagal-related HRV indexes compared with subjects with low PAEE, especially when moderate- to very high-intensity physical activities are undertaken.

  17. Psychological distress, television viewing, and physical activity in children aged 4 to 12 years.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mishra, Gita

    2009-05-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological distress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Participants were 1486 boys and girls (mean age: 8.5 +/- 2.3 years). Parents answered on behalf of children who were required to be present. The parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and information on television and screen entertainment time, physical activity, and dietary intake of their children. An abnormally high Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score (20-40) was found in 4.2% of the sample. Approximately 25% of the children were exposed to television and screen entertainment at least 3 hours/day. In general linear models, television and screen entertainment time per week and physical activity levels were independently associated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score after adjustment for age, gender, area deprivation level, single-parent status, medical conditions, and various dietary intake indicators. There was also an additive interaction effect showing that the combination of high television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity was associated with the highest Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score. Higher television and screen entertainment exposure (>2.7 hours/day) alone resulted in a 24% increase in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score in comparison with lower television and screen entertainment exposure (<1.6 hours/day), although when combined with low physical activity this resulted in a 46% increase. Higher levels of television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase

  18. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  19. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  20. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  1. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  2. Age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function is not attenuated with increased physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Njemanze, Hugo; Warren, Charlotte; Eggett, Christopher; MacGowan, Guy A.; Bates, Matthew G D; Siervo, Mario; Ivkovic, Srdjan; Trenell, Michael I.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.

    2016-01-01

    Age and physical inactivity are important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate response to exercise (HRRE) and heart rate recovery (HRR), measures of cardiac autonomic function, are strong predictors of mortality. The present study defined the effect of age and physical activity on HRRE and HRR. Healthy women (N=72) grouped according to age (young, 20-30 years; middle, 40-50 years; and older, 65-81 years) and daily physical activity (low active <7500, high active >12,500 steps/day) performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HRRE was defined as an increase in heart rate from rest to 1, 3 and 5 minutes of exercise and at 1/3 of total exercise time, and HRR as the difference in heart rate between peak exercise and 1, 2, and 3 minutes later. Age was associated with a significant decline in HRRE at 1 min and 1/3 of exercise time (r= − 0.27, p=0.04, and r=−0.39, p=0.02) and HRR at 2 min and 3 min (r=−0.35, p=0.01, and r=−0.31, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in HRRE and HRR between high and low-active middle-age and older women (p>0.05). Increased level of habitual physical activity level appears to have a limited effect on age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function in women. PMID:27705949

  3. Physical activity ameliorates cartilage degeneration in a rat model of aging: a study on lubricin expression.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, G; Castrogiovanni, P; Trovato, F M; Imbesi, R; Giunta, S; Szychlinska, M A; Loreto, C; Castorina, S; Mobasheri, A

    2015-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by slow progression and joint tissue degeneration. Aging is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development and progression of OA. OA is not, however, an inevitable consequence of aging and age-related changes in the joint can be distinguished from those that are the result of joint injury or inflammatory disease. The question that remains is whether OA can be prevented by undertaking regular physical activity. Would moderate physical activity in the elderly cartilage (and lubricin expression) comparable to a sedentary healthy adult? In this study we used physical exercise in healthy young, adult, and aged rats to evaluate the expression of lubricin as a novel biomarker of chondrocyte senescence. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to evaluate the expression of lubricin in articular cartilage, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify lubricin in synovial fluid. Morphological evaluation was done by histology to monitor possible tissue alterations. Our data suggest that moderate physical activity and normal mechanical joint loading in elderly rats improve tribology and lubricative properties of articular cartilage, promoting lubricin synthesis and its elevation in synovial fluid, thus preventing cartilage degradation compared with unexercised adult rats.

  4. Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study.

    PubMed

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Bucht, G; Björnstig, U; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Pettersson, U

    2011-02-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women. In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture. The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05-0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08-0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05-0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women. An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  5. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age. Cortical and subcortical grey matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting chronological age (CA)(R2 = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed were the only two significant predictors of decreased brain age. Effect sizes demonstrated that brain age decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for one additional daily FOSC. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by chronological age which supports the utility of regional grey matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. PMID:26973113

  6. Is physical activity able to modify oxidative damage in cardiovascular aging?

    PubMed

    Corbi, Graziamaria; Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Rengo, Giuseppe; Vitulli, Piergiusto; Ciccarelli, Anna Linda; Filippelli, Amelia; Ferrara, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process resulting in damage of molecules, cells, and tissues. It has been demonstrated that the expression and activity of antioxidant systems (SOD, HSPs) are modified in aging, with reduced cell ability to counteract the oxidant molecules, and consequent weak resistance to ROS accumulation. An important mechanism involved is represented by sirtuins, the activity of which is reduced by aging. Physical activity increases the expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with consequent reduction of ROS. Positive effects of physical exercise in terms of antioxidant activity could be ascribable to a greater expression and activity of SOD enzymes, HSPs and SIRT1 activity. The antioxidant effects could increase, decrease, or not change in relation to the exercise protocol. Therefore, some authors by using a new approach based on the in vivo/vitro technique demonstrated that the highest survival and proliferation and the lowest senescence were obtained by performing an aerobic training. Therefore, the in vivo/vitro technique described could represent a good tool to better understand how the exercise training mediates its effects on aging-related diseases, as elderly with heart failure that represents a special population in which the exercise plays an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular function, quality of life, and survival.

  7. Physical activity and telomere length: Impact of aging and potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Arsenis, Nicole C; You, Tongjian; Ogawa, Elisa F; Tinsley, Grant M; Zuo, Li

    2017-03-30

    Telomeres protect the integrity of information-carrying DNA by serving as caps on the terminal portions of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with aging, and this contributes to cell senescence. Recent evidence supports that telomere length of leukocytes and skeletal muscle cells may be positively associated with healthy living and inversely correlated with the risk of several age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic pain, and stress. In observational studies, higher levels of physical activity or exercise are related to longer telomere lengths in various populations, and athletes tend to have longer telomere lengths than non-athletes. This relationship is particularly evident in older individuals, suggesting a role of physical activity in combating the typical age-induced decrements in telomere length. To date, a small number of exercise interventions have been executed to examine the potential influence of chronic exercise on telomere length, but these studies have not fully established such relationship. Several potential mechanisms through which physical activity or exercise could affect telomere length are discussed, including changes in telomerase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and decreased skeletal muscle satellite cell content. Future research is needed to mechanistically examine the effects of various modalities of exercise on telomere length in middle-aged and older adults, as well as in specific clinical populations.

  8. Physical activity and telomere length: Impact of aging and potential mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Arsenis, Nicole C.; You, Tongjian; Ogawa, Elisa F.; Tinsley, Grant M.; Zuo, Li

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres protect the integrity of information-carrying DNA by serving as caps on the terminal portions of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with aging, and this contributes to cell senescence. Recent evidence supports that telomere length of leukocytes and skeletal muscle cells may be positively associated with healthy living and inversely correlated with the risk of several age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic pain, and stress. In observational studies, higher levels of physical activity or exercise are related to longer telomere lengths in various populations, and athletes tend to have longer telomere lengths than non-athletes. This relationship is particularly evident in older individuals, suggesting a role of physical activity in combating the typical age-induced decrements in telomere length. To date, a small number of exercise interventions have been executed to examine the potential influence of chronic exercise on telomere length, but these studies have not fully established such relationship. Several potential mechanisms through which physical activity or exercise could affect telomere length are discussed, including changes in telomerase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and decreased skeletal muscle satellite cell content. Future research is needed to mechanistically examine the effects of various modalities of exercise on telomere length in middle-aged and older adults, as well as in specific clinical populations. PMID:28410238

  9. The role of physical activity in changes in walking mechanics with age.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Katherine A; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Beaupre, Gary S

    2012-05-01

    While age-related declines in walking mechanics have been documented, it remains unclear if changes in walking mechanics with age occur as a natural consequence of aging and to what extent these changes are related to a reduction in fitness and physical activity with aging. The study aim was to determine if the walking mechanics of an older (>50) yet highly active population are different from a younger population (<40). Gait mechanics data for 79 middle-aged (50-64 yrs) and 54 older (65-80 yrs) individuals with ≥ 7500 steps/day, based on a 7 day activity monitoring history, and 33 younger adults (ages 18-40) were collected. The older subjects did not reduce self-selected walking speed relative to the younger subjects. However, the walking speed was maintained by increasing cadence while reducing stride-length for middle-aged and older subjects. Middle-aged and older adults had less ankle dorsi-flexion landing at heel-strike and older adults also had less plantar flexion at toe-off. Small decreases in the ankle dorsi-flexion moments (p=0.019, p=0.008) and increases in the hip extension moments (p=0.004, p=0.005) were found for two normalized walking speeds for the middle-aged and older adults compared to the young adults. These results provide quantitative evidence that increased activity with aging can mitigate declines in walking performance and mechanics with age. The high volume of walking activity in the older subjects did not fully prevent changes in gait mechanics, but may have minimized the magnitude of age-related changes on ambulatory function relative to other reports of older inactive subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Age and physical activity status effects on appetite and mood state in older humans.

    PubMed

    Apolzan, John W; Flynn, Michael G; McFarlin, Brian K; Campbell, Wayne W

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the influences of age and chronic physical activity status on appetite and mood state. Groups of younger inactive, younger active, older inactive, and older active men and women completed questionnaires each waking hour, rating appetite and mood state for 1 day. Maximal oxygen consumption was 20% lower in older than in younger (p < 0.001) subjects, and 32% lower in inactive than in active (p < 0.001) subjects. Mean hunger (older, 4 +/- 1; younger, 5 +/- 1 arbitrary units (AU); p < 0.01) and desire to eat (older, 3 +/- 1; younger, 4 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.01) were lower in older than in younger subjects. Nadir arousal was higher for the active subjects (active, 3 +/- 1; inactive, 2 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.05). Nadir arousal, nadir pleasantness, and mean pleasantness were higher for the older subjects (p < 0.05). Physical activity status does not influence appetite or the age-associated declines in hunger or desire to eat. The increased nadir arousal of the physically active and older groups is consistent with these subjects experiencing less extreme sleepiness.

  11. Altered left ventricular performance in aging physically active mice with an ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Guderian, Sophie; Wikstrom, Erik A; Huot, Joshua R; Peck, Bailey D; Arthur, Susan T; Marino, Joseph S; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the impact of differing physical activity levels throughout the lifespan, using a musculoskeletal injury model, on the age-related changes in left ventricular (LV) parameters in active mice. Forty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three running wheel groups (transected CFL group, transected ATFL/CFL group, SHAM group) or a SHAM Sedentary group (SHAMSED). Before surgery and every 6 weeks after surgery, LV parameters were measured under 2.5 % isoflurane inhalation. Group effects for daily distance run was significantly greater for the SHAM and lesser for the ATLF/CFL mice (p = 0.013) with distance run decreasing with age for all mice (p < 0.0001). Beginning at 6 months of age, interaction (group × age) was noted with LV posterior wall thickness-to-radius ratios (h/r) where h/r increased with age in the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice while the SHAM and CFL mice exhibited decreased h/r with age (p = 0.0002). Passive filling velocity (E wave) was significantly greater in the SHAM mice and lowest for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice (p < 0.0001) beginning at 9 months of age. Active filling velocity (A wave) was not different between groups (p = 0.10). Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio (E/A ratio) was different between groups (p < 0.0001), with higher ratios for the SHAM mice and lower ratios for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice in response to physical activity beginning at 9 months of age. Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio decreased with age (p < 0.0001). Regular physical activity throughout the lifespan improved LV structure, passive filling velocity, and E/A ratio by 6 to 9 months of age and attenuated any negative alterations throughout the second half of life. The diastolic filling differences were found to be significantly related to the amount of activity performed by 9 months and at the end of the lifespan.

  12. Physical activity and neural correlates of aging: A combined TMS/fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Keith M.; Zlatar, Zvinka; Kleim, Erin; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Seeds, Lauren; Ford, Anastasia; Manini, Todd M.; White, Keith D.; Kleim, Jeffrey; Crosson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been suggested to ameliorate aging-related decline in humans. Recently, evidence has indicated chronological aging is associated with decreases in measures of interhemispheric inhibition during unimanual movements, but that such decreases may be mitigated by long-term physical fitness. The present study investigated measures of ipsilateral (right) primary motor cortex activity during right-hand movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Healthy, right-handed participant groups were comprised of 12 sedentary older adults, 12 physically active older adults, and 12 young adults. Active older adults and younger adults evidenced longer ipsilateral silent periods (iSP) and less positive BOLD of ipsilateral motor cortex (iM1) as compared to sedentary older adults. Across groups, duration of iSP from TMS was inversely correlated with BOLD activity in iM1 during unimanual movement. These findings suggest that increased physical activity may have a role in decreasing aging-related losses of interhemispheric inhibition. PMID:21440574

  13. Prospective Relationships Between Physical Activity and Optimism in Young and Mid-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Toby G; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women. 9688 young women (born 1973-1978) completed self-report surveys in 2000 (age 22 to 27), 2003, 2006, and 2009; and 11,226 mid-aged women (born 1946-1951) completed surveys in 2001 (age 50-55) 2004, 2007, and 2010, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equation models (with 3-year time lag) were used to examine the relationship between PA and optimism in both cohorts. In both cohorts, women reporting higher levels of PA had greater odds of reporting higher optimism over the 9-year period, (young, OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 3.85-6.59; mid-age, OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 4.76-7.00) than women who reported no PA. Odds were attenuated in adjusted models, with depression accounting for a large amount of this attenuation (young, OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.57-2.55; mid-age, OR = 1.64 95% CI: 1.38-1.94). Physical activity can promote optimism in young and mid-aged women over time, even after accounting for the negative effects of other psychosocial indicators such as depression.

  14. [DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND IN PHYSICAL CONDITION BETWEEN SCHOOL AGE STUDENTS OF TWO PUBLIC CURRICULUM PROGRAMS IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Cubides, Raúl; Aldana Alarcón, Luis Gonzalo; Gutiérrez Galvis, Adriana Rocío

    2015-11-01

    During the past five decades there has been an increased in the prevalence of obesity and over weight, also in physical inactivity and /or low cardiorespiratory fitness within the population in school age from diverse regions of the planet, including Bogota-Colombia. The general objective of this study was to compare the physical condition and the levels of physical activity from students who belonged to two curriculum programs of the Public Schools Network from Bogota, one of which includes two sessions per week, each session of 90 minutes of physical activity. We developed a research of unlike cross-sectional groups. There were 178 children evaluated from the regular curriculum and 170 kids belonging to the program 40 x 40. The physical condition was evaluated applying the protocol of high priority from the ALPHA -Fitness test Battery. The weight, height, body mass index, the waist circumference, the standing long jump, the handgrip in both hands and the motor fitness 20 meter shuttle run test were developed under standardized conditions. The Global School Health Survey (GSHS) was used to evaluate the levels of AF. No significant statistical differences were founded between P-40x40 and the regular curriculum regarding: weight, height, the body mass index, the waist circumference, the handgrip in both hands and the explosive strength in lower limbs. Nevertheless the cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower within de P-40x40. In conclusion the participation in the curricular program 40 x 40 was not associated with better levels of physical condition.

  15. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  16. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  17. Physical activity and inflammation: effects on gray-matter volume and cognitive decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Ferencz, Beata; Mangialasche, Francesca; Mecocci, Patrizia; Cecchetti, Roberta; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity has been positively associated with gray-matter integrity. In contrast, pro-inflammatory cytokines seem to have negative effects on the aging brain and have been related to dementia. It was investigated whether an inactive lifestyle and high levels of inflammation resulted in smaller gray-matter volumes and predicted cognitive decline across 6 years in a population-based study of older adults (n = 414). Self-reported physical activity (fitness-enhancing, health-enhancing, inadequate) was linked to gray-matter volume, such that individuals with inadequate physical activity had the least gray matter. There were no overall associations between different pro-and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, G-CSF, and TNF-α) and gray-matter integrity. However, persons with inadequate activity and high levels of the pro-inflammatory marker IL-12p40 had smaller volumes of lateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and declined more on the Mini-Mental State Examination test over 6 years compared with physically inactive individuals with low levels of IL-12p40 and to more physically active persons, irrespective of their levels of IL-12p40. These patterns of data suggested that inflammation was particularly detrimental in inactive older adults and may exacerbate the negative effects of physical inactivity on brain and cognition in old age. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3462-3473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bone loading during young adulthood predicts bone mineral density in physically active, middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Hinton, Pamela S

    2010-06-01

    Physical activity during growth induces skeletal adaptations that increase bone strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist into middle age. We sought to determine if bone loading during adolescence (ages 13-18 years) or young adulthood (ages 19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of low bone density in adulthood. We also sought to determine if participation in high-impact activities (ie, those that produce a ground reaction force [GRF] > 4 times the individual's body weight] during adolescence and/or young adulthood has a lasting positive effect on adult BMD. Eighty-six, apparently healthy, physically active men (aged 30-60 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone loading during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood were calculated based on GRFs of the reported physical activities. Whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to examine relationships between BMD and bone loading, including body weight and/or age as covariates; logistic regression was used to predict low bone density for age. Participants were grouped based on participation in high-impact activity (never [n = 42], adolescence only [n = 19], or both adolescence and young adulthood [n=23]), and BMDs were compared. Bone loading during young adulthood, but not adolescence, was a significant positive predictor of adult BMD, with the full models explaining 33.4%, 31.7%, 44.6%, and 50.6% of the variance in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD, respectively. Ten participants (11.6%) had low bone density for age based on z scores of the hip or spine. Body weight and lean body mass, but not bone loading, were associated with reduced risk of low bone density for age. Individuals who participated in high-impact activity during both adolescence and young adulthood had greater BMD at all

  19. Lifestyle Modulators of Neuroplasticity: How Physical Activity, Mental Engagement, and Diet Promote Cognitive Health during Aging.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Cristy

    2017-01-01

    The number of the elderly across the globe will approximate 2.1 billion by 2050. Juxtaposed against this burgeoning segment of the population is evidence that nonpathological aging is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline in a variety of domains, changes that can cause mild disability even before the onset of dementia. Given that pharmacological treatments that mitigate dementia are still outstanding, alternative therapeutic options are being investigated increasingly. The results from translational studies have shown that modifiable lifestyle factors-including physical activity, cognitive engagement, and diet-are a key strategy for maintaining brain health during aging. Indeed, a multiplicity of studies has demonstrated relationships between lifestyle factors, brain structure and function, and cognitive function in aging adults. For example, physical activity and diet modulate common neuroplasticity substrates (neurotrophic signaling, neurogenesis, inflammation, stress response, and antioxidant defense) in the brain whereas cognitive engagement enhances brain and cognitive reserve. The aims of this review are to evaluate the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors, neuroplasticity, and optimal brain health during aging; to identify putative mechanisms that contribute positive brain aging; and to highlight future directions for scientists and clinicians. Undoubtedly, the translation of cutting-edge knowledge derived from the field of cognitive neuroscience will advance our understanding and enhance clinical treatment interventions as we endeavor to promote brain health during aging.

  20. Lifestyle Modulators of Neuroplasticity: How Physical Activity, Mental Engagement, and Diet Promote Cognitive Health during Aging

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The number of the elderly across the globe will approximate 2.1 billion by 2050. Juxtaposed against this burgeoning segment of the population is evidence that nonpathological aging is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline in a variety of domains, changes that can cause mild disability even before the onset of dementia. Given that pharmacological treatments that mitigate dementia are still outstanding, alternative therapeutic options are being investigated increasingly. The results from translational studies have shown that modifiable lifestyle factors—including physical activity, cognitive engagement, and diet—are a key strategy for maintaining brain health during aging. Indeed, a multiplicity of studies has demonstrated relationships between lifestyle factors, brain structure and function, and cognitive function in aging adults. For example, physical activity and diet modulate common neuroplasticity substrates (neurotrophic signaling, neurogenesis, inflammation, stress response, and antioxidant defense) in the brain whereas cognitive engagement enhances brain and cognitive reserve. The aims of this review are to evaluate the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors, neuroplasticity, and optimal brain health during aging; to identify putative mechanisms that contribute positive brain aging; and to highlight future directions for scientists and clinicians. Undoubtedly, the translation of cutting-edge knowledge derived from the field of cognitive neuroscience will advance our understanding and enhance clinical treatment interventions as we endeavor to promote brain health during aging. PMID:28695017

  1. Lifelong physical activity preserves functional sympatholysis and purinergic signalling in the ageing human leg

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, S P; Nyberg, M; Winding, K; Saltin, B

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is associated with an impaired ability to modulate sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis) and a reduced exercise hyperaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle can offset the impaired functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia in the leg and whether ATP signalling is altered by ageing and physical activity. Leg haemodynamics, interstitial [ATP] and P2Y2 receptor content was determined in eight young (23 ± 1 years), eight lifelong sedentary elderly (66 ± 2 years) and eight lifelong active elderly (62 ± 2 years) men at rest and during one-legged knee extensions (12 W and 45% maximal workload (WLmax)) and arterial infusion of ACh and ATP with and without tyramine. The vasodilatory response to ACh was lowest in the sedentary elderly, higher in active elderly (P < 0.05) and highest in the young men (P < 0.05), whereas ATP-induced vasodilatation was lower in the sedentary elderly (P < 0.05). During exercise (12 W), leg blood flow, vascular conductance and was lower and leg lactate release higher in the sedentary elderly compared to the young (P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the active elderly and young. Interstitial [ATP] during exercise and P2Y2 receptor content were higher in the active elderly compared to the sedentary elderly (P < 0.05). Tyramine infusion lowered resting vascular conductance in all groups, but only in the sedentary elderly during exercise (P < 0.05). Tyramine did not alter the vasodilator response to ATP infusion in any of the three groups. Plasma [noradrenaline] increased more during tyramine infusion in both elderly groups compared to young (P < 0.05). A lifelong physically active lifestyle can maintain an intact functional sympatholysis during exercise and vasodilator response to ATP despite a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide function. A physically active lifestyle increases interstitial ATP levels and skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor

  2. Physical activity (PA) among middle-aged women: initial and current influences and patterns of participation.

    PubMed

    Codina, Nuria; Pestana, José V; Armadans, Immaculada

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the initial and current influences for doing physical activity (PA), current levels of PA participation, and future plans for it. Participants were 200 women aged 45 to 64 years old. Factor loadings of influences were explored using Principal Components Analysis. Pearson bivariate correlations, t-test, and ANOVA were used to show the differences among the influences, sociodemographic characteristics, and present/future PA participation. Personal fulfillment was the main initial influence, while health benefits/self-care, and outdoor/family activities were the most important current influences. The results highlight the factors that best explain present PA participation and also plans for activity in the future.

  3. Effect of habitual physical activity on age-related glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, J T; Ho, L T; Tang, K T; Wang, L M; Chen, Y D; Reaven, G M

    1989-03-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin responses to a standard oral glucose challenge and a mixed meal were determined for two groups of male volunteers (office workers and laborers) and a group of female housewives or office workers. Although glucose tolerance declined with age to a certain degree in all three groups, the age-related change varied as a function of both level of habitual physical activity and gender. Specifically, the decline in glucose tolerance was greatest in the male office workers and least in the females. The plasma insulin responses did not increase with age in any of the groups. These results suggest that glucose tolerance decreases with age because there is a decline in insulin action, which is not compensated for by an increase in insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity appears to be enhanced in females as compared with males. Sensitivity is also enhanced in males habitually engaged in physical labor; thereby accounting for the age-related decline being greatest in the male office workers. Finally, the results showed that although the loss of glucose tolerance with age varied from group to group, the quantitative nature of the change was modest in all three groups. These data further emphasize that very little change in glucose tolerance is associated with aging in generally healthy, nonobese individuals.

  4. Physical Activity of Preschool-Aged Latino Children in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe time spent in sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by children in Latino farmworker families; and delineate sources of variation in sedentary and MVPA. Method Data were from mother-child dyads (N = 248) in Latino farmworker households in North Carolina. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers; mothers described their children’s characteristics and their physical and social environments. Results Children spent 6.2 hours/day sedentary (Median=369 minutes), and 6.0 minutes/day in MVPA. Children in Head Start spent more time sedentary, whereas children living where dogs roam freely were less sedentary. Children whose mothers limited screen time spent 2 more minutes in MVPA. Conclusions Preschool-aged Latino children in farmworker families are sedentary, engaging in very little MVPA. PMID:24933141

  5. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Valery, Patricia C.; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C.; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K.; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire”) were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food”) at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity. PMID:22720140

  6. Diet, physical activity, and obesity in school-aged indigenous youths in northern australia.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food ("fast food") at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07-3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  7. Food shopping habits, physical activity and health-related indicators among adults aged ≥70 years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Janice L; Bentley, Georgina; Davis, Mark; Coulson, Jo; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently. Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P < 0·001) and men more likely to shop with their spouse (P < 0·001). Men were more likely than women to drive to food shopping (P < 0·001), with women more likely to take the bus or be driven (P < 0·001). Most reported ease in purchasing fruit and vegetables (72·9 %) and low-fat products (67·5 %); 19·2 % reported low fibre intakes and 16·2 % reported high fat intakes. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better general health were significantly correlated with the ease of purchasing fresh fruit, vegetables and low-fat products. Shopping more often was associated with higher fat intake (P = 0·03); higher levels of deprivation were associated with lower fibre intake (P = 0·019). These findings suggest a pattern of food shopping carried out primarily by car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.

  8. Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults’ participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life events, widowhood and retirement, and asked whether these major life events were associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sports participation. Methods Data from the first (1992–93) and second (1995–96) wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), a prospective cohort study among Dutch adults aged 55 and older, were used. Change in marital status and employment status between baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-report. Time spent in MVPA (min/d) and sports participation (yes/no) was calculated based on the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association of retirement and widowhood with MVPA and sports participation was assessed in separate multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Widowhood - N=136 versus 1324 stable married- was not associated with MVPA (B= 3.5 [95%CI:-57.9;64.9]) or sports participation (OR= 0.8 [95%CI:0.5;1.3]). Retired participants (N= 65) significantly increased their time spent in MVPA (B= 32.5 [95%CI:17.8;47.1]) compared to participants who continued to be employed (N= 121), but not their sports participation. Age was a significant effect modifier (B= 7.5 [90%CI:-1.1;13.8]), indicating a greater increase in MVPA in older retirees. Discussion Our results suggest that the associations found varied by the two major life events under investigation. MVPA increased after retirement, but no association with widowhood was seen. PMID:23245568

  9. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  10. The effects of age, physical activity level, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound value in men.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ibrahim, Suraya; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2012-01-01

    The influences of age, physical activity, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound are different among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly men. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of bone health status is much needed for developing countries in the screening of osteoporosis, but further studies on the factors that influence the quantitative ultrasound indices are required. The present study examined the influence of age, lifestyle factors, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in a group of Malaysian men of diverse age range. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data from 687 eligible males were used for analysis. They answered a detailed questionnaire on their physical activity status, and their anthropometric measurements were taken. Their calcaneal SOS values were evaluated using the CM-200 sonometer (Furuno, Nishinomiya City, Japan). Subjects with higher body mass index (BMI) had higher calcaneal SOS values albeit significant difference was only found in the elderly subjects (p < 0.05). Sedentary subjects had lower calcaneal SOS values than physically active subjects, but significant difference was only found in the middle-aged subjects (p < 0.05). Calcaneal SOS was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with age in young men; height, BMI, and physical activity score in middle-aged men; height and physical activity score in elderly men; and age and physical activity score for overall subjects. In a multivariate regression model, significant (p < 0.05) predictors for calcaneal SOS included age for young men; physical activity, BMI, body fat percentage, and height for middle-aged men; height for elderly men; and age, height, physical activity, weight, and body fat percentage for overall subjects. Age, body anthropometry, and physical activity level have significant effects on the calcaneal SOS value in men.

  11. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age (CA). Cortical and subcortical gray matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting CA (R(2) = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed (FOSC) were the only 2 significant predictors of decreased BA. Effect sizes demonstrated that BA decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for 1 additional FOSC daily. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by CA which supports the utility of regional gray matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Socioeconomic differences in physical activity in the middle-aged working population: The role of education, occupation, and income].

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Jens; Finger, Jonas D; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Regular physical activity has positive effects on health at all ages. This study aims to investigate how far physical activity and regular sports engagement, as a more specific type of physical activity, are associated with socioeconomic factors in the middle-aged working population. Data were obtained from 21,699 working men and women aged between 30 and 64 years who participated in the 2009 and 2010 population-based national German Health Update (GEDA) surveys conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. Besides a multi-dimensional index of socioeconomic status (SES), three single dimensions of SES (education, occupation, and income) were used to analyse socioeconomic differences in total physical activity and regular sports engagement. While the prevalence of total physical activity increased with lower SES, the proportion of people with regular sports engagement decreased with lower SES. These associations remained after adjusting for age in men and women. After mutual adjustment of the three single socioeconomic dimensions, physical activity was independently associated with lower education and lower occupational status. Regular sports engagement was observed to be independently associated with higher education, higher occupational status, as well as higher income after mutual adjustment. This study demonstrates significant socioeconomic differences in physical and sports activity in the middle-aged working population. Education, occupation, and income show varying independent associations with physical activity behaviour. Such differences need to be considered when identifying target groups for health-enhancing physical activity interventions.

