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Sample records for physical activity monitors

  1. Assessing physical activity using wearable monitors: measures of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Ekelund, Ulf; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity may be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The quantitative assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors is grounded in the measurement of energy expenditure. Six main categories of wearable monitors are currently available to investigators: pedometers, load transducers/foot-contact monitors, accelerometers, HR monitors, combined accelerometer and HR monitors, and multiple sensor systems. Currently available monitors are capable of measuring total physical activity as well as components of physical activity that play important roles in human health. The selection of wearable monitors for measuring physical activity will depend on the physical activity component of interest, study objectives, characteristics of the target population, and study feasibility in terms of cost and logistics. Future development of sensors and analytical techniques for assessing physical activity should focus on the dynamic ranges of sensors, comparability for sensor output across manufacturers, and the application of advanced modeling techniques to predict energy expenditure and classify physical activities. New approaches for qualitatively classifying physical activity should be validated using direct observation or recording. New sensors and methods for quantitatively assessing physical activity should be validated in laboratory and free-living populations using criterion methods of calorimetry or doubly labeled water.

  2. A System for Monitoring Posture and Physical Activity Using Accelerometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- Accelerometers can be used to monitor physical activity in the home over prolonged periods. We describe a novel system for...processing schema in which these parameters are extracted is described. Keywords - physical activity , accelerometers, congestive heart failure, chronic...When monitoring the condition of patients with neurodegenerative or chronic diseases, a knowledge of their body movement and physical activity

  3. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  4. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  5. Promise of Wearable Physical Activity Monitors in Oncology Practice.

    PubMed

    Beg, Muhammad S; Gupta, Arjun; Stewart, Tyler; Rethorst, Chad D

    2017-02-01

    Commercially available physical activity monitors provide clinicians an opportunity to obtain oncology patient health measures to an unprecedented degree. These devices can provide objective and quantifiable measures of physical activity, which are not subject to errors or bias of self-reporting or shorter duration of formal testing. Prior work on so-called quantified-self data was based on older-generation, research-grade accelerometers, which laid the foundation for consumer-based physical activity monitoring devices to be validated as a feasible and reliable tool in patients with cancer. Physical activity monitors are being used in chronic conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Differing demographics, compounded with higher symptom and treatment burdens in patients with cancer, imply that additional work is needed to understand the unique strengths and weaknesses of physical activity monitors in this population. Oncology programs can systematically implement these tools into their workflows in an adaptable and iterative manner. Translating large amounts of data collected from an individual physical activity monitoring device into clinically relevant information requires sophisticated data compilation and reduction. In this article, we summarize the characteristics of older- and newer-generation physical activity monitors, review the validation of physical activity monitors with respect to health-related quality-of-life assessments, and describe the current role of these devices for the practicing oncologist. We also highlight the challenges and next steps needed for physical activity monitors to provide relevant information that can change the current state of oncology practice.

  6. Instructional physical activity monitor video in english and spanish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ActiGraph activity monitor is a widely used method for assessing physical activity. Compliance with study procedures in critical. A common procedure is for the research team to meet with participants and demonstrate how and when to attach and remove the monitor and convey how many wear-days are ...

  7. Monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; McKenna, Mary L; Butler, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Given the increase in the number of Canadian jurisdictions with school nutrition and/or physical activity policies, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The objectives of this paper are to 1) provide an overview of key issues in monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies in Canada and 2) identify areas for further research needed to strengthen the evidence base and inform the development of effective approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Evaluation indicators, data sources and existing tools for evaluating nutrition and physical activity are reviewed. This paper has underscored the importance of identifying common indicators and approaches, using a comprehensive approach based on the WHO framework and ensuring that research capacity and funding is in place to facilitate high-quality evaluation efforts in the future.

  8. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  9. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  10. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  11. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  12. Physical Activity Measured by Physical Activity Monitoring System Correlates with Glucose Trends Reconstructed from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zecchin, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Dalla Man, Chiara; Manohar, Chinmay; Levine, James A.; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked using, for example, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, have been barely explored. Subjects and Methods In the clinic, 20 control and 19 T1DM subjects were studied for 4 consecutive days. They underwent low-intensity PA sessions daily. PA was tracked by the PA monitoring system (PAMS), a system comprising accelerometers and inclinometers. Variations on glucose dynamics were tracked estimating first- and second-order time derivatives of glucose concentration from CGM via Bayesian smoothing. Short-time effects of PA on glucose dynamics were quantified through the partial correlation function in the interval (0, 60 min) after starting PA. Results Correlation of PA with glucose time derivatives is evident. In T1DM, the negative correlation with the first-order glucose time derivative is maximal (absolute value) after 15 min of PA, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 40–45 min. The negative correlation between the second-order time derivative and PA is maximal after 5 min, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 35–40 min. Control subjects provided similar results but with positive and negative correlation peaks anticipated of 5 min. Conclusions Quantitative information on correlation between mild PA and short-term glucose dynamics was obtained. This represents a preliminary important step toward incorporation of PA information in more realistic physiological models of the glucose–insulin system usable in T1DM simulators, in development of closed-loop artificial pancreas control algorithms, and in CGM-based prediction algorithms for generation of hypoglycemic alerts. PMID

  13. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer. A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland–Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices. Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P < 0.001, r = 0.96). Correlations across all three BMI categories and both sex remained consistently high ranging from 0.92 to 0.95. There was a high level of agreement between the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland–Altman analysis. Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a

  14. [Development of a wearable electrocardiogram monitor with recognition of physical activity scene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zihong; Wu, Baoming; Yin, Jian; Gong, Yushun

    2012-10-01

    To overcome the problems of current electrocardiogram (ECG) tele-monitoring devices used for daily life, according to information fusion thought and by means of wearable technology, we developed a new type of wearable ECG monitor with the capability of physical activity recognition in this paper. The ECG monitor synchronously detected electrocardiogram signal and body acceleration signal, and recognized the scene information of physical activity, and finally determined the health status of the heart. With the advantages of accuracy for measurement, easy to use, comfort to wear, private feelings and long-term continuous in monitoring, this ECG monitor is quite fit for the heart-health monitoring in daily life.

  15. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  16. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects' balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity.

  17. Accelerometer's position independent physical activity recognition system for long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2010-12-01

    Mobility is a good indicator of health status and thus objective mobility data could be used to assess the health status of elderly patients. Accelerometry has emerged as an effective means for long-term physical activity monitoring in the elderly. However, the output of an accelerometer varies at different positions on a subject's body, even for the same activity, resulting in high within-class variance. Existing accelerometer-based activity recognition systems thus require firm attachment of the sensor to a subject's body. This requirement makes them impractical for long-term activity monitoring during unsupervised free-living as it forces subjects into a fixed life pattern and impede their daily activities. Therefore, we introduce a novel single-triaxial-accelerometer-based activity recognition system that reduces the high within-class variance significantly and allows subjects to carry the sensor freely in any pocket without its firm attachment. We validated our system using seven activities: resting (lying/sitting/standing), walking, walking-upstairs, walking-downstairs, running, cycling, and vacuuming, recorded from five positions: chest pocket, front left trousers pocket, front right trousers pocket, rear trousers pocket, and inner jacket pocket. Its simplicity, ability to perform activities unimpeded, and an average recognition accuracy of 94% make our system a practical solution for continuous long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

  18. A comparison of energy expenditure estimation of several physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Dannecker, Kathryn L; Sazonova, Nadezhda A; Melanson, Edward L; Sazonov, Edward S; Browning, Raymond C

    2013-11-01

    Accurately and precisely estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring energy balance and quantifying physical activity. Recently, single and multisensor devices have been developed that can classify physical activities, potentially resulting in improved estimates of EE. This study aimed to determine the validity of EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor and to compare this validity against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Nineteen healthy young adults (10 men, 9 women) completed a 4-h stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor as well as Actical, ActiGraph, IDEEA, DirectLife, and Fitbit devices. Each individual performed a series of postures/activities. We developed models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Estimated EE using the shoe-based device was not significantly different than measured EE (mean ± SE; 476 ± 20 vs 478 ± 18 kcal, respectively) and had a root-mean-square error of 29.6 kcal (6.2%). The IDEEA and the DirectLlife estimates of EE were not significantly different than the measured EE, but the ActiGraph and the Fitbit devices significantly underestimated EE. Root-mean-square errors were 93.5 (19%), 62.1 kcal (14%), 88.2 kcal (18%), 136.6 kcal (27%), 130.1 kcal (26%), and 143.2 kcal (28%) for Actical, DirectLife, IDEEA, ActiGraph, and Fitbit, respectively. The shoe-based physical activity monitor provides a valid estimate of EE, whereas the other physical activity monitors tested have a wide range of validity when estimating EE. Our results also demonstrate that estimating EE based on classification of physical activities can be more accurate and precise than estimating EE based on total physical activity.

  19. Incorporating physical activity measures into environmental monitoring of national parks: an example from Yosemite.

    PubMed

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai; Floyd, Myron F

    2014-09-01

    To address increasing prevalence of obesity and associated chronic disease, recent national initiatives have called upon federal agencies to promote healthy lifestyles and provide opportunities for physical activity. In response, the U.S. National Park Service has developed strategies promoting health through physical activity in addition to its well-established biodiversity and landscape conservation mission. Incorporating physical activity measures with routine environmental monitoring would help identify areas where parks can promote active pursuits with minimal environmental impact. This study provides one example of how protocols developed for visitor and environmental monitoring can generate data to evaluate physical activity. Researchers implemented an observational study in high-use meadows of Yosemite National Park during the summer of 2011. Variables measured include the spatial location of visitors and activity type. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were assigned to activity categories and analyzed for average energy expenditure. Mean METs values indicated sedentary to light physical activity across the meadows, with greater means in areas with boardwalks or paved pathways. Data leveraged in this study provide park managers an example of adapting existing monitoring programs to incorporate indicators relevant to physical activity evaluation and how physical activity may impact resource conditions in national parks.

  20. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Methods Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. Results All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both). The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the

  1. RE-DEFINING THE ROLES OF SENSORS IN OBJECTIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kong Y.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Zhu, Weimo; Brychta, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background As physical activity researchers are increasingly using objective portable devices, this review describes current state of the technology to assess physical activity, with a focus on specific sensors and sensor properties currently used in monitors and their strengths and weakness. Additional sensors and sensor properties desirable for activity measurement and best practices for users and developers also are discussed. Best Practices We grouped current sensors into three broad categories for objectively measuring physical activity: associated body movement, physiology, and context. Desirable sensor properties for measuring physical activity and the importance of these properties in relationship to specific applications are addressed, and the specific roles of transducers and data acquisition systems within the monitoring devices are defined. Technical advancements in sensors, microcomputer processors, memory storage, batteries, wireless communication, and digital filters have made monitors more usable for subjects (smaller, more stable, and longer running time) and for researchers (less costly, higher time resolution and memory storage, shorter download time, and user-defined data features). Future Directions Users and developers of physical activity monitors should learn about the basic properties of their sensors, such as range, accuracy, precision, while considering the data acquisition/filtering steps that may be critical to data quality and may influence the desirable measurement outcome(s). PMID:22157770

  2. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Kattan, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects' wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients.

  3. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects’ wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients. PMID:26203909

  4. Physical activity monitoring in obese people in the real life environment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major problem especially in western countries and several studies underline the importance of physical activity to enhance diet. Currently there is increasing interest in instruments for monitoring daily physical activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to appraise the qualitative and quantitative differences in physical activities and gait analysis parameters in control and obese subjects by means of an innovative tool for the monitoring of physical activity. Methods Twenty-six obese patients, 16 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 69 years with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 30 and 51.4 kg/m2, were compared with 15 control subjects, 4 men and 11 women, aged 24 to 69 with BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 during daily physical activities. The IDEEA device (Minisun, Fresno, CA), based on a wearable system of biaxial accelerometers and able to continuously record the physical activities and energy expenditure of a subject in time was used. Time spent in different physical activities such as standing, sitting, walking, lying, reclining, stepping, energy expenditure and gait parameters (velocity, stance duration, etc) were measured during a 24-hours period. Results A trend toward a reduced number of steps was present, associated to reduced speed, reduced cadence and reduced rate of single and double limb support (SLS/DLS). Moreover, obese people spent significant less time stepping, less time lying and more time in a sitting or reclined position during the night. The energy expenditure during a 24-hours period was higher in the obese compared to controls. Conclusions The study provided objective parameters to differentiate the daily motor activity of obese subjects with respect to controls, even a larger population is required to confirm these findings. The device used can be of support in programming educational activities for life style modification in obese people as well as for monitoring the results of various kinds of intervention in these

  5. Adult self-reported and objectively monitored physical activity and sedentary behavior: NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Johnson, William D; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2013-11-11

    It remains unclear what people are attempting to communicate, in terms of objectively monitored behavior, when describing their physical activity and sedentary behavior through self-report. The purpose of this study was to examine various objectively monitored accelerometer variables (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], steps/day, sedentary time, etc.) across categories of self-reported MVPA (< 150 vs. ≥ 150 minutes/week), usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA; "mostly sitting" vs. "stand, walk, lift, or carry"), and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB; ≥ 3 vs. < 3 hours/day) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (≥ 20 years). This is a secondary analysis of 3,725 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who provided relevant questionnaire responses and ≥ 1 day of valid accelerometer data. Descriptive statistics were computed for various objectively monitored accelerometer variables across categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. Pairwise comparisons were conducted to examine differences in objectively monitored behavior between categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. On average, adults reporting compliance with physical activity guidelines (≥ 150 minutes/week of MVPA) accumulated more objectively measured physical activity and similar amounts of sedentary time relative to those reporting not achieving guidelines. Adults reporting their daily UODA as "mostly sitting" or accruing ≥ 3 hours/day of LTSB accumulated less objectively monitored physical activity and more sedentary time than those who described their UODA as "stand, walk, lift, or carry" or accrued < 3 hours/day of LTSB. The most active cross-classified category (7,935 steps/day; ≥ 150 minutes/week of self-reported MVPA, "stand, walk, lift, or carry" UODA, and < 3 hours/day of LTSB) accumulated more than twice as many daily steps as the least active cross

  6. Recent Advances in Free-Living Physical Activity Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Andre, David; Wolf, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    It has become clear recently that the epidemic of type 2 diabetes sweeping the globe is associated with decreased levels of physical activity and an increase in obesity. Incorporating appropriate and sufficient physical activity into one's life is an essential component of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and overall health, especially for those with type II diabetes mellitus. Regular physical activity can have a positive impact by lowering blood glucose, helping the body to be more efficient at using insulin. There are other substantial benefits for patients with diabetes, including prevention of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several complications of utilizing a self-care treatment methodology involving exercise include (1) patients may not know how much activity that they engage in and (2) health-care providers do not have objective measurements of how much activity their patients perform. However, several technological advances have brought a variety of activity monitoring devices to the market that can address these concerns. Ranging from simple pedometers to multisensor devices, the different technologies offer varying levels of accuracy, comfort, and reliability. The key notion is that by providing feedback to the patient, motivation can be increased and targets can be set and aimed toward. Although these devices are not specific to the treatment of diabetes, the importance of physical activity in treating the disease makes an understanding of these devices important. This article reviews these physical activity monitors and describes the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:19885145

  7. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  8. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  9. Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

  10. Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

  11. Physical Activity Monitoring in Extremely Obese Adolescents from the Teen-LABS Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Renee M.; Inge, Thomas H.; Jenkins, Todd M; King, Wendy; Oruc, Vedran; Douglas, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and non-wear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown. Methods Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age=16.5±2.0 y; BMI=51±8 kg/m2) wore three activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400 meter walk test (400MWT), two standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and one sedentary bout. Results For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor recorded steps was 5.5±7.1% and 82.1±38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2±22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5±124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and non-wear (p<0.001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; non-wear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts. Conclusion Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA, and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection. PMID:25205688

  12. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective monitoring of physical activity using motion sensors and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Freedson, P S; Miller, K

    2000-06-01

    Although neither motion sensors nor heart rate are perfect markers of physical activity, they certainly eliminate subjectivity of obtaining physical activity information. The objective method of choice depends on how the measurement will be used. For example, if walking behavior is the desired outcome, then a pedometer may be sufficient. If patterns and intensity of activity over longer periods of times such as a week or longer are needed, then an accelerometer with large memory capacity should be selected. In the future, efforts should be directed towards developing an objective motion sensor as inexpensive as a pedometer but with the data acquisition capabilities of the CSA or Tritrac accelerometer. Providing simultaneous heart rate with motion is also recommended to further verify that elevated heart rate does in fact represent a physical activity response. As the cost of the electronic components continues to decrease, these activity monitor configurations may become possible.

  14. Sensor Monitoring of Physical Activity to Improve Glucose Management in Diabetic Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Sandrine; Schumacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic individuals need to tightly control their blood glucose concentration. Several methods have been developed for this purpose, such as the finger-prick or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs). However, these methods present the disadvantage of being invasive. Moreover, CGMs have limited accuracy, notably to detect hypoglycemia. It is also known that physical exercise, and even daily activity, disrupt glucose dynamics and can generate problems with blood glucose regulation during and after exercise. In order to deal with these challenges, devices for monitoring patients’ physical activity are currently under development. This review focuses on non-invasive sensors using physiological parameters related to physical exercise that were used to improve glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients. These devices are promising for diabetes management. Indeed they permit to estimate glucose concentration either based solely on physical activity parameters or in conjunction with CGM or non-invasive CGM (NI-CGM) systems. In these last cases, the vital signals are used to modulate glucose estimations provided by the CGM and NI-CGM devices. Finally, this review indicates possible limitations of these new biosensors and outlines directions for future technologic developments. PMID:27120602

  15. A Review of Accelerometry-Based Wearable Motion Detectors for Physical Activity Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Che-Chang; Hsu, Yeh-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of physical activity are indicative of one’s mobility level, latent chronic diseases and aging process. Accelerometers have been widely accepted as useful and practical sensors for wearable devices to measure and assess physical activity. This paper reviews the development of wearable accelerometry-based motion detectors. The principle of accelerometry measurement, sensor properties and sensor placements are first introduced. Various research using accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for physical activity monitoring and assessment, including posture and movement classification, estimation of energy expenditure, fall detection and balance control evaluation, are also reviewed. Finally this paper reviews and compares existing commercial products to provide a comprehensive outlook of current development status and possible emerging technologies. PMID:22163626

  16. Patterns of physical activity determined by heart rate monitoring among diabetic children

    PubMed Central

    Massin, M; Lebrethon, M; Rocour, D; Gerard, P; Bourguignon, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged to participate in physical activity because exercise can benefit insulin sensitivity and improve known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Methods: Physical activity patterns of 127 children and adolescents with stable type 1 diabetes were investigated by 24 hour continuous heart rate monitoring. The percentage of heart rate reserve was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. The results were compared with normative data. Results: Diabetic preschoolchildren accumulated 192.7 (78.1), 39.1 (24.3), and 21.3 (9.4) minutes/day (mean (SD)) of light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, respectively. At the same activity levels, diabetic schoolchildren accumulated 168.9 (76.7), 37.9 (15.9), and 19.0 (14.8) minutes/day, and diabetic teenagers accumulated 166.3 (67.5), 45.6 (26.9), and 25.2 (15.3) minutes/day. Diabetic schoolchildren were significantly more active than healthy peers when considering moderate activity; diabetic teenagers were significantly more active when considering moderate and vigorous activity. There was a negative correlation between the most recent glycated haemoglobin and the time spent in light activities in schoolchildren, and a negative correlation between mean glycated haemoglobin for one year and time spent in light and moderate activities in schoolchildren. Conclusion: The majority of our diabetic patients meet the classical paediatric guidelines for physical activity and compare favourably with their healthy peers. PMID:15941770

  17. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B.

    2016-01-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  18. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions.

  19. Development of SmartStep: an insole-based physical activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe--a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution--SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system.

  20. Home-based system for physical activity monitoring in patients with multiple sclerosis (Pilot study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limitations in physical activity are considered as a key problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Contemporary methods to assess the level of physical activity in PwMS are regular clinical observation. However, these methods either rely on high recall and accurate reporting from the patients (e.g. self-report questionnaires), or they are conducted during a particular clinical assessment with predefined activities. Therefore, the main aim of this pilot study was to develop an objective method to gather information about the real type and intensity of daily activities performed by PwMS in every-day living situations using an accelerometer. Furthermore, the accelerometer-derived measures are investigated regarding their potential for discriminating between different MS groups. Methods Eleven PwMS that were able to walk independently (EDSS ≤ 5) were divided into two groups: mild disability (EDSS 1–2.5; n = 6) and moderate disability (EDSS 3 –5; n = 5). Participants made use of an activity monitor device attached to their waist during their normal daily activities over 4 measurements. Activity parameters were assessed and compared for the time of each participant’s first measurement and follow-up measurement. Furthermore, differences between both subgroups, and the correlation of activity parameters with the clinical neurological variable (EDSS) were investigated. Results Participants showed significant decline in step count (p = 0.008), maximum walking speed (p = 0.02) and physical activity intensity (p = 0.03) throughout the study period. Compared to the mild subgroup, moderate affected participant accumulated less number of steps (G1: 9214.33 ± 2439.11, G2: 5018.13 ± 2416.96; p < 0.005) and were slower (G1: 1.48 ± 0.19, G2: 1.12 ± 0.44; p = 0.03). Additionally, the EDSS correlated negatively with mean walking speed (r = - 0.71, p = 0.01) and steps count (r = - 0.54, p

  1. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45–54; 55–64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  2. Initial Experience With Real-Time Continuous Physical Activity Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Justin K; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Keefe, Malla K; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Burton, Douglas C; Hart, Robert A; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Smith, Zachary A; Koski, Tyler R; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-02-23

    Multicenter prospective pilot study. To evaluate if continuous physical activity monitoring by a personal electronic 3-dimensional accelerometer device is feasible and can provide objective data that correlates with patient-reported outcomes following spine surgery. Self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) metrics are inherently limited by being very subjective, having a low frequency of data collection, and inconsistent follow-up. Inclusion criteria: adults (18+), thoracolumbar deformity or degenerative disease, and regular access to a computer with internet connection. Physical activity parameters included: number of daily steps, maximum hourly steps, and activity intensity. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), and the Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS22) preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Thirty-two patients were enrolled, 8 (25%) withdrew, 1 (3.1%) died, and 1 (3.1%) did not end up undergoing surgery resulting in 22 (68.8%) available patients. Mean preoperative and postoperative step ranges were 1278±767 to 17,800±6464 and 891±587 to 12,655±7038, respectively. Eleven patients improved in mean total daily steps at the final postoperative month with 2 having significant improvements (P<0.05). Five patients did not significantly change (P>0.05) and 6 patients had significantly lower mean total daily steps at 6 months (P<0.05). The entire cohort significantly improved in ODI, SF-36 Physical Component Summary, SRS Activity, SRS Appearance, SRS Mental, SRS Satisfaction, and SRS Total score at 6 months postoperative (P<0.05 for all). Both ODI and Physical Component Summary were significantly correlated with preoperative average total daily steps (r=-0.61, P=0.0058 and r=0.60, P=0.0114, respectively). No other HRQOL metrics were significantly correlated at baseline or at 6 months postoperative (P>0.05). A prospective pilot study for continuous real

  3. Development and validation of a physical activity monitor for use on a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Coulter, E H; Dall, P M; Rochester, L; Hasler, J P; Granat, M H

    2011-03-01

    Keeping physically active is important for people who mobilize using a wheelchair. However, current tools to measure physical activity in the wheelchair are either not validated or limited in their application. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a monitoring system to measure wheelchair movement. The system developed consisted of a tri-axial accelerometer placed on the wheel of a wheelchair and an analysis algorithm to interpret the acceleration signals. The two accelerometer outputs in the plane of the wheel were used to calculate the angle of the wheel. From this, outcome measures of wheel revolutions, absolute angle and duration of movement were derived and the direction of movement (forwards or backwards) could be distinguished. Concurrent validity was assessed in comparison with video analysis in 14 people with spinal cord injury using their wheelchair on an indoor track and outdoor wheelchair skills course. Validity was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and Bland-Altman plots. The monitoring system demonstrated excellent validity for wheel revolutions, absolute angle and duration of movement (ICC(2,1)>0.999, 0.999, 0.981, respectively) in both manual and powered wheelchairs, when the wheelchair was propelled forwards and backwards, and for movements of various durations. This study has found this monitoring system to be an accurate and objective tool for measuring detailed information on wheelchair movement and maneuvering regardless of the propulsion technique, direction and speed.