  13. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Melo, R C; Santos, M D B; Silva, E; Quitério, R J; Moreno, M A; Reis, M S; Verzola, I A; Oliveira, L; Martins, L E B; Gallo-Junior, L; Catai, A M

    2005-09-01

    The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR) were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 +/- 2.4 years), 16 young active (YA, 22 +/- 2.1 years), 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 +/- 2.4 years) and 8 older active (OA, 61 +/- 1.1 years) healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were analyzed by time (RMSSD index) and frequency domain methods. The power spectral components are reported in normalized units (nu) at low (LF) and high (HF) frequency, and as the LF/HF ratio. The deep breathing test was analyzed by the respiratory sinus arrhythmia indices: expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I) and inspiration-expiration difference (deltaIE). The active groups had lower HR and higher RMSSD index than the sedentary groups (life-style condition: sedentary vs active, P < 0.05). The older groups showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio than the young groups (aging effect: young vs older, P < 0.05). The OS group had a lower E/I ratio (1.16) and deltaIE (9.7 bpm) than the other groups studied (YS: 1.38, 22.4 bpm; YA: 1.40, 21.3 bpm; OA: 1.38, 18.5 bpm). The interaction between aging and life-style effects had a P < 0.05. These results suggest that aging reduces HR variability. However, regular physical activity positively affects vagal activity on the heart and consequently attenuates the effects of aging in the autonomic control of HR.

  14. Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

  15. Built Environment, Adiposity, and Physical Activity in Adults Aged 50–75

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter A.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Acock, Alan; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the built environment and its association with health—especially excess adiposity—and physical activity in the immediate pre-Baby Boom/early-Baby Boom generations, soon to be the dominant demographic in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine this relationship. Methods This study used a cross-sectional, multilevel design with neighborhoods as the primary sampling unit (PSU). Residents (N=1221; aged 50–75) were recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland OR. The independent variables at the PSU level involved GIS-derived measures of land-use mix, distribution of fast-food outlets, street connectivity, access to public transportation, and green and open spaces. Dependent variables included resident-level measures of excess adiposity (BMI ≥25), three walking activities, and physical activity. Data were collected in 2006–2007 and analyzed in 2007. Results Each unit (i.e., 10%) increase in land-use mix was associated with a 25% reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. However, a 1-SD increase in the density of fast-food outlets was associated with a 7% increase in overweight/obesity. Higher mixed-use land was positively associated with all three types of walking activities and the meeting of physical activity recommendations. Neighborhoods with high street connectivity, high density of public transit stations, and green and open spaces were related in varying degrees to walking and the meeting of physical activity recommendations. The analyses adjusted for neighborhood- and resident-level sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions Findings suggest the need for public health and city planning officials to address modifiable neighborhood-level, built-environment characteristics to create more livable residential communities aimed at both addressing factors that may influence unhealthy eating and promoting active, healthy lifestyles in this rapidly growing population. PMID:18541175

  16. Total physical activity in relation to age, body mass, health and other factors in a cohort of Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Norman, A; Bellocco, R; Vaida, F; Wolk, A

    2002-05-01

    Despite a large public health interest in physical activity and its role in obesity and other chronic diseases, only a few reports to date have addressed total levels of physical activity in relation to age, body mass, health and other lifestyle factors. To investigate whether levels of total physical activity among men are associated with age, body mass, self-rated health and other lifestyle factors in a cross-sectional setting. In a population-based cohort of 33 466 men aged 45-79 y in central Sweden, we collected information about physical activity through a self-administered questionnaire. Level of total physical activity was assessed quantitatively based on six questions on different activities: work/occupation, housework, walking/bicycling, exercise, inactive leisure time and sleeping. The physical activity levels were measured as metabolic equivalents, MET-h/day. The relation between age, body mass index, smoking, education, marital status and self-rated health, and total physical activity was studied in a cross-sectional analysis, using multivariate regression. Total daily physical activity was decreasing systematically between age 45 and 79 (-4.1%, 95% CI -4.6, -3.6). Obese men reported -2.6% (95% CI -3.0, -2.1) lower physical activity than normal weight men. Those with high education had -7.0% (95%CI -7.3, -6.7) lower total physical activity than those with elementary school. Men with self-rated poor health had -11.3% (95%CI -12.1, -10.6) lower physical activity than those reporting very good health. The cross-sectionally observed decrease with age was greatest among obese men (-8.7%), current smokers (-7.9%), low-educated men (-5.6%) and those with poor health (-9.8%); the subgroups with very good health reported almost the same level of total physical activity (-0.6%) for age 74-79 as for age 45-49. The observed decreasing levels of total physical activity with age to large degree depend on health status and other factors. The characterization of

  17. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  18. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  19. Aging successfully: the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and function.

    PubMed

    Galloway, M T; Jokl, P

    2000-01-01

    Physicians caring for middle-aged and older patients frequently overlook the importance of regular physical activity. Exercise on a routine basis is an important component of successful aging. It has been shown that many age-related declines in musculoskeletal function can be markedly reduced by participation in some form of regular exercise. Examination of records from masters athletic competitions has been used to determine the true rate of age-related functional declines in highly trained, healthy individuals and further supports these findings. Declines in physical abilities for masters athletes are gradual, which suggests that for many, the potential for participation in competitive athletics can persist well into the seventh decade of life. Recent studies indicate that health gains can be achieved with relatively low volumes of exercise. Indeed, the greatest benefit is seen when one "goes from doing nothing to doing something." Current data suggest that a cumulative total of 30 to 50 minutes of aerobic exercise a day performed 3 to 5 days a week and one set of resistance exercises targeting the major muscle groups twice a week can produce significant health benefits. The aerobic conditioning requirement need not be a formal or structured activity, but can be satisfied through regular participation in many common physical tasks (e.g., walking, gardening, housekeeping). Musculoskeletal injuries are a major cause of noncompliance with any exercise regimen and are especially debilitating for older individuals. Prompt recognition of injury and treatment that emphasizes alternative conditioning exercises and minimizes "downtime" are especially important. Orthopaedists should be aware of the pattern of musculoskeletal injuries seen in this population, so as to assist their patients in avoiding these problems.

  20. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  1. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  2. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  3. Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Corpeleijn, Eva; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Thomas, G. Neil; Schooling, C. Mary; Zhang, Weisen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Lam, Tai Hing

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical activity may modify the association of adiposity with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the independent and joint association of adiposity and physical activity with fasting plasma glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Middle-aged and older Chinese (n = 28,946, ≥50 years, 72.4%women) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were examined in 2003–2008. Multivariable regression was used in a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were positively associated with type 2 diabetes after multiple adjustment, most strongly for WHR with odds ratio (OR) of 3.99 (95% CI 3.60–4.42) for highest compared with lowest tertile. Lack of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not walking, was associated with diabetes with an OR of 1.29 (1.17–1.41). The association of moderate-to-vigorous activity with fasting glucose varied with WHR tertiles (P = 0.01 for interaction). Within the high WHR tertile, participants who had a lack of moderate-to-vigorous activity had an OR of 3.87 (3.22–4.65) for diabetes, whereas those who were active had an OR of 2.94 (2.41–3.59). CONCLUSIONS In this population, WHR was a better measure of adiposity-related diabetes risk than BMI or waist circumference. Higher moderate-to-vigorous activity was associated with lower diabetes risk, especially in abdominally obese individuals. PMID:20713687

  4. Association between physical activity and neighborhood environment among middle-aged adults in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rena; Li, Yang; Umezaki, Masahiro; Ding, Yongming; Jiang, Hongwei; Comber, Alexis; Fu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    To determine the perceived neighborhood environment (NE) variables that are associated with physical activity (PA) in urban areas in China. Parents of students at two junior high schools in Shanghai, one downtown and the other in the suburbs, were recruited to participate in the study. They completed an International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Abbreviated (NEWS-A) survey. Participant physical activity was also objectively measured using accelerometers. Participants from downtown areas were more positively associated with transportation PA and leisure-time PA than respondents living in the suburbs. Residential density was found to be a significant positive predictor of recreational or leisure-based PA. Street connectivity was negatively associated with leisure time PA for respondents. Moderate-vigorous PA was found to be negatively associated with traffic safety. There were no significant associations between environmental factors and transportation PA. Women had higher levels of moderate-vigorous PA than men. The results of this study demonstrate that residential density, street connectivity, and traffic safety have a significant impact on Chinese middle-aged adults' PA, suggesting urban planning strategies for promoting positive public health outcomes.

  5. Relations of age with changes in self-efficacy and physical self-concept in preadolescents participating in a physical activity intervention during afterschool care.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2007-08-01

    An inference from Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that preadolescents of different ages who participate in a physical activity intervention may respond differently on measures of their physical self and self-efficacy, so a field investigation was conducted to assess effects. In a sample of 105 children ages 8 to 12 yr. (42% boys, overall M(age) = 10.1 yr., SD = 0.9), participation in a physical activity intervention during afterschool care, based on social cognitive theory and incorporating instruction in self-management and self-regulatory skills, was associated with significant improvements in measures of exercise-related self-efficacy, perceived physical appearance, and physical self-concept over 12 wk. Analyses suggested, however, no difference in changes on these factors was associated with participants' age or children being in either the concrete operations or formal operations stage of cognitive development. After replication, implications for design of physical activity interventions for preadolescents were suggested.

  6. Objectively measured intensity of physical activity and adiposity in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Peterson, Travis R

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (ACT), particularly intensity of physical activity (iACT), and body fat percentage (BF%) in 278 middle-aged women. Secondary purposes were to ascertain the association between physical activity duration (dACT) and BF% and the extent to which potentially confounding factors, including total ACT, energy intake, body weight, and season of assessment, influenced the relationship between iACT and BF%. A cross-sectional design was used. Subjects were apparently healthy, 35 to 45 years old, premenopausal, nonsmokers, with BMIs < 30 kg/m2. Approximately 90 percent were white, 81% were married, and 37% were college graduates. ACT was assessed using Computer Science and Application accelerometers worn for 7 consecutive days. The accelerometers recorded movement continuously, and activity counts were collapsed into 10-minute epochs. Intensity was indexed using seven activity count cut-off points, and duration was based on the number of 10-minute epochs at each intensity level. BF% was assessed using multiple measurements in the Bod Pod. Energy intake was measured using 7-day weighed diet records during the same week subjects wore the accelerometers. BF% was strongly and inversely associated with iACT and dACT. Controlling for energy intake and body weight strengthened the relationships among iACT, dACT, and BF%. Control of total ACT weakened the association. Engaging in higher intensity and/or longer duration ACT is associated with lower BF% compared with lower intensity and/or shorter durations of activity.

  7. Validity and Reliability of Physical Activity Measures in Greek High School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Argiropoulou, Eugenia C.; Michalopoulou, Maria; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Avgerinos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 physical activity questionnaires in Greek high school children. Forty children participated in the study aged M = 13.73 (SD 0.8 years). The validation study was conducted by comparing an accelerometer (MTI/CSA Model 7164) to 3 questionnaires: a) Three-day Physical Activity Record (3DPAR), b) Four by One-Day Recall Physical Activity Questionnaire (4BY1RPAQ) and c) Physical Activity and Life Style Questionnaire (PALQ). Validity of the 3 self-report questionnaires was assessed against the MTI/CSA accelerometer by comparing the scores obtained by each instrument on the first week of measurement. Reliability was assessed with two consecutive measurements performed two weeks apart. The measures of reliability were assessed by Intra Class Correlation, Typical Error and Limits of Agreement. A two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was performed. Repeated measures were week and day; in order to determine differences between the two scores obtained with the two measurements for MTI/CSA, 3DPAR and 4BY1RPAQ. A paired Student’s t-test was performed for the two scores obtained with the PALQ. Post-hoc multiple comparisons were performed using the Bonferroni test. Significance for all parts of the analysis was determined at an alpha level of p < 0.05. A paired Student’s t-test was performed for the two scores obtained with the PALQ. Results of this study indicated that reliability measured by intra class correlations (ICC) were for MTI/CSA (ICC = 0.52, p < 0.05), 3DPAR (ICC = 0.97, p < 0.01), 4BY1RPAQ (ICC = 0.70, p < 0.01), and PALQ (ICC = 0.52, p < 0.01). Significant Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r) were observed between MTI/CSA and the other instruments, as a measure of validity: 3DPAR (r = 0.63, p < 0.01), 4BY1RPAQ (r = 0.62, p < 0.01), and PALQ (r = 0.53, p < 0.01). The reliability of the four instruments used in this study was acceptable. Validity correlations were also significant

  8. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  9. Physical aging in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The question of physical aging in cometary nuclei is addressed in order to elucidate the relationship between the past conditions in the protosolar nebula and the present state of the cometary nucleus, and to understand the processes that will physically and chemically alter the nucleus as a function of time. Attention is given to some of the processes that might be responsible for causing aging in comets, namely, radiation damage in the upper layers of the nucleus during the long residences in the Oort cloud, processing from heating and collisions within the Oort cloud, loss of highly volatile species from the nucleus on the first passage through the inner solar system, buildup of a dusty mantle, which can eventually prohibit further sublimation, and a change in the porosity, and hence the thermal properties, of the nucleus. Recent observations suggest that there are distinct differences between 'fresh' Oort cloud comets and thermally processed periodic comets with respect to intrinsic brightness and rate of change of activity as a function of distance.

  10. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women.

  11. Age and gender, two key factors in the associations between physical activity and strength during the ageing process.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Carnicero, Jose A; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Tresguerres, Jesús Ángel; Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Ara, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; García-García, Francisco-José

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify if the associations of physical activity (PA) and muscle strength may vary throughout the ageing process; to study the differences among genders in the relationships between PA and strength in elderly people and to test whether these differences are explained by the hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory status. A total of 1741 people ≥65 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Upper- and lower-limbs maximal voluntary isometric strength was obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. PA was recorded by a validated questionnaire. The associations of PA with strength were assessed using generalized linear regression models with a Gamma-distributed dependent variable. A significant gender by PA interaction was found for all strength-related variables (all P<0.01). Moreover, when sexual hormones, albumin or C-Reactive protein were taken into account in the model, the results did not significantly change. In women, PA was positively associated with upper and lower-body strength; however in men, PA was only associated with grip and knee strength (both P<0.01). Higher strength values were associated with higher levels of PA, especially in women. However, this tendency had a different pattern across the age range, showing a stronger association in the 'young' elderly compared with the 'old' elderly. Higher levels of PA are related to greater muscle strength, especially in women and those who were younger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Middle-aged women's preferred theory-based features in mobile physical activity applications.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA). Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred. Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application. Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middle-aged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

  13. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy, focusing on

  14. Neighborhood Context and Youth Physical Activity: Differential Associations by Gender and Age.

    PubMed

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Hanson, Heidi

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to examine the extent to which facets of neighborhood sociodemographic contexts influence individual-level physical activity (PA) among youth. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), geographic information systems (GIS), and census data sources, we explicitly test whether built environment factors have differential associations depending on the age and gender of the youth living in urban census tracts. Participants are from the NHANES 2003 to 2006 waves. The study sample for this article was 2706 youth aged 6 to 17 years with valid PA accelerometer measures. A measure of park accessibility was constructed from the 2006 park GIS layer in Environmental System Research Institute ArcGIS 9.3 data. Average daily minutes of moderate to vigorous PA in bouts equal to or longer than 1 minute were recorded using accelerometers over 4 to 7 days. Analysis was conducted with SAS 9.2, including descriptive analyses and linear regression for PA. Findings suggest that built environment features are especially salient for adolescents and youth living in urban areas. Vigorous activity varied by the age and gender of the youth. For example, greater distance to parks is associated with a decrease in PA among girls and boys aged 6 to 11 years. Among teens, distance to parks is significantly associated with decreases in PA among the total sample and among male teens. However, an increase in population density is associated with less time spent in PA among youth aged 6 to 11 years but more PA among teens. These analyses represent an important step to considering the implications of modifiable environmental features for youth and contrast with existing literature for adults. Results speak to the efficacy of built environment measures in urban communities and the importance of considering the possibility of differing patterns of associations in childhood and adolescence and by gender. Results from this research inform policy efforts to

  15. Physical Activity and Mental Well-being in a Cohort Aged 60–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Black, Stephanie V.; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Kathryn R.; Brage, Soren; Kuh, Diana; Stafford, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although evidence suggests physical activity (PA) may be associated with mental well-being at older ages, it is unclear whether some types of PA are more important than others. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations of monitored total PA under free-living conditions, self-reported leisure-time PA (LTPA), and walking for pleasure with mental well-being at age 60–64 years. Methods Data on 930 (47%) men and 1,046 (53%) women from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development collected in 2006–2011 at age 60–64 were used in 2013–2014 to test the associations of PA (PA energy expenditure and time spent in different intensities of activity assessed using combined heart rate and acceleration monitors worn for 5 days, self-reported LTPA, and walking for pleasure) with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS; range, 14–70). Results In linear regression models adjusted for gender, long-term limiting illness, smoking, employment, socioeconomic position, personality, and prior PA, those who walked for >1 hour/week had mean WEMWBS scores 1.47 (95% CI=0.60, 2.34) points higher than those who reported no walking. Those who participated in LTPA at least five times/month had WEMWBS scores 1.25 (95% CI=0.34, 2.16) points higher than those who did not engage in LTPA. There were no statistically significant associations between free-living PA and WEMWBS scores. Conclusions In adults aged 60–64 years, participation in self-selected activities such as LTPA and walking are positively related to mental well-being, whereas total levels of free-living PA are not. PMID:26070782

  16. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlates of total physical activity among middle-aged and elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Nicola; Bellocco, Rino; Bottai, Matteo; Pagano, Marcello; Wolk, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Information on correlates of total physical activity (PA) levels among middle-aged and elderly women is limited. This article aims to investigate whether total daily PA levels are associated with age, body mass index, smoking, drinking status, and sociodemographic factors. In a cross-sectional study of 38,988 women between the ages of 48 and 83 years residing in central Sweden, information on PA, weight, height, smoking, drinking, and sociodemographic factors was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Total daily PA levels were measured as metabolic equivalents (MET-h/day). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by ordinal logistic regression models. We observed decreasing level of total PA with increasing age (for 5-year increase: OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.85–0.89) and body mass index (for 5-unit, kg/m2, increase: OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.79–0.84). Multivariable adjusted correlates of total PA level were smoking (current vs. never: OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79–0.88), drinking (current vs. never: OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82–0.94), educational level (university vs. primary: OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.51–0.58), employment status (housewife vs. full-work: OR = 2.59; 95% CI: 2.25–2.98), and childhood environment (city vs. countryside: OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.59–0.65). In the present investigation, among middle-aged and elderly women, the likelihood of engaging in higher total daily PA levels decreased with age, body mass index, educational level, smoking, drinking, and growing up in urban places. PMID:17498295

  18. Habitual Physical Activity in Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 4 to 5 Years Across All Functional Abilities.

    PubMed

    Keawutan, Piyapa; Bell, Kristie L; Oftedal, Stina; Davies, Peter S W; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-01-01

    To compare ambulatory status in children with cerebral palsy aged 4 to 5 years with their habitual physical activity and time spent sedentary, and to compare their activity with physical activity guidelines. Sixty-seven participants-independently ambulant, marginally ambulant, and nonambulant-wore accelerometers for 3 days. Time spent sedentary as a percentage of wear time and activity counts were compared between groups. There were significant differences in time spent sedentary and activity counts between groups. Children who were independently ambulant were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. Children with cerebral palsy spent more than half of their waking hours in sedentary time. Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase habitual physical activity are needed in children with cerebral palsy at age 4 to 5 years.

  19. Physical Activity Participation among Caribbean Hispanic Women Living in New York: Relation to Education, Income, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Laudano, Melissa; Hurstak, Emily; Saroff, Alan; Fleck, Elaine; Sciacca, Robert; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Cassetta, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate participation in physical activity is a serious public health issue in the United States, with significant disparities among population groups. In particular, there is a scarcity of information about physical activity among Caribbean Hispanics, a group on the rise. Methods Our goal was to accumulate data on physical activity among Caribbean Hispanic women living in New York and determine the relation between physical activity and age, marital status, education, income, primary language, and children in the household. To this end, a survey adapted from the National Health Interview Survey of the National Center for Health Statistics assessing type, frequency, and duration of physical activity was administered. Results There were 318 self-identified Hispanic women who participated. Total activity time, mean 385 ± 26 minutes, and education (r = 0.14, p < 0.01) were significantly related. Women who had attended some college had greater total activity time than those with some high school education (p = 0.046) or < 8th grade education (p = 0.022). Walking as a form of transportation was the most frequent pursuit, 285 ± 21 minutes. Age (r = −0.34, p < 0.001) and education (r = 0.25, p < 0.001) correlated with nonwalking activity time (leisure time). Nonwalking activity times were greater in younger, that is, 18–29 years (p < 0.001) and college-educated women (p < 0.001). Physical activity recommendations were met by 11%; and 17% reported no physical activity. Conclusions Among Caribbean Hispanic women living in New York City, the current recommendations for physical activity are met by 11%, and physical activity and education are significantly related. Our observation that education is a critical factor related to physical activity suggests that programs to address the promotion of a physically active lifestyle are needed. PMID:19183090

  20. A case study on the perception of aging and participation in physical activities of older Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Koo, Fung Kuen

    2011-10-01

    This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong ChineseAustralians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one's physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one's social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.

  1. Scheduled physical activity is associated with better academic performance in Chilean school-age children.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Raquel; Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Orellana, Yasna; Almagiá, Atilio; Lizana, Pablo; Ivanovic, Daniza

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to examine the association between systematic physical activity and academic performance in school kids after controlling for potential sociodemographic and educational confounders. In a random sample of 1271 students from urban Santiago, attending 5th and 9th grade, who took the 2009 System for the Assessment of Educational Quality (SIMCE) tests, we measured physical activity habits, anthropometric characteristics, and socioeconomic status. Academic performance was measured by the standardized SIMCE tests. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between the allocation of time to weekly scheduled exercise, potential confounding factors, and individual academic performance. About 80% of students reported less than 2 hours of weekly scheduled exercise, while 10.6% and 10.2% reported 2 to 4 hours/week and more than 4 hours/week, respectively. Devoting more than 4 hours/week to scheduled exercise significantly increased (P < .01) the odds of having SIMCE composite z-scores ≥ 50th percentile (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.6) and ≥ 75th percentile (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3). Better academic performance was associated with a higher allocation of time to scheduled exercise in school-age children.

  2. Evolution of Neuroplasticity in Response to Physical Activity in Old Age: The Case for Dancing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patrick; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Schmicker, Marlen; Hökelmann, Anita; Dordevic, Milos; Lessmann, Volkmar; Brigadski, Tanja; Kaufmann, Jörn; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    From animal research, it is known that combining physical activity with sensory enrichment has stronger and longer-lasting effects on the brain than either treatment alone. For humans dancing has been suggested to be analogous to such combined training. Here we assessed whether a newly designed dance training program that stresses the constant learning of new movement patterns is superior in terms of neuroplasticity to conventional fitness activities with repetitive exercises and whether extending the training duration has additional benefits. Twenty-two healthy seniors (63-80 years) who had been randomly assigned to either a dance or a sport group completed the entire 18-month study. MRI, BDNF and neuropsychological tests were performed at baseline and after 6 and 18 months of intervention. After 6 months, we found a significant increase in gray matter volume in the left precentral gyrus in the dancers compared to controls. This neuroplasticity effect may have been mediated by the increased BDNF plasma levels observed in the dancers. Regarding cognitive measures, both groups showed significant improvements in attention after 6 months and in verbal memory after 18 months. In addition, volume increases in the parahippocampal region were observed in the dancers after 18 months. The results of our study suggest that participating in a long-term dance program that requires constant cognitive and motor learning is superior to engaging in repetitive physical exercises in inducing neuroplasticity in the brains of seniors. Therefore, dance is highly promising in its potential to counteract age-related gray matter decline.

  3. Environmental and individual correlates of various types of physical activity among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kobori, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-17

    Recent studies have suggested the importance of the neighborhood environment in determining the specific type of physical activity. However, few studies on this topic have been undertaken in Japan. This study examined the association of three types of physical activity and their associations with individual and neighborhood environmental factors among middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Participants were 2,449 adults aged 40-69 living in Fujisawa city who had undergone health checkups and responded to our survey by mail. Individual factors, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form), and its environmental module acted as inputs to the study. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of high levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), walking for active recreation, and transportation were calculated in relation to individual and neighborhood environmental factors through multiple logistic regression models. Not working and good self-rated health were significantly associated with a higher level of each physical activity outcome. According to the adjusted ORs, higher educational attainment, higher economic status, good access to exercise facilities, and owning motor vehicles were associated with longer LTPA time. However, different sets of factors were associated with longer walking times for recreation and transportation. The results suggest that diverse individual and neighborhood environmental characteristics are associated with different physical activity outcomes. Therefore, customizing environments to become activity-friendly is necessary to increase physical activity effectively among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  4. Are Early Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Related to Working Memory at 7 and 14 Years of Age?

    PubMed

    López-Vicente, Mónica; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Torrent-Pallicer, Jaume; Forns, Joan; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Lertxundi, Nerea; González, Llúcia; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Torrent, Maties; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the role of extracurricular physical activity and sedentary behavior at preschool and primary school age on working memory at primary school age and adolescence, respectively. This prospective study was based on a birth cohort across 4 Spanish regions. In the 3 younger subcohorts (n = 1093), parents reported lifestyle habits of child at age 4 years of age on a questionnaire, and children performed a computerized working memory task at 7 years of age. In the older subcohort (n = 307), the questionnaire was completed at 6 years of age and working memory was tested at 14 years of age. Adjusted regression models were developed to investigate the associations between lifestyle habits and working memory. Low extracurricular physical activity levels at 4 years of age were associated with a nonsignificant 0.95% (95% CI -2.81 to 0.92) reduction of correct responses in the working memory task at age 7 years of age. Low extracurricular physical activity levels at 6 years of age were associated with a 4.22% (95% CI -8.05 to -0.39) reduction of correct responses at age 14 years. Television watching was not associated with working memory. Other sedentary behaviors at 6 year of age were associated with a 5.07% (95% CI -9.68 to -0.46) reduction of correct responses in boys at 14 years of age. Low extracurricular physical activity levels at preschool and primary school ages were associated with poorer working memory performance at primary school age and adolescence, respectively. High sedentary behavior levels at primary school age were related negatively to working memory in adolescent boys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical Activity Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Videos Glossary of Terms Success Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329- ...

  6. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  7. Physical activity, body functions and disability among middle-aged and older Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Ayala, Alba; Damián, Javier; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Almazán, Javier; Castellote, Juan Manuel; Comin, Madgalena; Forjaz, Maria João; de Pedro, Jesús

    2017-07-18

    Physical activity (PA) is a health determinant among middle-aged and older adults. In contrast, poor health is expected to have a negative impact on PA. This study sought to assess to what extent specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) health components were associated with PA among older adults. We used a sample of 864 persons aged ≥50 years, positively screened for disability or cognition in a cross-sectional community survey in Spain. Weekly energy expenditure during PA was measured with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) scale. The associations between body function impairment, health conditions or World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) disability scores and energy expenditure were quantified using negative-binomial regression, and expressed in terms of adjusted mean ratios (aMRs). Mean energy expenditure was 4542 Kcal/week. A lower weekly energy expenditure was associated with: severe/extreme impairment of mental functions, aMR 0.38, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.21-0.68), and neuromusculoskeletal and movement functions, aMR 0.50 (0.35-0.72); WHODAS 2.0 disability, aMR 0.55 (0.34-0.91); dementia, aMR 0.45 (0.31-0.66); and heart failure, aMR 0.54 (0.34-0.87). In contrast, people with arthritis/osteoarthritis had a higher energy expenditure, aMR 1.27 (1.07-1.51). Our results suggest that there is a strong relationship between selected body function impairments, mainly mental, and PA. Although more research is needed to fully understand causal relationships, strategies to improve PA among the elderly may require targeting mental, neuromusculoskeletal and movement functions, disability determinants (including barriers), and specific approaches for persons with dementia or heart failure.

  8. Physical activity, age, and arthritis: exploring the relationships of major risk factors on biopsychosocial symptomology and disease status.