  4. Step Detection and Activity Recognition Accuracy of Seven Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Fabio A.; Heller, Ben W.; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications. PMID:25789630

  5. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  6. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James P; Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart J H; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-05-04

    It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time (activPAL VT, the Lumo Back, and Darma

  7. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart JH; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. Objective The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. Methods To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. Results The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time

  8. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  9. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  10. Physical activity monitoring: addressing the difficulties of accurately detecting slow walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Samantha L; Horton, Elizabeth J; Smith, Robert; Sandland, Carolyn J; Steiner, Michael C; Morgan, Mike D L; Singh, Sally J

    2013-01-01

    To test the accuracy of a multi-sensor activity monitor (SWM) in detecting slow walking speeds in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Concerns have been expressed regarding the use of pedometers in patient populations. Although activity monitors are more sophisticated devices, their accuracy at detecting slow walking speeds common in patients with COPD has yet to be proven. A prospective observational study design was employed. An incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) was completed by 57 patients with COPD wearing an SWM. The ISWT was repeated by 20 patients wearing the same SWM. Differences were identified between metabolic equivalents (METS) and between step-count across five levels of the ISWT (p < 0.001). Good within monitor reproducibility between two ISWT was identified for total energy expenditure and step-count (p < 0.001). The SWM is able to detect slow (standardized) speeds of walking and is an acceptable method for measuring physical activity in individuals disabled by COPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Badland, Hannah M; Schofield, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of global positioning system (GPS) receivers with integrated heart rate (HR) monitoring has provided a new method for estimating the energy expenditure associated with children's movement. The purpose of this feasibility study was to trial a combination of GPS surveillance and HR monitoring in 39 primary-aged children from New Zealand. Spatial location and HR data were recorded during a school lunch break using an integrated GPS/HR receiver (1Hz). Children averaged a total distance of 1.10+/-0.56km at speeds ranging from 0 to 18.6kmh(-1). Activity patterns were characterised by short bursts of moderate to high speeds followed by longer periods of slow speeds. In addition, boys averaged higher speeds than girls (1.77+/-0.62kmh(-1) and 1.36+/-0.50kmh(-1), respectively; p=0.003). The percentage of time spent at 0kmh(-1) (stationary) ranged from 0.1% to 21.3% with a mean of 6.4+/-4.6%. These data suggest that while children were relatively active during the lunch period, they spent a substantial portion of time engaged in slow or stationary physical activities. Furthermore, associations between HR, average speed, and stationary time demonstrated that children who moved at faster speeds expended more energy than those who moved at slower speeds. We conclude that the combined approach of GPS and HR monitoring is a promising new method for investigating children's play-related energy expenditure. There is also scope to integrate GPS data with geographic information systems to examine where children play and accumulate physical activity.

  12. Mood and Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity Patterns in Youth with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michael, Julie C; El Nokali, Nermeen E; Black, Jessica J; Rofey, Dana L

    2015-10-01

    To provide initial insight into physical activity patterns and predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by using a multisensor activity monitor. Cross-sectional study analyzing baseline MVPA data using real-time continuous monitoring of physical activity. Body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of MVPA. A large, urban children's hospital in the United States. Thirty-five youth (aged 12 to 21 years) previously diagnosed with PCOS (mean BMI = 38.0 kg/m(2); mean age = 15.4 years, 79% white) who were participants in a behavioral lifestyle intervention. Total steps, total MVPA, longest continuous bout of MVPA, and frequency of MVPA bouts lasting for 5 to 9 minutes and 10 or more minutes. Sixty percent of youth averaged at least 1 daily MVPA bout lasting 10 or more minutes, and 14% averaged a daily MVPA bout lasting 30 or more minutes. BMI was negatively correlated with MVPA bout duration (P = .04). Parental ratings of depression, but not self-report ratings, were predictive of participants' total MVPA (β = -.46; P = .01), number of 5- to 9-minute bouts (β = -.39; P = .03), and bouts of 10 or more minutes (β = -.35; P = .05). Youth with PCOS may benefit from being prescribed multiple bouts of MVPA lasting less than 30 continuous minutes to meet national recommendations and achieve health benefits. BMI and parental endorsement of child's depression symptoms may be important to consider when assessing and prescribing MVPA to youth with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of Energy Expenditure for Wheelchair Users Using a Physical Activity Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2016-07-01

    To develop and evaluate energy expenditure (EE) estimation models for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) in manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional study. University-based laboratory environment, a semistructured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and the participants' home environments. Volunteer sample of manual wheelchair users with SCI (N=45). Participants were asked to perform 10 physical activities (PAs) of various intensities from a list. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope-based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. Criterion EE using a portable metabolic cart and raw sensor data from PAMS were collected during each of these activities. Estimated EE using custom models for manual wheelchair users based on either the G-WRM and arm accelerometer (PAMS-Arm) or the G-WRM and wrist accelerometer (PAMS-Wrist). EE estimation performance for the PAMS-Arm (average error ± SD: -9.82%±37.03%) and PAMS-Wrist (-5.65%±32.61%) on the validation dataset indicated that both PAMS-Arm and PAMS-Wrist were able to estimate EE for a range of PAs with <10% error. Moderate to high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated that the EE estimated by PAMS-Arm (ICC3,1=.82, P<.05) and PAMS-Wrist (ICC3,1=.89, P<.05) are consistent with the criterion EE. Availability of PA monitors can assist wheelchair users to track PA levels, leading toward a healthier lifestyle. The new models we developed can estimate PA levels in manual wheelchair users with SCI in laboratory and community settings. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical activity intensity can be accurately monitored by smartphone global positioning system 'app'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brett Ashley; Bruce, Lyndell; Benson, Amanda Clare

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.

  15. Physical Activity Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss: 6-Month Results of the SMART Trial

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Molly B.; Yang, Kyeongra; Elci, Okan U.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Styn, Mindi A.; Wang, Jing; Kriska, Andrea M.; Sereika, Susan M.; Burke, Lora E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Weight loss has been associated with higher physical activity (PA) levels and frequent dietary self-monitoring. Less is known about how PA self-monitoring affects adherence to PA goals, PA levels and weight change. Methods The SMART Trial is a clinical weight loss trial in which 210 overweight adults were randomized equally to one of three arms: 1) paper record (PR); 2) personal digital assistant with self-monitoring software (PDA); and 3) PDA with daily tailored feedback message (PDA+FB). PA self-monitoring and adherence to PA goals were based on entries in weekly submitted diaries. PA levels were measured via self-report by the past 6 month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Results Data are presented on 189 participants with complete 6-month PA data [84% female, 77% White, mean age: 47.3 ± 8.8 years, mean BMI: 34.1 ± 4.5 kg/m2]. Median PA level was 7.96 MET-hr-wk−1 at baseline and 13.4 MET-hr-wk−1 at 6 months, with significant PA increases in all three arms. PDA+FB arm had a higher mean number of weekly self-monitoring entries than the PR arm (3.4 vs. 2.4; p=0.003) and were more likely to maintain high (i.e., 100%) adherence to PA goals over time than the PDA (p=0.02) or PR arms (p=0.0003). Both PA self-monitoring and adherence to PA goals were related to higher PA levels at 6 months. A higher mean rate of PA self-monitoring was associated with a greater percentage of weight decrease (rho=−0.49; p<0.0001) at 6 months. Conclusions PA self-monitoring and adherence to PA goals were more likely in participants in the PDA+FB arm and in turn predicted higher PA levels and weight loss. PMID:21200337

  16. The validity of the ActiPed for physical activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brown, D K; Grimwade, D; Martinez-Bussion, D; Taylor, M J D; Gladwell, V F

    2013-05-01

    The ActiPed (FitLinxx) is a uniaxial accelerometer, which objectively measures physical activity, uploads the data wirelessly to a website, allowing participants and researchers to view activity levels remotely. The aim was to validate ActiPed's step count, distance travelled and activity time against direct observation. Further, to compare against pedometer (YAMAX), accelerometer (ActiGraph) and manufacturer's guidelines. 22 participants, aged 28±7 years, undertook 4 protocols, including walking on different surfaces and incremental running protocol (from 2 mph to 8 mph). Bland-Altman plots allowed comparison of direct observation against ActiPed estimates. For step count, the ActiPed showed a low % bias in all protocols: walking on a treadmill (-1.30%), incremental treadmill protocol (-1.98%), walking over grass (-1.67%), and walking over concrete (-0.93%). When differentiating between walking and running step count the ActiPed showed a % bias of 4.10% and -6.30%, respectively. The ActiPed showed >95% accuracy for distance and duration estimations overall, although underestimated distance (p<0.01) for walking over grass and concrete. Overall, the ActiPed showed acceptable levels of accuracy comparable to previous validated pedometers and accelerometers. The accuracy combined with the simple and informative remote gathering of data, suggests that the ActiPed could be a useful tool in objective physical activity monitoring.

  17. Validation of two novel monitoring devices to measure physical activity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Klein, Diane A; Levine, Esther; Walsh, B Timothy; Sazonov, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity is increasingly important in health research. We sought to determine the accuracy and sensitivity to non-exercise activity of three activity monitors worn simultaneously by healthy adult women participating in a structured activity protocol. Ten normal-weight women wore the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA), the SmartShoe, and the SenseWear Armband, during activities that included standing, sitting still, sitting and fidgeting, lying down, and walking at varying speeds. Percentage of time postures correctly identified was determined for the IDEEA and the SmartShoe, and activity counts collected from all three devices were compared. Posture was detected with high accuracy by both the IDEEA and the SmartShoe (97.4% and 94.2% accuracy, respectively). The SmartShoe showed superior sensitivity to movement while seated ("fidgeting") compared with the IDEEA (p=0.004 and 0.049 difference between postures, respectively); all three devices distinguished between fast and slow walking. Data support the ability of the IDEEA and the SmartShoe to recognize basic postures in healthy normal-weight women, as well as to detect fidgeting within the seated position.

  18. Consumer-Based Physical Activity Monitor as a Practical Way to Measure Walking Intensity During Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Tara D; Semrau, Jennifer A; Dukelow, Sean P; Bayley, Mark T; Hill, Michael D; Eng, Janice J

    2017-09-01

    Identifying practical ways to accurately measure exercise intensity and dose in clinical environments is essential to advancing stroke rehabilitation. This is especially relevant in monitoring walking activity during inpatient rehabilitation where recovery is greatest. This study evaluated the accuracy of a readily available consumer-based physical activity monitor during daily inpatient stroke rehabilitation physical therapy sessions. Twenty-one individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation were monitored for a total of 471 one-hour physical therapy sessions which consisted of walking and nonwalking therapeutic activities. Participants wore a consumer-based physical activity monitor (Fitbit One) and the gold standard for assessing step count (StepWatch Activity Monitor) during physical therapy sessions. Linear mixed modeling was used to assess the relationship of the step count of the Fitbit to the StepWatch Activity Monitor. Device accuracy is reported as the percent error of the Fitbit compared with the StepWatch Activity Monitor. A strong relationship (slope=0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.01) was found between the number of steps captured by the Fitbit One and the StepWatch Activity Monitor. The Fitbit One had a mean error of 10.9% (5.3) for participants with walking velocities <0.4 m/s, 6.8% (3.0) for walking velocities between 0.4 and 0.8 m/s, and 4.4% (2.8) for walking velocities >0.8 m/s. This study provides preliminary evidence that the Fitbit One, when positioned on the nonparetic ankle, can accurately measure walking steps early after stroke during inpatient rehabilitation physical therapy sessions. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01915368. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  20. Telehealth monitor to measure physical activity and pressure relief maneuver performance in wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Eberly, Valerie; Maneekobkunwong, Somboon; Mulroy, Sara J; Requejo, Philip S; Gwin, Joseph T

    2016-09-29

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of a device for monitoring pressure relief maneuvers and physical activity for wheelchair users. The device counts the number of wheel pushes based on wheelchair acceleration and measures pressure relief maneuvers using a seat sensor consisting of three force sensing resistors (FSRs). To establish the feasibility of the seat sensor for the detection of pressure relief maneuvers, 10 wheelchair users and 10 non-disabled controls completed a series of wheelchair depression raises, forward trunk leans, and lateral trunk leans. The seat sensor was placed underneath the user's seat cushion. To establish the feasibility of wheel push counting, 10 full-time wheelchair users navigated a flat 50-m outdoor track and a 100-m outdoor obstacle course during self-propulsion (e.g., wheel pushes) and during assisted-propulsion (e.g., no wheel pushes). Of the 240 performed pressure relief, 225 were properly classified by the seat sensor (accuracy: 94%, sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 80%). Sensitivity was highest for depression raises (98%) and lowest for front lean maneuvers (80%). The wheelchair activity monitor measured 2,112 pushes during the self-propulsion trials compared to 2,162 pushes measured with the instrumented push-rim (97.7%). During assisted-propulsion trials, there were 477 incorrectly identified pushes (8.0 per trial).

  1. Determining daily physical activity levels of youth with developmental disabilities: days of monitoring required?

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-07-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively, Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.

  2. Energy expenditure prediction via a footwear-based physical activity monitor: Accuracy and comparison to other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannecker, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe

  3. Free-living Cross-Comparison of Two Wearable Monitors for Sleep and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Mednick, Sara C.; Buman, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need for free-living monitoring of the full 24h spectrum of behaviors with a single or integrated set of sensors. The validity of field standard wearable monitors in sleep and physical activity have yet to be assessed for the complementary behavior in the context of 24h continuous monitoring. We conducted a free-living comparison study of the Actigraph GT3X+ (GT3X+) to assess sleep parameters as compared with the Actiwatch-64 (AW-64) and concurrently, the AW-64 to assess sedentary and physical activity behaviors as compared with the GT3X+. Thirty young adults (15 female, 19.2±0.86 years) wore both monitors for 3 consecutive days and 2 consecutive nights. Agreement of sleep, sedentary, and physical activity metrics were evaluated using analyses of variance, intraclass correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots with associated confidence limits, mean absolute percentage of errors and equivalence tests. For sleep, the GT3X+ showed high agreement for total sleep time and sleep efficiency, but underestimated wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep onset latency relative to the AW-64. For sedentary behavior and physical activity, the AW-64 showed a moderate agreement for activity energy expenditure, but not for sedentary, light or moderate-vigorous physical activities relative to the GT3X+. Overall our results showed good agreement of the GT3X+ with AW-64 for assessing sleep but a lack of agreement between AW-64 and GT3X+ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. These results are likely due to the monitor placement (wrist vs hip), as well as the algorithm employed to score the data. Future validation work of existing and emerging technologies that may hold promise for 24h continuous monitoring is needed. PMID:26821185

  4. Free-living cross-comparison of two wearable monitors for sleep and physical activity in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Mednick, Sara C; Buman, Matthew P

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need for free-living monitoring of the full 24 h spectrum of behaviors with a single or integrated set of sensors. The validity of field standard wearable monitors in sleep and physical activity have yet to be assessed for the complementary behavior in the context of 24 h continuous monitoring. We conducted a free-living comparison study of the Actigraph GT3X+ (GT3X+) to assess sleep parameters as compared with the Actiwatch-64 (AW-64) and concurrently, the AW-64 to assess sedentary and physical activity behaviors as compared with the GT3X+. Thirty young adults (15 female, 19.2±0.86 years) wore both monitors for 3 consecutive days and 2 consecutive nights. Agreement of sleep, sedentary, and physical activity metrics were evaluated using analyses of variance, intraclass correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots with associated confidence limits, mean absolute percentage of errors and equivalence tests. For sleep, the GT3X+ showed high agreement for total sleep time and sleep efficiency, but underestimated wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep onset latency relative to the AW-64. For sedentary behavior and physical activity, the AW-64 showed a moderate agreement for activity energy expenditure, but not for sedentary, light or moderate-vigorous physical activities relative to the GT3X+. Overall our results showed good agreement of the GT3X+ with AW-64 for assessing sleep but a lack of agreement between AW-64 and GT3X+ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. These results are likely due to the monitor placement (wrist vs hip), as well as the algorithm employed to score the data. Future validation work of existing and emerging technologies that may hold promise for 24 h continuous monitoring is needed.

  5. Spray-on electrodes enable EKG monitoring of physically active subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Easily applied EKG electrodes monitor the heart signals of human subjects engaged in various physical exercises. The electrodes are formed from an air drying, electrically conductive cement mixture that can be applied to the skin by means of a modified commercially available spray gun.

  6. Promoting physical activity using an activity monitor and a tailored web-based advice: design of a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN93896459

    PubMed Central

    Slootmaker, Sander M; Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem

    2005-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with a decrease in physical activity. This decrease particularly occurs during specific transitional life stages. Especially during adolescence and young adulthood a steep decrease in physical activity is observed. Inactive people are often not aware of their inactivity. Providing feedback on the actual physical activity level by an activity monitor can increase awareness and may in combination with an individually tailored physical activity advice stimulate a physically active lifestyle. Methods In a randomized controlled trial the effectiveness of providing an activity monitor in combination with a personal physical activity advice through the Internet will be examined. Outcome measures are level of physical activity, determinants of physical activity, quality of life, empowerment, aerobic fitness and body composition. Participants are relatively inactive adolescents and young adults who are measured at baseline, after 3 months intervention and 5 months after the end of the intervention. In addition, facilitating and hindering factors for implementation of the intervention will be investigated. Discussion The use of a personal activity monitor in combination with web-based assisted individually tailored health promotion offers a good opportunity to work interactively with large groups of adolescents and young adults and provide them with advice based on their actual activity level. It has great potential to motivate people to change their behaviour and to our knowledge has not been evaluated before. PMID:16356182

  7. Comparison of the performance of the activPAL Professional physical activity logger to a discrete accelerometer-based activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, A; Culhane, K M; Lyons, G M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the 'activPAL Professional' physical activity logger by comparing its output to that of a proven discrete accelerometer-based activity monitor during extended measurements on healthy subjects while performing activities of daily living (ADL). Ten healthy adults, with unrestricted mobility, wore both the activPAL and the discrete dual accelerometer (Analog Devices ADXL202)-based activity monitor that recorded in synchronization with each other. The accelerometer derived data were then compared to that generated by the activPAL and a complete statistical and error analysis was performed using a Matlab program. This program determined trunk and thigh inclination angles to distinguish between sitting/lying, standing and stepping for the discrete accelerometer device and amount of time spent on each activity. Analysis was performed on a second-by-second basis and then categorized at 15s intervals in direct comparison with the activPAL generated data. Of the total time monitored (approximately 60 h) the detection accuracies for static and dynamic activities were approximately 98%. In a population of healthy adults, the data obtained from the activPAL Professional physical activity logger for both static and dynamic activities showed a close match to a proven discrete accelerometer data with an offset of approximately 2% between the two systems.

  8. Analyzing free-living physical activity of older adults in different environments using body-worn activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Grant, P Margaret; Granat, Malcolm H; Thow, Morag K; Maclaren, William M

    2010-04-01

    This study measured objectively the postural physical activity of 4 groups of older adults (> or =65 yr). The participants (N = 70) comprised 3 patient groups--2 from rehabilitation wards (city n = 20, 81.8 +/- 6.7 yr; rural n = 10, 79.4 +/- 4.7 yr) and the third from a city day hospital (n = 20, 74.7 +/- 7.9 yr)--and a healthy group to provide context (n = 20, 73.7 +/- 5.5 yr). The participants wore an activity monitor (activPAL) for a week. A restricted maximum-likelihood-estimation analysis of hourly upright time (standing and walking) revealed significant differences between day, hour, and location and the interaction between location and hour (p < .001). Differences in the manner in which groups accumulated upright and sedentary time (sitting and lying) were found, with the ward-based groups sedentary for prolonged periods and upright for short episodes. This information may be used by clinicians to design appropriate rehabilitation interventions and monitor patient progress.

  9. Patterns of physical activity defined by continuous heart rate monitoring among children from Liège.

    PubMed

    Massin, M M; Bourguignont, A; Lepage, Ph; Gérard, P

    2004-01-01

    Health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are well documented. We therefore investigated the physical activity patterns of 200 children from Liège. They were monitored continuously using a 24-hour Holter monitoring system during normal weekdays and the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. Preschool children attained 184.3+/-54.2, 40.7+/-16.1, 15.8+/-6.9 and 6.0+/-7.2 minutes/day (mean+/-SD) between 20% to 40%, 40% to 50%, 50% to 60%, and greater than 60% of HRR, respectively. At the same %HRR intensities, schoolchildren attained 165.6+/-74.6, 32.1+/-12.1, 15.8+/-6.7 and 7.0+/-5.9 minutes/day, and teenagers attained 159.2+/-68.3, 32.1+/-23.5, 13.1+/-6.0 and 6.1+/-6.3 minutes/day. Age was a significant predictor of the intercept and slope of the time spent in physical activity and %HRR relationship. In Liège the average youth accumulates +/-30 to 40 minutes/day of moderate-intensity physical activity and +/-20 minutes/day of high-intensity physical activity. Those children meet the classical revised guidelines for physical activity but do not compare favourably with children from elsewhere. On the other hand, they get more than 2 1/2 to 3 hours/day of low-intensity physical activity. Our findings suggest that children from Liège are not engaged in sedentary behaviour but do not experience the ideal amount and type of physical activity classically believed to benefit the cardiopulmonary system. Public health strategies should be adapted to our findings.