    PubMed

    Stone, Rachael C; Baker, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of arthritis in aging populations continues to rapidly grow. Research has highlighted 2 principal risk factors for progression of arthritis-related biopsychosocial symptoms: age and physical inactivity. This study examined the relationship between and within physical activity and age on biopsychosocial symptoms of arthritis in adults (age ≥ 30 yr). Hierarchical, multiple-regression analyses were conducted on the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.2, 2009-2010, N = 19,103). Results revealed that more-active adults had significantly fewer symptoms (physical unstd. B = -.23, p ≤ .001; pyschosocial unstd. B = -.51, p ≤ .001). In addition, as age increased, physical symptoms intensified and psychosocial symptoms tapered (physical unstd. B = .24, p ≤ .001; psychosocial unstd. B = -.45, p ≤ .001). Inactive older adults had the highest level of physical symptoms, while inactive younger adults had the highest level of psychosocial symptoms (p ≤ .001). Findings highlight the need to target physical activity interventions to specific age cohorts and particular biopsychosocial symptomologies.

  9. Physical Activity of Children Ages 6-8: The Beginning of School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromel, Karel; Stelzer, Jiri; Groffik, Dorota; Ernest, James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the physical activity (PA) levels of 6- to 8-year-old children over a seven-day period. The participants consisted of 35 girls and 36 boys in kindergarten and 113 girls and 131 boys in 1st grade. Physical activity (PA) is defined as "any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure"…

  10. Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K.; Godino, Job G.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Coresh, Josef; Koton, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Low physical activity levels are a public health concern. Few studies have assessed the concordance of physical activity change among spouses. We studied this concordance during a 6-year period (baseline: 1987–1989; follow-up: 1993–1995) in 3,261 spousal pairs from the US-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Linear regression was used to examine the association between change in individuals' sport/exercise and leisure physical activity indices (ranging from 1 (low) to 5 (high)) and change in his or her spouse's indices. The association between individual and spousal changes in meeting physical activity recommendations was assessed with logistic regression. Individual changes in the sport/exercise and leisure indices were positively associated with spousal changes. For every standard deviation increase in their wives' sport/exercise index, men's exercise index increased by 0.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.12) standard deviation; for every standard deviation increase in their wives’ leisure index, men's leisure index increased by 0.08 standard deviation. Results were similar for women. Individuals had higher odds of meeting physical activity recommendations if their spouse met recommendations at both visits or just follow-up. In conclusion, changes in an individual's physical activity are positively associated with changes in his or her spouse's physical activity. Physical activity promotion efforts should consider targeting couples. PMID:26337074

  11. Physical Activity of Children Ages 6-8: The Beginning of School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromel, Karel; Stelzer, Jiri; Groffik, Dorota; Ernest, James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the physical activity (PA) levels of 6- to 8-year-old children over a seven-day period. The participants consisted of 35 girls and 36 boys in kindergarten and 113 girls and 131 boys in 1st grade. Physical activity (PA) is defined as "any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure"…

  12. Adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among children 2 to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Carson, Valerie; Vinturache, Angela; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Active living is relevant for healthy child development and disease prevention. In 2011-2012 new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were developed for children under four and 5-17 years of age. This cross-sectional study assessed children's adherence to the national guidelines, using a large sample of Alberta children ages 2-4 and 5-13 years in 2013. The proportions of children achieving the average daily duration of physical activity and screen time recommended were determined, and child and parental predictors of non-achievement were identified. Participants were 631 parent and child dyads. Data were collected by parental reports of physical activity and screen time during weekdays, and analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques (p < 0.05). Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with children's non-achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations while adjusting for covariates. Sixty-two percent of children aged 2-4 and 26% of children aged 5-13 did not meet physical activity time recommendations, and 64% of children aged 2-4 and 23% of children aged 5-13 exceeded the maximum screen time recommendation. Several associations between parental age and education with non-achievement were observed but associations were not consistent across age groups or behaviours. Among preschoolers, those with middle-age parents were more likely to not achieve physical activity recommendations. Evidence of high non-achievement of the recommendations among children 2-4 years highlights the need for increased programming targeting preschool children. Further research is required to identify modifiable risk factors that may inform future health promotion efforts.

  13. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link

    PubMed Central

    Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55–64 yrs), young-old (65–74 yrs), and old (75–84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05) from each other in body mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05) in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by

  14. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    PubMed

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05) from each other in body mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05) in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by

  15. Age-Associated Perceptions of Physical Activity Facilitators and Barriers Among Women in Rural Southernmost Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431

  16. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  17. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  18. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  19. Exposure to heavy physical occupational activities during working life and bone mineral density at the hip at retirement age.

    PubMed

    Walker-Bone, K; D'Angelo, S; Syddall, H E; Palmer, K T; Cooper, C; Coggon, D; Dennison, E M

    2014-05-01

    People in sedentary occupations are at increased risk of hip fracture. Hip fracture is significantly associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the hip. Physical activity is important in the development and maintenance of BMD, but the effects of occupational physical activity on bone health are unclear. We investigated the influence of lifetime physical activity on BMD at the hip. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of the associations between total hip BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at retirement age and lifetime exposure to occupational physical workload (standing/walking ≥4 h/day; lifting ≥25 kg; energetic work sufficient to induce sweating and manual work). Complete data on occupational exposures were available for 860 adults (488 men and 372 women) who had worked ≥20 years. Their mean age was 65 years, and many reported heavy physical workplace activities over prolonged durations. There were no statistically significant associations between total hip BMD and any of these measures of lifetime occupational physical activity in men or women. Lifetime cumulative occupational activity was not associated with hip BMD at retirement age. Our findings suggest that, if sedentary work conveys an increased risk of hip fracture, it is unlikely that the mechanism is through reductions in BMD at the hip and may relate to other physical effects, such as falls risk. Further studies will be needed to test this hypothesis.

  20. Psychosocial determinants of participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Hispanic and Latina middle school-aged girls.

    PubMed

    Foran, Amanda C; Cermak, Sharon A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical activity (PA)-related psychosocial factors, weight status, and self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Latina middle school-aged girls. Baseline data from a middle school-based health behavior study (N = 326) was used. Contrasting activity-level groups were identified (81 most active, 144 least active) and compared. More active girls had significantly greater social support for PA, motivation to exercise, and positive meanings of PA than their less active peers. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) percentile, barriers to PA, or negative meanings of PA between groups. Less active girls reported more screen time activities than the highly active girls. Positive psychosocial factors may be predictive of participation in MVPA for middle school-aged Latina youth. However, BMI may not be directly related to PA participation in this population.

  1. Analysis of newspaper coverage of active aging through the lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-12-05

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of "active aging" and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level of

  2. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in

  3. Evolution of Neuroplasticity in Response to Physical Activity in Old Age: The Case for Dancing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Patrick; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Schmicker, Marlen; Hökelmann, Anita; Dordevic, Milos; Lessmann, Volkmar; Brigadski, Tanja; Kaufmann, Jörn; Müller, Notger G.

    2017-01-01

    From animal research, it is known that combining physical activity with sensory enrichment has stronger and longer-lasting effects on the brain than either treatment alone. For humans dancing has been suggested to be analogous to such combined training. Here we assessed whether a newly designed dance training program that stresses the constant learning of new movement patterns is superior in terms of neuroplasticity to conventional fitness activities with repetitive exercises and whether extending the training duration has additional benefits. Twenty-two healthy seniors (63–80 years) who had been randomly assigned to either a dance or a sport group completed the entire 18-month study. MRI, BDNF and neuropsychological tests were performed at baseline and after 6 and 18 months of intervention. After 6 months, we found a significant increase in gray matter volume in the left precentral gyrus in the dancers compared to controls. This neuroplasticity effect may have been mediated by the increased BDNF plasma levels observed in the dancers. Regarding cognitive measures, both groups showed significant improvements in attention after 6 months and in verbal memory after 18 months. In addition, volume increases in the parahippocampal region were observed in the dancers after 18 months. The results of our study suggest that participating in a long-term dance program that requires constant cognitive and motor learning is superior to engaging in repetitive physical exercises in inducing neuroplasticity in the brains of seniors. Therefore, dance is highly promising in its potential to counteract age-related gray matter decline. PMID:28352225

  4. Does body shaping influence brain shape? Habitual physical activity is linked to brain morphology independent of age.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Brusniak, Wencke; Tunc-Skarka, Nuran; Wolf, Isabella; Meier, Sandra; Matthäus, Franziska; Ende, Gabriele; Schulze, Thomas G; Diener, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) was found to influence human brain morphology. However, the impact of PA on brain morphology was mainly demonstrated in seniors. We investigated healthy individuals across a broad age range for the relation between habitual PA and brain morphology. Ninety-five participants (19-82 years) were assessed for self-reported habitual PA with the "Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire", and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were evaluated with whole brain voxel based morphometry for gray and white matter volumes and densities. Regression analyses revealed a positive relation between the extent of physical activity and gray matter volume bilaterally in the anterior hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus independent of age and gender. Age as well as leisure and locomotion activities were linked to enhanced white matter volumes in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, suggesting a positive interaction especially in seniors. Habitual physical activity is associated with regional volumetric gray and white matter alterations. The positive relation of hippocampal volume and physical activity seems not to be restricted to seniors. Thus, habitual physical activity should be generally considered as an influencing factor in studies investigating medial temporal lobe volume and associated cognitive functions (memory), especially in psychiatric research.

  5. Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Active Aging through the Lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of “active aging” and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level

  6. [The current status of physical activity in urban school-aged children and its association with obesity].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guimin; Su, Zhongjian; Liu, Junting; Yan, Yinkun; Meng, Linghui; Cheng, Hong; Mi, Jie

    2014-04-01

    To understand the current status of physical activity among urban school-aged children and its association with obesity. 295 pupils, aged 9 to 13 years were selected, using the method of convenience sampling. Data on anthropometric measurements was collected, including weight and height. Questionnaire survey, clinic examination, dietary investigation of school lunch and surveillance on 7-day physical activity by pedometers, were done and Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between waist to height ratio (WHtR), fat mass percentage (FMP), body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Single-variable and multiple non-conditional logistic regression modeling were applied to analyze data collected from obesity and physical activities. 15.5% of boys and 13.1% of girls reached 60 minutes per day of 'moderate-vigorous physical activities'. Compared with normal children, overweight/obesity children showed an increase of sedentary activity time, total energy expenditure, and energy expenditure of physical activity. With the increase of 1 hours daily on going to school by private car, WHtR and FMP increased by 0.01 and 2.06 units, respectively. FMP increased 0.89 units among with the increase of sedentary activity time, 1 hour daily. BMI and the intake of leafy vegetables (eg. spinach, cabbage) showed a negative correlation. As the frequency of leafy vegetables consumption increased once weekly, BMI fell 0.10 units. After adjustment for sex and age, the risk of overweight/obesity was 3.82-fold (95%CI: 1.17-12.47) among children who had sedentary activity time more than 120 min/d, than those having less than 120 min/d. Our data showed that children's daily physical activity was not enough and measures should be taken to decrease the time of sedentary behavior and increase the energy expenditure through physical activities.

  7. Moderate physical activity level as a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Yates, Patsy; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Hung, Yi-Jen; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether physical activity is a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors contribute to metabolic syndrome. To minimise the risk of metabolic syndrome, several global guidelines recommend increasing physical activity level. However, only limited research has investigated the relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors. Cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 326 middle-aged and older women was recruited. Metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and physical activity levels were measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample had a mean age of 60·9 years, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43·3%. Postmenopausal women and women with low socioeconomic status (low-education background, without personal income and currently unemployed) had a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, the women with moderate or high physical activity levels had a significantly lower (OR = 0·10; OR = 0·11, p < 0·001) risk of metabolic syndrome and a lower risk for each specific component of metabolic syndrome, including elevated fasting plasma glucose (OR = 0·29; OR = 0·26, p = 0·009), elevated blood pressure (OR = 0·18; OR = 0·32, p = 0·029), elevated triglycerides (OR = 0·41; OR = 0·15, p = 0·001), reduced high-density lipoprotein (OR = 0·28; OR = 0·27, p = 0·004) and central obesity (OR = 0·31; OR = 0·22, p = 0·027). After adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, physical activity level was a significant protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Higher physical

  8. A Holistic Approach to Promoting Physical Activity among School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj

    2011-01-01

    A holistic approach to promote physical activity should become a high priority if society is to overcome the dramatic increase in physical inactivity and kypokinetic diseases associated with it. In order to achieve this goal, a collective effort is urgently needed if everyone is serious in combating this unhealthy and dangerous trend. Schools as a…

  9. A Holistic Approach to Promoting Physical Activity among School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj

    2011-01-01

    A holistic approach to promote physical activity should become a high priority if society is to overcome the dramatic increase in physical inactivity and kypokinetic diseases associated with it. In order to achieve this goal, a collective effort is urgently needed if everyone is serious in combating this unhealthy and dangerous trend. Schools as a…

  10. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  11. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  12. Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Godino, Job G; Selvin, Elizabeth; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Coresh, Josef; Koton, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Low physical activity levels are a public health concern. Few studies have assessed the concordance of physical activity change among spouses. We studied this concordance during a 6-year period (baseline: 1987-1989; follow-up: 1993-1995) in 3,261 spousal pairs from the US-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Linear regression was used to examine the association between change in individuals' sport/exercise and leisure physical activity indices (ranging from 1 (low) to 5 (high)) and change in his or her spouse's indices. The association between individual and spousal changes in meeting physical activity recommendations was assessed with logistic regression. Individual changes in the sport/exercise and leisure indices were positively associated with spousal changes. For every standard deviation increase in their wives' sport/exercise index, men's exercise index increased by 0.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.12) standard deviation; for every standard deviation increase in their wives' leisure index, men's leisure index increased by 0.08 standard deviation. Results were similar for women. Individuals had higher odds of meeting physical activity recommendations if their spouse met recommendations at both visits or just follow-up. In conclusion, changes in an individual's physical activity are positively associated with changes in his or her spouse's physical activity. Physical activity promotion efforts should consider targeting couples. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2008-01-01

    Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.93–10.44) higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28), outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40), playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42) and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10) were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might moderate the effect of

  14. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: the health behaviour in school-aged children study.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2008-09-29

    The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.93-10.44) higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65-11.28), outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32-2.40), playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24-2.42) and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18-2.10) were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might moderate the effect of facilities on recess physical activity

  15. Physical activity and screen time: trends in U.S. children aged 9-13 years, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Huhman, Marian; Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Patnode, Carrie D

    2012-05-01

    We examined trends of physical activity and screen time among nationally representative samples of children aged 9-13 years to explore whether children overall are becoming less physically active and less likely to be in compliance with screen time recommendations. We analyzed Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey data for trends and demographic patterns of free time and organized physical activity, and hours and minutes of watching television and playing video or computer games. Child-parent dyads for 2002 (N = 3114), 2004 (N = 5177), and 2006 (N = 1200) were analyzed. On the day before the interview, and for free time physical activity in the past week, children reported a significant increase in physical activity from 2002-2006. Screen time levels were stable overall; 76.4% of children met the recommendations of 2 hours or less of daily screen time. Levels of physical activity among U.S. children aged 9-13 years were stable, or levels slightly improved from 2002-2006. Except for some subgroup differences, trends for compliance with screen time recommendations were also stable from 2002-2006 for U.S. children aged 9-13 years.

  16. The effect of age, sex, and physical activity on entheseal morphology in a contemporary Italian skeletal collection.

    PubMed

    Milella, Marco; Giovanna Belcastro, Maria; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Mariotti, Valentina

    2012-07-01

    Entheseal changes are traditionally included in a large array of skeletal features commonly referred to as "skeletal markers of activity." However, medical studies and recent anthropological analyses of identified skeletal series suggest a complex combination of physiological and biomechanical factors underlying the variability of such "markers." The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between age, sex, physical activity, and entheseal variability. To this end, 23 postcranial entheses are examined in a large (N = 484) Italian contemporary skeletal series using standardized scoring methods. The sample comprises subjects of known age, sex and, mostly, occupation. Results show a strong relationship between age and entheseal changes. Differences between sexes are also highlighted, while the effects of physical activity appear moderate. Altogether, our study indicates that entheseal morphology primarily reflects the age of an individual, while correlation with lifetime activity remains ambiguous.

  17. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  18. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  19. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE).

    PubMed

    Foy, Capri G; Vitolins, Mara Z; Case, L Douglas; Harris, Susan J; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. © 2013.

  20. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: Rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE)☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Capri G.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Case, L. Douglas; Harris, Susan J.; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J.; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. PMID:23876672

  1. Physical activity, body composition and general health status of physically active students of the University of the Third Age (U3A).

    PubMed

    Zając-Gawlak, Izabela; Pośpiech, Dariusz; Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Mossakowska, Małgorzata; Gába, Aleš; Pelclová, Jana; Přidalová, Miroslava; Kłapcińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate general health status of a group of older adults, physically active students of the University of the Third Age (U3A), based on results of biochemical analyses of blood, assessment of their physical activity (PA) level, body composition and cognitive function with respect to age and sex. A total of 104 students (85 women and 19 men, aged 63.7±6.6 y) of the U3A's located in the Upper Silesia region of Poland volunteered to participate in this study. A habitual PA level and body composition were objectively assessed by using ActiGraph GT1M and InBody 720, respectively. Serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism markers were measured for assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, subjects' cognitive functions were tested. Most of the study participants reached the daily step goal of 10,000 steps and thus fulfilled the ACSM recommendations for the quantity and quality of cardiorespiratory exercise. Highly negative correlations between the number of steps per day and body adiposity markers, serum insulin and HOMA-IR confirmed that vigorous physical activity at the recommended level was associated with better body composition and lower levels of risk markers of coronary heart disease and diabetes. Most of the U3A students were characterized by a favorable lipid profile, prevalence of normal blood pressure, low rates of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance and normal cognitive function. Adherence to ACSM recommendations is associated with beneficial changes in risk factors related to cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of perceived barriers and objectively measured physical activity in adults aged 65-100.

    PubMed

    Gellert, Paul; Witham, Miles D; Crombie, Iain K; Donnan, Peter T; McMurdo, Marion E T; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2015-05-01

    to test the predictive utility of perceived barriers to objectively measured physical activity levels in a stratified sample of older adults when accounting for social-cognitive determinants proposed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and economic and demographic factors. data were analysed from the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland survey, a representative and stratified (65-80 and 80+ years; deprived and affluent) sample of 584 community-dwelling older people, resident in Tayside, Scotland. Physical activity was measured objectively by accelerometry. perceived barriers clustered around the areas of poor health, lack of interest, lack of safety and lack of access. Perceived poor health and lack of interest, but not lack of access or concerns about personal safety, predicted physical activity after controlling for demographic, economic and TPB variables. perceived person-related barriers (poor health and lack of interest) seem to be more strongly associated with physical activity levels than perceived environmental barriers (safety and access) in a large sample of older adults. Perceived barriers are modifiable and may be a target for future interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Physical activity limits the effects of age and Alzheimer's disease on postural control.

    PubMed

    Debove, Lola; Bru, Noelle; Couderc, Martine; Noé, Frederic; Paillard, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study the possible influence of physical activity on the postural performance of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The postural performance (i.e. surface area of the center of foot pressure displacement) of 3 groups was compared: Alzheimer active group (AA), Alzheimer non-active group (ANA) and healthy non-active group (HNA). The AA group's postural performance was superior to that of the ANA and HNA groups. AD disturbed postural performance but participation in regular physical activity made it possible to limit the disturbing effects of AD to a surprising extent, since the postural performance of active AD subjects was also superior to that of healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G.; Kakebeeke, Tanja H.; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S.; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H.; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J.; Schmutz, Einat A.; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E.; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2–6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14–18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  5. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Schmutz, Einat A; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2-6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14-18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  6. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among young and middle-aged men in urban Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muhihi, Alfa; Njelekela, Marina; Mpembeni, Rose; Masesa, Zablon; Kitamori, Kazuya; Mori, Mari; Kato, Norihiro; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and middle aged men in a fast growing city of Mwanza in Tanzania. Physical activity was assessed among 97 healthy men aged 20-50 years using Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Questionnaire. An updated compendium of physical activity was used to code the metabolic equivalent. Energy expenditure was calculated using Harris Benedict equation. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids were also measured. The mean energy expenditure in this population was 6,466 ± 252 kcal/week. More than half (53.6%) of the participants had energy expenditure of ≥ 4,000 kcal/week. Only three (3.1%) had energy expenditure below the recommended 1,000 kcal/week. Except for hypertension, prevalence of CVD risk factors was low in this population; hypertension 23.7%, low HDL-cholesterol 10.3%, high LDL-cholesterol 9.3% and obesity 4.1%. Physical activity energy expenditure had an inversely relationship with waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. Physical activity energy expenditure was high in this population and was inversely correlated with CVD risk factors. Physical activity may play an important role in the prevention of CVD in this urban population of young and middle aged men.

  7. Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew; Scholes, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Background Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty. Objective We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous) performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood’s Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25). Methods Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50–54; 55–59; 60–64; 65–69; 70–74; 75–79; 80+) on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above) and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults. Conclusion Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories. PMID:28152084

  8. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  9. The Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Cognitive Functions in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the “WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children” study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  10. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  11. Walking or dancing: patterns of physical activity by cross-sectional age among U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2013-10-01

    To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups.

  12. E-health physical activity interventions and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity levels among working-age women: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Cole, Christie A; Nerenberg, Kara A; Hiremath, Swapnil; Tulloch, Heather E; Fodor, J George; Szczotka, Agnieszka; McDonnell, Lisa A; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

    2015-01-14

    The rapid pace of modern life requires working-age women to juggle occupational, family, and social demands. Despite the large numbers of working-age women in developed countries and the proven benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity (MVPA) in chronic disease prevention, few women meet current physical activity (PA) recommendations of 150 min of MVPA per week. It is important that appropriate and effective behavioral interventions targeting PA are identified and developed to improve the MVPA levels of working-age women. As women worldwide embrace modern technologies, e-health innovations may provide opportune and convenient methods of implementing programs and strategies to target PA in an effort to improve MVPA levels and cardiometabolic health. Previous reviews on this topic have been limited; none have focused on working-age women from developed countries who exhibit inappropriately low PA levels. It remains unknown as to which e-health interventions are most effective at increasing MVPA levels in this population. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the effectiveness of e-health interventions in raising MVPA levels among working-age women in developed countries and to examine the effectiveness of these interventions in improving the health of women. Eight electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort and experimental studies examining the impact of e-health interventions for increasing MVPA levels among working-age women (mean age 18-65 years) in developed countries. Gray literature including theses, dissertations, and government reports will also be examined. Study quality will be assessed using a modified Downs and Black checklist, and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Cochrane's risk of bias tool and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. A quantitative synthesis in the form of meta-analyses for

  13. [Physical activity of 9 and 15 year old Icelandic children - Public health objectives and relations of physical activity to gender, age, anthropometry and area of living].

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erling

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA). The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraph™ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume. Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day. The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers.

  14. Examining predictors of physical activity among inactive middle-aged women: an application of the health action process approach.

    PubMed

    Barg, Carolyn J; Latimer, Amy E; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Rivers, Susan E; Rench, Tara A; Prapavessis, Harry; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study tested several relationships predicted by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in a sample of 175 generally healthy, inactive, middle-aged women (40-65 yrs old) over a 12 week period. Participants' physical activity, risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, action self-efficacy and intention were measured at baseline. Planning and maintenance self-efficacy were measured 4 weeks later. Physical activity behaviour was measured 12 weeks after baseline. The HAPA relationships were examined using a structural equation model. The data fit the model well and revealed several significant relationships. Action self-efficacy was the best predictor of intention. Maintenance self-efficacy was the best predictor of planning and behaviour. Contrary to the tenets of HAPA and to past research, planning did not predict behaviour. Overall, HAPA provides a useful framework for identifying determinants of physical activity intentions and behaviour within a group of inactive, middle-aged women.

  15. Fit in 50 years: participation in high school sports best predicts one’s physical activity after Age 70

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of physical activity are widely established, including decreased risk for disease and improved mental well-being. Yet many children, adolescents, and adults do not meet the minimum recommendations specified in current public health guidelines and physical activity is known to decrease during the life course. The aim of this study was to identify background or personality characteristics that predict whether a healthy 25 year-old would become a physically active 75 year-old. This could have powerful implications for targeting physical activity and health interventions. Method A unique data set was collected of 712 healthy United States males who passed a rigorous physical exam in the 1940s and who were surveyed 50 years later (in 2000). Their physical activity level after 50 years was correlated and regressed across a wide number of demographic, behavioral, and personality variables from when they were 50 years younger. Data was analyzed in 2012. Results In contrast to prior beliefs, self-rated personality profile as a young man had little predictive influence on later-life physical activity. Instead, the single strongest predictor of later-life physical activity was whether he played a varsity sport in high school, and this was also related to fewer self-reported visits to the doctor. Conclusion Encouraging systematic or frequent physical activity at a young age - whether through school sports or club opportunities - might be the best investment in long-term activeness. This is relevant at a time when funding for many sports programs is being eliminated and play time is being replaced with screen time. PMID:24289060

  16. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity among Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen; Chu, Chia-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Huang, Shih-Tse

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related physical activity (PA) patterns between- and within-day in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PA was recorded every 5-s by uniaxial accelerometry in 35 children (grades 1-2, n = 13; grades 3-4, n = 13; grades 5-6, n = 9) for up to five weekdays and two weekend days. Younger children were…

  17. Effects of Age and Experience on Physical Activity Accumulation during Kin-Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Langevin, Francois; Wadsworth, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    With a specific agenda of creating a fun activity that emphasized teamwork, cooperation, and sportsmanship, Mario Demers, a Canadian physical education professor, created Kin-Ball in the mid 1980s. The game involves three teams of four players each in which a large ball (4 feet diameter and 2.2 pounds weight (1.22 m and 1 kg, respectively) is sent…

  18. Effects of Age and Experience on Physical Activity Accumulation during Kin-Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Langevin, Francois; Wadsworth, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    With a specific agenda of creating a fun activity that emphasized teamwork, cooperation, and sportsmanship, Mario Demers, a Canadian physical education professor, created Kin-Ball in the mid 1980s. The game involves three teams of four players each in which a large ball (4 feet diameter and 2.2 pounds weight (1.22 m and 1 kg, respectively) is sent…

  19. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  20. Total protein, animal protein, and physical activity in relation to muscle mass in middle-aged and older Americans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance training is recognized as a good strategy for retarding age-related declines in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies have also highlighted the potential value of protein intakes in excess of current recommendations. The roles that leisure-time physical activity and protein quality mig...

  1. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  2. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  3. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  4. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  5. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  6. Cognitive-behavioural physical activity treatment in African-American pre-schoolers: effects of age, sex, and BMI.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle

    2013-02-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of 5 years and younger has greatly increased in countries including Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA, with African-Americans most affected in the USA. Low amounts of physical activity may be a primary cause. Interventions intended to increase physical activity during pre-school have had minimal effects. A physical activity intervention derived from self-efficacy and social cognitive theory administered by pre-school teachers in the USA (Start For Life) was contrasted with typical care over 8 weeks. The 30-min-per-day treatment incorporated structured gross motor skill physical activities and training in self-management and self-regulation skills. The African-American children in the treatment (n = 154, 21 classrooms) and control (n = 121, 11 classrooms) groups ranged in age from 3.5 to 5.6 years. Mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variances indicated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in the treatment group when both the children and classrooms were the unit of analysis. Time in sedentary activities was not affected. Together, age, sex and body mass index (BMI) percentile significantly predicted treatment-related changes in MVPA (R(2) = 0.11) and VPA (R(2) = 0.11), with age (β = -0.22 and β = -0.23, respectively) and BMI percentile (β = -0.24 and β = -0.23, respectively) contributing uniquely to the explained variances indicating greater treatment effects for participants who were younger and had a lower BMI percentile. The Start For Life treatment was associated with increased MVPA by approximately 1 h per week, with most of that change being in VPA. After sufficient replication, adjustments may be made to maximise treatment effects. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Physical Activity Types and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; Golubic, Rajna; Schoufour, Josje D; Hofman, Albert; van Rooij, Frank J A; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-04-15

    Physical activity is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The specific physical activity types that provide beneficial effects in an older population remain unclear. We assessed the association of total physical activity, walking, cycling, domestic work, sports, and gardening with CHD by using Cox proportional hazard models among 5,901 participants aged >55 (median age, 67) years from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, enrolled between 1997 and 2001. Activities were categorized into tertiles, and the lowest tertiles were used as reference. In the multivariable model, we adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, diet, and other physical activity types. During 15 years of follow-up (median, 10.3 (interquartile range, 8.0-11.8) years), 642 participants (10.9%) experienced a CHD event. In the multivariable model, the respective hazard ratios for the medium and high categories compared with the low category were 0.79 (95% confidence interval CI): 0.66, 0.96) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.87) for total physical activity, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.88) for cycling, and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.98) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.90) for domestic work. Walking, sports, and gardening were not associated with CHD. In conclusion, in this long-term follow-up study of older adults, domestic work and cycling were associated with reduced CHD risk. Physical activity should be promoted in this population with the aim to prevent CHD.