  10. Are physical activity studies in Hispanics meeting reporting guidelines for continuous monitoring technology? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Layne, Charles S; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Rosales Chavez, José; O'Connor, Daniel P; Gallagher, Martina R; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-09-18

    Continuous monitoring technologies such as accelerometers and pedometers are the gold standard for physical activity (PA) measurement. However, inconsistencies in use, analysis, and reporting limit the understanding of dose-response relationships involving PA and the ability to make comparisons across studies and population subgroups. These issues are particularly detrimental to the study of PA across different ethnicities with different PA habits. This systematic review examined the inclusion of published guidelines involving data collection, processing, and reporting among articles using accelerometers or pedometers in Hispanic or Latino populations. English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) articles published between 2000 and 2013 using accelerometers or pedometers to measure PA among Hispanics or Latinos were identified through systematic literature searches. Of the 253 abstracts which were initially reviewed, 57 met eligibility criteria (44 accelerometer, 13 pedometer). Articles were coded and reviewed to evaluate compliance with recommended guidelines (N = 20), and the percentage of accelerometer and pedometer articles following each guideline were computed and reported. On average, 57.1 % of accelerometer and 62.2 % of pedometer articles reported each recommended guideline for data collection. Device manufacturer and model were reported most frequently, and provision of instructions for device wear in Spanish was reported least frequently. On average, 29.6 % of accelerometer articles reported each guideline for data processing. Definitions of an acceptable day for inclusion in analyses were reported most frequently, and definitions of an acceptable hour for inclusion in analyses were reported least frequently. On average, 18.8 % of accelerometer and 85.7 % of pedometer articles included each guideline for data reporting. Accelerometer articles most frequently included average number of valid days and least frequently

  11. How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and sedentary behaviour in older adults?

    PubMed

    Hart, Teresa L; Swartz, Ann M; Cashin, Susan E; Strath, Scott J

    2011-06-16

    The number of days of pedometer or accelerometer data needed to reliably assess physical activity (PA) is important for research that examines the relationship with health. While this important research has been completed in young to middle-aged adults, data is lacking in older adults. Further, data determining the number of days of self-reports PA data is also void. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of days needed to predict habitual PA and sedentary behaviour across pedometer, accelerometer, and physical activity log (PA log) data in older adults. Participants (52 older men and women; age = 69.3 ± 7.4 years, range= 55-86 years) wore a Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 pedometer and an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer while completing a PA log for 21 consecutive days. Mean differences each instrument and intensity between days of the week were examined using separate repeated measures analysis of variance for with pairwise comparisons. Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formulae based on Intraclass Correlations of .80, .85, .90 and .95 were used to predict the number of days of accelerometer or pedometer wear or PA log daily records needed to represent total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, and sedentary behaviour. Results of this study showed that three days of accelerometer data, four days of pedometer data, or four days of completing PA logs are needed to accurately predict PA levels in older adults. When examining time spent in specific intensities of PA, fewer days of data are needed for accurate prediction of time spent in that activity for ActiGraph but more for the PA log. To accurately predict average daily time spent in sedentary behaviour, five days of ActiGraph data are needed. The number days of objective (pedometer and ActiGraph) and subjective (PA log) data needed to accurately estimate daily PA in older adults was relatively consistent. Despite no statistical differences between days for total PA by the pedometer and ActiGraph, the magnitude of

  12. Usability testing of a monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity

    PubMed Central

    van der Weegen, Sanne; Verwey, Renée; Tange, Huibert J; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; de Witte, Luc P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity, consisting of an activity sensor, smartphone application (app), and website for patients and their practice nurses, has been developed: the ‘It’s LiFe!’ tool. In this study the usability of the tool was evaluated by technology experts and end users (people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type 2 diabetes, with ages from 40–70 years), to improve the user interfaces and content of the tool. Patients and methods The study had four phases: 1) a heuristic evaluation with six technology experts; 2) a usability test in a laboratory by five patients; 3) a pilot in real life wherein 20 patients used the tool for 3 months; and 4) a final lab test by five patients. In both lab tests (phases 2 and 4) qualitative data were collected through a thinking-aloud procedure and video recordings, and quantitative data through questions about task complexity, text comprehensiveness, and readability. In addition, the post-study system usability questionnaire (PSSUQ) was completed for the app and the website. In the pilot test (phase 3), all patients were interviewed three times and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) was completed. Results After each phase, improvements were made, mainly to the layout and text. The main improvement was a refresh button for active data synchronization between activity sensor, app, and server, implemented after connectivity problems in the pilot test. The mean score on the PSSUQ for the website improved from 5.6 (standard deviation [SD] 1.3) to 6.5 (SD 0.5), and for the app from 5.4 (SD 1.5) to 6.2 (SD 1.1). Satisfaction in the pilot was not very high according to the SUMI. Discussion The use of laboratory versus real-life tests and expert-based versus user-based tests revealed a wide range of usability issues. The usability of the It’s LiFe! tool improved considerably during the study. PMID:24669188

  13. A WBAN System for Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Health Status: Applications and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, E; Milenkovic, A; Otto, C; De Groen, P; Johnson, B; Warren, S; Taibi, G

    2005-01-01

    Recent technological advances in sensors, low-power integrated circuits, and wireless communications have enabled the design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight, intelligent physiological sensor platforms that can be seamlessly integrated into a body area network for health monitoring. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for extended periods of time and near real-time updates of patients' medical records through the Internet. A number of innovative systems for health monitoring have recently been proposed. However, they typically rely on custom communication protocols and hardware designs, lacking generality and flexibility. The lack of standard platforms, system software support, and standards makes these systems expensive. Bulky sensors, high price, and frequent battery changes are all likely to limit user compliance. To address some of these challenges, we prototyped a WBAN utilizing a common off-the-shelf wireless sensor platform with a ZigBee-compliant radio interface and an ultra low-power microcontroller. The standard platform interfaces to custom sensor boards that are equipped with accelerometers for motion monitoring and a bioamplifier for electrocardiogram or electromyogram monitoring. Software modules for on-board processing, communication, and network synchronization have been developed using the TinyOS operating system. Although the initial WBAN prototype targets ambulatory monitoring of user activity, the developed sensors can easily be adapted to monitor other physiological parameters. In this paper, we discuss initial results, implementation challenges, and the need for standardization in this dynamic and promising research field.

  14. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer.A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices.Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P < 0.001, r = 0.96). Correlations across all three BMI categories and both sex remained consistently high ranging from 0.92 to 0.95. There was a high level of agreement between the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland-Altman analysis.Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed.

  15. A pilot crossover study: effects of an intervention using an activity monitor with computerized game functions on physical activity and body composition.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Kuriyama, Akinori; Ikegami, Yumi; Nakashima, Nana; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2014-12-02

    Wearing an activity monitor as a motivational tool and incorporating a behavior-based reward system or a computerized game element might have a synergistic effect on an increase in daily physical activity, thereby inducing body fat reduction. This pilot crossover study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention using an activity monitor with computerized game functions on physical activity and body composition. Twenty healthy volunteers (31 ± 3 years) participated in a 12-week crossover study. The participants were randomly assigned to either Group A (a 6-week game intervention followed by a 6-week normal intervention) or Group B (a 6-week normal intervention followed by a 6-week game intervention). The participants wore both a normal activity monitor (Lifecorder EX) and an activity monitor with computerized game functions (Yuuhokei) during the game intervention, whereas they only wore a normal activity monitor during the normal intervention. Before, during, and after the intervention, body composition was assessed. Significantly more daily steps were recorded for the game intervention than for the normal intervention (10,520 ± 562 versus 8,711 ± 523 steps/day, P < 0.01). The participants performed significantly more physical activity at an intensity of ≥ 3 metabolic equivalents (METs) in the game intervention than in the normal intervention (3.1 ± 0.2 versus 2.4 ± 0.2 METs · hour/day, P < 0.01). Although body mass and fat were significantly reduced in both periods (P < 0.01), the difference in body fat reduction was significantly greater in the game intervention than in the normal intervention (P < 0.05). A short-term intervention using an activity monitor with computerized game functions increases physical activity and reduces body fat more effectively than an intervention using a standard activity monitor.

  16. Estimating energy expenditure in wildland fire fighters using a physical activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Heil, Daniel P

    2002-09-01

    This study piloted the use of an electronic activity monitor (MTI AM 7164-1.2) as a tool for estimating activity (EE(ACT), kcal day(-1)) and total (EE(TOT) kcal day(-1)) energy expenditure in wildland fire fighters during extended periods of wildland fire suppression. Ten Hot Shot fire fighters (9 men, 1 woman) volunteered to wear a MTI monitor during every work shift for 21 consecutive days. Summarizing whole-body motion data each 1 min, the raw activity data (counts min(-1)) were transformed into units of kcal min(-1) using a custom computer program with standard conversion equations. EE(TOT) averaged (Mean+/-SD) 4768+/-478 kcal day(-1), while EE(ACT) averaged 2585+/-406 kcal day(-1), neither of which differed significantly (P = 0.198 and 0.268, respectively) from literature values reported for Hot Shots using the doubly labeled water technique. These data suggest that the electronic activity monitor provided reasonable estimates of EE in wildland fire fighters. This study should be verified, however, with a more complete validation methodology to ensure these findings.

  17. Technologies for physical activity self-monitoring: a study of differences between users and non-users

    PubMed Central

    Åkerberg, Anna; Söderlund, Anne; Lindén, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background Different kinds of physical activity (PA) self-monitoring technologies are used today to monitor and motivate PA behavior change. The user focus is essential in the development process of this technology, including potential future users such as representatives from the group of non-users. There is also a need to study whether there are differences between the groups of users and non-users. The aims of this study were to investigate possible differences between users and non-users regarding their opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies and to investigate differences in demographic variables between the groups. Materials and methods Participants were randomly selected from seven municipalities in central Sweden. In total, 107 adults responded to the Physical Activity Products Questionnaire, which consisted of 22 questions. Results Significant differences between the users and non-users were shown for six of the 20 measurement-related items: measures accurately (p=0.007), measures with high precision (p=0.024), measures distance (p=0.020), measures speed (p=0.003), shows minutes of activity (p=0.004), and shows geographical position (p=0.000). Significant differences between the users and non-users were also found for two of the 29 encouragement items: measures accurately (p=0.001) and has long-term memory (p=0.019). Significant differences between the groups were also shown for level of education (p=0.030) and level of physical exercise (p=0.037). Conclusion With a few exceptions, the users and the non-users in this study had similar opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies. Because this study showed significant differences regarding level of education and level of physical exercise, these demographic variables seemed more relevant to investigate than differences in opinions about the PA self-monitoring technologies. PMID:28280399

  18. Logistics of using the Actiheart physical activity monitors in urban Mexico among 7- to 9-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah; Dickinson, Federico; Griffiths, Paula; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2011-01-01

    Logistics of using new measurement devices are important to understand when developing protocols. This paper discusses the logistics of using Actiheart physical activity monitors on children in an urban, tropical environment in a developing country. Actiheart monitoring of 36 children aged 7-9 years old was undertaken for 7 days in the city of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. The Actiheart proved fragile for children and difficult to mend in the field. The excessive sweating due to the tropical climate caused poor adherence of the electrode pads, requiring a pad change midway through and extra pads to be provided. Also extra time was needed to be allotted for increased instructions to participants and their mothers and for individual calibration. When collecting objectively measured physical activity data under harsh conditions, the protocol must accommodate local conditions and device limitations and allow increased time with participants to obtain good quality data.

  19. Evaluation of an activity monitor for the objective measurement of free-living physical activity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kit Tzu; Richardson, Alison M; Maxwell, Douglas; Spence, William D; Stansfield, Benedict W

    2013-12-01

    To explore the use of an activity monitor (AM) to objectively characterize free-living physical activity (F-LPA) in children with mobility impairment resulting from cerebral palsy (CP). First, a validation study compared outcomes from the AM with video evidence. Second, multiday F-LPA was characterized. Relationships between laboratory measures and F-LPA were explored. The evaluation study was conducted in a laboratory environment. F-LPA monitoring was conducted in the participants' free-living environment. Convenience sample of ambulatory children (N=15; 11 boys, 4 girls) aged 5 to 17 years with CP undergoing gait analysis. Not applicable. Accuracy of the AM for sitting/lying time, upright time, stepping time, and strides taken. Daily volumes of F-LPA of children with CP. AM outcomes in comparison with video-based analysis were (mean ± SD) 97.4%±2.7%, 101.1%±1.5%, 99.5%±6.6%, 105.6%±15.8%, and 103.8%±10.1% for sitting/lying time, upright time, standing time, stepping time, and stride count, respectively. Participants' daily F-LPA demonstrated considerable variation: mean standing time ± SD, 2.33±.96h/d; mean stepping time ± SD, 1.68±.86h/d; mean steps per day ± SD, 8477±4528; and mean sit-to-stand transitions per day ± SD, 76±49. Laboratory-measured cadence and mobility level were related to F-LPA, but not directly. The AM demonstrated excellent ability to determine sitting/lying and upright times in children with CP. Stepping time and stride count had lower levels of agreement with video-based analysis but were comparable to findings in previous studies. Crouch gait and toe walking had an adverse effect on outcomes. The F-LPA data provided additional information on children's performance not related to laboratory measures, demonstrating the added value of using this objective measurement technique. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study on the validation of the computer science application's activity monitor in assessing the physical activity among adults using doubly labeled water method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-ling; Li, Yan-ping; Song, Jun; Pan, Hui; Han, Xiu-ming; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2005-03-01

    Using doubly labeled water method to validate the colmputer science application's activity monitor (CSA) in assessing physical activity of free-living adults in Beijing, in order to develop equations to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) from activity counts (AC) and anthropometric variables. A total of 72 healthy adults (33 males and 39 females, mean age 43.6 +/- 4.0 yr) were monitored for 7 consecutive days by CSA. TEE was simultaneously measured using doubly labeled water method. Average AC (counts/min(-1)) was compared with TEE, AEE and physical activity level (PAL). Physical activity determined by AC was significantly related to data on energy expenditures: TEE (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), AEE (r = 0.30, P < 0.05), and PAL (r = 0.26, P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that TEE was significantly influenced by gender, fat-free mass (FFM) or BMI and AC (R(2) = 0.52 - 0.70) while AEE was significantly influenced by gender, FFM and AC (R(2) = 0.25 - 0.32). AC from CSA activity monitor seemed a useful measure in studying the total amount of physical activity in free-living adults while AC significantly contributed to the explained variation in TEE and AEE.

  1. Use of Text Messaging for Monitoring Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Children: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Bauer, Stephanie; Hamer, Robert M.; Kordy, Hans; Ward, Dianne; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine acceptability, attrition, adherence, and preliminary efficacy of mobile phone short message service (SMS; text messaging) for monitoring healthy behaviors in children. Design All randomized children received a brief psychoeducational intervention and then either monitored target behaviors via SMS with feedback, via paper diaries (PD), or participated in a no-monitoring control (C) for 8 weeks. Setting University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Hospitals Participants Fifty-eight children (age 5 – 13) and parents participated; 31 completed (SMS: 13/18, PD: 7/18, C: 11/22). Intervention Children and parents participated in a total of three group education sessions (one session weekly for three weeks) to encourage increasing physical activity and decreasing screen time and sugar sweetened beverage consumption. Main Outcome Measures Treatment acceptability, attrition, and adherence to self-monitoring. Analysis Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used to analyze differences across time and group. Results Children in SMS had somewhat lower attrition (28%) than both PD (61%) and C (50%), and significantly greater adherence to self-monitoring than PD (43% vs 19%, p < 0.02). Conclusions and Implications SMS may be a useful tool for self-monitoring healthy behaviors in children although the efficacy of this approach needs further study. Implications suggest that novel technologies may play a role in improving health. PMID:18984496

  2. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  3. The relationship of electronically monitored physical activity to blood pressure, heart rate, and the circadian blood pressure profile.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, G A; White, W B; McCabe, E J; Giacco, S

    2000-03-01

    We studied how closely changes in electronically monitored physical activity are reflected in changes in blood pressure and heart rate in a group of untreated hypertensive subjects. Thirty-nine hypertensive patients (office blood pressure > 140/ 90 mm Hg) of mean age 57 +/- 10 years (mean +/-SD) wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor and a wrist actigraph simultaneously. Both average and peak activity for 5 min before each valid blood pressure reading were determined, as was average activity for awake and sleep periods, determined by patient kept diaries. For the overall group, awake and 24-h activities were inversely correlated to age (n = 39, r = -0.42; P = 0.01 and n = 39, r = -0.38; P = 0.01, respectively). No correlation was found between group awake activity and group-average blood pressure or heart rate. For individual patients, there was marked variation in the degree of correlation between awake activity measures (both peak and average) and blood pressure and heart rate. The strongest positive correlation was between activity levels and the heart rate-pressure product. Nondipper profile hypertensives had higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives (44 +/- 28 units/min v 25 +/- 20 units/min, df = 37, t = 2.12; P = 0.04), but awake activity levels were similar. The higher sleep activity remained after adjustment for age. These findings indicate that the relationship between actigraphic activity and hemodynamic parameters is highly variable and that the rate-pressure product is the strongest correlate of short-term activity. Furthermore, hypertensives with the nondipper profile have higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives. These findings stress the need for further study into the role of day-to-day activity in determining ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability.

  4. Mechanically flexible wireless multisensor platform for human physical activity and vitals monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Y; Marzencki, M; Hung, B; Jaggernauth, C; Tavakolian, K; Lin, P; Kaminska, B

    2010-10-01

    Practical usability of the majority of current wearable body sensor systems for multiple parameter physiological signal acquisition is limited by the multiple physical connections between sensors and the data-acquisition modules. In order to improve the user comfort and enable the use of these types of systems on active mobile subjects, we propose a wireless body sensor system that incorporates multiple sensors on a single node. This multisensor node includes signal acquisition, processing, and wireless data transmission fitted on multiple layers of a thin flexible substrate with a very small footprint. Considerations for design include size, form factor, reliable body attachment, good signal coupling, low power consumption, and user convenience. The prototype device measures 55 15 mm and is 3 mm thick. The unit is attached to the patient's chest, and is capable of performing simultaneous measurements of parameters, such as body motion, activity intensity, tilt, respiration, cardiac vibration, cardiac potential (ECG), heart rate, and body surface temperature. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of this system, including the multisensor hardware, the firmware, a mobile-phone receiver unit, and assembly of the first proof-of-concept prototype. Preliminary performance results on key elements of the system, such as power consumption, wireless range, algorithm efficiency, ECG signal quality for heart-rate calculations, as well as synchronous ECG and body activity signals are also presented.

  5. Schoolyard Shade and Sun Exposure: Assessment of Personal Monitoring During Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Vanos, Jennifer K; McKercher, Grant R; Naughton, Kylie; Lochbaum, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma later in life. However, it is challenging to accurately determine personal outdoor exposure to UVR, specifically erythemally weighted UVR (UVEry ), due to technological constraints, variable time-activity patterns, and the influence of outdoor environmental design. To address this challenge, this study utilized mobile and stationary techniques to examine the UVEry exposures of 14 children in a schoolyard in Lubbock, TX, in spring 2016. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of artificial shade on personal UVEry exposures and to assess full sun exposure ratios (ERs) within the same playground microenvironment. On average, personal wrist dosimeters worn during play in the sun measured 18% of the total onsite UVEry measured by a stationary UV pyranometer. Shade was found to significantly reduce the personal UVEry exposures by 55%, UVB280-315 nm exposures by 91%, and the overall solar radiation by 84%. Substantial benefits can be garnered through focused design of children's recreational space to utilize shade-both natural and artificial-to reduce UVR exposures during play, and to extend safe outdoor stays. Finally, although the wrist is a practical location for a dosimeter, it often underestimates full exposures, particularly during physical activity. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Recovery of physical activity levels in adolescents after lower limb fractures: a longitudinal, accelerometry-based activity monitor study.

    PubMed

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier; Lamah, Léopold; Delhumeau, Cécile; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; De Coulon, Geraldo; Ferrière, Victor Dubois

    2012-07-25

    In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA), such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children's Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph(®) 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA). Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min) was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4%) compared with healthy controls (p<0.0001) during cast immobilization. Similarly, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA was lower by 76.6% (p<0.0001), and vigorous PA was reduced by 84.4% (p<0.0001) in patients with cast immobilization for lower limb injuries compared to healthy controls values. At 6 and 18 months after the fracture, the mean PA level of injured adolescents was comparable to those of healthy teenagers (-2.3%, and -1.8%, respectively).Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among

  7. Covariation of depressive mood and spontaneous physical activity in major depressive disorder: toward continuous monitoring of depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyuk; Nakamura, Toru; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-07-01

    The objective evaluation of depressive mood is considered to be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders. Thus, we investigated psychobehavioral correlates, particularly the statistical associations between momentary depressive mood and behavioral dynamics measured objectively, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy subjects. Patients with MDD ( n = 14) and healthy subjects ( n = 43) wore a watch-type computer device and rated their momentary symptoms using ecological momentary assessment. Spontaneous physical activity in daily life, referred to as locomotor activity, was also continuously measured by an activity monitor built into the device. A multilevel modeling approach was used to model the associations between changes in depressive mood scores and the local statistics of locomotor activity simultaneously measured. We further examined the cross validity of such associations across groups. The statistical model established indicated that worsening of the depressive mood was associated with the increased intermittency of locomotor activity, as characterized by a lower mean and higher skewness. The model was cross validated across groups, suggesting that the same psychobehavioral correlates are shared by both healthy subjects and patients, although the latter had significantly higher mean levels of depressive mood scores. Our findings suggest the presence of robust as well as common associations between momentary depressive mood and behavioral dynamics in healthy individuals and patients with depression, which may lead to the continuous monitoring of the pathogenic processes (from healthy states) and pathological states of MDD.

  8. Monitoring Location-Specific Physical Activity via Integration of Accelerometry and Geotechnology Within Patients With or At Risk of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Technological Report.

    PubMed

    Crews, Ryan T; Yalla, Sai V; Dhatt, Navdeep; Burdi, Drew; Hwang, Sungsoon

    2017-09-01

    Physical activity variability is a risk factor for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Geographic context may influence variability. This study developed initial methods for monitoring location-specific physical activity in this population. Secondarily, preliminary comparisons in location-specific physical activity were made between patients at risk versus patients with active DFU. Five at-risk and 5 actively ulcerated patients were monitored continuously for 72 hours with physical activity and GPS monitors. A custom algorithm time synchronized the 2 devices' data. On average for all 10 subjects, 1.5 ± 2.1% of activity lacked a corresponding GPS location. 80 ± 11% of self-reported activity events per subject had a GPS identified location. The GPS identified locations were in agreement with the self-reported locations 98 ± 6% of the time. DFU participants' weight-bearing activity was 188% higher at home than away from home. At-risk participants showed similar weight-bearing activity at home as active DFU participants, however, at-risk participants had 132% more weight-bearing activity away-from-home. Objectively monitoring location-specific physical activity proved feasible. Future studies using such methodology may enhance understanding of pathomechanics and treatment of DFU.

  9. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  10. Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  11. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  12. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  13. A pilot lifestyle intervention study: effects of an intervention using an activity monitor and Twitter on physical activity and body composition.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Nakashima, Nana; Ikegami, Yumi; Kawakami, Ryoko; Kurobe, Kazumichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2017-04-01

    This pilot study aimed to examine the effects of a lifestyle intervention comprising an activity monitor and the concurrent use of Twitter, on physical activity (PA) and body composition. Seventeen healthy volunteers (36±3 years) were randomly assigned to normal (N, N.=8) or Twitter (T, N.=9) intervention groups for six weeks. Participants in both groups wore an activity monitor but those in the T group also tweeted daily about their PA. An observer read the tweets from each participant and provided feedback. Body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis before and after the intervention. Significantly more daily steps and PA at an intensity of ≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs) were recorded by the T than the N during six weeks. The number of steps and PA did not significantly change over time in the N, but significantly increased in the T from weeks one to six (8170±1130 to 12,934±1400 steps/day and 2.6±0.5 to 5.0±0.8 METs·h/day). In addition, significantly more body fat was lost in the T, than in the N (-1.1±0.2 vs. -0.1±0.3 kg), and the changes in PA significantly correlated with the changes in body fat (r=-0.713). Lifestyle intervention can increase daily PA and reduce body fat more effectively when using an activity monitor and Twitter than an activity monitor alone.