  8. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  9. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ian; Leblanc, Allana G

    2010-05-11

    The purpose was to: 1) perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2) make recommendations based on the findings. The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese). To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. The following recommendations were made: 1) Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2) More vigorous intensity activities should be incorporated or added when possible

  10. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose was to: 1) perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2) make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese). To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1) Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2) More vigorous intensity activities should

  11. Physical Activity at Mid-Life in Relation to Successful Survival in Women at Age 70 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hu, Frank B.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and premature death. Whether physical activity is also associated with improved overall health among those who survive to older ages is unclear. Methods A total of 13,535 Nurses’ Health Study participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in 1986 and had survived to age 70 years or older as of 1995–2001 comprised the study population. We defined successful survival as no history of 11 major chronic diseases and no cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher physical activity levels at mid-life, as measured by metabolic equivalent tasks, were significantly associated with better odds of successful survival. Significant increases in successful survival were observed beginning at the third quintile of activity: Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in the lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 0.98 (0.80, 1.20), 1.37 (1.13, 1.65), 1.34 (1.11, 1.61), and 1.99 (1.66, 2.38; P for trend < 0.0001). Increasing energy expenditure from walking was associated with a similar elevation in odds of successful survival: The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of successful survival across quintiles of walking were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.80, 1.21), 1.19 (0.97, 1.45), 1.50 (1.24, 1.82), and 1.47 (1.22, 1.79; P for trend < 0.0001). Conclusion These data provide evidence that higher levels of mid-life physical activity are associated with exceptional health status among women who survive to older ages, and corroborate the potential role of physical activity in improving overall health. PMID:20101015

  12. Feelings of energy are associated with physical activity and sleep quality, but not adiposity, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Binkowski, Jessica A; Rogers, Laura Q; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-03-01

    Feelings of fatigue and low energy are widespread among middle-aged women and have been shown to negatively affect quality of life. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among adiposity, physical activity, and feelings of fatigue and energy in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (N = 74; mean [SD] age, 58.9 [3.8] y) were assessed for adiposity (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), steps per day, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (via an accelerometer), prior week intensity of psychological vigor (via the Profile of Mood States-Short Form), and prior month frequency of energy feelings (via the vitality scale of the 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey--Short Form). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale. Adiposity was negatively related to steps per day (r = -0.55, P < 0.05) and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (r = -0.48, P < 0.05). Adiposity was not significantly related to vigor, vitality, or any other psychological measures. Greater vitality was associated with lower total number of medications (r = -0.31, P < 0.01), more steps per day (r = 0.28, P < 0.05), and higher minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (r = 0.37, P < 0.01). Prior week feelings of vigor were unrelated to any variable of interest. Regression analyses revealed that minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day independently explained 8% of the variance in vitality, whereas sleep quality was also a significant predictor of vitality (both P < 0.05). Engaging in recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day is associated with higher monthly frequency of energy feelings, regardless of adiposity status, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

  13. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database.

    PubMed

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J; Andersen, Lars B; Cardon, Greet; Page, Angie; Davey, Rachel; Grøntved, Anders; Hallal, Pedro C; Janz, Kathleen F; Kordas, Katarzyna; Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena J; Sardinha, Luis B; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008-2010) providing ≥ 1 day accelerometer data (International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD)). Linear regression was used to investigate age-related patterns in vigorous-intensity activity; models included age (exposure), adjustments for monitor wear-time and study. Moderate-intensity activity was examined for comparison. Interactions were used to investigate whether the age/vigorous-activity association differed by sex, weight status, ethnicity, maternal education and region. A 6.9% (95% CI 6.2, 7.5) relative reduction in mean vigorous-intensity activity with every year of age was observed; for moderate activity the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had comparatively lower average vigorous-intensity activity at 5.0-5.9 y. Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5

  14. Mapping and evaluation of physical activity interventions for school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J; Bruce-Low, S; Henderson, S; Davies, J

    2016-07-01

    A high degree of de-regulation, organisational fragmentation and funding cuts throughout UK schools in recent years has obscured the definitive structure and effectiveness of physical activity (PA) provision offered to children. This pilot study aimed to map the current structure and context of PA provision offered to school children in Southampton, and its alignment with existing empirical evidence about the likely effectiveness of such interventions. Utilising a qualitative approach, the study focused upon school-based PA provision, since this setting was conjectured to show greater diversity when compared to settings outside of school, lending itself to further interventions than non-school PA provision. Interventions offered across nine schools (three junior, two primary, four secondary) were investigated and mapped through semi-structured interviews. Findings were benchmarked against other cities similar to Southampton in indices of multiple deprivation status via interviews with city council workers. Interviews highlighted only three formal PA specific interventions currently operating, and a hand full of informal interventions. Limited PA provision was attributed to a lack of time, money, and priority devoted towards PA within schools. Considerable disparity exists between the high prevalence of sport-oriented provision compared with the low prevalence of PA specific provision. Interviews with Portsmouth and Bristol city councils suggest that such findings may not be unique to Southampton. In contrast to the extensive literature base detailing numerous PA interventions in school-aged children, our data suggest that a very small amount of such knowledge appears to translate into PA provision offered in Southampton schools. Our data highlight a significant discrepancy between sport and PA provision across schools. It is possible that the inability to successfully differentiate between sport and PA may present a further obstacle to the successful uptake of PA

  15. Accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and successful ageing: results from the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Menai, Mehdi; van Hees, Vincent T.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is key for successful ageing, but questions remain regarding the optimal physical activity pattern. We examined the cross-sectional association between physical activity and successful ageing using data on 3,749 participants (age range = 60–83years) of the Whitehall II study. The participants underwent a clinical assessment, completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire, and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days. Successful ageing was defined as good cognitive, motor, and respiratory functioning, along with absence of disability, mental health problems, and major chronic diseases. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) episodes assessed by accelerometer was classified as “short” (1–9.59 minutes) and “long” (≥10 minutes) bouts. Linear multivariate regression showed that successful agers (N = 789) reported 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39–6.19) minutes more daily MVPA than other participants. Accelerometer data showed this difference to be 3.40 (95% CI:2.44–4.35) minutes for MVPA undertaken in short bouts, 4.16 (95% CI:3.11–5.20) minutes for long bouts, and 7.55 (95% CI:5.86–9.24) minutes for all MVPA bouts lasting 1 minute or more. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that participants undertaking ≥150 minutes of MVPA per week were more likely to be successful agers with both self-reported (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.29,95% (CI):1.09–1.53) and accelerometer data (length bout ≥1 minute:OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.60–2.30). Successful agers practice more MVPA, having both more short and long bouts, than non-successful agers. PMID:28367987

  16. The benefits of staying active in old age: physical activity counteracts the negative influence of PICALM, BIN1, and CLU risk alleles on episodic memory functioning.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Beata; Laukka, Erika J; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Angleman, Sara; Keller, Lina; Graff, Caroline; Lövdén, Martin; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-06-01

    PICALM, BIN1, CLU, and APOE are top candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, and they influence episodic memory performance in old age. Physical activity, however, has been shown to protect against age-related decline and counteract genetic influences on cognition. The aims of this study were to assess whether (a) a genetic risk constellation of PICALM, BIN1, and CLU polymorphisms influences cognitive performance in old age; and (b) if physical activity moderates this effect. Data from the SNAC-K population-based study were used, including 2,480 individuals (age range = 60 to 100 years) free of dementia at baseline and at 3- to 6-year follow-ups. Tasks assessing episodic memory, perceptual speed, knowledge, and verbal fluency were administered. Physical activity was measured using self-reports. Individuals who had engaged in frequent health- or fitness-enhancing activities within the past year were compared with those who were inactive. Genetic risk scores were computed based on an integration of risk alleles for PICALM (rs3851179 G allele, rs541458 T allele), BIN1 (rs744373 G allele), and CLU (rs11136000 T allele). High genetic risk was associated with reduced episodic memory performance, controlling for age, education, vascular risk factors, chronic diseases, activities of daily living, and APOE gene status. Critically, physical activity attenuated the effects of genetic risk on episodic memory. Our findings suggest that participants with high genetic risk who maintain a physically active lifestyle show selective benefits in episodic memory performance.

  17. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men.

  18. Aging in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income: associations with physical activity and obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Ahn, David K; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    While there is a growing literature on the relations between neighborhood design and health factors such as physical activity and obesity, less focus has been placed on older adults, who may be particularly vulnerable to environmental influences. This study evaluates the relations among objectively measured neighborhood design, mobility impairment, and physical activity and body weight in two U.S. regional samples of community dwelling older adults living in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income levels. An observational design involving two time points six months apart was employed between 2005 and 2008. U.S. Census block groups in Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore, Maryland-Washington DC regions were selected via geographic information systems to maximize variability in walkability and income. Participants were 719 adults ages 66 years and older who were able to complete surveys in English and walk at least 10 feet continuously. Measurements included reported walking or bicycling for errands (i.e., transport activity) and other outdoor aerobic activities measured via the CHAMPS questionnaire: accelerometry-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; reported body mass index; and reported lower extremity mobility impairment measured via the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument. Across regions, time, and neighborhood income, older adults living in more walkable neighborhoods had more transport activity and moderate-to- vigorous physical activity and lower body mass index relative to those living in less walkable neighborhoods. The most mobility-impaired adults living in more walkable neighborhoods reported transport activity levels that were similar to less mobility-impaired adults living in less walkable neighborhoods. The results add to the small literature aimed at understanding how neighborhood design may influence physical activity and related aspects of health linked with day-to-day function and independence as people age

  19. Self-efficacy regarding physical activity is superior to self-assessed activity level, in long-term prediction of cardiovascular events in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats; Schmidt, Caroline

    2015-08-25

    Self-efficacy has been determined to be a strong predictor of who will engage in physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the associations between self-efficacy to perform physical activity, self-reported leisure-time physical activity and cardiovascular events in a population-based cohort of middle-aged Swedish men with no previous cardiovascular disease, or treatment with cardiovascular drugs. Analyses are based on 377 men randomly selected and stratified for weight and insulin sensitivity from a population sample of 58-year-old men (n = 1728) and who had answered a question about their competence to perform exercise (as an assessment of physical self-efficacy). The Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale was used to assess self-reported levels of leisure-time physical activity. Cardiovascular events were recorded during 13-years of follow-up. The group with poor self-efficacy to perform physical activity had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events compared with the group with good physical self-efficacy (32.1% vs 17.1%, p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses showed that poor physical self-efficacy was associated with an increased relative risk of 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.0), of having a cardiovascular event during follow-up also after adjustments for co-variates such as waist to hip ratio, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, apoB/apoA-I ratio and leisure-time physical activity. Self-efficacy to perform physical activity was strongly and independently associated with cardiovascular events and was superior to self-assessed physical activity in predicting cardiovascular events during 13-years of follow-up in a group of middle-aged men, without known CVD or treatment with cardiovascular drugs.

  20. Impact of physical activity on executive functions in aging: a selective effect on inhibition among old adults.

    PubMed

    Boucard, Geoffroy K; Albinet, Cédric T; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Bouquet, Cédric A; Clarys, David; Audiffren, Michel

    2012-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of physical activity on three different executive functions (shifting, inhibition, and updating) and to examine whether cardiovascular fitness was a good mediator of the positive link(s) between these variables. Sixty-three young adults (18-28 years), 30 young-old adults (60-70 years) and 30 old adults (71-81 years) were divided into physically active and sedentary groups according to physical activity level (assessed from an accelerometer and the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire). Cardiovascular fitness was assessed by VO2max from the Rockport 1 mile. Each executive function was assessed through three different experimental tasks. ANCOVAs revealed that the effect of physical activity level was specific to the old adults and significant for inhibition, but not for updating and shifting. Mediation analysis showed that this positive effect in the old adults group was mediated by cardiovascular fitness level. The present findings highlight the positive linkages among physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and inhibition in aging.

  1. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes.

  2. Aging and intuitive physics.

    PubMed

    Léoni, Véronique; Mullet, Etienne; Chasseigne, Gerard

    2002-07-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing the judgment capacities manifested by young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people in an everyday life setting implying the consideration of direct as well as inverse relationships between the cues and the criterion. The chosen situation was borrowed from elementary physics and concerned the relationships between mass, volume and density. In forming their estimations of mass, all elderly people were able to use volume and density information. In addition, most of them were able to combine these pieces of information in a correct, multiplicative way. In forming their estimations of volume, all elderly people were able to use mass and density information but a majority of them used the density information in a direct way. By contrast, most young and middle-aged adults correctly used the density information in an inverse way. The findings strengthen and extend the case made by Chasseigne et al. [Acta Psychologica 97 (1997) 235] as regards the trouble elderly people face in using inverse relationships in a judgment situation. The difficulty elderly people face is not confined to learning settings. It may also be observed in ecological, non-learning environments, where the relationships considered do not entirely depend on the experimenter's choice.

  3. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Brach, Jennifer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether older adults who exercise demonstrate higher levels of physical function than those who do not exercise but are physically active throughout the day. Cross-sectional examination of baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Health ABC field centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Three thousand seventy-five well-functioning black and white men and women aged 70 to 79. Physical activity and exercise were assessed using a modified leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Participants were classified as inactive (reporting <1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity and < or =2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), lifestyle active (reporting <1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity and >2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), or exerciser (reporting> or =1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity). Physical function measures included the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) battery, the Health ABC battery, a 400-m walk test, and isokinetic strength testing of the knee extensors. The lifestyle active and exerciser groups had similar total activity levels (men: 6,135 kcal/wk and 6,734 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.108; women: 5,695 kcal/wk and 5,854 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.335). When examining lower extremity performance in relation to physical activity, a progressive trend was evident, with the inactive individuals most likely to have impaired performance on the EPESE battery (men: 33.7%, 24.3%, and 19.1%, P<.001; women: 49.9%, 37.3%, and 28.4%, P<.001; inactive, lifestyle active, and exerciser, respectively). Progressive trends of similar magnitude were present for the Health ABC battery, time to walk 400 m, and knee extensor strength. In multivariate linear regression, those in the inactive and lifestyle active groups had poorer scores on the Health ABC performance battery than individuals in the exercise group after controlling for demographic factors and

  5. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  6. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  7. Loading dose of physical activity is related to muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Jaswinder; Lee, Raymond; Luo, Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between loading dose of physical activity, muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women. Thirty four healthy women (mean age=49.8±7.5years) were recruited. They were requested to wear an accelerometer for a period of 10h (from 9am to 7pm) on a day to record the acceleration. On a separate day their knee extension torque (KET) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at the heel by an ultrasound bone scanner. The loading dose of physical activity was calculated at four intensity categories - very light, light, moderate, and vigorous (intensities of <5BW/s, 5-10BW/s, 10-15BW/s and >15BW/s) and for three frequency bands - 0.1-2Hz, 2-4Hz, and 4-6Hz. Correlation analysis was used to examine the association between loading dose and age, KET, and BUA. With the increase of age, there tended to be a decrease in the loading dose of vigorous activity in 2-4 and 4-6Hz frequency bands (Kendall's tau=-.22, p<.1). The increase of loading dose in all three frequency bands in moderate or vigorous activity was associated with higher BUA (Kendall's tau=.27-.41, p<.05). The increase of loading dose in all frequency bands in light, moderate, or vigorous activity was associated with higher KET (Kendall's tau=.30-.45, p<.05). It is concluded that physical activity, especially that at high intensity level and high frequency range, may have beneficial effect on muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women.

  8. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  9. Depressed mood but not fatigue mediate the relationship between physical activity and perceived stress in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Elavsky, Steriani; Gold, Carol H

    2009-12-20

    To determine whether depressed mood and fatigue mediate the relationships between physical activity, body mass index, menopausal hot flashes, and perceived stress. This study is a secondary analysis of data obtained from a sub-sample of peri- and postmenopausal women (N=212) from the TREMIN Research Program on Women's Health. The hypothesized mediational model was tested using path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework in Mplus Version 5.1. In unadjusted analysis, the relationships between physical activity, menopausal hot flashes, and perceived stress were mediated by depressed mood; fatigue mediated the relationships between hot flashes, body mass index, and perceived stress. When adjusting for age, insomnia, menopausal and hormone use status, the mediational effects of depressed mood on stress remained significant only for physical activity, and fatigue mediated the relationship between hot flashes and stress. The adjusted model explained 70% of variance in perceived stress, 82% of variance in depressed mood, and 81% of variance in fatigue. Depressed mood may partially explain the relationship between physical activity and perceived stress in middle-aged women, however further studies are needed to corroborate causality.

  10. Spousal social activity trajectories in the Australian longitudinal study of ageing in the context of cognitive, physical, and affective resources.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis; Luszcz, Mary

    2008-01-01

    We examined the dyadic interdependence of spousal social activity trajectories over 11 years by using longitudinal data on 565 couples from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (M age = 76 years at Time 1). Social activity trajectories were interrelated in elderly couples, and they depended not only on individual but also on spousal cognitive, physical, and affective resources at baseline. Most associations examined were similar in husbands and wives. However, wives performed more social activities and displayed different depression-social activity associations than did husbands. We found stronger within-couple associations in the domain of social activities than for cognition. Our findings illustrate the important role of social relationships for late-life development and suggest that the mechanisms involved in dyadic interdependencies may be domain and gender specific.

  11. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  12. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  13. Harnessing Different Motivational Frames via Mobile Phones to Promote Daily Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Hekler, Eric B.; Grieco, Lauren A.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Buman, Matthew P.; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N.; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An “analytically” framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A “socially” framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An “affectively” framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring

  14. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  15. Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

    2010-02-01

    The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  16. The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Odim, Angenay P; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

  17. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  18. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ) which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%). Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity). Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities) were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED), non-sedentary (non-SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary) or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC) or kappa (κ) values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1) and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1), was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1) and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1) or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1) cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA) was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from 0

  19. Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  20. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  1. Physical activity, adiposity, and diabetes risk in middle-aged and older Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Corpeleijn, Eva; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Thomas, G Neil; Schooling, C Mary; Zhang, Weisen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M; Stolk, Ronald P; Lam, Tai Hing

    2010-11-01

    Physical activity may modify the association of adiposity with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the independent and joint association of adiposity and physical activity with fasting plasma glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Middle-aged and older Chinese (n=28,946, ≥50 years, 72.4%women) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were examined in 2003-2008. Multivariable regression was used in a cross-sectional analysis. BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were positively associated with type 2 diabetes after multiple adjustment, most strongly for WHR with odds ratio (OR) of 3.99 (95% CI 3.60-4.42) for highest compared with lowest tertile. Lack of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not walking, was associated with diabetes with an OR of 1.29 (1.17-1.41). The association of moderate-to-vigorous activity with fasting glucose varied with WHR tertiles (P=0.01 for interaction). Within the high WHR tertile, participants who had a lack of moderate-to-vigorous activity had an OR of 3.87 (3.22-4.65) for diabetes, whereas those who were active had an OR of 2.94 (2.41-3.59). In this population, WHR was a better measure of adiposity-related diabetes risk than BMI or waist circumference. Higher moderate-to-vigorous activity was associated with lower diabetes risk, especially in abdominally obese individuals.

  2. Genetic Factors Moderate Everyday Physical Activity Effects on Executive Functions in Aging: Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Thibeau, Sherilyn; McFall, G. Peggy; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Everyday physical activity (EPA) is an important modifiable contributor to age-related variability in executive functioning (EF). However its role may be moderated by non-modifiable genetic factors. We tested independent and interactive effects of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF rs6265) and Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE rs6583817) on EF and EPA-EF relationships. Method The sample consisted of genotyped older adults (N=577, M age=70.47 years) over three waves (~9 years) of the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Analyses included (a) confirmatory factor analysis establishing a single latent EF factor from four standard EF tasks, (b) latent growth modeling over a 40-year band of aging (ages 53-95), and (c) structural regression to investigate the independent and interactive effects of BDNF, IDE and EPA. Results First, higher levels of EPA were associated with better EF performance at the centering age (75 years) and less EF decline. Second, IDE G+ (protective) carriers exhibited better EF performance at age 75 than their G− (non-protective) peers. Third, within the IDE G+ carrier group, those with higher EPA exhibited better EF performance and slower decline over time than those with lower EPA. Fourth, for the BDNF homozygote Val group higher EPA was associated with better EF performance and more gradual EF change; however, this beneficial effect was not seen for Met carriers. Conclusion The effect of modifiable physical health factors on EF is moderated by biological mechanisms associated with risk-protection genetic polymorphisms. PMID:26710092

  3. Prevalence of physical activity behaviour in older people: findings from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project and Australian national survey data.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jane; Birrell, Carole L; Hunt, Susan; Browning, Colette; Burns, Richard A; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Many older people lead sedentary lives. National Health Survey physical activity prevalence data provide limited coverage of the 'old old' (≥75 years). The Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project's dataset provided physical activity data for 13,420 participants. Physical activity (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities in the previous week) was measured. Data were weighted and prevalence was calculated. The frequency of walking in DYNOPTA was similar to that in the national sample. Walking remained relatively stable until a decline among persons aged 80 years and over; moderate and vigorous activity declined in all but a minority of persons aged 70 years and over. Although DYNOPTA participants reported more physical activity than those in the contemporary national survey, the rates of sedentary behaviour were high. We require more information about the 'oldest old' (85+ years). There is great scope for increasing physical activity, even walking, among older people. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  4. Strategic priorities for increasing physical activity among adults age 50 and older: the national blueprint consensus conference summary report.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2003-12-01

    On May 1, 2001, a coalition of national organizations released a major planning document designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was developed with input from 46 organizations with expertise in health, medicine, social and behavioral sciences, epidemiology, gerontology/geriatrics, clinical science, public policy, marketing, medical systems, community organization, and environmental issues. The Blueprint notes that, despite a wealth of evidence about the benefits of physical activity for mid-life and older persons, there has been little success in convincing age 50+ Americans to adopt physically active lifestyles. The Blueprint identifies barriers in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical systems, public policy and advocacy, and marketing and communications. In addition to identifying barriers, the Blueprint proposes a number of concrete strategies that could be employed in order to overcome the barriers to physical activity in society at large. This report summarizes the outcome of the National Blueprint Consensus Conference that was held in October 2002. In this conference, representatives of more than 50 national organizations convened in Washington, D.C. with the goal of identifying high priority and high feasibility strategies which would advance the National Blueprint and which could be initiated within the next 12 to 24 months. Participants in the consensus conference were assigned to one of five breakout groups: home and community, marketing, medical systems, public policy, and research. Each breakout group was charged with identifying the three highest priority strategies within their area for effectively increasing physical activity levels in the mid-life and older adult population. In addition to the 15 strategies identified by the breakout groups, three

  5. The role of physical activity in early adulthood and middle-age on bone health after menopause in epidemiological population from Silesia Osteo Active Study.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Elżbieta; Zagórski, Piotr; Martela, Katarzyna; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Kuźniewicz, Roman; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing problem in women after menopause. Among factors protecting from this disease is a physical activity (PA). The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of PA in early adulthood and at middle-age on bone health after menopause. The study group consisted of 362 randomly recruited postmenopausal women after menopause. Mean age was 65.2±6.9 years. Medical history was collected from all participants, and they completed questionnaires assessing PA in early adulthood and at middle-age. Physical capacity was estimated using the Duke scale. Bone status was measured with use of densitometry (DXA) for lumbar spine and hip and calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements. Physical activity and healthy lifestyle activity in early adulthood did not correlate with bone health, but current PA did (for QUS parameters r=.11; P<.05). Physical capacity correlated with all QUS parameters (r=.2 to .22; P<.05) and femoral neck (FN) BMD and T-score (for both r=.16; P<.05). Current PA frequency at the level of several times a week has the highest positive impact on FN DXA results (P=.01). Bone mass in DXA and QUS variables is related to the type of exercises (P<.05). Physical activity, especially several times a week, at middle-age is a major factor influencing bone health in women after menopause. Further studies concerning the type of exercises are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patterns of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation in a British Birth Cohort at Early Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60–64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index. PMID:24911018

  7. Patterns of leisure-time physical activity participation in a British birth cohort at early old age.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn R; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60-64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥ 2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index.

  8. The Aging Urban Brain: Analyzing Outdoor Physical Activity Using the Emotiv Affectiv Suite in Older People.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Tilley, Sara; Mavros, Panagiotis; Cinderby, Steve; Coyne, Richard; Thin, Neil; Bennett, Gary; Thompson, Catharine Ward

    2017-09-11

    This research directly assesses older people's neural activation in response to a changing urban environment while walking, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). The study builds on previous research that shows changes in cortical activity while moving through different urban settings. The current study extends this methodology to explore previously unstudied outcomes in older people aged 65 years or more (n = 95). Participants were recruited to walk one of six scenarios pairing urban busy (a commercial street with traffic), urban quiet (a residential street) and urban green (a public park) spaces in a counterbalanced design, wearing a mobile Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place. Each walk lasted around 15 min and was undertaken at the pace of the participant. We report on the outputs for these responses derived from the Emotiv Affectiv Suite software, which creates emotional parameters ('excitement', 'frustration', 'engagement' and 'meditation') with a real-time value assigned to them. The six walking scenarios were compared using a form of high dimensional correlated component regression (CCR) on difference data, capturing the change between one setting and another. The results showed that levels of 'engagement' were higher in the urban green space compared to those of the urban busy and urban quiet spaces, whereas levels of 'excitement' were higher in the urban busy environment compared with those of the urban green space and quiet urban space. In both cases, this effect is shown regardless of the order of exposure to these different environments. These results suggest that there are neural signatures associated with the experience of different urban spaces which may reflect the older age of the sample as well as the condition of the spaces themselves. The urban green space appears to have a restorative effect on this group of older adults.

  9. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Cabo, Helena; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Viña, Jose; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules with regulatory functions, and in young and adult organisms, the formation of ROS is increased during skeletal muscle contractions. However, ROS can be deleterious to cells when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the antioxidant system. Aging is associated with accumulation of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Given the pro-oxidant effect of skeletal muscle contractions, this effect of age could be a result of excessive ROS formation. We evaluated the effect of acute exercise on changes in blood redox state across the leg of young (23 ± 1 years) and older (66 ± 2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62 ± 2 years) were included. Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal muscle expression of the superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects were increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle and vascular dysfunction with sedentary aging. Lifelong physical activity upregulates antioxidant systems, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lack of exercise-induced increase in GSSG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Free Bus Travel and Physical Activity, Gait Speed, and Adiposity in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Webb, Elizabeth; Laverty, Anthony; Mindell, Jenny; Millett, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We investigated associations between having a bus pass, enabling free local bus travel across the United Kingdom for state pension-aged people, and physical activity, gait speed, and adiposity. We used data on 4650 bus pass-eligible people (aged ≥ 62 years) at wave 6 (2012-2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in regression analyses. Bus pass holders were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 2.02; P < .001), retired (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 2.10, 3.35; P < .001), without access to a car (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.83, 4.21; P < .001), to use public transportation (OR = 10.26; 95% CI = 8.33, 12.64; P < .001), and to be physically active (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.84; P = .004). Female pass holders had faster gait speed (b = 0.06 meters per second; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.09; P = .001), a body mass index 1 kilogram per meter squared lower (b = -1.20; 95% CI = -1.93, -0.46; P = .001), and waist circumference 3 centimeters smaller (b = -3.32; 95% CI = -5.02, -1.62; P < .001) than women without a pass. Free bus travel for older people helps make transportation universally accessible, including for those at risk for social isolation. Those with a bus pass are more physically active. Among women in particular, the bus pass is associated with healthier aging.

  12. Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica Joan; Gray, Casey Ellen; Borghese, Michael M; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pate, Russell R; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is essential for disease prevention and health promotion. Emerging evidence suggests other intensities of physical activity (PA), including light-intensity activity (LPA), may also be important, but there has been no rigorous evaluation of the evidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively measured PA (total and all intensities) and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (volumes, durations, frequencies, intensities, and patterns of objectively measured PA), and outcome (body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms, bone health, motor skill development, psychological distress, self-esteem). Heterogeneity among studies precluded meta-analyses; narrative synthesis was conducted. A total of 162 studies were included (204 171 participants from 31 countries). Overall, total PA was favourably associated with physical, psychological/social, and cognitive health indicators. Relationships were more consistent and robust for higher (e.g., MVPA) versus lower (e.g., LPA) intensity PA. All patterns of activity (sporadic, bouts, continuous) provided benefit. LPA was favourably associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers; data were scarce for other outcomes. These findings continue to support the importance of at least 60 min/day of MVPA for disease prevention and health promotion in children and youth, but also highlight the potential benefits of LPA and total PA. All intensities of PA should be considered in future work aimed at better elucidating the health benefits of PA in children and youth.