  14. Assessing the Influence of a Fitbit Physical Activity Monitor on the Exercise Practices of Emergency Medicine Residents: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Targeted interventions have improved physical activity and wellness of medical residents. However, no exercise interventions have focused on emergency medicine residents. Objective This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of a wearable device for tracking physical activity on the exercise habits and wellness of this population, while also measuring barriers to adoption and continued use. Methods This pre-post cohort study enrolled 30 emergency medicine residents. Study duration was 6 months. Statistical comparisons were conducted for the primary end point and secondary exercise end points with nonparametric tests. Descriptive statistics were provided for subjective responses. Results The physical activity tracker did not increase the overall self-reported median number of days of physical activity per week within this population: baseline 2.5 days (interquartile range, IQR, 1.9) versus 2.8 days (IQR 1.5) at 1 month (P=.36). There was a significant increase in physical activity from baseline to 1 month among residents with median weekly physical activity level below that recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at study start, that is, 1.5 days (IQR 0.9) versus 2.4 days (IQR 1.2; P=.04), to 2.0 days (IQR 2.0; P=.04) at 6 months. More than half (60%, 18/30) of participants reported a benefit to their overall wellness, and 53% (16/30) reported a benefit to their physical activity. Overall continued use of the device was 67% (20/30) at 1 month and 33% (10/30) at 6 months. Conclusions The wearable physical activity tracker did not change the overall physical activity levels among this population of emergency medicine residents. However, there was an improvement in physical activity among the residents with the lowest preintervention physical activity. Subjective improvements in overall wellness and physical activity were noted among the entire study population. PMID:28143805

  15. Assessing the Influence of a Fitbit Physical Activity Monitor on the Exercise Practices of Emergency Medicine Residents: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Justin David; Shayne, Philip; Wolf, Sarah; Das, Shamie; Patzer, Rachel Elizabeth; White, Melissa; Heron, Sheryl

    2017-01-31

    Targeted interventions have improved physical activity and wellness of medical residents. However, no exercise interventions have focused on emergency medicine residents. This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of a wearable device for tracking physical activity on the exercise habits and wellness of this population, while also measuring barriers to adoption and continued use. This pre-post cohort study enrolled 30 emergency medicine residents. Study duration was 6 months. Statistical comparisons were conducted for the primary end point and secondary exercise end points with nonparametric tests. Descriptive statistics were provided for subjective responses. The physical activity tracker did not increase the overall self-reported median number of days of physical activity per week within this population: baseline 2.5 days (interquartile range, IQR, 1.9) versus 2.8 days (IQR 1.5) at 1 month (P=.36). There was a significant increase in physical activity from baseline to 1 month among residents with median weekly physical activity level below that recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at study start, that is, 1.5 days (IQR 0.9) versus 2.4 days (IQR 1.2; P=.04), to 2.0 days (IQR 2.0; P=.04) at 6 months. More than half (60%, 18/30) of participants reported a benefit to their overall wellness, and 53% (16/30) reported a benefit to their physical activity. Overall continued use of the device was 67% (20/30) at 1 month and 33% (10/30) at 6 months. The wearable physical activity tracker did not change the overall physical activity levels among this population of emergency medicine residents. However, there was an improvement in physical activity among the residents with the lowest preintervention physical activity. Subjective improvements in overall wellness and physical activity were noted among the entire study population.

  16. Patterns of Physical Activity and Overweight among 7-13-Year-Old Russian Children: A 7-Year Nationally Representative Monitoring Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Popkin, B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This is a repeated cross-sectional study of overweight and physical activity (PA) and inactivity patterns of successive samples of 7-13-year-old Russian children who were surveyed six times between 1995 and 2002 as part of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. This analysis focused on moderate/vigorous (MOD/VIG) PA (e.g., active commuting to…

  17. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-09-27

    Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevalence in a medical school and development of a tool, the Medical School Physical Activity Report Card (MSPARC), which will contain concise and understandable infographics and information for exploring, monitoring and reporting information relating to PA prevalence. This mixed methods study will run from January to September 2017. We will involve the School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thailand, and its medical students (n=285). Data collection will consist of both primary and secondary data, divided into four parts: general information, people, places and policies. We will investigate the PA metrics about (1) people: the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviours; (2) place: the quality and accessibility of walkable neighbourhoods, bicycle facilities and recreational areas; and (3) policy: PA promotion programmes for medical students, education metrics and investments related to PA. The MSPARC will be developed using simple symbols, infographics and short texts to evaluate the PA metrics of the medical school. This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Walailak University (protocol number: WUEC-16-005-01). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. The MSPARC and full report will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, policymakers, staff and clients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  18. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  19. Physical Activity Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG or the Guidelines) are an essential resource for health professional and policymakers. Based on the latest science, they provide guidance on how children and adults ...

  20. Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

  1. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  2. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  3. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (P<.01). For the Fitbit device, the HR MAPE was between 2.38% and 16.99%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.67) or during moderate intensity (P=.34); lower HR readings were measured during baseline, vigorous intensity, and recovery (P<.001) and higher HR during light intensity (P<.001). EE MAPE was between 16.85% and 84.98%. The device measured higher EE at baseline (P=.003), light intensity (P<.001), and moderate intensity (P=.001). EE was not significantly different at vigorous (P=.70

  4. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. Methods A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (P<.01). For the Fitbit device, the HR MAPE was between 2.38% and 16.99%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.67) or during moderate intensity (P=.34); lower HR readings were measured during baseline, vigorous intensity, and recovery (P<.001) and higher HR during light intensity (P<.001). EE MAPE was between 16.85% and 84.98%. The device measured higher EE at baseline (P=.003), light intensity (P<.001), and moderate intensity (P=.001). EE was not

  5. Physical activity monitoring in stroke: SenseWear Pro2 activity accelerometer versus Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometer.

    PubMed

    Vanroy, Christel; Vissers, Dirk; Cras, Patrick; Beyne, Saskia; Feys, Hilde; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Truijen, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Determine validity and reliability of SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWP2A) and Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 Pedometer (YDWP) in stroke and healthy adults. Fifteen stroke patients and 15 healthy participants wore SWP2A on upper arm and YDWP at hip/knee. Different activities were performed: treadmill walking, walking up/down a step, cycling and walking on an even surface. Steps and Energy Expenditure (EE) were measured and compared to steps counted manually and indirect calorimetry. Repeated measurements were compared to determine reliability of both devices. Spearman correlation coefficients between knee-worn YDWP and counted steps while walking on an even surface was ≥0.89 in healthy and ≥0.95 in stroke. Treadmill walking revealed high Spearman correlation coefficients in healthy individuals (rs ≥ 0.90) and at 1.5 km/h in stroke (rs = 0.69). During other activities YDWP often underestimated steps. SWP2A data revealed inconsistent results in EE and steps. Reliability tested by repeated measurements varied between 0.66 and 0.98 for YDWP and 0.61 and 0.97 for SWP2A. YDWP and SWP2A are both reliable. Only knee-worn YDWP is a valid device to measure steps except high intensity walking in stroke. YDWP systematically undercounts steps during other activities of short duration. This study could not demonstrate valid measurement of steps/EE in stroke using SWP2A. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke is a disabling disease with residual neurologic deficits, which impairs mobility and predisposes them to sedentary behavior. A Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 knee-worn pedometer showed to be a valid and reliable technique to measure ambulatory activity in stroke. A valid instrument to measure energy expenditure in stroke needs to be explored.

  6. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  7. Obesity and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  8. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  9. The effectiveness of physical activity monitoring and distance counselling in an occupational health setting - a research protocol for a randomised controlled trial (CoAct)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The CoAct (Cocreating Activity) study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention, aimed at the working population, with daily activity monitoring and distance counselling via telephone and secure web messages. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle counselling on the level of physical activity in an occupational health setting. The purposes include also analysing the potential effects of changes in physical activity on productivity at work and sickness absence, and healthcare costs. This article describes the design of the study and the participant flow until and including randomization. Methods/Design CoAct is a randomised controlled trial with two arms: a control group and intervention group with daily activity monitoring and distance counselling. The intervention focuses on lifestyle modification and takes 12 months. The study population consists of volunteers from 1100 eligible employees of a Finnish insurance company. The primary outcomes of this study are change in physical activity measured in MET minutes per week, work productivity and sickness absence, and healthcare utilisation. Secondary outcomes include various physiological measures. Cost-effectiveness analysis will also be performed. The outcomes will be measured by questionnaires at baseline, after 6, 12, and 24 months, and sickness absence will be obtained from the employer's registers. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the effectiveness of daily physical activity monitoring and distance counselling in an occupational health setting over a 12 month period and no data on cost-effectiveness of such intervention are available. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00994565 PMID:20043831

  10. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can include working, exercising, performing household chores, and leisure-time activities such as walking, tennis, hiking, bicycling, ... active ( 4 ). A pooled analysis of data on leisure-time physical activity (activities done at an individual’s ...

  11. Continuous quantitative monitoring of physical activity in Parkinson's disease patients by using wearable devices: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guoen; Huang, Yujie; Luo, Shan; Lin, Zhirong; Dai, Houde; Ye, Qinyong

    2017-06-28

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using wearable devices to quantitatively measure the daily activity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to monitor medication-induced motor fluctuations. In this case-controlled study, we used monitored daily movement function in 21 patients with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy volunteers. We analyzed the exercise types and sleep duration in the two groups and evaluated the correlation between daily movement function and age, gender, education, disease duration, Hohn-Yahr stage, UPDRS-II score, UPDRS-III score, and levodopa dose. We also determined the amount of exercise performed by PD patients at 1 h after taking levodopa and at 1 h before the next dose. The type of activity, average speed, and sleep duration in patients were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). One hour after taking levodopa, patients were significantly more active than 1 h before the next dose (P < 0.05).Correlation analysis showed that age, gender, education, disease duration, Hohn-Yahr stage, UPDRS-II and UPDRS-III scores, and dosage of levodopa do not correlate with the daily movement function (P > 0.05) in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the control group, age and education were associated with daily movement function (P < 0.05), while gender was unrelated (P > 0.05). Continuous monitoring of daily activity may be useful to reveal medication-induced motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. The daily movement function may depend on age and education, but not on other parameters.

  12. Evaluation of the ability of three physical activity monitors to predict weight change and estimate energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Correa, John B; Apolzan, John W; Shepard, Desti N; Heil, Daniel P; Rood, Jennifer C; Martin, Corby K

    2016-07-01

    Activity monitors such as the Actical accelerometer, the Sensewear armband, and the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) are commonly validated against gold standards (e.g., doubly labeled water, or DLW) to determine whether they accurately measure total daily energy expenditure (TEE) or activity energy expenditure (AEE). However, little research has assessed whether these parameters or others (e.g., posture allocation) predict body weight change over time. The aims of this study were to (i) test whether estimated energy expenditure or posture allocation from the devices was associated with weight change during and following a low-calorie diet (LCD) and (ii) compare free-living TEE and AEE predictions from the devices against DLW before weight change. Eighty-seven participants from 2 clinical trials wore 2 of the 3 devices simultaneously for 1 week of a 2-week DLW period. Participants then completed an 8-week LCD and were weighed at the start and end of the LCD and 6 and 12 months after the LCD. More time spent walking at baseline, measured by the IDEEA, significantly predicted greater weight loss during the 8-week LCD. Measures of posture allocation demonstrated medium effect sizes in their relationships with weight change. Bland-Altman analyses indicated that the Sensewear and the IDEEA accurately estimated TEE, and the IDEEA accurately measured AEE. The results suggest that the ability of energy expenditure and posture allocation to predict weight change is limited, and the accuracy of TEE and AEE measurements varies across activity monitoring devices, with multi-sensor monitors demonstrating stronger validity.

  13. Evaluation of the ability of three physical activity monitors to predict weight change and estimate energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Correa, John B.; Apolzan, John W.; Shepard, Desti N.; Heil, Daniel P.; Rood, Jennifer C.; Martin, Corby K.

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitors such as the Actical accelerometer, the Sensewear armband, and the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) are commonly validated against gold standards (e.g., doubly labeled water, or DLW) to determine whether they accurately measure total daily energy expenditure (TEE) or activity energy expenditure (AEE). However, little research has assessed whether these parameters or others (e.g., posture allocation) predict body weight change over time. The aims of this study were to (i) test whether estimated energy expenditure or posture allocation from the devices was associated with weight change during and following a low-calorie diet (LCD) and (ii) compare free-living TEE and AEE predictions from the devices against DLW before weight change. Eighty-seven participants from 2 clinical trials wore 2 of the 3 devices simultaneously for 1 week of a 2-week DLW period. Participants then completed an 8-week LCD and were weighed at the start and end of the LCD and 6 and 12 months after the LCD. More time spent walking at baseline, measured by the IDEEA, significantly predicted greater weight loss during the 8-week LCD. Measures of posture allocation demonstrated medium effect sizes in their relationships with weight change. Bland–Altman analyses indicated that the Sensewear and the IDEEA accurately estimated TEE, and the IDEEA accurately measured AEE. The results suggest that the ability of energy expenditure and posture allocation to predict weight change is limited, and the accuracy of TEE and AEE measurements varies across activity monitoring devices, with multi-sensor monitors demonstrating stronger validity. PMID:27270210

  14. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Glapa, Agata

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE) classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported. Garmin Vivofit(®) activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2), 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2) and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4). An experimental design was employed, with "goal" and "do your best" groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities.

  15. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Glapa, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE) classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2), 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2) and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4). An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities. PMID:27649219

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  17. Effect of combined movement and heart rate monitor placement on physical activity estimates during treadmill locomotion and free-living.

    PubMed

    Brage, Søren; Brage, Niels; Ekelund, Ulf; Luan, Jian'an; Franks, Paul W; Froberg, Karsten; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2006-03-01

    A placement effect on activity measures from movement sensors has been reported during treadmill and free-living activity. Positioning of electrodes may impact on movement artifact susceptibility as well as surface ECG waveform amplitudes and thus potentially on the precision by which heart rate (HR) is ascertained from such ECG traces. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which placement of the combined HR and movement sensor, Actiheart, influences measurement of HR and movement, and estimates of energy expenditure. A total of 24 participants (20-39 years, 45-109 kg, 1.54-2.05 m, 19-29 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Whilst wearing two monitors, one placed at the level of the third intercostal space (upper position) and one just below the apex of the sternum (lower position), study participants performed level walking, incline walking, and level running on treadmill, and completed at least one day of free-living monitoring. Placement differences in HR data quality, movement counts, and energy expenditure (estimated from combined HR and movement) were analyzed with regression techniques. Quality of HR data was generally higher when monitors were placed in the lower position. This effect was more pronounced in men during both treadmill activity (relative risk, RR [95% CI] of noisy HR data in upper vs. lower position, RR=1.3[0.3; 5.6] in women, RR=174[14; 2,156] in men) and during free-living (RR=1.2[0.4; 3.3] in women, RR=25[9.6; 67] in men). There were minor placement differences (< or =8%) in movement counts only in women during incline walking and running. During free-living, no placement effect on counts was observed. In all test scenarios, estimates of energy expenditure from the two positions were not significantly different. Positioning the Actiheart at the level below the sternum may yield cleaner HR data. Regardless of which position is used, this has little or no effect on movement counts and energy expenditure estimates, which is encouraging

  18. Use of the Fitbit to Measure Adherence to a Physical Activity Intervention Among Overweight or Obese, Postmenopausal Women: Self-Monitoring Trajectory During 16 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Bess H; Patterson, Ruth E; Parker, Barbara A; Morey, Brittany L

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer trackers and devices have potential to enhance theory-based physical activity interventions by offering a simple and pleasant way to help participants self-monitor their behavior. A secondary benefit of these devices is the opportunity for investigators to objectively track adherence to physical activity goals across weeks or even months, rather than relying on self-report or a small number of accelerometry wear periods. The use of consumer trackers for continuous monitoring of adherence has considerable potential to enhance physical activity research, but few studies have been published in this rapidly developing area. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the trajectory of physical activity adherence across a 16-week self-monitoring intervention, as measured by the Fitbit tracker. Methods Participants were 25 overweight or obese, postmenopausal women enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled physical activity intervention trial. Each participant received a 16-week technology-based intervention that used the Fitbit physical activity tracker and website. The overall study goal was 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and 10,000 steps/day; however, goals were set individually for each participant and updated at Week 4 based on progress. Adherence data were collected by the Fitbit and aggregated by Fitabase. Participants also wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days prior to the intervention and again during Week 16. Results The median participant logged 10 hours or more/day of Fitbit wear on 95% of the 112 intervention days, with no significant decline in wear over the study period. Participants averaged 7540 (SD 2373) steps/day and 82 minutes/week (SD 43) of accumulated “fairly active” and “very active” minutes during the intervention. At Week 4, 80% (20/25) of women chose to maintain/increase their individual MVPA goal and 72% (18/25) of participants

  19. Investigating the media power of a population health monitoring survey: case study of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS).

    PubMed

    Espinel, Paola T; Laws, Rachel; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley

    2013-06-01

    To examine the extent and nature of news coverage of a government-funded population monitoring survey of children and the potential implications of this coverage for public health advocacy. Case study of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS), a population monitoring survey of school-aged children's weight and weight-related behaviours, conducted in 1997, 2004 and 2010. Printed news items from all Australian newspapers between January 1997 and December 2011 mentioning the survey findings were identified from the Factiva database and a descriptive analysis of the content conducted. Overall, 144 news items were identified. The news angles focused mainly on physical activity/sedentary behaviour; overweight/obesity and nutrition; however these angles changed between 1997 and 2011, with angles focused on physical activity/sedentary behaviour increasing, compared with overweight/obesity and nutrition angles (p=0.001). Responsibility for obesity and weight-related behaviours was most frequently assigned to parents and food marketing, and the most common solutions were policy strategies and parental/child education and support. Population health surveys are newsworthy and when coupled with strategic dissemination, media can contribute to communicating health issues and interpreting findings in ways that are relevant for consumers, policy makers and stakeholders. Implications : This case study emphasises the news value of government-funded population surveys, while providing a cautionary note about media focus on individual studies rather than a larger body of research evidence. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  1. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  2. Sarcopenia: monitoring, molecular mechanisms, and physical intervention.

    PubMed

    Zembroń-Łacny, A; Dziubek, W; Rogowski, Ł; Skorupka, E; Dąbrowska, G

    2014-01-01

    According to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) sarcopenia includes both a loss of muscle strength and a decline in functional quality in addition to the loss of muscle protein mass. In order to develop strategies to prevent and treat sarcopenia, the risk factors and causes of sarcopenia must be identified. Age-related muscle loss is characterized by the contribution of multiple factors, and there is growing evidence for a prominent role of low-grade chronic inflammation in sarcopenia. The elderly who are less physically active are more likely to have lower skeletal muscle mass and strength and are at increased risk of developing sarcopenia. Resistance training added to aerobic exercise or high-intensity interval training promote numerous changes in skeletal muscle, many of which may help to prevent or reverse sarcopenia. In this review, we provided current information on definition and monitoring, molecular mechanisms, and physical intervention to counteract sarcopenia.

  3. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  4. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  5. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  6. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Tate, Deborah F

    2013-05-01

    Self-monitoring of physical activity (PA) and diet are key components of behavioral weight loss programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diet (mobile app, website, or paper journal) and PA (mobile app vs no mobile app) self-monitoring and dietary and PA behaviors. This study is a post hoc analysis of a 6-month randomized weight loss trial among 96 overweight men and women (body mass index (BMI) 25-45 kg/m(2)) conducted from 2010 to 2011. Participants in both randomized groups were collapsed and categorized by their chosen self-monitoring method for diet and PA. All participants received a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered via podcast and were encouraged to self-monitor dietary intake and PA. Adjusting for randomized group and demographics, PA app users self-monitored exercise more frequently over the 6-month study (2.6±0.5 days/week) and reported greater intentional PA (196.4±45.9 kcal/day) than non-app users (1.2±0.5 days/week PA self-monitoring, p<0.01; 100.9±45.1 kcal/day intentional PA, p=0.02). PA app users also had a significantly lower BMI at 6 months (31.5±0.5 kg/m(2)) than non-users (32.5±0.5 kg/m(2); p=0.02). Frequency of self-monitoring did not differ by diet self-monitoring method (p=0.63); however, app users consumed less energy (1437±188 kcal/day) than paper journal users (2049±175 kcal/day; p=0.01) at 6 months. BMI did not differ among the three diet monitoring methods (p=0.20). These findings point to potential benefits of mobile monitoring methods during behavioral weight loss trials. Future studies should examine ways to predict which self-monitoring method works best for an individual to increase adherence.

  7. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Tate, Deborah F

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-monitoring of physical activity (PA) and diet are key components of behavioral weight loss programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diet (mobile app, website, or paper journal) and PA (mobile app vs no mobile app) self-monitoring and dietary and PA behaviors. Materials and methods This study is a post hoc analysis of a 6-month randomized weight loss trial among 96 overweight men and women (body mass index (BMI) 25–45 kg/m2) conducted from 2010 to 2011. Participants in both randomized groups were collapsed and categorized by their chosen self-monitoring method for diet and PA. All participants received a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered via podcast and were encouraged to self-monitor dietary intake and PA. Results Adjusting for randomized group and demographics, PA app users self-monitored exercise more frequently over the 6-month study (2.6±0.5 days/week) and reported greater intentional PA (196.4±45.9 kcal/day) than non-app users (1.2±0.5 days/week PA self-monitoring, p<0.01; 100.9±45.1 kcal/day intentional PA, p=0.02). PA app users also had a significantly lower BMI at 6 months (31.5±0.5 kg/m2) than non-users (32.5±0.5 kg/m2; p=0.02). Frequency of self-monitoring did not differ by diet self-monitoring method (p=0.63); however, app users consumed less energy (1437±188 kcal/day) than paper journal users (2049±175 kcal/day; p=0.01) at 6 months. BMI did not differ among the three diet monitoring methods (p=0.20). Conclusions These findings point to potential benefits of mobile monitoring methods during behavioral weight loss trials. Future studies should examine ways to predict which self-monitoring method works best for an individual to increase adherence. PMID:23429637

  8. A continuous glucose monitoring and problem-solving intervention to change physical activity behavior in women with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nancy; Whittemore, Robin; Melkus, Gail

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes technology has the potential to provide useful data for theory-based behavioral counseling. The aims of this study are to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a continuous glucose monitoring and problem-solving counseling intervention to change physical activity (PA) behavior in women with type 2 diabetes. Women (n=29) with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: continuous glucose counseling and problem-solving skills or continuous glucose monitoring counseling and general diabetes education. Feasibility data were obtained on intervention dose, implementation, and satisfaction. Preliminary efficacy data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks on the following measures: PA amount and intensity, diet, problem-solving skills, self-efficacy for PA, depression, hemogoloin A1c, weight, and blood pressure. Demographic and implementation variables were described using frequency distributions and summary statistics. Satisfaction data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank. Differences between groups were analyzed using linear mixed-modeling. Women were mostly white/non-Latina with a mean age of 53 years, a 6.5-year history of diabetes, and suboptimal glycemic control. Continuous glucose monitoring plus problem-solving group participants had significantly greater problem-solving skills and had greater, although not statistically significant, dietary adherence, moderate activity minutes, weight loss, and higher intervention satisfaction pre- to post-intervention than did participants in the continuous glucose monitoring plus education group. A continuous glucose monitoring plus problem-solving intervention was feasible and acceptable, and participants had greater problem-solving skills than continuous glucose monitoring plus education group participants.

  9. Use of Text Messaging for Monitoring Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Bauer, Stephanie; Hamer, Robert M.; Kordy, Hans; Ward, Dianne; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability, attrition, adherence, and preliminary efficacy of mobile phone short message service (SMS; text messaging) for monitoring healthful behaviors in children. Design: All randomized children received a brief psychoeducational intervention. They then either monitored target behaviors via SMS with feedback or via…

  10. Use of Text Messaging for Monitoring Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Bauer, Stephanie; Hamer, Robert M.; Kordy, Hans; Ward, Dianne; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability, attrition, adherence, and preliminary efficacy of mobile phone short message service (SMS; text messaging) for monitoring healthful behaviors in children. Design: All randomized children received a brief psychoeducational intervention. They then either monitored target behaviors via SMS with feedback or via…

  11. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  12. Physical Activity Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Videos Glossary of Terms Success Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329- ...

  13. The Development of a Mobile Monitoring and Feedback Tool to Stimulate Physical Activity of People With a Chronic Disease in Primary Care: A User-Centered Design

    PubMed Central

    Verwey, Renée; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Tange, Huibert; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Witte, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is an important aspect in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type-2 diabetes. A monitoring and feedback tool combined with guidance by a primary care provider might be a successful method to enhance the level of physical activity in these patients. As a prerequisite for useful technology, it is important to involve the end-users in the design process from an early stage. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the user requirements for a tool to stimulate physical activity, embedded in primary care practice. The leading principle of this tool is to change behavior by self-monitoring, goal-setting, and feedback. Methods The research team collected qualitative data among 15 patients, 16 care professionals, and several experts. A prototype was developed in three stages. In stage 1, the literature was searched to identify end-users and context. In stage 2, the literature, experts and patient representatives were consulted to set up a use case with the general idea of the innovation. In stage 3, individual interviews and focus groups were held to identify the end-user requirements. Based on these requirements a prototype was built by the engineering team. Results The development process has led to a tool that generally meets the requirements of the end-users. A tri-axial activity sensor, worn on the hip, is connected by Bluetooth to a smartphone. In an app, quantitative feedback is given about the amount of activity and goals reached by means of graphical visualization, and an image shows a sun when the goal is reached. Overviews about activity per half an hour, per day, week, and month are provided. In the menu of the app and on a secured website, patients can enter information in individual sessions or read feedback messages generated by the system. The practice nurse can see the results of all patients on a secure webpage and can then discuss the results and set personalized goals in

  14. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  15. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  16. Physical activity in physical education: teacher or technology effects.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Traci; Ward, Phillip; Martin, Beth; Leenders, Nicole Y J M

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed if wearing a heart rate monitor influenced student activity levels in elementary physical education. Data were analyzed for 4 students using an alternating treatment design to assess differential effects between accelerometer activity counts obtained from students when wearing the heart rate monitor and when they were not wearing the monitor. Results show that (a) there was no difference in activity counts between the 2 conditions, (b) boys had higher means than girls, and (c) the variance between more and less active boys was greater than the variance among the girls.

  17. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  18. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 22, 2016 Physical Activity and Your Heart in the News April 6, ...

  19. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  20. Energy assessment: physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  1. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  2. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  3. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  4. A comparison of energy expenditure estimates from the Actiheart and Actical physical activity monitors during low intensity activities, walking, and jogging.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew; Pappas, Evangelos

    2011-04-01

    Combining accelerometry with heart rate monitoring has been suggested to improve energy estimates, however, it remains unclear whether the single, currently existing commercially available device combining these data streams (Actiheart) provides improved energy estimates compared to simpler and less expensive accelerometry-only devices. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of the heart rate (HR), accelerometry (ACC), and combined ACC/HR estimates of the Actiheart to the ACC estimates of the Actical during low and moderate intensity activities. Twenty-seven participants (mean age 26.3 ± 7.3) wore an Actical, Actiheart and indirect calorimeter (K4b(2)) while performing card playing, sweeping, lifting weights, walking and jogging activities. All estimates tended to underestimate energy, sometimes by substantial amounts. Viewed across all activities studied, there was no significant difference in the ability of the waist-mounted Actical and torso-mounted Actiheart (ACC, HR, ACC/HR) estimates to predict energy expenditure. However, the Actiheart provided significantly better estimates than the Actical for the activities in which acceleration of the pelvis is not closely related to energy expenditure (card playing, sweeping, lifting weights) and the Actical provided significantly better estimates for level walking and level jogging. Similar to a previous study, the ACC component of the Actiheart was found to be the weakest predictor of energy suggesting it may be responsible for the failure of the combined ACC/HR estimate to equal or better the estimates derived solely from a waist mounted ACC device.

  5. HEALTH PHYSICS CONSIDERATIONS FOR REMEDIATION AND EXPOSURE MONITORING OF A TH-232 WASTE STREAM IN A COMMERCIALLY ACTIVE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, Michael S.; Hays, David C. Jr.

    2003-02-27

    This paper discusses some of the unique regulatory conditions and operational challenges facing a team performing a thorium-232 cleanup in a commercially active environment, as well as the implemented and proposed solutions that can be applied to other programs, particularly those operating in an OSHA-regulated environment.

  6. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  7. The effectiveness of physical activity monitoring and distance counseling in an occupational setting – Results from a randomized controlled trial (CoAct)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lack of physical activity (PA) is a known risk factor for many health conditions. The workplace is a setting often used to promote activity and health. We investigated the effectiveness of an intervention on PA and productivity-related outcomes in an occupational setting. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 12 months duration with two 1:1 allocated parallel groups of insurance company employees. Eligibility criteria included permanent employment and absence of any condition that risked the participant’s health during PA. Subjects in the intervention group monitored their daily PA with an accelerometer, set goals, had access to an online service to help them track their activity levels, and received counseling via telephone or web messages for 12 months. The control group received the results of a fitness test and an information leaflet on PA at the beginning of the study. The intervention’s aim was to increase PA, improve work productivity, and decrease sickness absence. Primary outcomes were PA (measured as MET minutes per week), work productivity (quantity and quality of work; QQ index), and sickness absence (SA) days at 12 months. Participants were assigned to groups using block randomization with a computer-generated scheme. The study was not blinded. Results There were 544 randomized participants, of which 521 were included in the analysis (64% female, mean age 43 years). At 12 months, there was no significant difference in physical activity levels between the intervention group (n = 264) and the control group (n = 257). The adjusted mean difference was −206 MET min/week [95% Bayesian credible interval −540 to 128; negative values favor control group]. There was also no significant difference in the QQ index (−0.5 [−4.4 to 3.3]) or SA days (0.0 [−1.2 to 0.9]). Of secondary outcomes, body weight (0.5 kg [0.0 to 1.0]) and percentage of body fat (0.6% [0.2% to 1.1%]) were slightly higher in the

  8. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  9. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  10. [Effect of short term graded physical exercise on the level of glycemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: data of long term ECG monitoring and registration of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Laptev, D N; Kruzhkova, M N; Riabykina, G V; Poliakov, S D; Korneeva, I T

    2012-01-01

    Study aim was to elucidate effect of graded physical exercise on glycemia level and interval QT duration in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We carried out 25-hours parallel monitoring of glycemia, ECG and physical activity in 15 children and adolescents aged 9-17 years. During monitoring these patients performed an exercise test (PWC170). We found that there were two periods of significant and prolonged lowering of glycemia: in 120-420 min and 19-21 hours after exercise. Lowering of glycemia after physical exercise was associated with prolongation of QT interval. Registration of motor activity allowed to exclude changes of glycemia due to physical activity unrelated to graded exercise.

  11. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  12. Monitoring of the physical exam in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Postelnicu, Radu; Evans, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring of mental status and peripheral circulatory changes can be accomplished noninvasively in patients in the ICU. Emphasis on physical examination in conditions such as sepsis have gained increased attention as these evaluations can often serve as a surrogate marker for short-term treatment efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Sepsis associated encephalopathy and mental status changes correlate with worse prognosis in patients. Evaluation of peripheral circulation has been shown to be a convenient, easily accessible, and accurate marker for prognosis in patients with septic shock. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the main findings according to recent literature into the monitoring of physical examination changes in patients with sepsis. Several recent studies have expanded our knowledge about the pathophysiology of mental status changes and the clinical assessment of peripheral circulation in patients with sepsis. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in an intensive care setting. Increased capillary refill time (CRT) and persistent skin mottling are strongly predictive of mortality, whereas temperature gradients can reveal vasoconstriction and more severe organ dysfunction. Monitoring of physical examination changes is a significant and critical intervention in patients with sepsis. Utilizing repeated neurologic evaluations, and assessing CRT, mottling score, and skin temperature gradients should be emphasized as important noninvasive diagnostic tools. The significance of these methods can be incorporated during the utilization of therapeutic strategies in resuscitation protocols in patients with sepsis.

  13. Adherence with physical activity monitoring wearable devices in a community-based population: observations from the Washington, D.C., Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Leah R; Mitchell, Valerie; Ayers, Colby R; Peters-Lawrence, Marlene; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Brooks, Alyssa T; Troendle, James F; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Thomas, Samantha; Henry, JaWanna; Saygbe, Johnetta N; Sampson, Dana M; Johnson, Allan A; Graham, Avis P; Graham, Lennox A; Wiley, Kenneth L; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany

    2017-01-17

    Wearable mobile health (mHealth) technologies offer approaches for targeting physical activity (PA) in resource-limited, community-based interventions. We sought to explore user characteristics of PA tracking, wearable technology among a community-based population within a health and needs assessment. In 2014-2015, we conducted the Washington, D.C., Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment in predominantly African-American churches among communities with higher obesity rates and lower household incomes. Participants received a mHealth PA monitor and wirelessly uploaded PA data weekly to church data collection hubs. Participants (n = 99) were 59 ± 12 years, 79% female, and 99% African-American, with a mean body mass index of 33 ± 7 kg/m(2). Eighty-one percent of participants uploaded PA data to the hub and were termed "PA device users." Though PA device users were more likely to report lower household incomes, no differences existed between device users and non-users for device ownership or technology fluency. Findings suggest that mHealth systems with a wearable device and data collection hub may feasibly target PA in resource-limited communities.

  14. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  15. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  16. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  17. Seasonal trends in atrial fibrillation episodes and physical activity collected daily with a remote monitoring system for cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Mattei, Eugenio; Calò, Leonardo; Curnis, Antonio; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Vaccari, Diego; Zanotto, Gabriele; Morichelli, Loredana; Rovai, Nicola; Gargaro, Alessio; Ricci, Renato Pietro

    2017-05-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) of cardiac implantable electronic devices is an ideal experimental model to evaluate long-term trends of physiological and clinical data automatically collected from large patient cohorts. We studied data of atrial fibrillation (AF) and physical activity (PA) transmitted daily during 3.5years from a subgroup of patients enrolled in the HomeGuide trial, a previously conducted study on patients routinely followed with a RM system transmitting clinical and diagnostic data daily. We selected 988 patients (80% male, mean age 68±11) implanted with a pacemaker (16%) or an implantable defibrillator and provided with atrial sensing and movement sensors. Remotely transmitted data were processed in order to obtain AF incidence and time of PA in the form of collective time series daily sampled. We found that both PA and AF incidence clearly showed seasonal trends with an annual period and inverse correlation. In a first-order autoregressive model the regression coefficient of daily activity to AF incidence was -0.64 (standard error, 0.18, p<0.0001), while the cross-correlation coefficient reached its maximum values at ±180day lags. AF incidence was 14.4% higher and PA was 14.7% lower in winters than in summers (p<0.0001 for both comparisons). Power spectral analysis revealed weekly periodicity in the PA series (corresponding to festivity rest) but not in the AF incidence. RM data collected daily from a relatively large patient cohort revealed marked seasonal trends in AF incidence and PA with opposite behavior in winters and summers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  19. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  20. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  1. Functional activity monitoring from wearable sensor data.

    PubMed

    Nawab, S Hamid; Roy, Serge H; De Luca, Carlo J

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for the interpretation and use of EMG and accelerometer data to monitor, identify, and categorize functional motor activities in individuals whose movements are unscripted, unrestrained, and take place in the "real world". Our proposed solution provides a novel and practical way of conceptualizing physical activities that facilitates the deployment of modern signal processing and interpretation techniques to carry out activity monitoring. A hierarchical approach is adopted that is based upon: 1) blackboard and rule-based technology from artificial intelligence to support a process in which coarse-grained activity partitioning forms the context for finer-grained activity partitioning; 2) neural network technology to support initial activity classification; and 3) integrated processing and understanding of signals (IPUS) technology for revising the initial classifications to account for the high degrees of anticipated signal variability and overlap during freeform activity.

  2. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  3. Multiwavelength Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    2001-01-01

    By intensive monitoring of AGN variability over a large range in wavelength, we can probe the structure and physics of active galactic nuclei on microarcsecond angular scales. For example, multi-wavelength variability data allow us (a) to establish causal relationships between variations in different wavebands, and thus determine which physical processes are primary and which spectral changes are induced by variations at other wavelengths, and (b) through reverberation mapping of the UV/optical emission lines, to determine the structure and kinematics of the line-emitting region, and thus accurately determine the central masses in AGNs. Multiwavelength monitoring is resource-intensive, and is difficult to implement with general-purpose facilities. As a result, virtually all programs undertaken to date have been either sparsely sampled, or short in duration, or both. The potentially high return on this type of investigation, however, argues for dedicated facilities for multiwavelength monitoring programs.

  4. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  5. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  6. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  7. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  8. A monitoring and feedback tool embedded in a counselling protocol to increase physical activity of patients with COPD or type 2 diabetes in primary care: study protocol of a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Verwey, Renée; van der Weegen, Sanne; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Tange, Huibert; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Witte, Luc

    2014-05-12

    Physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle. Although physical activity can delay complications and decrease the burden of the disease, the level of activity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) is often far from optimal. To stimulate physical activity, a monitoring and feedback tool, consisting of an accelerometer linked to a smart phone and webserver (It's LiFe! tool), and a counselling protocol for practice nurses in primary care was developed (the Self-management Support Program). The main objective of this study is to measure the longitudinal effects of this counselling protocol and the added value of using the tool. This three-armed cluster randomised controlled trial with 120 participants with COPD and 120 participants with DM2 (aged 40-70), compares the counselling protocol with and without the use of the tool (group 1 and 2) with usual care (group 3). Recruitment takes place at GP practices in the southern regions of the Netherlands. Randomisation takes place at the practice level. The intended sample (three arms of 8 practices) powers the study to detect a 10-minute difference of moderate and intense physical activity per day between groups 1 and 3. Participants in the intervention groups have to visit the practice nurse 3-4 times for physical activity counselling, in a 4-6-month period. Specific activity goals tailored to the individual patient's preferences and needs will be set. In addition, participants in group 1 will be instructed to use the tool in daily life. The primary outcome, physical activity, will be measured in all groups with a physical activity monitor (PAM). Secondary outcomes are quality of life, general - and exercise - self-efficacy, and health status. Follow-up will take place after 6 and 9 months. Separately, a process evaluation will be conducted to explore reasons for trial non-participation, and the intervention's acceptability for participating patients and

  9. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  10. Design, Development, and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone Application for Recording and Monitoring Physical Activity Levels: The 10,000 Steps "iStepLog"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, Morwenna; Duncan, Mitch J.; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Limited research exists addressing the development of health-related smartphone apps, a new and potentially effective health promotion delivery strategy. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of a smartphone app associated with a physical activity promotion website. Methods: A combination of qualitative and…

  11. Design, Development, and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone Application for Recording and Monitoring Physical Activity Levels: The 10,000 Steps "iStepLog"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, Morwenna; Duncan, Mitch J.; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Limited research exists addressing the development of health-related smartphone apps, a new and potentially effective health promotion delivery strategy. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of a smartphone app associated with a physical activity promotion website. Methods: A combination of qualitative and…

  12. Monitoring dietary intake and physical activity electronically: feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Spook, Jorinde Eline; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Van Empelen, Pepijn

    2013-09-24

    Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants' states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and ecologically valid tool to measure DI and PA behaviors among

  13. Monitoring Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Electronically: Feasibility, Usability, and Ecological Validity of a Mobile-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Van Empelen, Pepijn

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants’ states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. Objective To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. Methods The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. Results Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. Conclusions The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and

  14. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system. PMID:28208620

  15. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-02-10

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people's activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of "smart clothing" system.

  16. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  17. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  18. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  19. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  20. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  1. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  2. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  3. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  4. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  5. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  6. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Amy Z; Ham, Sandra A; Muppidi, Shravani Reddy; Mokdad, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician's advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute) during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising more to control or lower cholesterol levels among US adults might be valid.

  7. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  8. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  9. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  10. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  11. Physical Activity and Walking Onset in Infants with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of…

  12. Physical Activity and Walking Onset in Infants with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of…

  13. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  14. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda. PMID:16120214

  15. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  16. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  17. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  18. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity. PMID:19887012

  19. Validity of the Apple iPhone® /iPod Touch® as an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Meaghan; Mitchell, J Ross; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K

    2014-05-01

    The popularity of smartphones has led researchers to ask if they can replace traditional tools for assessing free-living physical activity. Our purpose was to establish proof-of-concept that a smartphone could record acceleration during physical activity, and those data could be modeled to predict activity type (walking or running), speed (km·h-1), and energy expenditure (METs). An application to record and e-mail accelerations was developed for the Apple iPhone®/iPod Touch®. Twenty-five healthy adults performed treadmill walking (4.0 km·h-1 to 7.2 km·h-1) and running (8.1 km·h-1 to 11.3 km·h-1) wearing the device. Criterion energy expenditure measurements were collected via metabolic cart. Activity type was classified with 99% accuracy. Speed was predicted with a bias of 0.02 km·h-1 (SEE: 0.57 km·h-1) for walking, -0.03 km·h-1 (SEE: 1.02 km·h-1) for running. Energy expenditure was predicted with a bias of 0.35 METs (SEE: 0.75 METs) for walking, -0.43 METs (SEE: 1.24 METs) for running. Our results suggest that an iPhone/iPod Touch can predict aspects of locomotion with accuracy similar to other accelerometer-based tools. Future studies may leverage this and the additional features of smartphones to improve data collection and compliance.

  20. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  1. Anatahan Activity and Monitoring, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A.; White, R.; Koyanagi, S.; Trusdell, F.; Kauahikaua, J.; Marso, J.; Ewert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Anatahan volcano began erupting in 2003 and continued with a second eruptive phase in 2004. In January 2005 the volcano began a sequence of eruptions and unrest that continues as of September 2005. The activity has been characterized by punctuated episodes of very steamy strombolian activity and vigorous ash emission. Some of the ash emissions have reached 50,000-foot elevations, with VOG and ash occasionally reaching the Philippines and southernmost Japan, over 1000 miles away. Vigorous ash emission has been almost continuous since June 2005. A M4.8 long-period earthquake (LP) occurred in mid-August, one of the largest LPs recorded on the planet in the last quarter-century. Real-time monitoring consisting of a few telemetered short-period seismometers and acoustic sensors has been severely hampered by ashfall on the small island. Monitoring efforts have been focused on the aircraft/ash hazard, with the goal of providing the FAA and airline industry with rapid notice of seismic signatures that may indicate ash columns rising to the altitude of airline traffic, or nominally above 20,000-30,000 ft.

  2. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  3. Physical activity decreases diverticular complications.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Liu, Yan L; Aldoori, Walid H; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity on diverticular complications. This study prospectively examined the associations between physical activity and diverticular bleeding and diverticulitis. We studied 47,228 US males in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort who were aged 40-75 years and free of diverticular disease, gastrointestinal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline in 1986. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticular disease on biennial follow-up questionnaires were sent supplemental questionnaires outlining details of diagnosis and treatment. Physical activity was assessed every 2 years. Men recorded the average time per week spent in eight recreational activities, and flights of stairs climbed per day. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs). During 18 years of follow-up, 800 cases of diverticulitis and 383 cases of diverticular bleeding were identified. Total cumulative physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. After adjustment for potential confounders, the RR for men in the highest quintile of total activity (> or = 57.4 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/week) was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.58-0.95) for diverticulitis and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77) for bleeding, as compared with men in the lowest quintile (< or = 8.2 MET-h/week). Vigorous activity was inversely related to diverticulitis in a high vs. low comparison (multivariable RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86) and bleeding (multivariable RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90), whereas nonvigorous activity was not. These results were similar for recent (simple updated) and baseline activity. Data from this large prospective cohort suggest that physical activity lowers the risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Vigorous activity appears to account for this association.

  4. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  5. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  6. [Effect of a two-week program of individually monitored physical activity on insulin resistance in obese non-insulin-dependent diabetics].

    PubMed

    Cizmić, Milica; Zivotić-Vanović, Mirjana; Zivanić, Slobodan; Dragojević, Radosav

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that under the influence of regular, individually measured aerobic physical activity, it is possible to raise the biological efficiency of insulin by several mechanisms: by increasing the number of insulin receptors, their sensitivity and efficiency, as well as by increasing glucose transporters GLUT-4 on the level of cell membrane. The aim of this research was to examine whether decreased insulin resistance could be achieved under the influence of the program of individually measured aerobic physical activity in the 2-week period, in the obese type 2 diabetes patients with the increased aerobic capacity (VO2)max. In 10 type 2 diabetes patients 47.6 +/- 4.6 years of age (group E), in the 14-days period, program of aerobic training was applied (10 sessions--35 min session of walking on treadmill, intensity 60.8 +/- 5.7% (VO2)max, frequency 5 times a week), as well as 1,600 kcal diet. At the same time, other 10 type 2 diabetes patients 45.9 +/- 5.5 years of age (group C) were on 1,600 kcal diet. Before and after this period the following was measured in both groups: insulin sensitivity (M/I) by the method of hyperinsulin euglycemic clamp, and (VO2)max by Astrand test on ergocycle. In contrast to the group C, in the second testing of E group subjects a significant increase was obtained in M/I (1.23 +/- 0.78 vs. 2.42 +/- 0.95 mg/kg/min/mU p < 0.001, 96.75%) as well as the increase of (VO2)max (26.34 +/- 4.26 vs. 29.16 +/- 5.01 ml/kg/min p < 0.05, 10.7%). The results had shown that 2-week program of aerobic training had had significant influence on the increased aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity in the tested patients.

  7. Physical Activity Transitions and Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century in the United States (U.S.) has experienced a dramatic increase in life expectancy among adult men and women, an increase unprecedented in the history of this country. As a result, the pattern of disease and conditions most responsible for death in the U.S. shifted during the past century from infectious diseases and unintentional injuries to the current array of the leading causes of mortality dominated by the chronic diseases. During this same period, daily lifestyle dramatically shifted from a life full of active living to one of inactivity. The argument has been made that in the case of human beings, there has been little or no change in our genotype within the past 50 years. However, there have been major changes documented in the living environment among economically developed societies during this same time period. Through the collection of epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings, evidence exists to suggest that physical inactivity is associated with the onset of chronic diseases of our day. Trends in physical inactivity evident through the monitoring of transport, recreational, sport, and purposeful activity have demonstrated that the current lifestyle of the 21st century has contributed substantially to the chronic disease burden in the U.S. and elsewhere. By addressing the domains that influence physical activity behaviors including the environment (both physical and social/cultural), health systems access, and behavioral correlates of physical activity and inactivity, the current chronic disease crisis can potentially be addressed. PMID:20161359

  8. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  9. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  10. [Experiences in promoting physical activity].

    PubMed

    Mena-Bejarano, Beatriz

    2006-12-01

    Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of some experiences emphasising physical activity in promoting health in Bogotá. A documentary review of theoretical models of intervention was first undertaken, followed by examining guidelines proposed in international declarations and in Bogotá related to physical activity. Three-phase analysis was carried. 1) The exploratory phase involved collecting general information regarding programmes pertaining to physical activity aimed at preventing non-transmittable chronic diseases (NTCD) and promoting health. 2) The descriptive phase involved characterising programmes for promoting physical activity according to their objectives, scope and the strategies and methodologies used in such processes. 3) The analytical phase involved a critical analysis of current programmes in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The programmes analysed here promoted self-management and autonomy by producing support networks and training leaders for guaranteeing their sustainability. The programmes involved people and the community by holding practical and theoretical workshops which did not cover the whole vital human process, but concentrated on specific population groups. They were deficient in broadcasting in the mass-media.

  11. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  12. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  13. Engaging school governance leaders to influence physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Cox, Lindsey; Berends, Victoria; Sallis, James F; St John, Jessica Marie; McNeil, Betsy; Gonzalez, Martin; Agron, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies. California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools. Board members' highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs. Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.