  13. Relationship between the type and amount of physical activity and low back pain in Koreans aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won; Jin, Young Soo; Lee, Choon Sung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Sang Yoon; Chung, Sun G; Choi, Kyoung Hyo

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between the type and amount of physical activity (PA) and low back pain (LBP) in people aged ≥50 years. Cross-sectional study. A nationwide survey. Data were obtained from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted in 2010 and 2011. Overall, 1796 men and 2198 women aged ≥50 years were included. PA was categorized as vigorous, moderate, walking, strength exercises, or flexibility exercises. The total amount of PA was presented as quartiles of the total metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes/week based on the PA questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between LBP and the type and amount of PA. Odds ratio for LBP according to the type of PA and the quartiles of the total MET-minutes/week. After adjusting for age and body mass index, vigorous and moderate PA were associated with an increased risk of LBP in both men and women, whereas strength exercises were associated with a reduced risk of LBP. These associations were maintained after adjusting for all potential confounders. Subgroup analysis according to age revealed that these trends were most significantly demonstrated in women aged ≥65 years. The PA quartiles for total MET-minutes/week for men showed a U-shaped association with LBP, whereas only the fourth PA quartile for women showed an increased risk of LBP compared with the second quartile. These results suggest that both the type and amount of PA affect the development of LBP in people aged ≥50 years and thus activity modification might be helpful for prevention and management of LBP. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  15. Variations in observed park physical activity intensity level by gender, race, and age: individual and joint effects.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Hastmann, Tanis J; Besenyi, Gina M

    2011-09-01

    Parks are important settings for physical activity (PA), but few studies have documented the actual behaviors of park users. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and joint effects of various park user demographic characteristics on observed PA intensity levels. Four parks were observed using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities. Observers recorded the age group, gender, race, and intensity level of all park users in 83 activity areas over two weekends at each park. Logistic regression examined whether male/White, female/White, and male/non-White users were more likely than female/non-White users to be observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) rather than sedentary activity across 4 age groups. In total, 8612 users were observed during the study. In the child age group, male/White users were significantly more likely to be observed in MVPA than female/non-White users. For teens, female/White and male/White users were less likely to engage in MVPA. For both adults and seniors, female/White and male/White users were more likely to be observed in MVPA. Observations revealed significant differences in intensity levels across gender, age, and race groups. Future interventions should emphasize park design that promotes increased MVPA among diverse groups.

  16. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  17. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  18. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Methods/Design Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18–65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity

  19. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...

  20. Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Ryan; Poirier, Martin P; Louie, Jeffrey C; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-08-24

    We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  1. Regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery distensibility in young to middle-age stage 1 hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Casiglia, Edoardo; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of physical activity with small artery elasticity in the early stage of hypertension. We examined 366 young-to-middle-age stage 1 hypertensives (mean blood pressure 145.6±10.3/92.5±5.8 mmHg), divided into two categories of physical activity, sedentary (n=264) and non-sedentary (n=102) subjects. The augmentation index was measured using the Specaway DAT System. Small artery compliance (C2) was measured by applanation tonometry, at the radial artery, with an HDI CR2000 device. After 6 years of follow-up, arterial distensibility assessment was repeated in 151 subjects. Heart rate was lower in active than in sedentary subjects (71.2±8.9 vs 76.6±9.7 bpm, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, heart rate, smoking, and blood pressure, C2 was higher (8.0±2.6 vs 6.4±3.0 ml/mmHg × 100, p=0.008) in non-sedentary than in sedentary patients. The augmentation index was smaller in the former (8.8±20.1 vs 16.8±26.5%, p=0.044) but the difference lost statistical significance after further adjustment for blood pressure. After 6 years, C2 was still higher in the non-sedentary than sedentary subjects. In addition, an improvement in the augmentation index accompanied by a decline in total peripheral resistance was found in the former. These data show that regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery elasticity in the early phase of hypertension. This association persists over time and is independent of blood pressure and heart rate.

  2. Physical Activity as a Moderator of the Relationship between Aging and Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrot, Alexandra; Gagnon, Christine; Bertsch, Jean

    2009-01-01

    A relatively universal observation in aging studies is that cognitive functions inevitably decline across the adult life span. More specifically, executive functions decline substantially with age, as do the frontal and prefrontal brain regions that support them. Indeed, these regions are subject to important neurological modifications with…

  3. Physical Activity as a Moderator of the Relationship between Aging and Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrot, Alexandra; Gagnon, Christine; Bertsch, Jean

    2009-01-01

    A relatively universal observation in aging studies is that cognitive functions inevitably decline across the adult life span. More specifically, executive functions decline substantially with age, as do the frontal and prefrontal brain regions that support them. Indeed, these regions are subject to important neurological modifications with…

  4. Steps to Health in Cognitive Aging: Effects of Physical Activity on Spatial Attention and Executive Control in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Condello, Giancarlo; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Shea, John B.; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) habits may positively impact performance of the orienting and executive control networks in community-dwelling aging individuals and diabetics, who are at risk of cognitive dysfunction. To this aim, we tested cross-sectionally whether age, ranging from late middle-age to old adulthood, and PA level independently or interactively predict different facets of the attentional performance. Hundred and thirty female and male individuals and 22 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 55–84 years were recruited and their daily PA (steps) was objectively measured by means of armband monitors. Participants performed a multifunctional attentional go/no-go reaction time (RT) task in which spatial attention was cued by means of informative direct cues of different sizes followed by compound stimuli with local and global target features. The performance efficiency of the orienting networks was estimated by computing RT differences between validly and invalidly cued trials, that of the executive control networks by computing local switch costs that are RT differences between switch and non-switch trials in mixed blocks of global and local target trials. In regression analyses performed on the data of non-diabetic elderlies, overall RTs and orienting effects resulted jointly predicted by age and steps. Age predicted overall RTs in low-active individuals, but orienting effects and response errors in high-active individuals. Switch costs were predicted by age only, with larger costs at older age. In the analysis conducted with the 22 diabetics and 22 matched non-diabetic elderlies, diabetic status and daily steps predicted longer and shorter RTs, respectively. Results suggest that high PA levels exert beneficial, but differentiated effects on processing speed and attentional networks performance in aging individuals that partially counteract the detrimental effects of advancing age and diabetic status. In

  5. Steps to Health in Cognitive Aging: Effects of Physical Activity on Spatial Attention and Executive Control in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Condello, Giancarlo; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Shea, John B; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) habits may positively impact performance of the orienting and executive control networks in community-dwelling aging individuals and diabetics, who are at risk of cognitive dysfunction. To this aim, we tested cross-sectionally whether age, ranging from late middle-age to old adulthood, and PA level independently or interactively predict different facets of the attentional performance. Hundred and thirty female and male individuals and 22 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 55-84 years were recruited and their daily PA (steps) was objectively measured by means of armband monitors. Participants performed a multifunctional attentional go/no-go reaction time (RT) task in which spatial attention was cued by means of informative direct cues of different sizes followed by compound stimuli with local and global target features. The performance efficiency of the orienting networks was estimated by computing RT differences between validly and invalidly cued trials, that of the executive control networks by computing local switch costs that are RT differences between switch and non-switch trials in mixed blocks of global and local target trials. In regression analyses performed on the data of non-diabetic elderlies, overall RTs and orienting effects resulted jointly predicted by age and steps. Age predicted overall RTs in low-active individuals, but orienting effects and response errors in high-active individuals. Switch costs were predicted by age only, with larger costs at older age. In the analysis conducted with the 22 diabetics and 22 matched non-diabetic elderlies, diabetic status and daily steps predicted longer and shorter RTs, respectively. Results suggest that high PA levels exert beneficial, but differentiated effects on processing speed and attentional networks performance in aging individuals that partially counteract the detrimental effects of advancing age and diabetic status. In

  6. Physical Activity-Related Injury Profile in Children and Adolescents According to Their Age, Maturation, and Level of Sports Participation.

    PubMed

    Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Maria Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, one-third of school-age children practicing sports regularly suffer from an injury. These injuries are associated with sex, chronological age, and PA level. To identify the importance of age, PA level, and maturity as predictors of injury in Portuguese youth. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 3. Information about injury and PA level was assessed via 2 questionnaires (LESADO RAPIL II) from 647 subjects aged 10 to 17 years. Maturity offset according to Mirwald (time before or after peak height velocity) and Tanner-Whitehouse III bone age estimates were used to evaluate maturation. Binary logistic regression and gamma regression were used to determine significant predictors of injury and injury rate. Injury occurrence was higher for both sexes in recreational, school, and federated athletes (athletes engaged in sports that are regulated by their respective federations, with formal competition). These injuries also increased with age in boys and in the higher maturity offset group in girls. Injury rate was higher for both sexes in the no sports participation group. Early-maturing girls, with higher bone age and lower maturity offset, showed higher injury rate. Injuries in Portuguese youth were related to PA level, age, and biological maturation. Recreational, school, and federated athletes had more injury ocurrences while subjects with no sports participation had higher injury risk. Older subjects had more injuries. Early-maturing girls that had just passed peak height velocity may be particularly vulnerable to risk of sports injury because of the growing process. Increased knowledge about injury with specific PA exposure data is important to an overall risk management strategy. This study has deepened the association between injury and biological maturation variables.

  7. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Miranda E.G.; Cairns, Benjamin J.; Banks, Emily; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    While increasing age, decreasing body mass index (BMI), and physical inactivity are known to increase hip fracture risk, whether these factors have similar effects on other common fractures is not well established. We used prospectively-collected data from a large cohort to examine the role of these factors on the risk of incident ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. 1,155,304 postmenopausal participants in the Million Women Study with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years, provided information about lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors at recruitment in 1996–2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service cause-specific hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions. During follow-up for an average of 8.3 years per woman, 6807 women had an incident ankle fracture, 9733 an incident wrist fracture, and 5267 an incident hip fracture. Adjusted absolute and relative risks (RRs) for incident ankle, wrist, and hip fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. Age-specific rates for wrist and hip fractures increased sharply with age, whereas rates for ankle fracture did not. Cumulative absolute risks from ages 50 to 84 years per 100 women were 2.5 (95%CI 2.2–2.8) for ankle fracture, 5.0 (95%CI 4.4–5.5) for wrist fracture, and 6.2 (95%CI 5.5–7.0) for hip fracture. Compared with lean women (BMI < 20 kg/m2), obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had a three-fold increased risk of ankle fracture (RR = 3.07; 95%CI 2.53–3.74), but a substantially reduced risk of wrist fracture and especially of hip fracture (RR = 0.57; 0.51–0.64 and 0.23; 0.21–0.27, respectively). Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture but was not associated with ankle or wrist fracture risk. Ankle, wrist and hip fractures are extremely common in postmenopausal women, but the associations with age, adiposity, and physical activity differ substantially between the three fracture sites. PMID:22465850

  8. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Miranda E G; Cairns, Benjamin J; Banks, Emily; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    While increasing age, decreasing body mass index (BMI), and physical inactivity are known to increase hip fracture risk, whether these factors have similar effects on other common fractures is not well established. We used prospectively-collected data from a large cohort to examine the role of these factors on the risk of incident ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. 1,155,304 postmenopausal participants in the Million Women Study with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years, provided information about lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors at recruitment in 1996-2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service cause-specific hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions. During follow-up for an average of 8.3 years per woman, 6807 women had an incident ankle fracture, 9733 an incident wrist fracture, and 5267 an incident hip fracture. Adjusted absolute and relative risks (RRs) for incident ankle, wrist, and hip fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. Age-specific rates for wrist and hip fractures increased sharply with age, whereas rates for ankle fracture did not. Cumulative absolute risks from ages 50 to 84 years per 100 women were 2.5 (95%CI 2.2-2.8) for ankle fracture, 5.0 (95%CI 4.4-5.5) for wrist fracture, and 6.2 (95%CI 5.5-7.0) for hip fracture. Compared with lean women (BMI<20 kg/m(2)), obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)) had a three-fold increased risk of ankle fracture (RR=3.07; 95%CI 2.53-3.74), but a substantially reduced risk of wrist fracture and especially of hip fracture (RR=0.57; 0.51-0.64 and 0.23; 0.21-0.27, respectively). Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture but was not associated with ankle or wrist fracture risk. Ankle, wrist and hip fractures are extremely common in postmenopausal women, but the associations with age, adiposity, and physical activity differ substantially between the three fracture sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: The impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Sames, C; Swisher, L; Swick, A G; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Steppan, C M; Sagendorf, K S; Feiglin, D; Jaynes, E B; Meyer, R A; Weinstock, R S

    2001-08-01

    Age-related increases in total body fat have been reported, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of menopausal status on abdominal fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, we investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution on blood lipid profiles and leptin concentrations. Twenty-three premenopausal (PRE), 27 postmenopausal (POST), and 28 postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) had measurements of regional abdominal fat, blood lipids, and serum leptin concentrations. The women were matched for body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass. Age and menopausal status were not found to be significant predictors of total abdominal fat, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, while physical activity was a significant predictor (P <.01) for total abdominal fat (R(2) =.16), visceral fat (R(2) =.32) and percent visceral fat (R(2) =.25). There was a trend for a greater visceral fat content in the POST women compared with the PRE women (2,495.0 +/- 228.4 v 1,770.4 +/- 240.8 cm(2), respectively, P =.06). The percent visceral abdominal fat was significantly lower (P <.05) in the premenopausal women than in either postmenopausal group (PRE, 23.2% +/- 1.7%; POST, 28.9% +/- 1.8%; ERT, 28.9% +/- 1.6%). Menopausal status and age did not influence any of the blood lipid values. Abdominal fat distribution was a significant predictor of cholesterol concentrations and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, but only accounted for approximately 15% of the variability in these levels. Total body fat and physical activity accounted for 47% of the variability in leptin concentrations, while abdominal fat distribution, age, and menopausal status were not significant predictors. In conclusion, in early postmenopausal women, the level of physical activity accounts for the variability in abdominal fat distribution observed

  10. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  11. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults.

  12. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  13. Are Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Measured Equivalently Between Sexes, Age Groups, and Ethnicities?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667

  14. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  15. Physical Activity Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG or the Guidelines) are an essential resource for health professional and policymakers. Based on the latest science, they provide guidance on how children and adults ...

  16. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE) and physical activity (PA), less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414), from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m). An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults. PMID:21854598

  17. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES).

    PubMed

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nakaya, Tomoki; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori

    2011-08-19

    Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE) and physical activity (PA), less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414), from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m). An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults.

  18. Aging, rhythms of physical performance, and adjustment to changes in the sleep-activity cycle.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J; Atkinson, G

    1997-11-01

    Shiftwork causes disturbances of the normal sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm. There is concern that aging workers have more problems than younger counterparts when the human body clock is disrupted. This review considers issues relating to aging, the circadian body clock, and adjustment to altered sleep-wake schedules. Reports on effects of aging on the human body clock were reviewed. Research concerned with adjustment to circadian phase shifts (as occurs in night work) was considered. With aging there is an increased tendency towards morningness which is linked with difficulties in sleeping. The peak time and amplitude of normal circadian rhythms are altered. Tolerance of shiftwork can be linked with social factors as well as adaptation of the body clock. People habituated to night work seem to have developed mechanisms which allow them to cope with disruptions to lifestyle and the endogenous body clock. Elderly people are more suited to phase advances, as occur in morning workshifts, than to phase delays such as nocturnal work.

  19. Effectiveness of a physical activity and weight loss intervention for middle-aged women: healthy bodies, healthy hearts randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Molly B; Sward, Kathleen L; Spadaro, Kathleen C; Tudorascu, Dana; Karpov, Irina; Jones, Bobby L; Kriska, Andrea M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-02-01

    Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and remains highly prevalent in middle-aged women. We hypothesized that an interventionist-led (IL), primary-care-based physical activity (PA) and weight loss intervention would increase PA levels and decrease weight to a greater degree than a self-guided (SG) program. We conducted a randomized trial. Ninety-nine inactive women aged 45-65 years and with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were recruited from three primary care clinics. The interventionist-led (IL) group (n = 49) had 12 weekly sessions of 30 min discussions with 30 min of moderate-intensity PA. The self-guided (SG) group (n = 50) received a manual for independent use. Assessments were conducted at 0, 3, and 12 months; PA and weight were primary outcomes. Weight was measured with a standardized protocol. Leisure PA levels were assessed using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Differences in changes by group were analyzed with a t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Mixed models were used to analyze differences in changes of outcomes by group, using an intention-to-treat principle. Data from 98 women were available for analysis. At baseline, mean (SD) age was 53.9 (5.4) years and 37 % were black. Mean weight was 92.3 (17.7) kg and mean BMI was 34.7 (5.9) kg/m(2). Median PA level was 2.8 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hour/week) (IQR 0.0, 12.0). At 3 months, IL women had a significantly greater increase in PA levels (7.5 vs. 1.9 MET-hour/week; p = 0.02) than SG women; there was no significant difference in weight change. At 12 months, the difference between groups was no longer significant (4.7 vs. 0.7 MET-hour/week; p = 0.38). Mixed model analysis showed a significant (p = 0.048) difference in PA change between groups at 3 months only. The IL intervention was successful in increasing the physical activity levels of obese, inactive middle-aged women in the short-term. No significant changes in weight were observed.

  20. Android Adiposity and Lack of Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Are Associated With Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark D; Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Rexach, José A; Burant, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be interdependent "lifestyle" factors and thus, many older adults are at exaggerated risk for preventable diseases. The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of discordance between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity among adults older than 50 years, and to determine the extent to which direct measures of adiposity, and objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) or diabetes. A population representative sample of 2,816 individuals, aged 50-85 years, was included from the combined 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and android adiposity as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, objectively measured SB and PA, established markers of cardiometabolic risk, IR, and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Approximately 50% of the men and 64% of the women who were normal weight according to BMI had excessive %BF. Adults with the least SB and greatest moderate and vigorous PA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest activity had highest risk. Greater android adiposity stores were robustly associated with IR or diabetes in all adults, independent of SB and activity. Among men, less moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IR or diabetes; whereas among women, less lifestyle moderate activity was associated with IR or diabetes. Android adiposity and low moderate and vigorous PA are the strongest predictors of IR or diabetes among aging adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Relationship between Levels of Physical Activity and Quality of Life among Students of the University of the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Krzepota, Justyna; Biernat, Elżbieta; Florkiewicz, Beata

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of quality of life (QoL) among elderly people is of great importance when preparing health care programmes for this social group. Many researchers indicate that poor health is less frequently observed in senior citizens who display levels of physical activity (PA) prescribed by WHO. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the level of PA among students of the University of the Third Age (U3A) and their self-assessment concerning their QoL. The research sample consisted of 131 students from three U3A in West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. PA was assessed with the aid of a short Polish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The assessment of QoL was conducted with the use of a Polish version of the WHO Quality of Life--BREF instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). The present study has shown that highly active U3A students declare high QoL in the psychological and social domains more often than other respondents. The level of PA recommended by WHO has a positive impact on the perceived QoL. Possible differences are visible mostly in the assessment of different domains of life in relation to the presented levels of PA. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  2. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katelyn N.; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40–70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  3. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site-Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Armstrong, Miranda Eg

    2016-08-01

    Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions with a mean follow-up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site-specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow-up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age-specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2) ), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p < 0.001 for all). Strenuous activity was significantly associated with a decreased risk of fracture of the humerus and femur (both neck and remainder of femur) (p < 0.001), but was not significantly associated with lower leg, ankle, wrist, and forearm fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a high lifetime risk of fracture. BMI and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for fracture, but their associations with fracture risk differ substantially across fracture sites. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published

  4. Self-reported physical activity and objective aerobic fitness: differential associations with gray matter density in healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; McGregor, Keith M.; Towler, Stephen; Nocera, Joe R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness (AF) and self-reported physical activity (srPA) do not represent the same construct. However, many exercise and brain aging studies interchangeably use AF and srPA measures, which may be problematic with regards to how these metrics are associated with brain outcomes, such as morphology. If AF and PA measures captured the same phenomena, regional brain volumes associated with these measures should directly overlap. This study employed the general linear model to examine the differential association between objectively-measured AF (treadmill assessment) and srPA (questionnaire) with gray matter density (GMd) in 29 cognitively unimpaired community-dwelling older adults using voxel based morphometry. The results show significant regional variance in terms of GMd when comparing AF and srPA as predictors. Higher AF was associated with greater GMd in the cerebellum only, while srPA displayed positive associations with GMd in occipito-temporal, left perisylvian, and frontal regions after correcting for age. Importantly, only AF level, and not srPA, modified the relationship between age and GMd, such that higher levels of AF were associated with increased GMd in older age, while decreased GMd was seen in those with lower AF as a function of age. These results support existing literature suggesting that both AF and PA exert beneficial effects on GMd, but only AF served as a buffer against age-related GMd loss. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for use of objective PA measurement and comparability of tools across studies, since results vary dependent upon the measures used and whether these are objective or subjective in nature. PMID:25691866

  5. Improving Academic Performance of School-Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…

  6. Improving Academic Performance of School-Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…

  7. Association of regular physical activity with total and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and older Chinese: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Runbo; Liu, Yuewei; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Dongming; He, Meian; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Youjie; Guo, Huan; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2017-01-04

    Association between physical activity and mortality has rarely been investigated among the Chinese population. Furthermore, the most appropriate amount of physical activity for longevity benefits remains unclear. We used data from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, including 24,606 middle-aged and older retired adults in 2008 and followed to 2013, to quantify linear and non-linear dose-response relationships between regular physical activity and mortality risks by Cox proportional hazards model. Compared with participants who did not engage in regular physical activity, those performing regular physical activity had significantly 46%, 56%, and 49% decreased risks of mortality from all causes, circulatory, and respiratory diseases, respectively. Each one-SD increase in regular physical activity was associated with 32% decrease of respiratory disease mortality. There were significant nonlinear dose-response associations between regular physical activity and mortality from all causes and circulatory diseases. Mortality risks decreased monotonically with increased regular physical activity amount, and appeared to reach a threshold at around 100 MET-hours/week. More mortality benefits were found among non-smokers than that among current and former smokers. Our results suggest that middle-aged and older Chinese adults can achieve mortality benefits from regular physical activity at the WHO recommended minimum, and the benefit threshold appears at approximately 100 MET hours/week.

  8. Association of regular physical activity with total and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and older Chinese: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Runbo; Liu, Yuewei; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Dongming; He, Meian; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Youjie; Guo, Huan; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    Association between physical activity and mortality has rarely been investigated among the Chinese population. Furthermore, the most appropriate amount of physical activity for longevity benefits remains unclear. We used data from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, including 24,606 middle-aged and older retired adults in 2008 and followed to 2013, to quantify linear and non-linear dose-response relationships between regular physical activity and mortality risks by Cox proportional hazards model. Compared with participants who did not engage in regular physical activity, those performing regular physical activity had significantly 46%, 56%, and 49% decreased risks of mortality from all causes, circulatory, and respiratory diseases, respectively. Each one-SD increase in regular physical activity was associated with 32% decrease of respiratory disease mortality. There were significant nonlinear dose-response associations between regular physical activity and mortality from all causes and circulatory diseases. Mortality risks decreased monotonically with increased regular physical activity amount, and appeared to reach a threshold at around 100 MET-hours/week. More mortality benefits were found among non-smokers than that among current and former smokers. Our results suggest that middle-aged and older Chinese adults can achieve mortality benefits from regular physical activity at the WHO recommended minimum, and the benefit threshold appears at approximately 100 MET hours/week. PMID:28051177

  9. Effects of the Start For Life treatment on physical activity in primarily African American preschool children of ages 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2013-01-01

    In U.S. children of ages 2-5 years, combined overweight and obesity has increased to 21%, with African American children of this age range highest at 26%. Lack of physical activity is highly predictive of overweight and obesity in children. Preschools may be a useful point for intervention. An innovative preschool physical activity treatment (Start For Life) was developed based on principles of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory. It incorporated 30 minutes daily of highly structured physical activity with behavioral and self-regulatory skills training (e.g. goal setting, self-monitoring, productive self-talk) interspersed. Data obtained from accelerometry was used to contrast physical activity outputs during the preschool day in the Start For Life condition (n = 202) with a usual-care control condition (n = 136). After controlling for age and sex of the primarily African American participants (M age = 4.7 years), changes over eight weeks in moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity were significant, and significantly more favorable in the Start For Life group; F(1, 344) = 4.98, p = .026 and F(1, 344) = 3.60, p = .058, respectively. Start For Life was associated with a weekly increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of approximately 40 minutes. After sufficient replications that better account for different sample types, parental effects and physical activity outside of the school day, and long-term effects, widespread dissemination may be considered.

  10. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Background Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Aim Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. Material and Methods PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9–75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9–12, 13–17, 18–64, and 65–75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Results Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Conclusion Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the

  11. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R(2)=0.19) and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R(2)=0.15). Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001) and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01). Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05), but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p<005) and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005). Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings. Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These

  12. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Møller, Bente K.; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T.; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. Objective To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. Design We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Results Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.19) and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.15). Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001) and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01). Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05), but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p<005) and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005). Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings. Conclusions Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not

  13. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9-75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9-12, 13-17, 18-64, and 65-75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the Spanish population.

  14. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site‐Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day‐case or overnight admissions with a mean follow‐up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site‐specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow‐up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age‐specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m2), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p < 0.001 for all). Strenuous activity was significantly associated with a decreased risk of fracture of the humerus and femur (both neck and remainder of femur) (p < 0.001), but was not significantly associated with lower leg, ankle, wrist, and forearm fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a high lifetime risk of fracture. BMI and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for fracture, but their associations with fracture risk differ substantially across fracture sites. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral

  15. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    PubMed

    Laudani, Luca; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi; della Croce, Ugo; Cereatti, Andrea; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity) and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years), 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years) and 24 older (70 ± 3 years) gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume) and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity) were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume and intensity

  16. Pathways to interleukin-6 in healthy males and serious leisure male athletes: physical activity, body composition and age.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Leah; M Macey, Paul; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is beneficial to overall health, in part due to physiological changes that lower risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including reduced inflammation. However, the mechanism by which PA reduces inflammation is unclear. One possible pathway is that PA improves body composition which in turn reduces inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess PA-body composition -inflammation pathways, as well as influences of age. In a sample of 72 healthy males with a range of PA profiles (age 18-65, mean ± sd = ), we measured PA as metabolic equivalent tasks (as per the International PA Questionnaire), body composition as percent body fat, lean mass, and fat mass, and inflammation as plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). We treated body composition in the SEM analysis as a latent variable indicated by the three measures. We performed statistical corrections for missing values and one outlier. The model demonstrated significant effects of PA on IL-6 both directly and through body composition. Percent body fat, fat mass, and lean mass were significant indicators of the body composition latent variable. Additionally, age showed an indirect effect on IL-6 through body composition, but no direct effect. The findings suggest that PA does improve inflammatory profile through improving body composition, but that other pathways also exist.

  17. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children.

  18. Cardiovascular Events in a Physical Activity Intervention Compared With a Successful Aging Intervention: The LIFE Study Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B; Dodson, John A; Church, Timothy S; Buford, Thomas W; Fielding, Roger A; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Beavers, Daniel; Pahor, Marco; Stafford, Randall S; Szady, Anita D; Ambrosius, Walter T; McDermott, Mary M

    2016-08-01

    Whether sustained physical activity prevents cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in older adults is uncertain. To test the hypothesis that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality would be reduced in participants in a long-term physical activity program. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicenter, randomized trial. Participants were recruited at 8 centers in the United States. We randomized 1635 sedentary men and women aged 70 to 89 years with a Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score of 9 or less but able to walk 400 m. The physcial activity (PA) intervention was a structured moderate-intensity program, predominantly walking 2 times per week on site for 2.6 years on average. The successful aging intervention consisted of weekly health education sessions for 6 months, then monthly. Total CVD events, including fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and peripheral artery disease, were adjudicated by committee, and silent myocardial infarction was assessed by serial electrocardiograms. A limited outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and CVD death was also studied. Outcome assessors and adjudicators were blinded to intervention assignment. The 1635 LIFE study participants were predominantly women (67%), with a mean (SD) age of 78.7 (5.2) years; 20% were African-American, 6% were Hispanic or other race or ethnic group, and 74% were non-Latino white. New CVD events occurred in 121 of 818 PA participants (14.8%) and 113 of 817 successful aging participants (13.8%) (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.85-1.42). For the more focused combined outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death, rates were 4.6% in PA and 4.5% in the successful aging group (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67-1.66). Among frailer participants with an SPPB score less than 8, total CVD rates were 14.2% in PA vs 17.7% in successful aging (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.52-1.10), compared with 15.3% vs 10.5% among those

  19. A Study of the Effects of Physical Activity on Asthmatic Symptoms and Obesity Risk in Elementary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Michael S.; Kim, Danny H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with moderate persistent asthma are often reluctant to engage in physical activity and as a result are more prone to obesity and increased incidence of asthma attacks. Purpose: This study developed an asthma program that included physical activity and asthma management education for elementary school children with moderate…

  20. A Study of the Effects of Physical Activity on Asthmatic Symptoms and Obesity Risk in Elementary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Michael S.; Kim, Danny H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with moderate persistent asthma are often reluctant to engage in physical activity and as a result are more prone to obesity and increased incidence of asthma attacks. Purpose: This study developed an asthma program that included physical activity and asthma management education for elementary school children with moderate…

  1. Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years, 2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Burt, Vicki L.; Song, MinKyoung; Fulton, Janet E.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, which have been adopted by the First Lady's Let's Move! initiative and the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend that youth participate in "daily" moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes. This report presents the most recent national data from 2012 on…

  2. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  3. Student Self-Reports of Metacognitive Activity in Physical Education Classes. Age-Group Differences and the Effect of Goal Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou, Argiris; Mantis, Konstantinos; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined age-group differences in students' self-reports of metacognitive activity in physical education settings. Five hundred and ten students of public elementary, junior and senior high school provided self-reports concerning the metacognitive processes they use during physical education lessons, their goal orientations and…

  4. The Contribution of Youth Sport Football to Weekend Physical Activity for Males Aged 9 to 16 Years: Variability Related to Age and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and vigorous PA accrued in youth sport football (also internationally referred to as soccer), and the contribution toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA for males aged 9-16 years, and (2) to investigate variability in these outcomes related to age and playing position. One hundred and nine male grassroots footballers (Mean age = 11.98 ± 1.75 years) wore a GT3× accelerometer for 7 days. Weekend youth sport football participation and playing position were recorded. Youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA (M = 51.51 ± 17.99) and vigorous PA (M = 27.78 ± 14.55) contributed 60.27% and 70.68% toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA, respectively. Overall, 36.70% of participants accumulated ≥60 min moderate-to-vigorous PA and 69.70% accrued ≥ 20 min of vigorous PA during youth sport. For participants aged 13 to16 years, youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA were significantly higher, and contributed a greater amount toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA than for participants aged 9-12 years (p = <.01). Youth sport football is an important source of moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA at the weekend for male youth, and particularly for adolescents. Participation may offer opportunity for weekend engagement in vigorous PA toward health enhancing levels.