  14. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  15. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  16. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  17. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  18. WFSD fault monitoring using active seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Ge, H.; Wang, B.; Yuan, S.; Song, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wenchuan Fault Scientific Drilling(WFSD)is a rapid response drilling project to the great Wenchuan earthquake. It focuses on the fault structure, earthquake physical mechanism, fluid and in-situ stress, energy budget and so on. Temporal variation of stress and physical property in the fault zone is important information for understanding earthquake physics, especially when the fault is still under the post-seismic recovery or stress modification. Seismic velocity is a good indicator of the medium mechanics, stress state within the fault zone. After the great Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, May 12, 2008, we built up a fault dynamic monitoring system using active seismic source cross the WFSD fault. It consists of a 10 ton accurately controlled eccentric mass source and eight receivers to continuously monitor the seismic velocity cross the fault zone. Combining the aftershock data, we try to monitor the fault recovery and some aftershock physical process. The observatory is located at the middle of the Longmenshan range-front fault, Mianzhu, Sichuan Province. The No.3 hole of WFSD is on the survey line near the No.4 receiver. The source and receiver site were carefully treated. All instruments were well installed to ensure the system's repeatability. Seismic velocity across the fault zone was monitored with continuous observation. The recording system consists of Guralp-40T short period seismometer and RefTek-130B recorder which was continuously GPS timed up to 20us. The active source ran since June 20, 2009. It was operated routinely at night and working continuously from 21:00 to 02:00 of the next day. So far, we have gotten almost one year recording. The seismic velocity variation may be caused by changes of the fault zone medium mechanical property, fault stress, fluid, and earth tide, barometric pressure and rainfall. Deconvolution, stacking and cross-correlation analysis were used for the velocity analysis. Results show that the relationship between seismic

  19. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  20. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  1. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  2. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  3. Tablet Technology to Monitor Physical Education IEP Goals and Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavay, Barry; Sakai, Joyce; Ortiz, Cris; Roth, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) mandates that all children who are eligible for special education services receive an individualized education program (IEP). Adapted physical education (APE) professionals who teach physical education to children with disabilities are challenged with how to best collect and monitor student…

  4. Tablet Technology to Monitor Physical Education IEP Goals and Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavay, Barry; Sakai, Joyce; Ortiz, Cris; Roth, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) mandates that all children who are eligible for special education services receive an individualized education program (IEP). Adapted physical education (APE) professionals who teach physical education to children with disabilities are challenged with how to best collect and monitor student…

  5. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  6. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  7. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  8. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    . Both energy expenditure (EE) and direct observation have been considered criterion measures in the literature; however, EE is influenced by multiple variables, so its use as a physical activity 'criterion' is not ideal. Also, direct observation is inherently subjective, and coding protocols may result in failure to capture intermittent activity, thereby limiting its utility as a physical activity criterion. Accordingly, these issues must be taken into account where EE or direct observation are used to validate physical activity instruments. A combination of objective monitoring and direct observation may provide the best standard for the assessment of physical activity measurement tools. Ideally, the convergent validity of various physical activity tools should be investigated to determine the level of agreement between currently available measures. The correlational approaches commonly employed in the assessment of physical activity measures do not reveal this relationship, and can conceal potential bias of either measure.

  9. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  10. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  11. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  12. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  13. A Social Media–Based Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, David N.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ries, Amy V.; Brown, Jane D.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Online social networks, such as Facebook™, have extensive reach, and they use technology that could enhance social support, an established determinant of physical activity. This combination of reach and functionality makes online social networks a promising intervention platform for increasing physical activity. Purpose To test the efficacy of a physical activity intervention that combined education, physical activity monitoring, and online social networking to increase social support for physical activity compared to an education-only control. Design RCT. Students (n=134) were randomized to two groups; education-only controls receiving access to a physical activity–focused website (n=67) and intervention participants receiving access to the same website with physical activity self-monitoring and enrollment in a Facebook group (n=67). Recruitment and data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011; data analyses were performed in 2011. Setting/participants Female undergraduate students at a large Southeastern public university. Intervention Intervention participants were encouraged through e-mails, website instructions, and moderator communications to solicit and provide social support related to increasing physical activity through a physical activity–themed Facebook group. Participants received access to a dedicated website with educational materials and a physical activity self-monitoring tool. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was perceived social support for physical activity; secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity. Results Participants experienced increases in social support and physical activity over time but there were no differences in perceived social support or physical activity between groups over time. Facebook participants posted 259 times to the group. Two thirds (66%) of intervention participants completing a post-study survey indicated that they would recommend the program to friends. Conclusions Use of an

  14. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  15. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  16. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  17. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  18. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  19. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  20. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  1. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  2. Physical activity in police beyond self-report.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D

    2014-03-01

    Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

  3. [Habitual physical activity during growth].

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Falgairette, Guy

    2004-04-01

    The three objectives of the present review of the literature were to: characterize the evolution of habitual physical activity (HPA) during growth; evaluate the tracking of HPA from childhood to adulthood; and analyse the level of HPA in children and adolescents according to public health recommendations. Data indicates that HPA decreases from childhood to adulthood about 7% per year, with a great reduction during puberty and adolescence concurrent to changes in the type of physical activity. It appears that HPA is not quite steady (0.09 < r < 0.66) during growth, which means that behavioural changes occur. Being very active during childhood or adolescence does not necessarily translate into a high level of HPA in adulthood. The mean values of HPA of children and adolescents vary from 15 to 90 min.day(-1) between studies, and for most of them HPA has been higher or close to public health recommendations. However, these results mask a great number of children and adolescents who are inactive or becoming inactive (40 to 45% of the population).

  4. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  5. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  6. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  7. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  8. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  9. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  10. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  11. Use of ultrasound to monitor physical properties of soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baêsso, R. M.; Oliveira, P. A.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the monitoring physical properties of soybean oil was performed. The pulse-echo method allowed measuring the density and viscosity of the oil in real time and accurately. The physical property values were related to the acoustic time of flight ratio, dimensionless parameter that can be obtained from any reference. In our case, we used the time of flight at 20°C as reference and a fixed distance between the transducer and the reflector. Ultrasonic monitoring technique employed here has shown promising in the analysis of edible oils.

  12. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  13. [Physical activity and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this article is to review the present knowledge about physical activity and reproductive health. Medline and manual search for articles related to exercise and menstrual function, and exercise and pregnancy were performed. Repetitive intensive exercise with increased stress hormone utilisation seems to partly explain the disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The prevalence of menstrual irregularities is higher among athletes who participate in sports in which leanness is considered important for performance. Most of the studies concerning exercise-induced amenorrhoea have focused on low body weight and low fat ratio of body weight. However, energy drain and nutrient deficiency have been found to be important variables explaining menstrual irregularity in athletes. Loss of bone mass is related to menstrual irregularities hence it is important that menstrual irregularity not is considered a "normal" aspect of being an athlete. There are a number of positive effects and a few hypothetical risks related to exercise during pregnancy. There are no clinically controlled studies allowing us to draw conclusions about the effect of intensive training during pregnancy. Physically active women should be aware of the importance of sufficient energy intake to keep their regular menstrual cycle. Moderate exercise during pregnancy is recommended.

  14. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  15. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  16. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  17. Can we modulate physical activity in children?

    PubMed

    Reilly, J J

    2011-10-01

    There is concern that interventions that use physical activity to prevent obesity in children might be undermined by an 'Activitystat', which exerts an effect to maintain a low set point for physical activity. The present critique summarises evidence from systematic reviews of interventions, from empirical tests of the Activitystat hypothesis, from studies on the heritability of physical activity in childhood and the physical activity of children of and adolescents across a wide range of physical and cultural environments. This body of evidence is inconsistent with the Activitystat hypothesis in its current form, and suggests that the emphasis on physical activity in obesity prevention interventions in children should be increased, not reduced.

  18. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  19. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  20. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  1. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  2. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Français Русский Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on ...

  3. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  4. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  5. Report on monitoring and support instruments for solar physics research from Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Quick Reaction and Special Purpose Facility Definition Team for Solar Physics Spacelab Payloads examined a variety of instruments to fulfill the following functions: (1) solar physics research appropriate to Spacelab, (2) correlative data for research in such fields as aeronomy, magnetospheric physics, ionospheric physics, meteorology and climatology, (3) target selection for activity alert monitoring and (4) pointing accuracy monitoring of Spacelab platforms. In this examination the team accepted a number of restrictions and qualifications: (1) the cost of such instruments must be low, so as not to adversely impact the development of new, research class instrumentation in the early Spacelab era; (2) the instruments should be of such a size that they each would occupy a small fraction of a pointing system, and (3) the weight and power consumption of the instruments should also be small. With these restrictions, the instruments chosen are: the visible light telescope and magnetograph, the extreme-ultraviolet telescope, and the solar irradiance monitor.

  6. The Importance of Monitoring Skills in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Marlina; Talib, Corrienna-Abd; Hasniza Ibrahim, Nor; Surif, Johari; Halim Abdullah, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how important "monitoring" is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on…

  7. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-04-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Compared with a 3-s epoch, sampling intervals of 15, 30, and 60 s resulted in an average of 2.9, 9.0, and 16.7 missed minutes of MVPA per day, respectively. All 30 preschoolers met the National Association for Sport and Physical Education recommendation of at least 120 min of total physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  8. National plan for physical activity: education sector.

    PubMed

    Siedentop, Daryl L

    2009-11-01

    Schools must play a central role in combating the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and youths. This cannot be achieved without more robust policy and funding programs at both federal and state levels. Reviews of meta-analyses were used to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA through interventions in school physical education programs. Individual research studies were reviewed to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA in preschool settings, recess, and classroom activity breaks. Legislation at the federal and state levels was reviewed along with surveillance and accountability mechanisms at the state level. Physical education interventions produce improvements in PA/MVPA if protocols relating to use of time are followed. PA/MVPA in recess can be increased through careful planning for attractive activity opportunities on carefully designed playgrounds. Classroom activity breaks provide important PA/MVPA daily and improve student on-task behavior. Federal legislation is needed to provide guidelines and financial support for states to improve the quantity and quality of PA in school programs. States need to develop clear expectations for quantity and quality of PA programs in schools, surveillance systems to monitor district compliance in meeting those expectations, and an accountability system aimed at ensuring that state expectations are being met with assistance for districts that do not meet expectations.

  9. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  10. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  11. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  12. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  13. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  14. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  15. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  16. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  17. Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

    PubMed

    Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

    2004-01-01

    The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

  18. Determinants of physical activity frequency and provider advice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Santo, Eilann C; Forbes, Peter W; Oken, Emily; Belfort, Mandy B

    2017-09-05

    Our aims were to (1) describe the frequency of physical activity and prenatal healthcare provider advice about physical activity during pregnancy and (2) examine determinants and correlates of 3rd trimester physical activity and receipt of physical activity advice. We analyzed data from the 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. We studied 2669 women from North Carolina and Colorado with data on physical activity frequency in the 3 months prior to pregnancy and during the 3rd trimester and 1584 women from Oklahoma with data on provider advice regarding physical activity during pregnancy. Respondents reported physical activity, defined as 30 min or more of exercise/physical activity (excluding vocationally related activity), in in these categories: <1 day/week, 1-4 days/week, and ≥5 days/week. We defined adherence to American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology (ACOG) criteria as physical activity ≥5 days/week in the 3rd trimester. We performed logistic regression analyses weighted for sampling and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Forty-two percent of women in North Carolina and Colorado reported 3rd trimester physical activity <1 day/week, 42% 1-4 days/week, 9% ≥5 days/week; 7% reported being told not to exercise. Seventy-two percent of women in Oklahoma reported receiving physical activity advice from a prenatal care provider. Low activity frequency (<1 day/week) prior to pregnancy was strongly associated with low likelihood of ACOG guideline adherence in the 3rd trimester (aOR 0.10, 95% CU 0.04, 0.30 vs. 1-4 days/week). Underweight women were more likely to adhere to ACOG guidelines than normal weight women (aOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.36, 3.79). Overweight women were more likely to receive physical activity advice (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3, 6.3 vs. normal weight), but obese women were not (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.4, 1.2). Few women meet ACOG guideline criteria for physical activity during pregnancy. Improving physical activity and weight status

  19. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  1. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  2. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  3. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  4. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  5. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  6. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  7. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  8. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  9. Physical working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Tore; Aagestad, Cecilie; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Andersen, Lars Louis; Perkio-Makela, Merja; García, Francisco Javier Pinilla; Blanco, Luz Galiana; Vermeylen, Greet; Parent-Thirion, Agnes; Hooftman, Wendela; Houtman, Irene; Liebers, Falk; Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren

    2017-06-05

    The prevalence of workers with demanding physical working conditions in the European work force remains high, and occupational physical exposures are considered important risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), a major burden for both workers and society. Exposures to physical workloads are therefore part of the European nationwide surveys to monitor working conditions and health. An interesting question is to what extent the same domains, dimensions and items referring to the physical workloads are covered in the surveys. The purpose of this paper is to determine 1) which domains and dimensions of the physical workloads are monitored in surveys at the national level and the EU level and 2) the degree of European consensus among these surveys regarding coverage of individual domains and dimensions. Items on physical workloads used in one European wide/Spanish and five other European nationwide work environment surveys were classified into the domains and dimensions they cover, using a taxonomy agreed upon among all participating partners. The taxonomy reveals that there is a modest overlap between the domains covered in the surveys, but when considering dimensions, the results indicate a lower agreement. The phrasing of items and answering categories differs between the surveys. Among the domains, the three domains covered by all surveys are "lifting, holding & carrying of loads/pushing & pulling of loads", "awkward body postures" and "vibrations". The three domains covered less well, that is only by three surveys or less, are "physical work effort", "working sitting", and "mixed exposure". This is the fırst thorough overview to evaluate the coverage of domains and dimensions of self-reported physical workloads in a selection of European nationwide surveys. We hope the overview will provide input to the revisions and updates of the individual countries' surveys in order to enhance coverage of relevant domains and dimensions in all surveys and to increase

  10. [Physical activity and management of obese patients].

    PubMed

    Oppert, J M; Balarac, N

    2001-09-01

    Physical activity is recognized as an integral part of obesity treatment, in association with other therapeutic means. A major benefit of physical activity is the association with better long-term maintenance of weight loss. Physical activity has also positive psychological effects and increases quality of life. An evaluation of the usual level of physical activity and inactivity is needed for each patient. Physical activity counselling should be individualized and graded, in a perspective of individual progression. In subjects with massive obesity, remobilization based on physiotherapy techniques is the first step. All patients should be given simple advice to decrease sedentary behavior: use the stairs instead of the escalators, limit the time spent seated, etc. In general, current physical activity recommendations for the general population fit well with a majority of obese patients, i.e. a minimum of 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking or equivalent) on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Physical activities of higher intensities (endurance training programme) can be proposed on an individual basis. The type of physical activity required for long-term weight maintenance, and the question of adherence to physical activity recommendations in obese patients should be further investigated.

  11. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  12. How Much Physical Activity Do Adults Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  13. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  14. Validity of the Physical Activity Interview and Caltrac with Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Researchers assessed the ability of third and fifth graders to recall and report types and amounts of physical activity from the previous day. The study assessed the validity of the Caltrac electronic accelerometer as a field measure of physical activity. Children's reported physical activity minutes were higher than monitored minutes. (SM)

  15. Prescribing physical activity in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fuscaldo, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity is a powerful weapon for individuals interested in health maintenance. Many benefits of regular physical activity are well known to the medical community including improved weight control, healthier cardiovascular system, and tighter diabetic control. Less recognized benefits of physical activity may include stronger bones, better sleep, lower blood pressure, improved mood, opportunities for personal enjoyment, cancer prevention, and even a longer lifespan. Despite these numerous incentives, less than a quarter of the U.S. population is active enough to gain the rewards (13). West Virginians are among the least physically active; more than 40% of state residents engage in no leisure time physical activity at all (15), so it is critical that physicians in the state take a much more active role in prescribing physical activity for their patients. Although more research is needed, data exists to suggest counseling by physicians does result in increased physical activity (20-23). Attention to risk factors and specific red flags can help decide when formal pre-exercise stress testing is necessary. An organized approach includes development of the mode, frequency, duration, intensity and progression of exercise by a physician who knows the patient's interests and limitations (28). The most current consensus guidelines suggest 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily (12). Physicians need to encourage this goal during office visits and there appears to be benefit in putting specific physical activity advice in the form of a written prescription (21).

  16. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  17. Probing the Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of a number of large multiwavelength monitoring campaigns that have taken place since the late 1980s, there are now several very large data sets on bright variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that are well-sampled in time and can be used to probe the physics of the AGN continuum source and the broad-line emitting region. Most of these data sets have been underutilized, as the emphasis thus far has been primarily on reverberation-mapping issues alone. Broader attempts at analysis have been made on some of the earlier IUE data sets (e.g., data from the 1989 campaign on NGC5 548) , but much of this analysis needs to be revisited now that improved versions of the data are now available from final archive processing. We propose to use the multiwavelength monitoring data that have been accumulated to undertake more thorough investigations of the AGN continuum and broad emission lines, including a more detailed study of line-profile variability, making use of constraints imposed by the reverberation results.

  18. Probing the Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of a number of large multiwavelength monitoring campaigns that have taken place since the late 1980s, there are now several very large data sets on bright variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that are well-sampled in time and can be used to probe the physics of the AGN continuum source and the broad-line emitting region. Most of these data sets have been underutilized, as the emphasis thus far has been primarily on reverberation-mapping issues alone. Broader attempts at analysis have been made on some of the earlier IUE data sets (e.g., data from the 1989 campaign on NGC5 548) , but much of this analysis needs to be revisited now that improved versions of the data are now available from final archive processing. We propose to use the multiwavelength monitoring data that have been accumulated to undertake more thorough investigations of the AGN continuum and broad emission lines, including a more detailed study of line-profile variability, making use of constraints imposed by the reverberation results.

  19. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  20. Increasing Physical Activity of Children during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lynda B.; Van Camp, Carole M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M?=?1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M?=?1,326 steps), and the…

  1. Increasing Physical Activity of Children during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lynda B.; Van Camp, Carole M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M?=?1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M?=?1,326 steps), and the…

  2. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  3. Conceptual Physical Education Course and College Freshmen's Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shangguan, Rulan; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Liu, Jingwen; Zhou, Ke; Clark, Langston; Leitner, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses play a critical role in promoting physical activity (PA) among students in American higher education settings. To date, however, very limited knowledge is available about the effectiveness of such courses. Aims: The primary purpose of the study was to examine effects of a CPE course on altering freshmen…

  4. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  5. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  6. Using Pedometers to Promote Physical Activity in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lori; Tannehill, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Some schools across the country have recently reduced the time and frequency that students spend participating in physical education. During the school day children spend considerably more time sitting and listening than they do moving and being physically active. Devoting more time to academics may be producing more knowledgeable and academically…

  7. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  8. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  9. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  10. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  11. Novelty in hypertension in children and adolescents: focus on hypertension during the first year of life, use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, role of physical activity in prevention and treatment, simple carbohydrates and uric acid as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Strambi, Mirella; Giussani, Marco; Ambruzzi, Maria Amalia; Brambilla, Paolo; Corrado, Ciro; Giordano, Ugo; Maffeis, Claudio; Maringhin, Silvio; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Menghetti, Ettore; Salice, Patrizia; Schena, Federico; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Valerio, Giuliana; Viazzi, Francesca; Virdis, Raffaele; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-07-16

    The present article intends to provide an update of the article "Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents" published in 2013 (Spagnolo et al., Ital J Pediatr 39:20, 2013) in this journal. This revision is justified by the fact that during the last years there have been several new scientific contributions to the problem of hypertension in pediatric age and during adolescence. Nevertheless, for what regards some aspects of the previous article, the newly acquired information did not require substantial changes to what was already published, both from a cultural and from a clinical point of view. We felt, however, the necessity to rewrite and/or to extend other parts in the light of the most recent scientific publications. More specifically, we updated and extended the chapters on the diagnosis and management of hypertension in newborns and unweaned babies, on the use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and on the usefulness of and indications for physical activity. Furthermore, we added an entirely new section on the role that simple carbohydrates (fructose in particular) and uric acid may play in the pathogenesis of hypertension in pediatric age.

  12. Physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Frank; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clément; Demougeot, Céline; Mougin, Fabienne; Wendling, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease and is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease. For the general population, the World Health Organization has issued detailed recommendations on the type of physical activity appropriate for decreasing the cardiovascular risk. The objective of this work is to review available data on the effects of physical activity in patients with RA. RA is responsible for a marked decrease in physical activity. Physical activity significantly diminishes both the cardiovascular risk and the DAS 28. Vascular benefits from physical activity include improved endothelial function and slowing of the atherosclerotic process. Physical activity also has favorable effects on bone, slowing radiographic disease progression in small joints and increasing bone mineral density at the femoral neck, although these effects are not statistically significant. Finally, engaging in physical activity increases self-esteem, alleviates symptoms of depression, improves sleep quality, and decreases pain perception. Aerobic exercise is the most commonly advocated type of physical activity. Most interventions were of short duration (4 weeks) and involved aerobic activity (running or cycling) for 60minutes a day 5 days a week. Resistance training has been shown to decrease systemic inflammation and increase muscle strength. The main obstacles to physical activity in patients with RA are related to both the patients, who lack both motivation and knowledge, and the rheumatologists, who also lack knowledge and place insufficient emphasis on promoting physical activity. Physical activity provides many benefits in patients with RA and should be widely performed. Promoting physical activity should be among the objectives of therapeutic patient education for RA. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Activity during Pregnancy: Impact of Applying Different Physical Activity Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katie M.; Campbell, Christina G.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple guidelines and definitions of physical activity (PA) have been used to study the benefits of activity during pregnancy. The different guidelines lead to a wide range of prevalence estimates and this has led to conflicting reports about activity patterns during pregnancy. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess PA using a pattern-recognition monitor for a 7-day period at week 18 (n = 55) and week 35 (n = 66) of pregnancy. The amount of activity performed and the number of women meeting six different PA guidelines were evaluated. Adherence to PA guidelines ranged from 5 to 100% and 9 to 100% at weeks 18 and 35, respectively. All women achieved the 500 MET-minute guideline and nearly all women accumulated ≥150 minutes of weekly moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at both time points. Only 22% and 26% participated in ≥3 sessions of MVPA lasting ≥30 minutes at both time points and this further declined to 5% and 9% when the guideline was increased to ≥5 sessions of 30 minutes. The amount of PA during pregnancy varied drastically depending on which guideline was used. Further research is warranted to clearly identify the patterns of activity that are associated with healthy pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23476778

  14. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  15. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  16. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  17. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  18. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  19. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  20. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  1. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  2. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  3. Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazi, Robert P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A series of questions and answers helps teachers and leaders understand how much physical activity is enough for children and adolescents, discussing the guidelines used to make recommendations; childrens' and adolescents' unique physical activity needs; lifetime activity needs; and aerobic versus strength, endurance, and flexibility training. (SM)

  4. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  5. Progress in physical activity over the Olympic quadrennium.