  5. Physical activity and exercise performance predict long-term prognosis in middle-aged women surviving acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalili, F; Janszky, I; Andersson, A; Svane, B; Schenck-Gustafsson, K

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the importance of exercise testing (ET) parameters and leisure time physical activity in predicting long-term prognosis in middle-aged women hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Women aged <66 years recently hospitalized for ACS in the Greater Stockholm area in Sweden were recruited. All underwent baseline clinical examinations including ET and then were followed up for 9 years. Nonparticipation in ET had a hazard ratio of 4.26 (95% confidence interval 2.02-8.95) for total mortality and 3.03 (1.03-8.91) for cardiovascular mortality. All ET parameters were significantly different between survivors than nonsurvivors, except for chest pain and ST-segment depression during ET. Sedentary lifestyle and ET parameters were related to total mortality and cardiovascular mortality in a multivariate analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Predictors of total mortality were sedentary lifestyle 2.94 (1.31-6.62), exercise time 1.75 (1.07-2.87) and inadequate haemodynamic responses: low increase in pulse rate 2.04 (1.16-3.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) 1.88 (1.19-2.95) from rest to peak exercise. Parameters that predicted cardiovascular mortality were sedentary lifestyle 3.15 (1.13-8.74) and poor increase in SBP 2.76 (1.30-5.86) from rest to peak exercise. The relation of sedentary lifestyle to survival was substantially weakened when exercise parameters were added to the multivariate analysis model. In female patients <66 years surviving ACS, important independent predictors of long-term all-cause mortality were sedentary lifestyle, low physical fitness and inadequate pulse rate and SBP increase during exercise. Predictors of cardiovascular mortality were sedentary lifestyle and inadequate blood pressure response during exercise.

  6. Healthy aging and where you live: community design relationships with physical activity and body weight in older Americans.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lawrence; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; King, Abby

    2010-03-01

    Suburban development patterns may impede physical activity (PA) and mobility and affect healthy aging. This paper investigates the relationships between neighborhood design and walking, driving, PA, and obesity in adults over age 65 years. Data from the SMARTRAQ (Atlanta region) survey provided measures of PA, BMI, SES, and travel patterns. Neighborhood design was measured using a walkability index (residential density, street connectivity, retail density, and land use mix). Chi square and regression was used to evaluate relationships. Increased walkability was related with more walking (OR 2.02), less time spent traveling in a car (OR .53), and lower odds of being overweight (OR .68). Those with 1 or no cars were more likely to walk (OR 2.9) and spend less time in cars (OR .53); but also less likely to get recommended levels of PA (OR .55). Visiting a fast food outlet was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR 1.81). Policies are needed to bring older Americans closer to shops and services and healthy food outlets as a means of encouraging regular walking and healthy body weight. Incentives to encourage neighborhood grocery stores and affordable housing in central areas along with regulatory reform through zoning can encourage PA and healthy body weight in the elderly.

  7. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(<29, 2+ full-term pregnancies), 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR

  8. Patterns and correlates of physical activity behaviour over 10 years in older adults: prospective analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lee; Gardner, Benjamin; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-04-15

    Few studies have examined how levels of activity intensity fluctuate throughout later life in older adults and no study has identified correlates of sustained activity levels in this age group. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate stability of activity over a 10-year period and identify potential correlates of sustained activity levels in older adults. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participant-reported physical activity data were collected in 2002 (baseline), 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Participant age, sex, smoking, depressive symptoms, work status, wealth, and long-standing illness were recorded at baseline. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline exposure variables and persistent physical activity (reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week at all 6 assessments over the 10-year time period). A total of 5022 participants (mean age 61 years; 2114 male) were included in the analyses. There was reasonable stability in the physical activity measure over the 6 time points (Cronbach's α 0.85). There was an overall trend for increasing levels of inactivity and a reduction in vigorous activity. Age, female sex, having ever smoked, long-standing illness, arthritis, obesity, and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of being persistently active (defined as reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week over all 6 assessment points). Those with greater wealth were 4 times more likely to be persistently active. In the present analyses time spent in vigorous-intensity activity declined in later life. A range of sociodemographic and biomedical factors were associated with being persistently active in older adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Patterns and correlates of physical activity behaviour over 10 years in older adults: prospective analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Gardner, Benjamin; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined how levels of activity intensity fluctuate throughout later life in older adults and no study has identified correlates of sustained activity levels in this age group. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate stability of activity over a 10-year period and identify potential correlates of sustained activity levels in older adults. Design Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participant-reported physical activity data were collected in 2002 (baseline), 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Participant age, sex, smoking, depressive symptoms, work status, wealth, and long-standing illness were recorded at baseline. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline exposure variables and persistent physical activity (reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week at all 6 assessments over the 10-year time period). Results A total of 5022 participants (mean age 61 years; 2114 male) were included in the analyses. There was reasonable stability in the physical activity measure over the 6 time points (Cronbach's α 0.85). There was an overall trend for increasing levels of inactivity and a reduction in vigorous activity. Age, female sex, having ever smoked, long-standing illness, arthritis, obesity, and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of being persistently active (defined as reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week over all 6 assessment points). Those with greater wealth were 4 times more likely to be persistently active. Conclusions In the present analyses time spent in vigorous-intensity activity declined in later life. A range of sociodemographic and biomedical factors were associated with being persistently active in older adults. PMID:25877281

  10. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Groeller, Herbert; McGinn, Ryan; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-06-01

    The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function. Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts. Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness.

  11. Associations between Multiple Accelerometry-Assessed Physical Activity Parameters and Selected Health Outcomes in Elderly People – Results from the KORA-Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortlieb, Sandra; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Nowak, Dennis; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Kuhn, Klaus A.; Karrasch, Stefan; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometry is an important method for extending our knowledge about intensity, duration, frequency and patterns of physical activity needed to promote health. This study has used accelerometry to detect associations between intensity levels and related activity patterns with multimorbidity and disability. Moreover, the proportion of people meeting the physical activity recommendations for older people was assessed. Methods Physical activity was measured in 168 subjects (78 males; 65–89 years of age), using triaxial GT3X accelerometers for ten consecutive days. The associations between physical activity parameters and multimorbidity or disability was examined using multiple logistic regression models, which were adjusted for gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, lung function, nutrition and multimorbidity or disability. Results 35.7% of the participants met the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week. Only 11.9% reached these 150 minutes, when only bouts of at least 10 minutes were counted. Differences in moderate to vigorous activity between people with and without multimorbidity or disability were more obvious when shorter bouts instead of only longer bouts were included. Univariate analyses showed an inverse relationship between physical activity and multimorbidity or disability for light and moderate to vigorous physical activity. A higher proportion of long activity bouts spent sedentarily was associated with higher risk for multimorbidity, whereas a high proportion of long bouts in light activity seemed to prevent disability. After adjustment for covariates, there were no significant associations, anymore. Conclusions The accumulated time in moderate to vigorous physical activity seems to have a stronger relationship with health and functioning when shorter activity bouts and not only longer bouts were counted. We could not detect an association of the intensity

  12. Factors influencing the participation of middle-aged and older Latin-American women in physical activity: a stroke-prevention behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of regular physical activity for preventing stroke and cardiovascular disease, middle-aged and older Latin-American women continue to be physically inactive and demonstrate a high incidence of obesity. Ethnographic methodology was used to explore factors that influenced this health behavior in 25 Latin-American women. Perceptions of health, the health activities in which they engaged, and the factors that influenced their participation in physical activity comprised the three categories of responses. Facilitators and barriers were identified as the two primary categories and were further sorted into intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Conclusions of this study were that these Latin American women, despite multiple role demands and other barriers, participated in some form of physical activity; however, culturally sensitive strategies are needed to promote sustained physical activity in this population.

  13. Impact of physical activity and body composition on heart function and morphology in middle-aged, abdominally obese women.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Michael; Uddén, Joanna; Hemmingsson, Erik; Agewall, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have shown training induced morphological changes in the heart. Our aim was to assess how frequent, low-intensity exercise (walking and cycling) influences heart function and morphology in abdominally obese women. Fifty women with abdominal obesity (mean age 47.0 +/- 7.5 years, waist circumference (WC) 103.2 +/- 7.8 cm), free of cardiovascular problems were recruited. They were equipped with a bicycle and pedometers and instructed to start commuting in a physically active way for 6 months. Evaluation of cardiac function and morphology was performed using echocardiography (ECHO) before and after 6 months of training. The subjects increased significantly their daily physical activity. After 6 months, there was a significant decrease in WC (from 103.3 +/- 7.9 to 100.8 +/- 8.4 cm, P = 0.0003), in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (126.8 +/- 15.2 to 120.4 +/- 14.5 mmHg, P = 0.0001, and 79.8 +/- 7.8 to 77.8 +/- 8.4 mmHg, P = 0.0006, respectively). ECHO showed an increase in the right ventricular (RV) systolic longitudinal function expressed as tricuspid annular motion from 22.00 +/- 3.30 to 23.05 +/- 3.59 mm, P = 0.015; and a similar trend in left ventricular (LV) mitral annular motion, which increased from 13.09 +/- 1.53 to 13.39 +/- 1.47 mm, P = 0.070. Cycling was associated with reductions in LV systolic and RV diastolic dimensions, whereas walking was not associated with any changes in the ECHO-variables. A reduction in WC by frequent, low-intensity exercise in abdominally obese women is associated with decrease in blood pressure and improved longitudinal RV systolic function.

  14. [Analysis on prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z H; Dong, Y H; Song, Y; Yang, Z P; Ma, J

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To explore the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China. Methods: A total of 220 159 students (110 039 boys and 110 120 girls) aged 9-22 years who completed the questionnaire of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors were selected from " 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" for the current study. All the participants were divided into 2 groups, i.e. physical activity time <1 hour and physical activity time ≥1 hour according the suggestion of Central Government, stratified by age and gender. χ(2) tests were used to compare the difference in the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour between boys and girls in every age groups. Univariate and multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to explore the factors that influenced the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour. Results: The boy's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 73.3%, with the lowest (57.0%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (82.5%) in 18 years old group. The girl's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 79.1%, with the lowest (60.1%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (89.8%) in 21 years old group. Overall, The prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<0.001), and the prevalence were significantly higher in girls than in boys in all the age groups (P<0.001), and it was observed that the prevalence of physical activity <1 hour increased with age in both boys and girls (P<0.001). Multivariate log-binomial regression model found that being girl (PR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.05-1.06), parents' disliking children to participate physical activity (PR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.07-1.09), heavy homework (PR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.12-1.14), long homework time (PR =1.08, 95%CI: 1.07-1.08), long time spending on electronic screen watching (PR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) and disliking physical class (PR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.10-1.12) could be the risk factors for

  15. Physical Activity Is not Associated with Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Results from the Population-Based Longitudinal Doetinchem Study

    PubMed Central

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hulsegge, Gerben; Hartman, Linda; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2015-01-01

    There is debate as to whether physical inactivity is associated with reduced kidney function. We studied the prospective association of (changes in) physical activity with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adult men and women. We included 3,935 participants aged 26 to 65 years from the Doetinchem Cohort study, examined every 5 years for 15 years. Physical activity was assessed at each round using the Cambridge Physical Activity Index. Using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation, GFR was estimated from routinely measured cystatin C concentrations, examining all available samples per participant in one assay run. We determined the association between 1) physical activity and eGFR and 2) 5-year changes in physical activity (becoming inactive, staying inactive, staying active, becoming active) and eGFR, using time-lagged generalized estimating equation analyses. At baseline, 3.6% of the participants were inactive, 18.5% moderately inactive, 26.0% moderately active, and 51.9% active. The mean (± SD) eGFR was 107.9 (± 14.5) mL/min per 1.73 m2. Neither physical activity nor 5-year changes in physical activity were associated with eGFR at the subsequent round. The multivariate adjusted βeGFR was 0.57 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -1.70, 0.56) for inactive compared to active participants. Studying changes in physical activity between rounds, the adjusted βeGFR was -1.10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (95% CI -4.50, 2.30) for those who stayed inactive compared with participants who became active. Physical activity was not associated with eGFR in this population-based study of adults. PMID:26465150

  16. [Changes in leisure activity among young people aged 15-18 years in Hungary: physical activity, media-consumption and smoking].

    PubMed

    Takács, Bence

    2013-04-14

    Young people are more and more inactive, which has numerous well-known negative effects on their health. Several studies indicate that inactive lifestyle disposes people to sit in front of the television, which increases aggression and decreases the willingness of reading. There is also a strong link between inactivity and an increase of body mass, deterioration of anthropometric parameters, and deviant behaviour. The aim of the study was to find out, on the basis of two cross-sectional surveys, the changes occurred within eight years in the free-time activity of Hungarian young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Data obtained from two surveys conducted by the National Institute for Family and Social Policy, Hungary in 2000 and 2008 including 1780 and 2018 young people, respectively, were analysed and compared. The number of young people regularly involved in sport activity increased significantly, while their media-consumption failed to decrease. Physically active young people are more health-conscious, but regular sporting activity did not expel smoking, which was associated with a sedentary lifestyle and television watching. These data reveal new responses of a new generation; watching television still takes the largest part of their free time activity, but use of computers, and participation in social activities are not necessarily increase sedentary lifestyle and deviant habits. Internet has positive effects on the regularity of their physical activity.

  17. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-ovarian-pituitary axis, the few studies investigating whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have had mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women, overall, and by smoking history. Methods We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (hours/week/year) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former-light smoker, former-heavy smoker, current-light smoker, current-heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. Results In a multivariable model adjusting for body mass index at age 18, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (ptrend=0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 (ptrend=0.0003) and older age at menarche (ptrend=0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic whites, HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09–1.26), current smokers (vs. never smokers, HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.60–1.75 for current-light smokers; HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.33–1.44 for current-heavy smokers) and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies vs. <29, 2+ full-term pregnancies 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97, ptrend=0.02 for former-heavy smokers; HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.89, 95

  18. Long-term habitual physical activity is associated with lower distractibility in a Stroop interference task in aging: Behavioral and ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with compromised executive control functions. Several lines of evidence point to beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition which indicate that regular physical activity may counteract the age-related decline of some executive functions. Here, we investigate the effects of lifelong physical activity (about 50 years) on interference processing in two matched groups of 20 physically high active and 20 low active healthy older men using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a low interference block of the Stroop task, participants had to indicate the meaning of color-words, while color was either compatible or incompatible with the meaning. In the high interference block, participants were asked to respond according to the ink color of the word and to ignore its meaning. Physically active seniors showed faster reaction times, lower individual variability in reaction times, and higher accuracy compared to low active seniors, particularly in the high interference block. This result was confirmed in the classic paper-and-pencil version of the Stroop task showing higher interference score in the low active than high active individuals. ERPs revealed a shorter latency of the P2 and generally more negative amplitudes of the fronto-central N2 and N450 components in the high active group compared to the low active group. The amount of interference was negatively correlated with objectively measured fitness and self-reported physical activity. The positive effect of physical fitness on interference processing in the behavioral data was related to N2 and N450 amplitudes. Taken together, this suggests that seniors reporting long-term physical activity may exhibit generally enhanced activity in the frontal cortex which enables more efficient interference resolution in the Stroop task.

  19. Physical activity, energy intake, and obesity prevalence among urban and rural schoolchildren aged 11-12 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Aya; Yamada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Misaka

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been shown to differ among regions, including rural-urban regional differences within nations. This study obtained simultaneous accelerometry-derived physical activity, 24 h activity, and food records to clarify the potential contributing factors to rural-urban differences in childhood overweight and obesity in Japan. Sixth-grade children (n = 227, 11-12 years old) from two urban elementary schools in Kyoto and four rural elementary schools in Tohoku participated in the study. The children were instructed to wear a pedometer that included a uniaxial accelerometer and, assisted by their parents, keep minute-by-minute 24 h activity and food records. For 12 children, the total energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method that was used to correct the Lifecorder-predicted activity energy expenditure and physical activity level. The overweight and obesity prevalence was significantly higher in rural than in urban children. The number of steps per day, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and duration of walking to school were significantly lower in rural than in urban children. In contrast, the reported energy intake did not differ significantly between the regions. The physical activity and duration of the walk to school were significantly correlated with body mass index. Rural children had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity, and this may be at least partly caused by lower physical activity, especially less time spent walking to school, than urban children.

  20. Investigating the Relationship of Body Mass Index, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity Level between Fathers and Their Preschool-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Gorin, Amy; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    Diet quality and physical activity are two important factors in determining a child's risk for obesity. In early childhood, parents may serve as role models for these behaviors. However, few studies have examined associations of a father's body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, and physical activity with his preschool-aged child. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between fathers' and children's body weight, diet quality, and physical activity. This cross-sectional study included one-on-one interviews with fathers (n=150) of preschool-aged children conducted by a trained interviewer (a registered dietitian nutritionist). To be eligible, biological fathers (n=150) of preschool-aged children (aged 3 to 5 years) were required to regularly eat at least one meal per week with their child and be able to read or speak English. They could be of any race, ethnicity, income, or education level. During the interview, diet quality was assessed using a single 24-hour recall and the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Physical activity was assessed using the Pre-Physical Activity Questionnaire. Height and weight for each father and child were also measured. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated for fathers and children, respectively. Linear regression was used to test relationships between fathers' and children's body weight, diet quality, and physical activity while controlling for income level, race, and ethnicity. Overall, the findings revealed that there were significant, positive relationships between father-child weight status (β=.03; P=0.05), overall diet quality (β=.39; P<0.0001), and weekday (β=.27; P=0.002) and weekend (β=.62; P=0.001) vigorous physical activity. These results suggest that there are relationships between fathers' and children's BMI z score, dietary intake, and physical activity level. Future research should consider the inclusion of fathers in obesity prevention programs for young children. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and

  1. Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Loveman, Emma; Colquitt, Jill L; Mead, Emma; Johnson, Rebecca E; Fraser, Hannah; Olajide, Joan; Murphy, Marie; Velho, Rochelle Marian; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2017-06-22

    Adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. Modifying known dietary and behavioural risk factors through behaviour changing interventions (BCI) may help to reduce childhood overweight and obesity. This is an update of a review published in 2009. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We performed a systematic literature search in: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of identified studies and systematic reviews. There were no language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument and extracted data following the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 44 completed RCTs (4781 participants) and 50 ongoing studies. The number of participants in each trial varied (10 to 521) as did the length of follow-up (6 to 24 months). Participants ages ranged from 12 to 17.5 years in all trials that reported mean age at baseline. Most of the trials used a multidisciplinary intervention with a combination of diet, physical activity and behavioural components. The content and duration of the intervention, its delivery and the comparators varied across trials. The studies contributing most information to outcomes of weight and body mass index (BMI) were from studies at a low risk of bias, but studies with a high risk of bias provided data on adverse events

  2. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Godino, Job G; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon J; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2014-05-02

    Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and response efficacy (OR = 0

  3. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  4. Predictive Factors of Regular Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women in the West of Iran, Hamadan: Application of PRECEDE Model.

    PubMed

    Emdadi, Shohreh; Hazavehie, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Soltanian, Alireza; Bashirian, Saeed; Heidari Moghadam, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for midlife women. Models and theories help better understanding this behavior among middle-aged women and better planning for change behavior in target group. This study aimed to investigate predictive factors of regular physical activity among middle-aged women based on PRECEDE model as a theoretical framework. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 866 middle-aged women of Hamadan City western Iran, recruited with a proportional stratified sampling method in 2015. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including questions on demographic characteristics and PRECEDE model constructs and IPAQ questionnaire. Data were then analyzed by SPSS-16 and AMOS-16 using the Pearson correlation test and the pathway analysis method. Overall, 57% of middle-aged women were inactive (light level) or not sufficiently active. With SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) analysis, knowledge b=0.84, P<0.001, attitude b=0.799, P<0.001, self-efficacy b=0.633, P<0.001 as predisposing factor and social support as reinforcing factor b=0.2, P<0.001 were the most important predictors for physical activity among middle-aged women in Hamadan. The framework of the PRECEDE model is useful in understanding regular physical activity among middle-aged women. Furthermore, results showed the importance of predisposing and reinforcing factors when planning educational interventions.

  5. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-06-23

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients' cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior.

  6. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients’ cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior. PMID:27403464

  7. Community group exercise versus physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program: barriers, enablers and preferences in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Chesworth, Wendy; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Barriers and enablers of physical activity have been investigated, but it remains unclear what middle-aged adults' physical activity preferences are. Two physical activity interventions were compared to determine barriers, enablers and preferences for physical activity format in sedentary, community-dwelling 50- to 65-year-olds. Using mixed methods, 37 Physical Activity at Home (PAAH) participants took part in focus groups at the end of the intervention period and completed the Active Australia Survey (AAS). Participants were divided into three sub-groups: (1) group exercise attendees (GA, n = 14); (2) group exercise non-attendees (GNA, n = 9); and (3) physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program attendees (HB, n = 14). Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed, coded and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Thirty-seven exit telephone calls with GNA were included in the analysis. Cost, self-efficacy, work and carer commitments were major themes identified for GA and GNA. HB participants reported fewer barriers and a number of enablers, including flexibility of the program and physiotherapist instruction. HB and GNA were younger than GA (p< 0.05), more likely to be in paid employment and GNA participants were insufficiently active (p ≤ 0.01). All participants preferred some home-based physical activity, although a variety of formats was indicated. The barriers, enablers and preferences indicate that the physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program with initial face-to-face contact and telephone support may increase the adoption and maintenance of physical activity in middle-aged adults, particularly for those not interested in, or unable to attend, group exercise.

  8. Joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged Malays in a developing country: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation) was 7.6 ± 2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active). In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥ 9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity were deleteriously associated with odds for metabolic risk factors in middle-aged

  9. Joint Association of Sitting Time and Physical Activity with Metabolic Risk Factors among Middle-Aged Malays in a Developing Country: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anne H. Y.; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. Methodology A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9±6.5 years). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. Results/Significance The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation) was 7.6±2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active). In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. Conclusion In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity were deleteriously

  10. Obesity and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W; Tolstrup, J S

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who were sedentary. Among sedentary or lightly physically active participants, inverse associations between total daily sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness were found, while there was no association between sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness among moderately or vigorously physically active participants. These data on cardiorespiratory fitness can serve as useful reference material. Although reluctant to conclude on causality, sitting time might impact cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with low levels of leisure time physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  13. Physical activity, mood and the functioning of daily living A longitudinal study among former elite athletes and referents in middle and old age.

    PubMed

    Bäckmand, Heli M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Sarna, Seppo

    2009-01-01

    We studied whether factors related to type of sport participated in as young adults and level of and changes in physical activity later in life predict changes in mood as well as functioning during a 6-year follow-up. A cohort of male Finnish former athletes (N=504), referents (N=349) was followed up for changes in physical activity, in relation to subsequent self-reported mood and functioning of daily living in 1985, 1995, and 2001. The mean age of the cohort was 68.6 years in 2001. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess changes in mood and functioning between 1995 and 2001 in relation to baseline values and changes in exposure variables and covariates. A low level of physical activity in 1985 predicted a decrease in physical functioning between 1995 and 2001 in the lowest physical activity compared to the highest quintile as well as poor physical functioning at the end of follow-up in 2001. An increase in physical activity between 1985 and 1995 protected against onset of anxiety between 1995 and 2001. Physical activity for elderly seems to have an important role in reducing the progress of deficiencies in physical functioning and in preventing onset of anxiety.

  14. Combinations of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep: relationships with health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Travis John; Gray, Casey Ellen; Poitras, Veronica Joan; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Olds, Timothy; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine how combinations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep were associated with important health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for relevant studies examining the relationship between time spent engaging in different combinations of PA, SB, and sleep with the following health indicators: adiposity, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, emotional regulation/psychological distress, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition, quality of life/well-being, injuries, bone density, motor skill development, and self-esteem. PA had to be objectively measured, while sleep and SB could be objectively or subjectively measured. The quality of research evidence and risk of bias for each health indicator and for each individual study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 13 cross-sectional studies and a single prospective cohort study reporting data from 36 560 individual participants met the inclusion criteria. Children and youth with a combination of high PA/high sleep/low SB had more desirable measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic health compared with those with a combination of low PA/low sleep/high SB. Health benefits were also observed for those with a combination of high PA/high sleep (cardiometabolic health and adiposity) or high PA/low SB (cardiometabolic health, adiposity and fitness), compared with low PA/low sleep or low PA/high SB. Of the 3 movement behaviours, PA (especially moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA) was most consistently associated with desirable health indicators. Given the lack of randomized trials, the overall quality of the available evidence was low.

  15. Are behavioral interventions effective in increasing physical activity at 12 to 36 months in adults aged 55 to 70 years? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retirement represents a major transitional life stage in middle to older age. Changes in physical activity typically accompany this transition, which has significant consequences for health and well-being. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for the effect of interventions to promote physical activity in adults aged 55 to 70 years, focusing on studies that reported long-term effectiveness. This systematic review adheres to a registered protocol (PROSPERO CRD42011001459). Methods Randomized controlled trials of interventions to promote physical activity behavior with a mean/median sample age of 55 to 70 years, published between 2000 and 2010, were identified. Only trials reporting the long-term effect (≥ 12 months) on objective or self-reported physical activity behavior were included. Trials reporting physiological proxy measures of physical activity were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted when trials provided sufficient data and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify potential confounding effects of trials of poor methodological quality or with attrition rates ≥ 30%. Results Of 17,859 publications identified, 32 were included which reported on 21 individual trials. The majority of interventions were multimodal and provided physical activity and lifestyle counselling. Interventions to promote physical activity were effective at 12 months (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 1.99, pedometer step-count, approximating to an increase of 2,197 steps per day; SMD = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.28, self-reported physical activity duration outcome), but not at 24 months based on a small subset of trials. There was no evidence for a relationship between intervention effectiveness and mode of delivery or number of intervention contacts; however, interventions which involved individually tailoring with personalized activity goals or provision of information about local

  16. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging.

  17. Temporal Trends and Correlates of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness among School-Aged Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; Leblanc, Allana G.; Francis, Claire E.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent physical activity (PA) and fitness transitions, identified as behavioural shifts from traditionally active lifestyles to more industralised and sedentary lifestyles, have been observed among school-aged children. There is a wealth of supporting evidence of such behavioural transitions in high income countries; however, a paucity of data on lower income countries exists. These transitions pose a particular threat to the welfare of children by accelerating the onset of chronic diseases. This systematic review investigated the evidence for a PA and fitness transition among Sub-Saharan Africa’s school-aged children. Temporal trends and correlates of PA, SB, and fitness were examined. Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases, and were included if they measured outcomes of interest in apparently healthy samples of children (5‒17 years). A total of 71 articles met the inclusion criteria (40 informed PA, 17 informed SB, and 37 informed fitness). Vast heterogeneity in study methodology complicated analysis of transitions over time and no temporal trends were immediately discernible. However, higher socioeconomic status, urban living, and female children were found to engage in lower levels of PA, higher SB, and performed worse on aerobic fitness measures compared to lower socioeconomic status, rural living, and male children. Data revealed that urbanization was associated with a trend towards decreased PA, increased SB, and decreased aerobic fitness over time. Representative, temporally sequenced data examining a PA and fitness transition are lacking in this region (PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013004399). PMID:24658411

  18. Promoting and maintaining physical activity in the transition to retirement: a systematic review of interventions for adults around retirement age.

    PubMed

    Baxter, S; Johnson, M; Payne, N; Buckley-Woods, H; Blank, L; Hock, E; Daley, A; Taylor, A; Pavey, T; Mountain, G; Goyder, E

    2016-02-01

    It has been argued that transition points in life, such as the approach towards, and early years of retirement present key opportunities for interventions to improve the health of the population. Research has also highlighted inequalities in health status in the retired population and in response to interventions which should be addressed. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to synthesise international evidence on the types and effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among people around the time of retirement. A systematic review of literature was carried out between February 2014 and April 2015. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, and citation searching. Systematic search of the literature identified 104 papers which described study populations as being older adults. However, we found only one paper which specifically referred to their participants as being around the time of retirement. The intervention approaches for older adults encompassed: training of health care professionals; counselling and advice giving; group sessions; individual training sessions; in-home exercise programmes; in-home computer-delivered programmes; in-home telephone support; in-home diet and exercise programmes; and community-wide initiatives. The majority of papers reported some intervention effect, with evidence of positive outcomes for all types of programmes. A wide range of different measures were used to evaluate effectiveness, many were self-reported and few studies included evaluation of sedentary time. While the retirement transition is considered a significant point of life change, little research has been conducted to assess whether physical activity interventions at this time may be effective in promoting or maintaining activity, or reducing health

  19. Relationship between fear of falling and balancing ability during abrupt deceleration in aged women having similar habitual physical activities.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Hirakawa, K; Takada, Y; Kinoshita, H

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of fear of falling on balancing ability during abrupt deceleration in aged women. The subjects were 20 women aged between 67 and 75 years. They were classified into two groups, one having a fear of falling (group FF, n = 10) and another without this fear (group NFF, n = 10). The two groups had similar daily physical activities. Changes in the centre of foot pressure (CFP) were measured during postural sway following horizontal deceleration of the force platform on which they were standing, and the response time and CFP displacement were evaluated. In addition, the electromyogram (EMG) onset in the tibialis anterior muscle and medial gastrocnemius muscle during abrupt deceleration, and its difference between the two muscles were measured. and the relative level of co-contraction of antagonistic muscles (the co-contraction index, CCI) in the lower extremity muscle group was calculated. The response time and CFP displacement immediately after abrupt deceleration were significantly higher in group FF than in NFF (P < 0.05). The EMG onset in the two muscles did not significantly differ between the two groups. The difference in EMG onset between the two muscles was significantly lower in group FF than in NFF (P < 0.05). The CCI was significantly higher in group FF than in NFF (P < 0.05). These results suggest that there were negative effects of a fear of falling on the balancing ability immediately after abrupt deceleration. This may be because a fear of falling increases the co-contraction of antagonist muscles in the lower extremity muscle group.

  20. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can include working, exercising, performing household chores, and leisure-time activities such as walking, tennis, hiking, bicycling, ... active ( 4 ). A pooled analysis of data on leisure-time physical activity (activities done at an individual’s ...

  1. Physical activity and amyloid-β plasma and brain levels: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Brown, B M; Peiffer, J J; Taddei, K; Lui, J K; Laws, S M; Gupta, V B; Taddei, T; Ward, V K; Rodrigues, M A; Burnham, S; Rainey-Smith, S R; Villemagne, V L; Bush, A; Ellis, K A; Masters, C L; Ames, D; Macaulay, S L; Szoeke, C; Rowe, C C; Martins, R N

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies suggest physical activity improves cognition and lowers Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. However, key AD pathogenic factors that are thought to be influenced by physical activity, particularly plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) and Aβ brain load, have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if plasma Aβ and amyloid brain deposition are associated with physical activity levels, and whether these associations differed between carriers and non-carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. Five-hundred and forty six cognitively intact participants (aged 60-95 years) from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) were included in these analyses. Habitual physical activity levels were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Serum insulin, glucose, cholesterol and plasma Aβ levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A subgroup (n=116) underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to quantify brain amyloid load. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.037), and lower insulin (P<0.001), triglycerides (P=0.019) and Aβ1-42/1-40 ratio (P=0.001). After stratification of the cohort based on APOE ε4 allele carriage, it was evident that only non-carriers received the benefit of reduced plasma Aβ from physical activity. Conversely, lower levels of PiB SUVR (standardised uptake value ratio) were observed in higher exercising APOE ε4 carriers. Lower plasma Aβ1-42/1-40 and brain amyloid was observed in those reporting higher levels of physical activity, consistent with the hypothesis that physical activity may be involved in the modulation of pathogenic changes associated with AD.

  2. Auditing the socio-environmental determinants of motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness in work-aged adults: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Richard; Middleton, Geoff; Henderson, Hannah; Girling, Mica

    2016-05-26

    There is a lack of understanding of work aged adults' (30-60 years old) perspectives on the motivation of physical activity versus sedentariness. This study aims to: (1) identify which socio-environmental factors motivate physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, in adults aged 30-60 years; and (2) explore how these motivators interact and combine. Fifteen work-aged adults who, were able to engage in physical activity (Mean age = 43.9 years; SD 9.6, range 31-59), participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was used to generate an inventory of socio-environmental factors and their specific influences on motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness. Key socio-environmental agents found to influence motivation included: Spouse/partner, parents, children, siblings, whole family, grandchildren, friends, work-mates, neighbors, strangers, team-mates and class-mates, instructors, health care professionals, employers, gyms and health companies, governments, media and social media, cultural norms, and the physical environment. Mechanisms fell into five broad themes of socio-environmental motivation for both physical activity and sedentariness: (1) competence and progress; (2) informational influences, (3) emotional influences, (4) pragmatics and logistics, and (5) relationships. Similar socio-environmental factors were frequently reported as able to motivate both activity and sedentariness. Likewise, individual categories of influence could also motivate both behaviors, depending on context. The findings of this paper 'unpack' theoretical concepts into specific and targeted behavioral recommendations. The data suggested no simple solutions for promoting physical activity or reducing sedentariness, but rather complex and interacting systems surrounding work-aged adults. Findings also suggest that health professionals should be encouraged to support adults' health by examining the socio-environmental motivational influences, or

  3. Adolescent predictors of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour at age 42: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigated the associations of physical characteristics and personality in adolescence with physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adulthood. Findings Physical characteristics (i.e. objectively measured BMI, sum of skin folds, MOPER test battery performance), and personality (i.e. self-reported inadequacy, social inadequacy, rigidity, self-sufficiency/recalcitrance, dominance, achievement motivation, facilitating anxiety, debilitating anxiety, and social desirability) were assessed in 217 adolescent boys (Mean 13.0, SD 0.6) and girls (Mean 12.9, SD 0.6). Twenty-nine years later, at the age of 42, their physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed by means of accelerometry. Boys who scored lower on self-sufficiency/recalcitrance and higher on facilitating anxiety spent more time sedentary in adulthood. Girls with a superior standing high jump performance, and a lower score on social desirability spent more time sedentary in adulthood. In contrast with sedentary behaviour, physical activity at age 42 year could not be predicted by physical characteristics or personality in adolescence. Conclusions Sedentary behaviour in adulthood was partly explained by physical characteristics and/or personality in adolescence. Thus, our results suggest that it may be possible to identify people who are at risk of becoming sedentary at a rather young age. PMID:21961795

  4. Influence of Urbanistic Characteristics in the Level of Physical Activity in People Aged 18 to 65 of the Metropolitan Area Pamplona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Orzanco-Garralda, M Rosario; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Sainz Suberviola, Lourdes; Redín Areta, M Dolores; de la Rosa Eduardo, Rosana; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés

    2016-05-23

    A suitable environment can encourage the practice of physical activity, being an easy option for the population, for this reason the main objective was to determine the influence of the urban environmental characteristics relate with the physical activity on adult people living on the Pamplona Area. Cross-sectional study based on the International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN Adult). Participants were selected in random and stratified from the Basic areas of health attached to resident's population in the Pamplona area, aged ranged between 18-65years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used, including a complete version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale scale, to evaluate the perception of the urban environmental factors. In addition, the extended version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire for the physical activity data collection was employed. Chi square test was calculated and a multi variable analysis using non-conditional logistic regression. The representative sample was composed of 905 subjects, [54,70% female]. The perception of having footpaths near to their place of resident or workplace was greater in the group that practice moderated physical activity OR: 3,86 [CI95% 1.70-8.74] and greater total physical activity (the summary of vigorous, moderated physical activity and walking) (OR: 2,61 [CI95% 1.24-5.45]). The people perception of having many places for walk in the neighborhood was associated with major habit of taking a walk (OR: 1,26 [IC95% 1.01-1.58]. Having sport spaces close to the workplace or place of resident was associated with major practice of vigorous physical s activity, OR: 1,46 [CI95% 1.01-2.12]. There is a direct association between the practice of physical activity and environmental urban characteristics, such as the existence of paths of walk or sports facilities.

  5. Habitual Physical Activity in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Compared With Age- and Sex-Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Camilla; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Thilén, Ulf; Gradmark, Anna; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2016-04-01

    Most adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced aerobic exercise capacity. Their habitual physical activity (PA) level is, however, less well studied. In this study, habitual PA level in a cohort of adults with CHD compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls was investigated. Eighty adults with CHD, classed as either "complex" (n = 40) or "simple" (n = 40), and 42 healthy controls were studied with a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn during 4 consecutive days. We analyzed: (1) the time spent during moderate or vigorous PA; (2) accelerometer counts per day; and (3) to what extent the World Health Organization recommendations on PA were reached. Patients with simple lesions had higher total accelerometer counts per day compared with patients with complex lesions and controls (simple lesions: median [interquartile range] 107.7 [76.3-139.1] vs complex lesions: 72.8 [49.2-101.0] and controls: 78.3 [58.7-106.9]; P ≤ 0.001 and P = 0.002). Furthermore, no differences in time spent during moderate or vigorous PA was found between patients and controls. In addition 46% of the patients with simple lesions, 55% of the patients with complex lesions, and 44% of the controls did not reach the World Health Organization-recommended level of daily PA, but no significant differences between groups were found. There were no differences in achieving recommended PA level between patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I vs NYHA class II and III. Patients with CHD follow the same PA level pattern as the general population. Broad strategies to promote an active lifestyle are needed across the population and especially for patients with complex CHD and impaired NYHA class. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethnic differences in dietary intakes, physical activity, and energy expenditure in middle-aged, premenopausal women: the Healthy Transitions Study.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, J C; Champagne, C M; Smith, S R; de Jonge, L; Xie, H

    2001-07-01

    Menopause is a time of increased risk of obesity in women. The effect of menopause in African American women, in whom obesity is already highly prevalent, is unknown. We compared dietary intakes and energy expenditure (EE) between middle-aged, premenopausal African American and white women participating in a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Dietary intakes by food record, EE by triaxial accelerometer, physical activity by self-report, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were compared in 97 white and 52 African American women. Twenty-four-hour and sleeping EE were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry in 56 women. Sleeping EE (adjusted for lean and fat mass) was lower in African American than in white women (5749 +/- 155 compared with 6176 +/- 75 kJ/d; P = 0.02); however, there was no significant difference in 24-h EE between groups. Reported leisure activity over the course of a week was less in African American than in white women (556 +/- 155 compared with 1079 +/- 100 kJ/d; P = 0.02), as were the daily hours spent standing and climbing stairs. Dietary intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, and several fatty acids were significantly less in African Americans, whereas there were no observed ethnic differences in intakes of fat or carbohydrate. Body fat within the whole group was positively correlated with total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes and inversely associated with fiber and calcium intakes. Fiber was the strongest single predictor of fatness. Ethnic differences in EE and the intake of certain nutrients may influence the effect of menopausal transition on obesity in African American women.

  7. Active middle-aged men have lower fasting inflammatory markers but the postprandial inflammatory response is minimal and unaffected by physical activity status.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Natalie C; Hurst, Tina L; Talbot, Duncan C S; Tyrrell, Rex M; Thompson, Dylan

    2009-07-01

    Physical activity modifies some postprandial responses such as glycemic control, although it is unclear whether this translates into lower postprandial inflammation. Our objective in this study was to determine whether postprandial inflammatory markers are lower in active compared with sedentary middle-aged men. Thirteen active and twelve sedentary middle-aged men consumed a mixed meal on one occasion. Blood was taken via a cannula before and up to 8 h after the meal and with a single-use needle before and 8 h after the meal. Active men had lower fasted IL-6 (0.6 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 pg/ml; P = 0.004) and C-reactive protein (1.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 mg/l; P = 0.04) concentrations than sedentary men. Cannula blood IL-6 concentrations increased by 3.49 pg/ml in the 8 h following the meal (P < 0.001); however, this increase was minimal (0.36 pg/ml) in blood taken via a single-use needle from the contralateral arm (P = 0.013). The sedentary group had larger glucose (P = 0.034), insulin (P = 0.013), and triacylglycerol (P = 0.057) responses to the meal. These results provide further evidence that physical activity is associated with lower inflammatory marker concentrations in a fasted state and a lower postprandial metabolic response to a meal. However, this does not translate into lower postprandial inflammatory markers since the only evidence of postprandial inflammation (a large increase in serum IL-6) was actually due to the cannula used for blood sampling.

  8. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  9. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  10. [Influence of socio-demographic correlates on the adherence to physical activity recommendations in adults aged from 15-to 74 years].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Cordente, Carlos A; Mayorga, Juan I; Garrido-Muñoz, María; Macías, Ricardo; Lucía, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2011-08-01

    To know the adherence to physical activity recommendations of the population is of clinical and social interest. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of Spanish adults adhering to the physical activity recommendations, and to examine the influences of socio-demographic correlates. In the present cross-sectional study we conducted a telephone survey of 1,500 Spanish adults (15-74 years old) from Madrid (Spain). Physical activity (work place, transport and leisure time) was assessed with the version 2 of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQv2). Participants were categorized in three physical activity levels (low, moderate and high). The socio-demographic correlates included: gender, age, educational level, employment status, marital status, smoking status, and self-perceived health. The association between socio-demographic factors and physical activity was examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. A total of 82% of men and 78% of women (total 80%) had moderate to high levels of physical activity, yet, when considering the leisure time physical activity, only 40,1% of mean and 22,6% of women (total 31.1%) reach the recommendations. Participants with university degree (OR: 2.05; 95%IC: 1.48-2.86), those who were smokers (OR: 1.41; 95%IC: 1.04-1.90), and those who perceived their health as bad (OR: 3.58; 95%IC: 2.39-5.38) were more likely to not to reach the recommendations. In contrast, those participants aged 35-44 years (OR: 0.61; 95%IC: 0.39-0.95) and 45-54 years (OR: 0.52; 95%IC: 0.32-0.83) were less likely not to reach the recommendations. The 20% of adults from Madrid did not reach the physical activity recommendations, and when considering only leisure time physical activity, only 69% reached the recommendations. The findings suggest that the educational level, smoking status, and the self-perceived health seem to be key determinants. There is a large diversity in the physical activity levels in the population subgroup

  11. Men benefit more from midlife leisure-time physical activity than women regarding the development of late-life disability--results of the KORA-Age study.

    PubMed

    Strobl, Ralf; Müller, Martin; Thorand, Barbara; Linkohr, Birgit; Autenrieth, Christine S; Peters, Annette; Grill, Eva

    2014-05-01

    Encouraging physical activity is an important public health measure to reduce disability prevalence in the aged. The aims of this study were to determine the association between midlife physical activity and late-life disability and to investigate gender-specific differences. This data originates from the KORA-Age cohort, a follow-up in 2008 of the MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases)/KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) S1-S4 surveys (1984-2001) situated in Augsburg, a city in Southern Germany. We applied a multivariable hurdle model to investigate the association of physical activity and disability. We analysed 3333 persons with a mean follow-up of 18±5.5 years. Using hurdle models, moderate activity and high activity had a protective effect on the occurrence of disability (OR (odds ratio)=0.80 and 0.73), but not on severity (i.e. number of limitations). We observed a strong gender-specific difference in this association, with men benefitting more from exercise. Elevated physical activity reduces the risk of becoming disabled and postpones the onset of disability by several years, but we could not show an effect on the severity of disability. In addition, men seem to benefit more from leisure-time physical activity than women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  13. Physical activity, diet and BMI in children aged 6-8 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Basterfield, Laura; Jones, Angela R; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Reilly, Jessica; Pearce, Mark S; Reilly, John J; Adamson, Ashley J

    2014-06-05

    To assess relationships between current physical activity (PA), dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) in English children. Longitudinal birth cohort study in northeast England, cross-sectional analysis. 425 children (41% of the original cohort) aged 6-8 years (49% boys). PA over 7 days was measured objectively by an accelerometer; three categories of PA were created: 'active' ≥60 min/day moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA); 'moderately active' 30-59 min/day MVPA; 'inactive' <30 min/day MVPA. Dietary intake over 4 days was measured using a prospective dietary assessment tool which incorporated elements of the food diary and food frequency methods. Three diet categories were created: 'healthy', 'unhealthy' and 'mixed', according to the number of portions of different foods consumed. Adherence to the '5-a-day' recommendations for portions of fruit and vegetables was also assessed. Children were classified as 'healthy weight' or 'overweight or obese' (OW/OB) according to International Obesity Taskforce cutpoints for BMI. Associations between weight status and PA/diet categories were analysed using logistic regression. Few children met the UK-recommended guidelines for either MVPA or fruit and vegetable intake, with just 7% meeting the recommended amount of MVPA of 60 min/day, and 3% meeting the 5-a-day fruit and vegetable recommendation. Higher PA was associated with a lower OR for OW/OB in boys only (0.20, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.88). There was no association detected between dietary intake and OW/OB in either sex. Increasing MVPA may help to reduce OW/OB in boys; however, more research is required to examine this relationship in girls. Children are not meeting the UK guidelines for diet and PA, and more needs to be done to improve this situation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The Role of Leisure Activities in Mediating the Relationship between Physical Health and Well-Being: Differential Patterns in Old and Very Old Age.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; van der Linden, Bernadette W A; Sauter, Julia; Gabriel, Rainer; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-07-05

    Recently, Paggi et al. [Gerontology 2016;62:450-458] for the very first time showed in a cross-sectional sample of 259 adults aged 18-81 years that the relation of physical health to psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of leisure activity participation. To extend this framework, we followed theories on successful aging and vulnerability to propose to add a differential perspective predicting that certain individuals may be more vulnerable than others and therefore may show differences in the mediation pattern. Specifically, we examined whether mediation patterns were differential in certain populations, such as in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. We analyzed data from 3,080 individuals on physical health (number of chronic diseases, subjective health status, and subjective evaluation of change in health over the last 10 years), frequency of participation in 18 leisure activities, and physical and psychological well-being using moderated mediation models with a path model approach that allowed the simultaneous estimation of all model paths, including their significance. We found that the relation of physical health to physical and psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of activity participation. For physical (but not for psychological) well-being, this mediation was more pronounced in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. These moderated mediations were attributable to differential relations of physical health to frequency of activity participation and to differential relations of frequency of activity participation to physical well-being between the investigated moderator levels. Present data suggest that participation in leisure activities may play a key role in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being, particularly

  15. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Ninos Activos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children's PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, a...

  16. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parents can influence their children's physical activity (PA) through parenting practices (PP). Correlates of PA-PP have not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) socio-demographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived-environmental, and (4) obje...

  17. Exploring Gender Differences in Predicting Physical Activity among Elementary Aged Children: An Application of the Integrated Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Bhochhibhoya, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The integrated behavioral model (IBM) is a new and emerging theory in the field of health promotion and health education, and more applications are needed to test the usefulness of the model for research and practice. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to operationalize the IBM as it relates to physical activity (PA) among children…

  18. Exploring Gender Differences in Predicting Physical Activity among Elementary Aged Children: An Application of the Integrated Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Bhochhibhoya, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The integrated behavioral model (IBM) is a new and emerging theory in the field of health promotion and health education, and more applications are needed to test the usefulness of the model for research and practice. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to operationalize the IBM as it relates to physical activity (PA) among children…

  19. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  20. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  1. Outcomes of a School-Based Intervention (RESCATE) to Improve Physical Activity Patterns in Mexican Children Aged 8-10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin-Ramirez, E.; Castillo-Martinez, L.; Orea-Tejeda, A.; Vergara-Castaneda, A.; Keirns-Davis, C.; Villa-Romero, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools…

  2. In the mood for love or vice versa? Exploring the relations among sexual activity, physical affection, affect, and stress in the daily lives of mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Todd, Michael

    2007-06-01

    How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner on one day significantly predicted lower negative mood and stress and higher positive mood on the following day. The relation did not hold for orgasm without a partner. Additionally, positive mood on one day predicted more physical affection and sexual activity with a partner, but fewer solo orgasms the following day. Negative mood was mostly unrelated to next-day sexual activity or physical affection. Sexual orientation, living with a partner, and duration of relationship moderated some of these effects. Results support a bidirectional causal model in which dyadic sexual interaction and physical affection improve mood and reduce stress, with improved mood and reduced stress in turn increasing the likelihood of future sex and physical affection.

  3. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  4. Association between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity: a population-based study among English middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity in a large population-based sample. Design Data were from 2423 men and 3057 women aged ≥50 years participating in Wave 5 (2010/11) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants reported experiences of weight discrimination in everyday life and frequency of light, moderate and vigorous physical activities. We used logistic regression to test associations between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity, controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI). Results Perceived weight discrimination was associated with almost 60% higher odds of being inactive (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.40, p=.028) and 30% lower odds of engaging in moderate or vigorous activity at least once a week (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94, p=.017). Conclusions Independent of BMI, individuals who perceive unfair treatment on the basis of their weight are less physically active than those who do not perceive discrimination. This has important implications for the health and well-being of individuals who experience weight-based discrimination, and may also contribute to a cycle of weight gain and further mistreatment. PMID:28270391

  5. Physical activity improves age-related decline in the osteogenic potential of rats' bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hell, R C R; Ocarino, N M; Boeloni, J N; Silva, J F; Goes, A M; Santos, R L; Serakides, R

    2012-06-01

    To examine whether physical activity increases osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from adult rats compared with young rats. Eighteen female Wistar rats were divided into three groups and the following cells isolated: (1) differentiated BMMSCs from young donors, (2) differentiated BMMSCs from sedentary adult donors and (3) differentiated BMMSCs from active adult donors. We analysed MTT conversion, percentage of cells per field, mineralized nodule number and gene expression for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), alkaline phosphatase, caspase 3, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and collagen I. Telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and the percentage of cells per field in BMMSCs cultures from adult rats were smaller than those observed in young donors. However, levels of caspase 3 expression were higher in BMMSCs from adult donors (P < 0.05). Despite the fact that physical activity was associated with an increase in expression of caspase 3 (P < 0.05), there was no difference in the percentage of cells per field between groups of adult BMMSCs (active or sedentary). However, physical activity increased the number of mineralized nodules and osteocalcin expression after 21 days, and alkaline phosphatase expression at 7, 14 and 21 days in the BMMSCs of adult donors (P < 0.05). However, those values were smaller when compared with young donors BMMSCs (P < 0.05). Only the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase were similar to young donors BMMSCs (P ≥ 0.05). Physical activity increases osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs from adult donors but does not increase the differentiation to the levels observed in BMMSCs from young donor rats. © 2011 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  6. HOW IS CLASSMATE AND PE TEACHER SUPPORT ASSOCIATED WITH THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS FROM KOSOVO? THE ROLE OF GENDER AND AGE.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Michal; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Morina, Besnik

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate how were the peer and physical education (PE) teacher variables associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among Kosovar teenagers (13-15 years of age), and the role of age and gender in these associations. Cross-sectional data was gathered through a study conducted in seven major municipalities of Kosovo. 632 girls (aged 14.3 ± 0.8) and 664 boys (aged 14.2 ± 0.8) were examined using the adjusted Classmate and Teacher Support Scale and the Physical Activity Screening measure. A three-way (support*age*gender) ANOVA was used to compare the individuals' MVPA level with the different levels of support they received, with different age in groups of girls and boys. Boys reported higher levels of MVPA than girls in all age categories. A higher level of MVPA was reported by boys receiving high or medium support from classmates. In case of PE teacher support, high, medium and even low support correlated with high MVPA in all age categories. In girls only 13 year olds reported receiving high levels of both classmate and PE teachers support which correlated with a higher level of MVPA. It appears that engagement in MVPA among young Kosovar adolescents is relatively high in boys, regardless of the level of classmate or PE teacher support, whereas in girls the level of MVPA decreased over their time at school. Support from both classmates and PE teachers turned out to be the most significant factor in 13 years old girls, before they moved from primary to secondary school. This issue requires more detailed insight, considering traditional ethnical and religious barriers to engagement of young female adolescents in physical activity.

  7. A repeated measurement study investigating the impact of school outdoor environment upon physical activity across ages and seasons in Swedish second, fifth and eighth graders.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Peter; Raustorp, Anders; De Leon, Antonio Ponce; Mårtensson, Fredrika; Kylin, Maria; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2014-08-07

    School children are confined to and exposed to outdoor environment that happens to be at their disposal during compulsory school time. The health-promoting potential of outdoor environment, and the use of it, is therefore important. We have studied the impact of school outdoor environment in terms of playground features, space, topography and vegetation upon the patterns of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) across ages and seasons in Swedish pupils at compulsory school. Four schools in the Middle and Southern parts of Sweden, with outdoor environments differing in playground features, space, topography and vegetation were analyzed during one school year. A sample of 196 children was drawn from eligible pupils in grades 2, 5 and 8, aged 7-14 years. PA was monitored with time-stamped Actigraph accelerometers GT3X+, measuring different intensity levels during outdoor time. Maps were used to mark places where the children stayed and what they did during outdoor time. Mean MVPA during outdoor stay was 39 minutes for the entire school year, time in MVPA correlated positively with outdoor time, as did MVPA with used outdoor play area (p < 0.001). Outdoor MVPA declined with age, boys accumulated more MVPA than girls at all ages (p < 0.001). Ball play areas increased MVPA in 5th graders in September and May (p < 0.001). Overall, ball play areas increased 5th graders' relative MVPA, and helped maintaining it with increasing age in boys but not in girls, whereas woodland stimulated and contributed to maintaining girls' MVPA with increasing age. Outdoor temperature significantly impacted (p < 0.01) MVPA throughout all seasons. We conclude that school outdoor environment design and outdoor play time impact physical activity on a daily basis and may contribute to increasing girls' physical activity and moderate the sharp decline in physical activity by age. The school outdoor environment may thus be a potential health promoter during school time.

  8. The evaluation and planning method of Spanish sport and physical activity instructors: A comparative study across gender, age, level of studies and work experience.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Beatriz; González-Rivera, María Dolores; Campos-Izquierdo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the planning and the evaluation of Spanish sport and physical activity instructors as well as to analyze and compare the two variables in terms of their gender, age, level of studies and work experience. This research falls inside the quantitative type methodology of descriptive cut through standardized interview using the standardized questionnaire: "Human resources of sport and physical activity". It analyses the situation and performance of people working in functions of sport and physical activity. The questionnaire was completed by 600 sport and physical activity instructors from Spain. Key results revealed that 48.0% of them plan their classes and 58.17% assess. The study also found male university graduates between the ages of 60 and 70, with 10 years of experience or more spend the most time on planning and assessment. Daily classroom observation was the tool which physical activity and sport instructors used the most, followed by execution tests. The lesser used tools were theoretical knowledge exams, diaries and the personally created tests, across all of the variables.

  9. Multiple effects of physical activity on molecular and cognitive signs of brain aging: can exercise slow neurodegeneration and delay Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Brown, B M; Peiffer, J J; Martins, R N

    2013-08-01

    Western countries are experiencing aging populations and increased longevity; thus, the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in these countries is projected to soar. In the absence of a therapeutic drug, non-pharmacological preventative approaches are being investigated. One of these approaches is regular participation in physical activity or exercise. This paper reviews studies that have explored the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function, cognitive decline, AD/dementia risk and AD-associated biomarkers and processes. There is now strong evidence that links regular physical activity or exercise to higher cognitive function, decreased cognitive decline and reduced risk of AD or dementia. Nevertheless, these associations require further investigation, more specifically with interventional studies that include long follow-up periods. In particular, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) of the associations between physical activity and AD neuropathology; clearly this is an area in need of further research, particularly in human populations. Although benefits of physical activity or exercise are clearly recognised, there is a need to clarify how much physical activity provides the greatest benefit and also whether people of different genotypes require tailored exercise regimes.