    PubMed

    Sallis, James F; Bull, Fiona; Guthold, Regina; Heath, Gregory W; Inoue, Shigeru; Kelly, Paul; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Perez, Lilian G; Richards, Justin; Hallal, Pedro C

    2016-09-24

    On the eve of the 2012 summer Olympic Games, the first Lancet Series on physical activity established that physical inactivity was a global pandemic, and global public health action was urgently needed. The present paper summarises progress on the topics covered in the first Series. In the past 4 years, more countries have been monitoring the prevalence of physical inactivity, although evidence of any improvements in prevalence is still scarce. According to emerging evidence on brain health, physical inactivity accounts for about 3·8% of cases of dementia worldwide. An increase in research on the correlates of physical activity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is providing a better evidence base for development of context-relevant interventions. A finding specific to LMICs was that physical inactivity was higher in urban (vs rural) residents, which is a cause for concern because of the global trends toward urbanisation. A small but increasing number of intervention studies from LMICs provide initial evidence that community-based interventions can be effective. Although about 80% of countries reported having national physical activity policies or plans, such policies were operational in only about 56% of countries. There are important barriers to policy implementation that must be overcome before progress in increasing physical activity can be expected. Despite signs of progress, efforts to improve physical activity surveillance, research, capacity for intervention, and policy implementation are needed, especially among LMICs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Behavior of Physical Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    1995-01-01

    In this study researchers conducted exercise testing, collected data on demographics and physical activity, analyzed data by gender and major, and compared results with data on nonphysical education majors. The paper presents the results by category. (SM)

  7. Physical activity and cognitive function in bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Galioto, Rachel; King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in severe obesity. Lack of physical activity is a likely contributor to impairment in this population, as many obese persons are inactive and physical activity has been positively and independently associated with cognitive function in healthy and medically-ill samples. This study investigated whether physical activity, measured by self-report of aerobic physical activity in 85 bariatric surgery candidates, was associated with cognitive function. A subset of 31 participants also completed objective activity monitoring. Steps/d and high-cadence min/week, representative of ambulatory moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), were calculated. Approximately one quarter of participants self-reported at least 30 min/d of aerobic MVPA, at least 5 d/week. Median steps/d was 7949 (IQR = 4572) and median MVPA min/week was 105 (IQR = 123). Cognitive deficits were found in 32% of participants (29% memory, 10% executive function, 13% language, 10% attention). Controlling for demographic and medical factors, self-reported aerobic physical activity was weakly correlated with lower attention (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and executive function (r = -0.27, p < 0.01) and both self-reported aerobic physical activity and objectively-determined MVPA min/week were negatively correlated with memory (r = -0.20, p = 0.04; r = -0.46; p = 0.02, respectively). No other correlations between physical activity measures and cognitive function were significant. Contrary to expectations, greater levels of physical activity were not associated with better cognitive functioning. Such findings encourage future studies to clarify the association among cognitive function and physical activity in obese persons.

  8. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  9. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  11. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    PubMed

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2017-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  13. Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Oliynyk, Sergiy

    2011-07-01

    Results of most epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of certain malignancies, such as intestinal, colon, pancreatic, breast, lung, skin, mammary, endometrial, and prostate cancer. However, physical activity can have different influence on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply and the age of the subject as well as strength, frequency, and length of exercise. The biochemical and molecular basis of the interaction between aerobic physical activity and tumorigenic processes remains poorly understood. Physical activity may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a different extent. Mild oxidative stress caused by moderate physical activity can activate cellular stress response signaling and potentiate cellular antioxidant defense capacity. However, accumulation of relatively large amounts of ROS as a consequence of exhaustive exercise can either directly damage DNA, causing mutation, or promote tumorigenesis by activating proinflammatory signaling. This review highlights the effects of physical activity on various malignancies in the context of redox status modulated during exercise.

  14. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. NOTE: Also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physic of Toys (ASPEC).

  15. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. Among the toys seen here are a friction car and loop track, paper eagle, and a balloon helicopter. NOTE: also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physics of Toys (ASPEC).

  16. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. NOTE: Also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physic of Toys (ASPEC).

  17. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. Among the toys seen here are a friction car and loop track, paper eagle, and a balloon helicopter. NOTE: also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physics of Toys (ASPEC).

  18. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  19. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  20. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  1. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  2. Psoriasis and physical activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Bohjanen, K A; Ingraham, S J; Leon, A S

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause significant discomfort and impairment to quality of life. Recent research indicates that individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are likely at greater risk for chronic cardiometabolic co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity can be an effective primary and adjunctive treatment for these maladies in other populations. Unfortunately, only a limited number of studies have examined physical activity in psoriasis, which are limited by poor design and lack of validated physical activity assessment methodologies. A variety of data suggest shared physiologic pathways between physical activity, psoriasis, and psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities. Increased adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules and lipids are physiologically linked to psoriasis, the risk of psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities, and low levels of physical activity. In addition, epigenetic pathways are involved in psoriasis and could be influenced by physical activity. The physical and psychosocial impairments common in psoriasis may make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity, and future studies should aim to determine if physical activity interventions improve functioning and reduce co-morbidities in psoriasis.

  3. Better physical activity classification using smartphone acceleration sensor.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Bilal, Mohsin; Kattan, Ahmed; Ahamed, S Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is becoming one of the serious problems for the health of worldwide population. Social interactions on mobile phones and computers via internet through social e-networks are one of the major causes of lack of physical activities. For the health specialist, it is important to track the record of physical activities of the obese or overweight patients to supervise weight loss control. In this study, acceleration sensor present in the smartphone is used to monitor the physical activity of the user. Physical activities including Walking, Jogging, Sitting, Standing, Walking upstairs and Walking downstairs are classified. Time domain features are extracted from the acceleration data recorded by smartphone during different physical activities. Time and space complexity of the whole framework is done by optimal feature subset selection and pruning of instances. Classification results of six physical activities are reported in this paper. Using simple time domain features, 99 % classification accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, attributes subset selection is used to remove the redundant features and to minimize the time complexity of the algorithm. A subset of 30 features produced more than 98 % classification accuracy for the six physical activities.

  4. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    PubMed

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Physical health monitoring in mental health settings: a study exploring mental health nurses' views of their role.

    PubMed

    Mwebe, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor

  6. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  7. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  8. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  9. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  10. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  11. Assessment of Accelerometers for Measuring Upper-Extremity Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Lawinger, Elizabeth; Uhl, Tim L; Abel, Mark; Kamineni, Srinath

    2015-08-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the use of triaxial accelerometers in measuring upper-extremity motions to monitor upper-extremity-exercise compliance. There were multiple questions investigated, but the primary objective was to investigate the correlation between visually observed arm motions and triaxial accelerometer activity counts to establish fundamental activity counts for the upper extremity. Cross-sectional, basic research. Clinical laboratory. Thirty healthy individuals age 26 ± 6 y, body mass 24 ± 3 kg, and height 1.68 ± 0.09 m volunteered. Participants performed 3 series of tasks: activities of daily living (ADLs), rehabilitation exercises, and passive shoulder range of motion at 5 specific velocities on an isokinetic dynamometer while wearing an accelerometer on each wrist. Participants performed exercises with their dominant arm to examine differences between sides. A researcher visually counted all arm motions to correlate counts with physical activity counts provided by the accelerometer. Physical activity counts derived from the accelerometer and visually observed activity counts recorded from a single investigator. There was a strong positive correlation (r = .93, P < .01) between accelerometer physical activity counts and visual activity counts for all ADLs. Accelerometers activity counts demonstrated side-to-side difference for all ADLs (P < .001) and 5 of the 7 rehabilitation activities (P < .003). All velocities tested on the isokinetic dynamometer were shown to be significantly different from each other (P < .001). There is a linear relationship between arm motions counted visually and the physical activity counts generated by an accelerometer, indicating that arm motions could be potentially accounted for if monitoring arm usage. The accelerometers can detect differences in relatively slow arm-movement velocities, which is critical if attempting to evaluate exercise compliance during early phases of shoulder

  12. Physical activity patterns of Singaporeans in 2001.

    PubMed

    Teh, K C; Ong, V T H

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted on Singaporean males and females to determine the extent of involvement in sport, work-based and home-based physical activities, and other activities such as walking and stairclimbing. A Physical Activity Questionnaire was designed and data collected in conjunction with the Singapore National Sports Participation Survey 2001. Three hundred and ten households with 605 respondents (287 males and 318 females) completed the questionnaire, representing a response rate of 81 percent. Males spent more time doing sports, work-based physical activity and walking and stairclimbing activities while females spent more time in housework. However, females spent more time (568 versus 410 minutes per week) on overall physical activity, mainly due to their heavier involvement in housework. Compared with a similar study in 1997, males and females were doing more sports activities and walking and stairclimbing activities, but had reduced involvement in work-based and home-based activities. Overall, respondents in 2001 were spending about 31 percent less time (457 versus 598 minutes per week) on physical activities than respondents in 1997. There was a reduction in physical activities among males from 476 minutes per week to 410 minutes per week, and a sharper drop among females from 904 minutes per week to 567 minutes per week. Singaporean males and females in 2001 are spending less time on overall physical activities. The trend towards a reduction in overall physical activities from 1997 to 2001 is cause for concern. Relevant organisations would, therefore, need to continue promoting sports and physical activities to the Singapore population.

  13. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  14. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  15. Circadian rhythms of autonomic parameters during mental and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Opalovskaya, G M

    2001-11-01

    The structure of circadian rhythms of autonomic parameters was monitored during working week in subjects occupied by physical and mental work. Differences in the rhythm structure depended on the work type and schedule, as well as on the subject age. Hard physical work was associated with biphasic changes in the autonomic nervous system functioning with dominating sympathetic and parasympathetic components in the beginning and at the end of the working week, respectively. Intensive physical work caused rhythm synchronization: the acrophases were shifted to 14.00 and the amplitude of daily oscillations was high. Mental activity with individual working schedule resulted in chronic desynchronization most pronounced in subjects over 30.

  16. Bidirectional associations between pain and physical activity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Karlson, Cynthia W; Palermo, Tonya M

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to: (1) examine temporal relationships between pain and activity in youth, specifically, whether physical activity affects pain intensity and whether intensity of pain affects subsequent physical activity levels on a daily basis, and (2) examine clinical predictors of this relationship. Participants were 119 adolescents (59 with chronic pain and 60 healthy) aged 12 to 18 years, 71% female. Adolescents completed 10 days of actigraphic monitoring of physical activity and daily electronic diary recordings of pain intensity, medication use, sleep quality, and mood. Linear mixed models assessed daily associations among physical activity and pain. Daily mean (average count/min) and peak (highest daily level) activity were used for analyses. Medication use, sleep quality, and mood ratings were included as covariates, and age, sex, and body mass index percentile were adjusted for. Higher pain intensity was associated with lower peak physical activity levels on the next day (t641=-2.25, P=0.03) and greater medication use predicted lower mean physical activity levels the same day (t641=-2.10, P=0.04). Higher mean physical activity levels predicted lower pain intensity ratings at the end of the day (t705=-2.92, P=0.004), but only in adolescents with chronic pain. Youth experiencing high pain intensity limit their physical activity level on a day-to-day basis. Activity was related to subsequent pain intensity, and may represent an important focus in chronic pain treatment. Further study of the effect of medications on subsequent activity is needed.

  17. Bidirectional Associations between Pain and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rabbitts, Jennifer A.; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Karlson, Cynthia W.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives were to: 1) examine temporal relationships between pain and activity in youth, specifically, whether physical activity affects pain intensity and whether intensity of pain affects subsequent physical activity levels on a daily basis, and 2) examine clinical predictors of this relationship. Methods Participants were 119 adolescents (59 with chronic pain and 60 healthy) aged 12–18 years, 71% female. Adolescents completed 10 days of actigraphic monitoring of physical activity and daily electronic diary recordings of pain intensity, medication use, sleep quality, and mood. Linear mixed models assessed daily associations among physical activity and pain. Daily mean (average count/min) and peak (highest daily level) activity were used for analyses. Medication use, sleep quality and mood ratings were included as covariates, and age, gender and BMI percentile were adjusted for. Results Higher pain intensity was associated with lower peak physical activity levels on the next day (t (641) = −2.25, p = 0.03) and greater medication use predicted lower mean physical activity levels the same day (t (641) = −2.10, p = 0.04). Higher mean physical activity levels predicted lower pain intensity ratings at the end of the day (t (705) = −2.92, p = 0.004), but only in adolescents with chronic pain. Discussion Youth experiencing high pain intensity limit their physical activity level on a day-to-day basis. Activity was related to subsequent pain intensity, and may represent an important focus in chronic pain treatment. Further study of the effect of medications on subsequent activity is needed. PMID:23669450

  18. Prescription of Physical Activity: A Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a paradigm shift in physical activity prescription which involves: an idiographic approach; preferred exertion rather than a given percent of maximum in the prescription of exercise intensity; and purposeful physical activity. A summary of 10 cases is presented, revealing adherence figures ranging from 5 to 79 years. Adherence of 100…

  19. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  20. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  1. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  2. Making Sense of Multiple Physical Activity Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; LeMasurier, Guy; Franks, B. Don

    2002-01-01

    This digest provides basic information designed to help people determine which of the many physical activity guidelines are most appropriate for use in specific situations. After an introduction, the digest focuses on: "Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Physical Activity Guidelines" (group credibility and purpose, benefits to…

  3. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  4. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  5. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  6. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  7. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  8. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  9. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  10. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  11. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  12. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  13. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  14. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  15. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  16. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  17. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  18. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  19. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  20. Environmental influences on children's physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pouliou, Theodora; Sera, Francesco; Griffiths, Lucy; Joshi, Heather; Geraci, Marco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to assess whether 7-year-olds’ physical activity is associated with family and area-level measures of the physical and socioeconomic environments. Methods We analysed the association of environments with physical activity in 6497 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study with reliable accelerometer data (≥2 days and ≥10 h/day). Activity levels were assessed as counts per minute; minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA); and whether meeting recommended guidelines (≥60 min/day MVPA). Results Higher levels of children's physical activity were associated with households without use of a car and with having a television in a child's bedroom (for counts per minute only). Aspects of the home socioeconomic environment that were associated with more children's physical activity were lone motherhood, lower maternal socioeconomic position and education, family income below 60% national median, and not owning the home. Children's activity levels were higher when parents perceived their neighbourhood as poor for bringing up children and also when families were living in the most deprived areas. Relationships were independent of characteristics such as child's body mass index and ethnic group. When adjusted for physical and socioeconomic correlates, the factors remaining significant in all outcomes were: household car usage and maternal education. Conclusions Although physical and socioeconomic environments are associated with children’s physical activity, much of the variation appears to be determined by the child's home socioeconomic circumstances rather than the wider environment where they live. PMID:25359920

  1. Physical activity in the prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to update epidemiological research on relations between physical activity and cancer risk, including physical activity measurement and potential mechanisms of prevention of cancer. Review of recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and studies on the topic that have been published in the recent literature. Convincing epidemiological evidence exists that physical activity reduces colon and breast cancers. The evidence is weaker for prostate (classified as probable), lung and endometrial cancers (classified as possible), and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Hypothesized biological mechanisms for the physical activity--cancer association include changes in hormone level, reduced percentage of body fat, enhancement of the immune system, and alteration in free radical damage by scavenger systems. The available data indicate that 30-60 minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is needed to be protective against breast and colon cancers. A greater understanding of the biological mechanisms operating in the physical activity--cancer relation, complete measurements of physical activity through a subject's life, assessment of all potential confounders and association modifiers are needed to confirm a protective role of physical activity in cancer development and allow specific exercise prescriptions for prevention in particular cancer sites.

  2. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  3. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  4. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  5. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  6. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your life. Do strengthening activities twice per week. Activities that make you push or pull against ... 3 sets for each muscle group twice per week may help. Even 1 set of strength training ...

  7. Physics Matters: An Introduction to Conceptual Physics, Activity Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefil, James; Hazen, Robert M.

    2004-02-01

    From amusement park rides to critical environmental issues such as energy generation-physics affects almost every aspect of our world. In PHYSICS MATTERS, James Trefil and Robert Hazen examine the fundamental physics principles at work behind the many practical applications that fuel our society and individual lives. Their goal is to promote a deeper understanding of how the great ideas of physics connect to form a much larger understanding of the universe in which we live. Highlights Helps readers build a general knowledge of key ideas in physics and their connection to technology and other areas of science. Promotes an appreciation of what science is, how scientific knowledge is developed, and how it differs from other intellectual activities. Examines modern technologies, including GPS, the Internet, and information technologies, as well as medical technologies, such as MRI, PET scans, CAT scans, and radioisotope tracers. Explores key issues facing the world today, such as global warning, nuclear waste, and government funding for research.

  8. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  9. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  10. Monitoring Malware Activity on the LAN Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzewski, Mirosław

    Many security related organizations periodically publish current network and systems security information, with the lists of top malware programs. These lists raises the question how these threats spreads out, if the worms (the only threat with own communication abilities) are low or missing on these lists. The paper discuss the research on malware network activity, aimed to deliver the answer to the question, what is the main infection channel of modern malware, done with the usage of virtual honeypot systems on dedicated, unprotected network. Systems setup, network and systems monitoring solutions, results of over three months of network traffic and malware monitoring are presented, along with the proposed answer to our research question.

  11. Active Monitoring Complex-Envelope Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, R.

    2011-12-01

    Pseudo-random 3-D signal transmission followed by quadrature signal processing significantly enhances seismic Active Monitoring (AM). The algorithm produces complex-envelope seismograms consisting of the dual time series of instantaneous amplitude and phase. Minimum-standard-deviation signal arrival detection and timing from coherent instantaneous-phase seismogram ensembles yields signal time errors inversely proportional to frequency and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, application to piezo-electric acoustic cross well monitoring as in SAFOD experiments should result in nano-second multiple-signal detection and timing precision. The method is applicable to all types (seismic, EM, acoustic) of AM.

  12. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  13. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  14. Physics Education activities sponsored by LAPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Ley, Cesar E.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present the first activities of the Latin-American Physics Education Network (LAPEN) organized by representatives of Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru and Spain. These activities include Seminars, Congress, Postgraduate Programs on Physics Education and several publications. The creation of LAPEN has been inspired and warranted by members of the International Commission on Physics Education of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. LAPEN was constituted in the International Meeting on Teaching Physics and Training Teachers (RIEFEP 2005) which was held in Matanzas, Cuba in November 2005. The creation of LAPEN was also warranted by the General Assembly of the IX Inter-American Conference on Physics Education held in San José, Costa Rica from 3 to 7 July 2006, and by the ICPE Committee in the International Conference on Physics Education 2006 at Tokyo, Japan. LAPEN has a Coordinator Committee integrated by a President, a Vice-president and an Executive Secretary.

  15. Physical activity energy expenditure in Dutch adolescents: contribution of active transport to school, physical education, and leisure time activities.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2012-05-01

    Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from school, physical education (PE), and leisure time activities to total PAEE during a regular school week in adolescents. Seventy-three adolescents (mean age: 15.7 years) wore an individually calibrated combined heart rate-acceleration monitor and kept an activity diary during a regular school week. Branched equation modeling was used to calculate PAEE of the specific activity categories, and their relative contribution to total PAEE was determined. Active transport and PE contributed 30.0% and 17.4%, respectively, to school-related PAEE. Active transport to and from school contributed 15% to total PAEE. Youth with a high physical activity level (PAL) spent 4 hours less in sedentary behavior than subjects with a medium or low PAL (F = 77.415 (2.70), p < .001) and had higher PAEE during leisure time sports (F = 9.135 (2.70), p < .001) and work-related activities (F = 10.583 (2.70), p < .001) than youth with medium or low PAL values. Active transport and PE contribute significantly to PAEE during school hours in adolescents. To achieve an increase in total PAEE in the least active group of adolescents, promising strategies might be to reduce inactive behavior, increase participation in leisure time sports, and possibly to replace inactive for active jobs. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  16. Design of a Wearable Sensing System for Human Motion Monitoring in Physical Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    González-Villanueva, Lara; Cagnoni, Stefano; Ascari, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Human motion monitoring and analysis can be an essential part of a wide spectrum of applications, including physical rehabilitation among other potential areas of interest. Creating non-invasive systems for monitoring patients while performing rehabilitation exercises, to provide them with an objective feedback, is one of the current challenges. In this paper we present a wearable multi-sensor system for human motion monitoring, which has been developed for use in rehabilitation. It is composed of a number of small modules that embed high-precision accelerometers and wireless communications to transmit the information related to the body motion to an acquisition device. The results of a set of experiments we made to assess its performance in real-world setups demonstrate its usefulness in human motion acquisition and tracking, as required, for example, in activity recognition, physical/athletic performance evaluation and rehabilitation. PMID:23774987

  17. Reporters to monitor cellular MMP12 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Mall, Marcus A.; Schultz, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    Macrophage elastase, also called MMP12, belongs to a family of proteolytic enzymes whose best known physiological function is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Under certain pathological conditions, including inflammation, chronic overexpression of MMP12 has been observed and its elevated proteolytic activity has been suggested to be the cause of pulmonary emphysema. However, it was until recently impossible to monitor the activity of MMP12 under disease conditions, mainly due to a lack of detection methods. Recent development of new reporters for monitoring MMP12 activity in living cells, such as LaRee1, provided novel insights into the pathobiology of MMP12 in pulmonary inflammation.1 In the future, these reporters might contribute to improved diagnosis and in finding better treatments for chronic inflammatory lung diseases and emphysema. Our approach for visualizing MMP12 activity is based on peptidic, membrane-targeted FRET (Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer) reporters. Here we describe a set of new reporters containing different fluorophore pairs as well as modifications in the membrane-targeting lipid moiety. We studied the influence of these modifications on reporter performance and the reporter mobility on live cell membranes by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Finally, we generated several new fluorescently labeled MMP inhibitors based on the peptidic reporter structures as prototypes for future tools to inhibit and monitor MMP activity at the same time.

  18. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. © FASEB.

  19. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  20. Lowering physical activity impairs glycemic control in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Libla, Jessica L; Taylor, Angelina M; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P

    2012-02-01

    Postprandial glucose (PPG) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and death, regardless of diabetes status. Whereas changes in physical activity produce changes in insulin sensitivity, it is not clear whether changes in daily physical activity directly affect PPG in healthy free-living persons. We used continuous glucose monitors to measure PPG and PPG excursions (ΔPPG, postmeal - premeal blood glucose) at 30-min increments after meals in healthy habitually active volunteers (n = 12, age = 29 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.9 kg·m(-2), VO2max = 53.6 ± 3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) during 3 d of habitual (≥10,000 steps per day) and reduced (<5000 steps per day) physical activity. Diets were standardized across monitoring periods, and fasting-state oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on the fourth day of each monitoring period. During 3 d of reduced physical activity (12,956 ± 769 to 4319 ± 256 steps per day), PPG increased at 30 and 60 min after a meal (6.31 ± 0.19 to 6.68 ± 0.23 mmol·L(-1) and 5.75 ± 0.16 to 6.26 ± 0.28 mmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 relative to corresponding active time point), and ΔPPG increased by 42%, 97%, and 33% at 30, 60, and 90 min after a meal, respectively (P < 0.05). Insulin and C-peptide responses to the OGTT increased after 3 d of reduced activity (P < 0.05), and the glucose response to the OGTT did not change significantly. Thus, despite evidence of compensatory increases in plasma insulin during an OGTT, ΔPPG assessed by continuous glucose monitoring systems increased markedly during 3 d of reduced physical activity in otherwise healthy free-living individuals. These data indicate that daily physical activity is an important mediator of glycemic control, even among healthy individuals, and reinforce the utility of physical activity in preventing pathologies associated with elevated PPG.

  1. Increasing physical activity of children during school recess.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lynda B; Van Camp, Carole M

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M = 1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M = 1,326 steps), and the percentage of recess spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher during intervention (M = 25%) than in baseline (M = 4%). These methods successfully increased steps during recess and could be used to increase steps in other settings.

  2. [Improve cardiovascular health by physical activity: take the good measure].

    PubMed

    Houle, Julie; Trudeau, François

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity is low among persons with cardiac disease. To influence this behaviour positively, it is suggested clinicians adapt the recommendations to each patient. Besides estimating needs and the values and the preferences of the person, professionals need to measure the physical activity. This measure also allows clinicians to follow the evolution of the behaviour further to the interventions. Subjective methods (questionnaire, logbook) and objective methods (pedometer, accelerometer, and heart rate monitor) can be used. There are advantages and inconveniences to each of these methods. This clinical column provides a review of these various methods to choose the one that is the most suited to the clinical context.