  10. The influence of friends and siblings on the physical activity and screen viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parent interviews.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Jago, R; Sebire, S J; Kesten, J M; Pool, L; Thompson, J L

    2015-05-14

    The present study uses qualitative data to explore parental perceptions of how their young child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's friends and siblings. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of year 1 children (age 5-6 years). Interviews considered parental views on a variety of issues related to their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours, including the influence that their child's friends and siblings have over such behaviours. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using deductive content analysis. Data were organised using a categorisation matrix developed by the research team. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Data were entered into and coded within N-Vivo. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in Bristol and the surrounding area that took part in the B-ProAct1v study. Fifty-three parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents believe that their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's siblings and friends. Friends are considered to have a greater influence over the structured physical activities a child asks to participate in, whereas the influence of siblings is more strongly perceived over informal and spontaneous physical activities. In terms of screen viewing, parents suggest that their child's friends can heavily influence the content their child wishes to consume, however, siblings have a more direct and tangible influence over what a child watches. Friends and siblings influence young children's physical activity and screen viewing behaviours. Child-focused physical activity and screen viewing interventions should consider the important influence that siblings and friends have over these behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A mixed-methods investigation of successful aging among older women engaged in sports-based versus exercise-based leisure time physical activities.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Kathryn; Kruger, Tina; Klenosky, David B

    2016-12-29

    This mixed-methods study compares active older women in different physically based leisure activities and explores the difference in subjective ratings of successful aging and quantifiable predictors of success. A survey was administered to 256 women, 60-92 years of age, engaged in a sports- or exercise-based activity. Quantitative data were analyzed through ANOVA and multiple regression. Qualitative data (n = 79) was analyzed using the approach associated with means-end theory. While participants quantitatively appeared similar in terms of successful aging, qualitative interviews revealed differences in activity motivation. Women involved in sports highlighted social/psychological benefits, while those involved in exercise-based activities stressed fitness outcomes.

  12. Improving academic performance of school-age children by physical activity in the classroom: 1-year program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-06-01

    An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1 year. Second- and third-grade classes of 6 elementary schools were included in the study. The intervention group participated in physically active academic lessons and the control group in regular classroom lessons. Implementation measures were obtained and the children were pretested and posttested on mathematics and reading. Teacher observations and self-reports indicated that the lessons were implemented as planned. Classroom observations showed that children's on-task behavior during the lessons was above 70%. On the basis of heart rate measures, on average 64% of the lesson time was spent in MVPA. Posttest mathematics and reading scores of third-grade children who participated in the intervention were significantly higher in comparison with control children. Posttest mathematics scores of second-grade children in the intervention condition were significantly lower in comparison with control children. The intervention program was successfully implemented and the lessons contributed to the academic outcomes of third-grade children. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  13. Changes in time-segment specific physical activity between ages 10 and 14 years: A longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Hannah L.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe (1) time-segment specific changes in physical activity (PA) into adolescence, (2) differences in change in PA between specific time-segments (weekdays–weekends, in-school–out-of-school, out-of-school–weekends, lesson-time–lunch-time), and (3) associations of change in time-segment specific with overall PA. Design Longitudinal observational study (4-year follow-up). Methods Children from the SPEEDY study (n = 769, 42% boys) had PA measured by accelerometer for at least three days at ages 10.2 ± 0.3, 11.2 ± 0.3 and 14.3 ± 0.3 years. Changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (ΔMVPA, minutes ≥2000 counts/minute [cpm]) and total PA (ΔTPA, average cpm) during weekdays, weekends, in-school, out-of-school, lesson-times and lunch-times, were tested using three level (age, individual, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Differences in ΔMVPA/ΔTPA between time-segments were tested using time-segment × age interaction terms. Associations of four-year time-segment specific ΔMVPA/ΔTPA with four-year overall ΔMVPA/ΔTPA were tested using two level (time-segment specific ΔMVPA/ΔTPA, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Results MVPA and TPA declined in all time-segments, except lesson-time MVPA. Annual ΔMVPA and, for boys only, ΔTPA was greater on weekends than weekdays (beta ± SE for interaction term: boys, −3.53 ± 0.83 min, −29.64 ± 7.64 cpm; girls, −2.20 ± 0.64 min) and out-of-school (boys, −4.36 ± 0.79 min, −19.36 ± 8.46 cpm; girls, −2.44 ± 0.63 min). ΔMVPA and ΔTPA during lunch-time was greater than during lesson-time (boys, −0.96 ± 0.20 min, −36.43 ± 6.55 cpm; girls, −0.90 ± 0.13 min, −38.72 ± 4.40 cpm). ΔTPA was greater out-of-school than in-school (boys, −19.89 ± 6.71 cpm; girls, −18.46 ± 6.51 cpm). For all time-segments, four-year ΔMVPA/ΔTPA was positively associated with four-year overall ΔMVPA/ΔTPA (all p < 0.042), except for girl

  14. Association between sarcopenia and nutritional status and physical activity among community-dwelling Chinese adults aged 60 years and older.

    PubMed

    Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Yang, Ying; Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Birong

    2017-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sarcopenia and nutritional status and physical activity among community-dwelling Chinese people aged 60 years and older. This study was carried out on 836 community-dwelling Chinese individuals aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits were collected using a general questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment and biochemical parameters, whereas physical activity was assessed using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In addition, univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyze the association between sarcopenia with nutritional status and physical activity. The total prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 10.5%, 47 (11.3%) men and 41 (9.7%) women who were classified as sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly lower among the participants of normal nutrition status. Compared with the participants with sarcopenia, those without sarcopenia had higher levels of prealbumin (P < 0.05) and hemoglobin (P < 0.05) for both sexes. In the multivariate model, after adjustment for all covariates, the Mini Nutritional Assessment score (adjusted OR 0.769, 95% CI 0.689-0.859, P < 0.05) was statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia, but the relationship between physical activity and sarcopenia was not significant. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the Chinese community-dwelling population aged 60 years and older was high. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and nutritional status, but not with physical activity, based on a questionnaire. Further studies should evaluate whether maintaining a good nutritional status might be effective in lowering the risk of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. What is the effect of health coaching on physical activity participation in people aged 60 years and over? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana S; Sherrington, Catherine; Amorim, Anita B; Dario, Amabile B; Tiedemann, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Physical inactivity is common in older age, yet increased activity benefits older people in terms of preventing chronic disease and maximising independence. Health coaching is a behaviour change intervention that has been shown to increase physical activity in clinical populations. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of health coaching on physical activity, mobility, quality of life and mood in older people. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, LILACS and CINAHL databases were used to identify randomised controlled trials which evaluated the effect of health coaching on physical activity (primary outcome) among people aged 60+. Secondary outcomes were mobility, quality of life and mood. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs, Hedges' g) with 95% CIs from random effects meta-analyses. 27 eligible trials were included. Health coaching had a small, statistically significant effect on physical activity (27 studies; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37; p<0.001). There was no evidence of an effect of health coaching on mobility (eight studies; SMD = 0.10; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.23; p=0.13), quality of life (eight studies; SMD = 0.07; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.20; p<0.05) or mood (five studies; SMD = 0.02; 95% CI -0.12 to 0.16; p=0.83). Health coaching significantly increased physical activity in people aged 60+. There was no evidence of an effect of health coaching on quality of life, mobility and mood, so different approaches may be required to impact on these outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aging and well-being in French older adults regularly practicing physical activity: a self-determination perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Nasarre, Sandra; Hautier, Christophe; Bonnefoy, Marc

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles of physically active older adults and to achieve a better understanding of their perceived motives to explain their regular physical activity behavior in relation to self-determination theory (SDT). To address these aims, this study used quantitative and qualitative approaches. Older adults (n = 92; M = 74.95, SD = 4.6) completed the French version of the Sport Motivational Scale. A cluster analysis showed two motivational profiles with differential motivational patterns. The first was named the high combined profile, with high scores on intrinsic motivation and introjected regulation and low levels of external regulation. The second profile was the low to moderate motivational profile, with low scores on intrinsic motivation and moderate scores on introjected regulation. The qualitative study's results demonstrate the usefulness of SDT in explaining the relationship between these motivational profiles and the intertwining of the three basic psychological needs.

  18. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  19. The evaluation and planning method of Spanish sport and physical activity instructors: A comparative study across gender, age, level of studies and work experience

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the planning and the evaluation of Spanish sport and physical activity instructors as well as to analyze and compare the two variables in terms of their gender, age, level of studies and work experience. This research falls inside the quantitative type methodology of descriptive cut through standardized interview using the standardized questionnaire: “Human resources of sport and physical activity”. It analyses the situation and performance of people working in functions of sport and physical activity. The questionnaire was completed by 600 sport and physical activity instructors from Spain. Key results revealed that 48.0% of them plan their classes and 58.17% assess. The study also found male university graduates between the ages of 60 and 70, with 10 years of experience or more spend the most time on planning and assessment. Daily classroom observation was the tool which physical activity and sport instructors used the most, followed by execution tests. The lesser used tools were theoretical knowledge exams, diaries and the personally created tests, across all of the variables. PMID:28683081

  20. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and socioeconomic status among Finnish girls and boys aged 6-8 years.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Lindi, Virpi; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-05-01

    We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0.012). Girls had lower levels of unsupervised PA (45 vs. 54 min/day, p = 0.001), supervised PA (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.009), and PA during school recess (1.8 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.032) than boys. Girls had higher levels of total SB (3.8 vs. 3.4 h/day, p = 0.015) but lower levels of screen-based SB (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/day, p < 0.001) than boys. Lower parental education and household income were associated with lower levels of supervised PA in girls (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively) and in boys (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Lower parental education and household income were also related to higher levels of screen-based SB in boys (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively) but not in girls. Girls have lower levels of total, unsupervised, and supervised PA, PA during recess, and screen-based SB but higher levels of total SB than boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with lower levels of supervised PA in both genders and higher levels of screen-based SB in boys.

  1. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  2. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  3. Age, physical trauma and care.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A

    1995-01-01

    To cast light on the effects of aging on the metabolic responses to physical trauma an Ottawa researcher has studied strength and blood glucose metabolism in elderly people. He finds that because older people have less lean body mass, particularly muscle mass, than younger people, they are less able to tolerate trauma. They weaken faster and to a greater extent than younger patients who have experienced similar trauma, and they recover more slowly. At the same time, elderly people are less able to tolerate glucose, which is often given as part of their nutritional support. These findings have implications for care: the elderly trauma patient will be weaker than a younger counterpart, and nutrition will need to be provided early, with the glucose intolerance of elderly people borne in mind. Images p1454-a PMID:7728694

  4. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Patterns in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis and Age- and Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Kelly A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Evans, Rachel E; McNarry, Melitta A

    2017-09-05

    Regular physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as important in the care of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) but there is a dearth of evidence regarding physical activity levels (PAL) or how these are accrued in those with CF. Physical activity was measured by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days by eighteen children (10 boys; 12.4 ± 2.8 years) with mild to moderate CF and eighteen age- and sex-matched controls (10 boys; 12.5 ± 2.7 years). Both CF and healthy children demonstrated similar PAL and patterns of accumulation across the intensity spectrum, with higher levels of PA during weekdays in both groups. FEV1 was predicted by high-light PA in CF compared to low-light PA in healthy children. These findings highlight weekends and light PA as areas warranting further research for the development of effective intervention strategies to increase PA in the youth CF population.

  5. Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9–11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries. Physical activity and sedentary time metrics measures were assessed for up to 7 consecutive days for 24 h per day with a waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Generalizability theory using R software was used to investigate the objectives i and ii. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using SAS PROC GLM to inform objective iii. Results: The estimated minimum number of days required to achieve a reliability estimate of G⩾0.8 ranged from 5 to 9 for boys and 3 to 11 for girls for light physical activity (LPA); 5 to 9 and 3 to 10, for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); 5 to 10 and 4 to 10 for total activity counts; and 7 to 11 and 6 to 11 for sedentary time, respectively. For all variables investigated, the ‘participant' facet accounted for 30–50% of the variability, whereas the ‘days' facet accounted for ⩽5%, and the interaction (P × D) accounted for 50–70% of the variability. The actual reliability for boys in ISCOLE ranged from ICCs of 0.78 to 0.86, 0.73 to 0.85 and 0.72 to 0.86 for LPA, MVPA and total activity counts, respectively, and 0.67 to 0.79 for sedentary time. The corresponding values for girls were 0.80–0.88, 0.70–0.89, 0.74–0.86 and 0.64–0.80. Conclusions: It was rare that only 4 days from all participants would be enough to achieve desirable reliability estimates. However, asking participants to wear the device for 7 days and requiring

  6. Blood markers of fatty acids and vitamin D, cardiovascular measures, body mass index, and physical activity relate to longitudinal cortical thinning in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Walhovd, Kristine B; Storsve, Andreas B; Westlye, Lars T; Drevon, Christian A; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and physical activity relate to cortical sparing, whereas higher levels of cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) relate to increased atrophy in the adult lifespan. Longitudinal measures of cortical thickness were derived from magnetic resonance imaging scans acquired (mean interval 3.6 years) from 203 healthy persons aged 23-87 years. At follow-up, measures of BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity were obtained. Blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, vitamin D, and cholesterol were measured in a subsample (n = 92). Effects were tested in cortical surface-based analyses, with sex, age, follow-up interval, and the interactions between each included as covariates. Higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid, vitamin D, and physical activity related to cortical sparing. Higher cholesterol and BMI related to increased cortical thinning. Effects were independent, did not interact with age, and the cholesterol effect was restricted to males. Eicosapentaenoic acid and blood pressure showed no effects. The observed effects show promise for potential factors to reduce cortical atrophy in normal aging.

  7. Tai Chi as an adjunct physical activity for adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in phase III cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Silva, Edna; Sheremeta, Sharon Peachey

    2012-03-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation improves physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, yet services are greatly underutilized with increasing patterns of attrition over time. Tai Chi has been suggested as a possible adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. To describe differences in physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning among adults ≥ 45 years old attending phase III cardiac rehabilitation, who have or have not self-selected Tai Chi exercise as an adjunct physical activity. A cross-sectional design compared subjects attending group-based Wu style Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, with cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects had a battery of physical and cognitive functioning tests administered to examine aerobic endurance, balance, strength, and flexibility, verbal retrieval/recall, attention, concentration and tracking. Subjects completed a health survey to ascertain cardiac event information, medical history, and psychosocial functioning (i.e. health-related quality of life, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and Tai Chi self-efficacy). A total of 51 subjects (75% married, 84% college-educated, 96% White/European-American) participated. Subjects were on average 70 (± 8) years old and had attended cardiac rehabilitation for 45 (± 37) months. Approximately 45% (n = 23) attended Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, while 55% (n = 28) attended cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects attending Tai Chi plus cardiac rehabilitation had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi self-efficacy compared to those attending cardiac rehabilitation only (p ≤ 0.03). Tai Chi can be easily implemented in any community/cardiac rehabilitation facility, and may offer adults additional options after a cardiac event.

  8. Tai Chi as an adjunct physical activity for adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in phase III cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Silva, Edna; Sheremeta, Sharon Peachey

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation improves physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, yet services are greatly underutilized with increasing patterns of attrition over time. Tai Chi has been suggested as a possible adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Aim To describe differences in physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning among adults ≥ 45 years old attending phase III cardiac rehabilitation, who have or have not self-selected Tai Chi exercise as an adjunct physical activity. Methods A cross-sectional design compared subjects attending group-based Wu style Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, with cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects had a battery of physical and cognitive functioning tests administered to examine aerobic endurance, balance, strength, and flexibility, verbal retrieval/recall, attention, concentration and tracking. Subjects completed a health survey to ascertain cardiac event information, medical history, and psychosocial functioning (i.e. health-related quality of life, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and Tai Chi self-efficacy). Results A total of 51 subjects (75% married, 84% college-educated, 96% White/European-American) participated. Subjects were on average 70 (± 8) years old and had attended cardiac rehabilitation for 45 (± 37) months. Approximately 45% (n = 23) attended Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, while 55% (n = 28) attended cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects attending Tai Chi plus cardiac rehabilitation had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi self-efficacy compared to those attending cardiac rehabilitation only (p ≤ 0.03). Conclusion Tai Chi can be easily implemented in any community/cardiac rehabilitation facility, and may offer adults additional options after a cardiac event. PMID:21095159

  9. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Wearable Technology Physical Activity Intervention With Telephone Counseling for Mid-Aged and Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Swartz, Maria C; Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Martinez, Eloisa; Jennings, Kristofer

    2017-03-06

    As adults age, their physical activity decreases and sedentary behavior increases, leading to increased risk of negative health outcomes. Wearable electronic activity monitors have shown promise for delivering effective behavior change techniques. However, little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of non-Fitbit wearables (Fitbit, Inc, San Francisco, California) combined with telephone counseling among adults aged more than 55 years. The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and effect on physical activity of an intervention combining a wearable physical activity monitor, tablet device, and telephone counseling among adults aged 55-79 years. Adults (N=40, aged 55-79 years, body mass index=25-35, <60 min of activity per week) were randomized to receive a 12-week intervention or to a wait list control. Intervention participants received a Jawbone Up24 monitor, a tablet with the Jawbone Up app installed, and brief weekly telephone counseling. Participants set daily and weekly step goals and used the monitor's idle alert to notify them when they were sedentary for more than 1 h. Interventionists provided brief counseling once per week by telephone. Feasibility was measured using observation and study records, and acceptability was measured by self-report using validated items. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured using ActivPAL monitors following standard protocols. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, and fitness was measured using a 6-min walk test. Participants were 61.48 years old (SD 5.60), 85% (34/40) female, 65% (26/40) white. Average activity monitor wear time was 81.85 (SD 3.73) of 90 days. Of the 20 Up24 monitors, 5 were reported broken and 1 lost. No related adverse events were reported. Acceptability items were rated at least 4 on a scale of 1-5. Effect sizes for most outcomes were small, including stepping time per day (d=0.35), steps per day (d=0.26), sitting

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Wearable Technology Physical Activity Intervention With Telephone Counseling for Mid-Aged and Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Maria C; Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Martinez, Eloisa; Jennings, Kristofer

    2017-01-01

    Background As adults age, their physical activity decreases and sedentary behavior increases, leading to increased risk of negative health outcomes. Wearable electronic activity monitors have shown promise for delivering effective behavior change techniques. However, little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of non-Fitbit wearables (Fitbit, Inc, San Francisco, California) combined with telephone counseling among adults aged more than 55 years. Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and effect on physical activity of an intervention combining a wearable physical activity monitor, tablet device, and telephone counseling among adults aged 55-79 years. Methods Adults (N=40, aged 55-79 years, body mass index=25-35, <60 min of activity per week) were randomized to receive a 12-week intervention or to a wait list control. Intervention participants received a Jawbone Up24 monitor, a tablet with the Jawbone Up app installed, and brief weekly telephone counseling. Participants set daily and weekly step goals and used the monitor’s idle alert to notify them when they were sedentary for more than 1 h. Interventionists provided brief counseling once per week by telephone. Feasibility was measured using observation and study records, and acceptability was measured by self-report using validated items. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured using ActivPAL monitors following standard protocols. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, and fitness was measured using a 6-min walk test. Results Participants were 61.48 years old (SD 5.60), 85% (34/40) female, 65% (26/40) white. Average activity monitor wear time was 81.85 (SD 3.73) of 90 days. Of the 20 Up24 monitors, 5 were reported broken and 1 lost. No related adverse events were reported. Acceptability items were rated at least 4 on a scale of 1-5. Effect sizes for most outcomes were small, including stepping time per day (d

  11. Age-related loss of muscle mass and bone strength in mice is associated with a decline in physical activity and serum leptin.

    PubMed

    Hamrick, Mark W; Ding, Ke-Hong; Pennington, Catherine; Chao, Yuh J; Wu, Yii-Der; Howard, Boyd; Immel, David; Borlongan, Cesario; McNeil, Paul L; Bollag, Wendy B; Curl, Walton W; Yu, Jack; Isales, Carlos M

    2006-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying age-related loss of muscle and bone tissue are poorly understood but are thought to involve changes in sex hormone status, physical activity, and circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. This study attempts to develop an animal model useful for evaluating these mechanisms in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice were included for study at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 29 months of age. Endocortical mineralizing surface, serum leptin, body weight, and percentage of body fat all increased between 6 and 12 months of age as activity level declined. Serum levels of the inflammatory marker IL-6 increased significantly after 12 months of age, following the observed increase in body weight and percent body fat. Hindlimb muscle mass declined significantly between 18 and 24 months of age, both absolutely and relative to total body mass, with a further decline ( approximately 15%) between 24 and 29 months. Loss of muscle mass after 18 months of age was accompanied by a significant increase in bone resorption, as indicated by serum pyridinoline cross-links, and a significant decrease in fat mass, serum leptin, bone strength, bone mineral density, and vertical cage activity. No significant changes in serum testosterone with aging were detected in the mice, as levels were essentially constant between 6 and 29 months. Our data show that mice lose a significant amount of muscle and bone tissue with age, and this loss of musculoskeletal tissue is accompanied by a drop in serum leptin and preceded by a significant decrease in physical activity.

  12. Long-term calorie restriction decreases metabolic cost of movement and prevents decrease of physical activity during aging in the rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yosuke; Colman, Ricki J; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Baum, Scott T.; Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Weindruch, Richard; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Short-term (<1 year) calorie restriction (CR) has been reported to decrease physical activity and metabolic rate in humans and non-human primate models; however, studies examining the very long-term (>10 year) effect of CR on these parameters are lacking. Objective The objective of this study was to examine metabolic and behavioral adaptations to long-term CR longitudinally in rhesus macaques. Design Eighteen (10 male, 8 female) control (C) and 24 (14 male, 10 female) age matched CR rhesus monkeys between 19.6 and 31.9 years old were examined after 13 and 18 years of moderate adult-onset CR. Energy expenditure (EE) was examined by doubly labeled water (DLW; TEE) and respiratory chamber (24hrEE). Physical activity was assessed both by metabolic equivalent (MET) in a respiratory chamber and by an accelerometer. Metabolic cost of movements during 24h were also calculated. Age and fat-free mass were included as covariates. Results Adjusted total and 24hr EE were not different between C and CR. Sleeping metabolic rate was significantly lower, and physical activity level was higher in CR than in C independent from the CR-induced changes in body composition. The duration of physical activity above 1.6 METs was significantly higher in CR than in C, and CR had significantly higher accelerometer activity counts than C. Metabolic cost of movements during 24h were significantly lower in CR than in C. The accelerometer activity counts were significantly decreased after seven years in C animals, but not in CR animals. Conclusions The results suggest that long-term CR decreases basal metabolic rate, but maintains higher physical activity with lower metabolic cost of movements compared with C. PMID:23954367

  13. Obesity History and Daily Patterns of Physical Activity at Age 60-64 Years: Findings From the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel; Huang, Lei; Hardy, Rebecca; Crainiceanu, Adina; Harris, Tamara; Schrack, Jennifer A; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Kuh, Diana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of current body mass index (BMI) and obesity history with daily patterns of physical activity. At age 60-64, participants from a British birth cohort study wore accelerometers for 5 days. Accelerometry counts were log-transformed and mean log-counts were used to derive a summary variable indicating total daily log-activity counts. Among those with complete data (n = 1,388) the associations of current BMI and age of first obesity were examined with: (a) total daily log-activity counts and (b) total log-activity counts in four segments of the day. Higher current BMI and younger age at obesity were strongly associated with lower levels of total daily activity at age 60-64 even after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic factors, and health status. The fully-adjusted mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -581.7 (95% confidence interval: -757.2, -406.3) when comparing BMI ≥35 kg/m2 with <25 kg/m2, representing an 18.4% difference. Participants who had been obese since early adulthood had the lowest levels of activity (mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -413.1 (-638.1, -188.2) when comparing those who were obese by age 26 or 36 with those who were never obese, representing a 13.1% difference). Obese older adults may require targeted interventions and additional support to improve their daily activity levels. As younger generations with greater lifetime exposure to obesity reach old age the proportion of adults achieving sufficient levels of activity to realize its associated health benefits is likely to decline.

  14. Influence of social context on eating, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors of Latina mothers and their preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Peterson, Karen E

    2009-02-01

    As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from content analysis according to ecologic frameworks for behavior change. Respondents related environmental influences to child feeding, diet, and activity, namely, supermarket proximity, food cost, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and weather. Television watching was seen as integral to family life, including watching during meals and using TV as babysitter and tool to learn English. Participation in the WIC program helped families address food insecurity, and child care provided healthy eating and physical activity opportunities. Health promotion efforts addressing obesity trends in Latino children must account for organizational and environmental influences on the day-to-day social context of young immigrant families.

  15. Biochemical development of subchondral bone from birth until age eleven months and the influence of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brama, P A J; TeKoppele, J M; Bank, R A; Barneveld, A; van Weeren, P R

    2002-03-01

    Subchondral bone provides structural support to the overlying articular cartilage, and plays an important role in osteochondral diseases. There is growing insight that the mechanical features of bone are related to the biochemistry of the collagen network and the mineral content. In the present study, part of the normal developmental process and the influence of physical activity on biochemical composition of subchondral bone was studied. Water content, calcium content and characteristics of the collagen network (collagen, hydroxylysine, lysylpyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) crosslinking) of subchondral bone were measured in newborn foals, 5-month-old foals (pasture-grown and box-confined) and 11-month-old foals at 2 differently loaded sites of the proximal articular surface of the first phalanx. During the first 5 months postpartum, water and hydroxylysine content decreased significantly while calcium and collagen content and the amount of HP and LP crosslinks increased significantly. The withholding of physical activity during this developmental phase affected the biochemical characteristics of subchondral bone only at the site that is loaded during physical exercise. At this site, calcium content and both HP and LP crosslink levels increased significantly less than in pasture-raised animals. During development from 5-11 months, measured parameters remained essentially constant, except for water content, which decreased further. It is concluded that substantial changes, presumed to be largely exercise-driven, take place during the normal process of development in the biochemical composition of equine subchondral bone. Normal development of subchondral bone is presumably important for the normal functional adaptation of this bone to the loading conditions it is subjected to and therefore essential to resist the future biomechanical challenges the horse will encounter during its athletic career. The findings from this study and the assumed

  16. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  17. A community-wide campaign to promote physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-wide campaign (CWC) for promoting physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a community as the unit of randomization was performed using a population-based random-sampled evaluation by self-administered questionnaires in the city of Unnan, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The evaluation sample included 6000 residents aged 40 to 79 years. We randomly allocated nine communities to the intervention group and three to the control group. The intervention was a CWC from 2009 to 2010 to promote physical activity, and it comprised information, education, and support delivery. The primary outcome was a change in engaging in regular aerobic, flexibility, and/or muscle-strengthening activities evaluated at the individual level. Results In total, 4414 residents aged 40–79 years responded to a self-administered questionnaire (73.6% response rate). Awareness of the CWC was 79% in the intervention group. Awareness and knowledge were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although there were no significant differences in belief and intention. The 1-year CWC did not significantly promote the recommended level of physical activity (adjusted odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.14). Conclusions This cluster RCT showed that the CWC did not promote physical activity in 1 year. Significant differences were observed in awareness and knowledge between intervention and control groups as short-term impacts of the campaign. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002683 PMID:23570536

  18. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  19. Outcomes of a school-based intervention (RESCATE) to improve physical activity patterns in Mexican children aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Colín-Ramírez, E; Castillo-Martínez, L; Orea-Tejeda, A; Vergara-Castañeda, A; Keirns-Davis, C; Villa-Romero, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 5) or control (n = 5) groups and followed up during 12 months. Physical and sedentary activities were assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 and 12 months. At the end of follow-up, there was a significant increase in the performance of moderate physical activity (MPA) among children in intervention group who had not performed MPA at baseline any day of the week (40%, P = 0.04) but not in the control group (8%, P = not significant). The intervention group also showed a significant reduction in the proportion of children who spent more than 3 hours a day playing video games (from 23 to 13%, P = 0.01), while control group did not show significant changes. Given these findings, we conclude that intervention was able to modify positively physical activity and reduce time spent on such sedentary activities as video games among those at highest risk studied children.

  20. Mobility Status as a Predictor of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Screen Time Use among Children Aged 5-11 Years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B; Haegele, Justin A; Zhu, Xihe

    2016-09-01

    To examine physical activity participation, screen time habits, and the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children in the general population with mobility limitations and those enrolled in special education services. An observational, cross-sectional analysis of the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative sample of the US population. Mobility limitations, special education services utilization, proxy-reported physical activity and screen time, and overweight/obesity status were assessed in children aged 5-11 years. Boys with mobility limitations were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines (≥60 minutes daily) compared with those with no limitations (58.1% vs 74.4%, adjusted F = 4.61, P = .04). In a logistic regression model, boys with mobility limitations had significantly lower odds (0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.86) of meeting physical activity guidelines. The prevalence of children meeting screen time recommendations (≤2 hours daily) among those receiving special education services (42.4%) was lower than children not receiving services (53.2%; adjusted F = 8.87, P < .01). In a logistic regression model, children receiving special education services showed a trend toward significantly lower odds (0.74, 95% CI 0.54-1.03, P = .07) of meeting screen time recommendations. No statistically significant differences for overweight/obesity were found. Clear differences were present in physical activity between boys with and without mobility limitations. Furthermore, children receiving special education services demonstrated a lower likelihood of meeting screen time recommendations. Children with disabilities may benefit from targeted interventions aimed at increasing physical activity while decreasing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcela T; Matsudo, Sandra M M; Ribeiro, Manoel C S A; Ramos, Luiz R

    2010-11-10

    Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming consider