  3. Physical habitat monitoring strategy (PHAMS) for reach-scale restoration effectiveness monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Daniel, Scott J.; Beechie, Tim J.; Zakrajsek, John; Webster, John G.

    2015-04-14

    Habitat restoration efforts by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) have shifted from the site scale (1-10 meters) to the reach scale (100-1,000 meters). This shift was in response to the growing scientific emphasis on process-based restoration and to support from the 2007 Accords Agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration. With the increased size of restoration projects, the CTUIR and other agencies are in need of applicable monitoring methods for assessing large-scale changes in river and floodplain habitats following restoration. The goal of the Physical Habitat Monitoring Strategy is to outline methods that are useful for capturing reach-scale changes in surface and groundwater hydrology, geomorphology, hydrologic connectivity, and riparian vegetation at restoration projects. The Physical Habitat Monitoring Strategy aims to avoid duplication with existing regional effectiveness monitoring protocols by identifying complimentary reach-scale metrics and methods that may improve the ability of CTUIR and others to detect instream and riparian changes at large restoration projects.

  4. Mechanisms of stroke protection by physical activity.

    PubMed

    Endres, Matthias; Gertz, Karen; Lindauer, Ute; Katchanov, Juri; Schultze, Jörg; Schröck, Helmut; Nickenig, Georg; Kuschinsky, Wolfgang; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Laufs, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a decrease of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, which may relate to enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Here, we provide evidence that physical activity protects against ischemic stroke via mechanisms related to the upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the vasculature. Voluntary training on running wheels or exercise on a treadmill apparatus for 3 weeks, respectively, reduced cerebral infarct size and functional deficits, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and augmented cerebral blood flow in wild-type mice. The neuroprotective effects of physical training were completely absent in eNOS-deficient mice, indicating that the enhanced eNOS activity by physical training was the predominant mechanism by which this modality protects against cerebral injury. Our results suggest that physical activity not only decreases stroke risk, but also provides a prophylactic treatment strategy for increasing blood flow and reducing brain injury during cerebral ischemia.

  5. Associations between children’s independent mobility and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Independent mobility describes the freedom of children to travel and play in public spaces without adult supervision. The potential benefits for children are significant such as social interactions with peers, spatial and traffic safety skills and increased physical activity. Yet, the health benefits of independent mobility, particularly on physical activity accumulation, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate associations of children’s independent mobility with light, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity accumulation. Methods In 2011 - 2012, 375 Australian children aged 8-13 years (62% girls) were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Children’s independent mobility (i.e. independent travel to school and non-school destinations, independent outdoor play) and socio-demographics were assessed through child and parent surveys. Physical activity intensity was measured objectively through an Actiheart monitor worn on four consecutive days. Associations between independent mobility and physical activity variables were analysed using generalized linear models, accounting for clustered sampling, Actiheart wear time, socio-demographics, and assessing interactions by sex. Results Independent travel (walking, cycling, public transport) to school and non-school destinations were not associated with light, moderate-to-vigorous and total physical activity. However, sub-analyses revealed a positive association between independent walking and cycling (excluding public transport) to school and total physical but only in boys (b = 36.03, p < 0.05). Frequent independent outdoor play (three or more days per week) was positively associated with light and total physical activity (b = 29.76, p < 0.01 and b = 32.43, p = 0.03, respectively). No significant associations were found between independent outdoor play and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. When assessing differences by sex, the observed significant

  6. Associations between children's independent mobility and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Oliver, Melody; Browne, Matthew

    2014-01-29

    Independent mobility describes the freedom of children to travel and play in public spaces without adult supervision. The potential benefits for children are significant such as social interactions with peers, spatial and traffic safety skills and increased physical activity. Yet, the health benefits of independent mobility, particularly on physical activity accumulation, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate associations of children's independent mobility with light, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity accumulation. In 2011-2012, 375 Australian children aged 8-13 years (62% girls) were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Children's independent mobility (i.e. independent travel to school and non-school destinations, independent outdoor play) and socio-demographics were assessed through child and parent surveys. Physical activity intensity was measured objectively through an Actiheart monitor worn on four consecutive days. Associations between independent mobility and physical activity variables were analysed using generalized linear models, accounting for clustered sampling, Actiheart wear time, socio-demographics, and assessing interactions by sex. Independent travel (walking, cycling, public transport) to school and non-school destinations were not associated with light, moderate-to-vigorous and total physical activity. However, sub-analyses revealed a positive association between independent walking and cycling (excluding public transport) to school and total physical but only in boys (b = 36.03, p < 0.05). Frequent independent outdoor play (three or more days per week) was positively associated with light and total physical activity (b = 29.76, p < 0.01 and b = 32.43, p = 0.03, respectively). No significant associations were found between independent outdoor play and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. When assessing differences by sex, the observed significant associations of independent outdoor

  7. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  8. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  9. [Relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chong-hua; Zuo, Hui-juan; Kong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Xiao-guang; Zhai, Feng-ying

    2006-08-15

    To investigate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome (MS). A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was conducted in 132 sampling 218,920 residents, aged 44.3 +/- 15.3 (15 - 96), in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland China according to the program of the National Nutrition and Health Survey. Questionnaire survey, interview, physical examination, measurement of biochemical indices, and dietary investigation were done. Information of physical activity and measurement of fasting glucose and/or glucose 2 hours after meal, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained in 50,494 participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Chinese Medical Association's definition. The intensity of physical activity was divided into 3 categories according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of US/American College of Sports Medicine criteria. 50,495 subjects, 23,932 males (47.4%) and 26,562 females (52.6%), were diagnosed as with MS. The MS incidence of those with high intensity of physical activity was lower by 60% in comparison with those with low intensity of physical activity (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI: 0.362 - 0.443) adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. The risk of MS in those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 151 - 300 minutes/week was slightly decreased compared to those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week, (odds ratio 0.935, 95% CI: 0.685 - 1.277), however, the risk of MS in those with the moderate intensity of physical activity over 300 minutes/week increased slightly (OR = 1.269, 95% CI: 0.923 - 1.745). The risk of MS in those with low-level physical activity of 301 - 420 minutes/week was lower by 35% in comparison with those with the low-level physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week (95% CI: 0.451 - 0.933), however, the risk of MS in those with the low-level physical activity over 420

  10. Traffic accidents and environmental physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, Elyahu; Babayev, Elchin S; Shustarev, Peter N; Abramson, Evgeny; Israelevich, Peter; Sulkes, Jacqueline

    2009-11-01

    Environmental physical activity (EPA) is considered as one of main regulators of human homeostasis. Evidence is growing that components of this activity through the "human factor" (i.e., changing human physiological and psychological status) can affect the dynamics of traffic accidents (TA)-the modern life epidemic. This paper presents results of studies conducted in order to reveal the potential influence of EPA [solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities] on the number of TA and related casualties in the years of the maximum and declining phase of SA cycle 23 (2000-2005). We selected the 7,160 most severe TA and their related 7,558 deaths and 1,647 severe injuries, registered in the Grand Baku Area (Azerbaijan, middle latitudes), for analysis. A significant increase of TA and victims was observed during the whole year and also during the last months of the year. The monthly numbers of TA and victims were inversely related to SA (probability p = 0.0002), and non-significantly to background GMA, but were significantly affected by major geomagnetic disturbances and storms. A strong correlation between CRA variations (cosmic ray intensity measured by ground-based neutron monitors on the Earth's surface) and the number of TA (p = 0.001) has been observed. It was found that the number of TA which occur within a month depends significantly on the particular month of the year, the CRA, and the SA levels (inverse correlation). The increase of the number of TA is also significantly linked to geomagnetic storms, but not to steady GMA. These effects can be related to changes in human functional and behavioral markers provoked by EPA influences.

  11. Obesity, Physical Activity and Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Jonathan L; Liss, Michael A; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2015-10-01

    While smoking and exposure to certain chemicals are well-defined risk factors for bladder cancer, there is no consensus as to the roles of modifiable lifestyle factors, notably physical activity, and obesity. We evaluated associations of obesity and physical activity with bladder cancer risk by performing a system-wide search of PubMed for cohort and case-control studies focused on obesity, exercise, and bladder cancer. A total of 31 studies were identified that evaluated the associations of obesity and physical activity with bladder cancer risk: 20 focused on obesity, eight on physical activity, and three on both. There was marked heterogeneity in population composition and outcomes assessment. Fifteen (65%) of the obesity studies used prevalence or incidence as the primary outcome and seven (30%) used bladder cancer mortality. Ten (44%) observed positive and 13 (56%) null associations of obesity with bladder cancer. Three (100%) of three studies also noted strong positive associations of obesity with bladder cancer progression or recurrence. Ten (91%) of the physical activity studies analyzed prevalence or incidence and one (9%) mortality. One (9%) study observed positive, seven (64%) null, and three (27%) negative associations of physical activity with bladder cancer. Study heterogeneity precluded quantitative assessment of outcomes. Obesity is potentially associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, particularly for progression, recurrence, or death. Further studies of physical activity and bladder cancer are needed to validate these observations and elucidate the associations of exercise with bladder cancer progression and mortality.

  12. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  13. Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans. PMID:26666586

  14. Adiposity, physical activity and neuromuscular performance in children.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Eero A; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Ekelund, Ulf; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Sääkslahti, Arja; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the associations of body fat percentage (BF%), objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and different types of physical activity assessed by a questionnaire with neuromuscular performance. The participants were 404 children aged 6-8 years. BF% was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and physical activity by combined heart rate and movement sensing and a questionnaire. The results of 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run, hand grip strength, standing long jump, sit-up, modified flamingo balance, box-and-block and sit-and-reach tests were used as measures of neuromuscular performance. Children who had a combination of higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity had the poorest performance in 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run and standing long jump tests. Higher BF% was associated with slower 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times, shorter distance jumped in standing long jump test, fewer sit-ups, more errors in balance test and less cubes moved in box-and-block test. Higher levels of physical activity and particularly MVPA assessed objectively by combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor were related to shorter 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times. In conclusion, higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity and particularly the combination of these two factors were associated with worse neuromuscular performance.

  15. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karl

    2010-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Setting the Scene: 2. Sites of activity; 3. Plasma models; Part II. Quiescence: 4. Introduction; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic states; 6. Particle picture of steady states; 7. A unified theory of steady states; 8. Quasi-static evolution and thin current sheets (TCS); Part III. Dynamics: 9. Nonideal effects; 10. Selected macroinstabilities; 11. Magnetic reconnection; 12. Aspects of bifurcation and nonlinear dynamics; Part IV. Applications: 13. Magnetospheric activity; 14. Models of solar activity; 15. Discussion; Appendix 1. Unified theory: details and derivations; Appendix 2. Variational principle for collisionless plasmas; Appendix 3. Symbols and fundamental constants; References; Index.

  16. Childhood Physical Activity and Adulthood Earnings.

    PubMed

    Kari, Jaana T; Tammelin, Tuija H; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the associations between childhood physical activity level and adulthood earnings. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and register-based parents' background information from the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 9 yr (n = 1257, 52% boys), 12 yr (n = 1662, 51% boys), and 15 yr (n = 1969, 49% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed until 2010, when they were between 33 and 45 yr old. Leisure-time physical activity in childhood was self-reported, whereas earnings in adulthood were register based and covered over a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Ordinary least squares models were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and earnings. Childhood physical activity level was positively associated with long-term earnings among men (P < 0.001). In more detail, a higher level of leisure-time physical activity at the age of 9, 12, and 15 yr was associated with an approximate 12%-25% increase in average annual earnings over a 10-yr period. The results were robust to controlling, e.g., an individual's chronic conditions and body fat, parents' education and physical activity, and family income. Among women, no relation was observed. The findings provide evidence that childhood physical activity can have far-reaching positive effects on adulthood earnings. Possibilities for improving physical activity during childhood may not only promote health but also affect long-term labor market outcomes.

  17. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  18. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707.

  19. Determining activity count cut-points for measurement of physical activity using the Actiwatch2 accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Rafn, Bolette Skjødt; Gotay, Carolyn C; Campbell, Kristin L

    2017-05-01

    Sleep and physical activity are important contributors to many aspects of health. Obtaining accurate, objective measures of both behaviours is critical to health research. The Actiwatch2 is a wrist-worn sleep-monitoring device that has the potential to measure physical activity. Currently, interpretation of the Actiwatch2 physical activity data is limited by a lack of published thresholds for interpreting exercise intensity. This limits the ability to collect information on both behaviours simultaneously using one monitor. This study aims to develop thresholds to differentiate between light, moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity and sedentary time for the Actiwatch2. Thirty females, 40±14.9years, completed eight exercise tasks while wearing a Cosmed portable metabolic cart, the Actiwatch2 and the Actigraph GT3X+. Correlations between 1) activity counts from both the Actiwatch2 and Actigraph and metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and 2) activity counts from the two monitors were calculated. Area Under the Curve (AUC) was calculated, and cut points that maximized sensitivity and specificity were determined. The correlations between MET values and Actiwatch2 counts (r=0.69) and Actigraph (r=0.69) were strong. Correlation between the two activity monitors was very strong (r=0.84). The discrimination of sedentary behaviour was almost perfect (AUC=0.96) using a threshold of 145cpm. Discrimination of moderate (AUC=0.92) and vigorous (AUC=0.77) activity was acceptable using a threshold of 274 and 597cpm respectively. The Actiwatch2 demonstrated the ability to discriminate different intensities of physical activity among adult females. With these reported cut points, the Actiwatch2 can be used to simultaneously measure sleep and physical activity - two key outcomes in health research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and physical activity. Review].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Camilo; Fernández, Ana Zita; María de Jesús, Alina Isabel

    2008-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and related diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and, therefore, as a problem of public health. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be part of the pathophysiology of these diseases. It is well known that physical activity plays an important role as a public health measure by reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events in the general population. It is also known that physical activity increases in some tissues, the reactive oxygen species production. In this review the atherosclerosis-oxidative stress-physical activity relationship is focused on the apparent paradox by which physical activity reduces atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in parallel with the activation of an apparently damaging mechanism which is an increased oxidative stress. A hypothesis including the experimental and clinical evidence is presented to explain the aforementioned paradox.

  1. Physical activity and walking onset in infants with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of 10 months participating in a treadmill training intervention. Actiwatches were placed on infants' trunk and right ankle for a 24-hr period, every other month until walking onset. Data were analyzed to separate sedentary-to-light activity (low-act) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (high-act). Results showed that more leg high-act at an average age of 12 and 14 months is related to earlier onset of walking. It is recommended that early leg activity should be promoted in infants with DS.

  2. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  3. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1991-01-22

    This invention relates to a regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor 5 concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC 10 exhaust gases.

  4. [A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity].

    PubMed

    Masloboev, Iu P; Okhritskiĭ, A A; Prilutskiĭ, D A; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity is described, which was elaborated on the basis of the accelerometer sensor and sigma-delta ADC for the purpose of registering the ballistocardiograms and seismocardiograms. The device ensures a non-stop signal recording for as long as 8 hours with the data being preserved in an inbuilt memory. Data are fed to the computer through the USB port. An algorithm is suggested for recordings processing by using the neuron-net technologies.

  5. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  6. Physical activity after total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Laura A; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Basti, John J; Levine, William N

    2011-09-01

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common surgical option to treat painful degenerative joint disease. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate intensity of physical activity after TJA or how physical activity level affects the rate of revision surgery. A systematic review of the literature regarding physical or athletic activity after TJA was performed to determine current clinical opinion and recommendations regarding appropriate activity levels after TJA, as well as variables affecting successful surgery and improved outcomes. Many studies in the literature regarding athletic activity after TJA focus on total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The literature reports contradictory results regarding rates of physical activity after TJA as well as the relationship between physical activity and rates of revision surgery. The current trend in expert opinion shows more liberal recommendations for patients to engage in athletic activity after TJA. Individual characteristics, lifestyle, and patient preferences must be taken into account when one considers appropriate recommendations for athletic activity after TJA. Current trends in clinical opinion favor a higher level of athletic activity after TJA, but clinicians should caution patients not to participate in contact sports or sports that create high joint loads in the replaced joint.

  7. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  8. PersonA: Persuasive social network for physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ayubi, Soleh U; Parmanto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Advances in physical activity (PA) monitoring devices provide ample opportunities for innovations in the way the information produced by these devices is used to encourage people to have more active lifestyles. One such innovation is expanding the current use of the information from self-management to social support. We developed a Persuasive social network for physical Activity (PersonA) that combines automatic input of physical activity data, a smartphone, and a social networking system (SNS). This paper describes the motivation for and overarching design of the PersonA and its functional and non-functional features. PersonA is designed to intelligently and automatically receive raw PA data from the sensors in the smartphone, calculate the data into meaningful PA information, store the information on a secure server, and show the information to the users as persuasive and real-time feedbacks or publish the information to the SNS to generate social support. The implementation of self-monitoring, social support, and persuasive concepts using currently available technologies has the potential for promoting healthy lifestyle, greater community participation, and higher quality of life. We also expect that PersonA will enable health professionals to collect in situ data related to physical activity. The platform is currently being used and tested to improve PA level of three groups of users in Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

  9. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Sosič, Rok; Hicks, Jennifer L; King, Abby C; Delp, Scott L; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-07-20

    To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.

  10. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  11. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  12. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  13. [Physical activity and sports for oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Sauveplane, Dominique; Descotes, Jean-Marc; Renvoise, Nathalie; Dauchy, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity and sport are integrated into support care and their indication is officially recognised. The aim is to improve patients' physical capacities, restore social contact and help improve their psychological condition, by reinforcing in particular their self-esteem. However, patients are not sufficiently well-informed.

  14. Activities in Developmental Physical Education; Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnieri, Barbara; Sandeen, Cecile

    Presented in the curriculum guide are activities for a sequenced physical education program to be used with trainable mentally retarded students (TMR). Defined are teaching approaches such as station teaching. Reviewed are a brief history of adaptive physical education (APE), APE literature on TMR children, and local APE program development.…

  15. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  16. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  17. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  18. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  19. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  20. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  1. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  2. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  3. Accelerometry-Determined Adherence to the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Jankowiak, Noelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A need exists to determine whether college students engage in sufficient physical activity (PA) using objective methodology. Purpose: Accelerometry-based activity monitors were used to evaluate adherence to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Methods: College students (N =…

  4. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  5. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  6. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  7. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  8. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  9. Physical activity programs for persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Dorothy; Forbes, Sean; Morgan, Debra G; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Wood, Jennifer; Culum, Ivan

    2008-07-16

    There is some evidence that physical activity delays the onset of dementia in healthy older adults and slows down cognitive decline to prevent the onset of cognitive disability. Studies using animal models suggest that physical activity has the potential to attenuate the pathophysiology of dementia. 'Physical activity' refers to 'usual care plus physical activity'. Primary: do physical activity programs maintain or improve cognition, function, behaviour, depression, and mortality compared to usual care in older persons with dementia?Secondary: do physical activity programs have an indirect positive impact on family caregivers' health, quality of life, and mortality compared to family caregivers of older persons with dementia who received usual care alone? Do physical activity programs reduce the use of health care services (e.g., visits to the emergency department) compared to usual care in older persons with dementia and their family caregiver? The trials were identified from searches of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS on 9 September 2007 using the search terms: exercise OR "physical activity" OR cycling OR swim* OR gym* OR walk* OR danc* OR yoga OR "tai chi". All relevant, randomized controlled trials in which physical activity programs were compared with usual care for the effect on managing or improving cognition, function, behaviour, depression, and mortality in people with dementia of any type and degree of severity. Secondary outcomes related to the family caregiver(s) included quality of life, mortality, and use of health care services were intended to be examined. Two reviewers independently assessed the retrieved articles for relevance and methodological quality, and extracted data from the selected trials. These were pooled were appropriate. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. However, only two trials were included in the analyses

  10. Environmental influences on children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Pouliou, Theodora; Sera, Francesco; Griffiths, Lucy; Joshi, Heather; Geraci, Marco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess whether 7-year-olds' physical activity is associated with family and area-level measures of the physical and socioeconomic environments. We analysed the association of environments with physical activity in 6497 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study with reliable accelerometer data (≥2 days and ≥10 h/day). Activity levels were assessed as counts per minute; minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA); and whether meeting recommended guidelines (≥60 min/day MVPA). Higher levels of children's physical activity were associated with households without use of a car and with having a television in a child's bedroom (for counts per minute only). Aspects of the home socioeconomic environment that were associated with more children's physical activity were lone motherhood, lower maternal socioeconomic position and education, family income below 60% national median, and not owning the home. Children's activity levels were higher when parents perceived their neighbourhood as poor for bringing up children and also when families were living in the most deprived areas. Relationships were independent of characteristics such as child's body mass index and ethnic group. When adjusted for physical and socioeconomic correlates, the factors remaining significant in all outcomes were: household car usage and maternal education. Although physical and socioeconomic environments are associated with children's physical activity, much of the variation appears to be determined by the child's home socioeconomic circumstances rather than the wider environment where they live. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Physical activity levels and patients' expectations of physical activity during acute general medical admission.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, N; Sheedy, R; Gill, S; Hughes, A

    2014-05-01

    Bedrest during hospital admission is common and might be harmful. There is scarce published evidence that quantifies physical activity levels and expectations regarding physical activity of general medical patients during an acute inpatient stay. The current study aimed to investigate physical activity levels and expectations regarding physical activity in general medical patients at a large Australian teaching hospital. A convenience sample of 24 general medical patients was observed at 10-min intervals in one day between 8:00 and 17:00 and their physical activity status recorded. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their expectations of physical activity during illness and hospital admission. Patients were observed to be in bed 51% of the time, were sitting out of bed 43% of the time, were standing 1% of the time and were walking 5% of the time. One third of participants (n = 8) were not observed to walk during the observation period. Questionnaire data indicated that nine (38%) participants expected to remain in bed while in hospital. General medical patients had low levels of physical activity during their hospital stay, which was consistent with many participants' expectations of appropriate activity when in hospital. If physical activity is an important part of acute general medical patient management, then patient expectations of the appropriateness of physical activity need to be addressed and methods to increase physical activity implemented. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  13. Promoting physical activity through hand-held computer technology.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Ahn, David K; Oliveira, Brian M; Atienza, Audie A; Castro, Cynthia M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults.

  14. Promoting Physical Activity through Hand-Held Computer Technology

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Ahn, David K.; Oliveira, Brian M.; Atienza, Audie A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Design Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Setting/Participants Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Intervention Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Main Outcome Measure Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Results Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Conclusions Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults. PMID:18201644

  15. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    physical activity through exposure to exercise ...ing physical activity . Reduced Physical Activity : Bed Rest If increased physical activity associated with reg- ular exercise results in hypervolemia... Activity : Exercise Increased physical activity provides the stimulus for action of several mechanisms that promote the expansion of plasma and

  16. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  17. Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L

    2012-11-01

    In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  19. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  20. Physical Activity Information Seeking and Advertising Recall

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (N = 1211) showed that gender, age, education, and activity level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (N = 1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18 – 54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information seeking behaviour on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  1. [Physical Activity guidelines in Canada: has publication had an effect?].

    PubMed

    Cameron, Christine; Craig, Cora L; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the reach of different versions of Canada's physical activity guide (CPAG) and their impacts, including immediate effects (awareness, knowledge, beliefs, future intention to be active, first steps towards behavioural change) and population levels of physical activity. The analysis is based on eligible adults aged 18 years and older (n = 8892) included in the 2003 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM) survey. The 2003 PAM was a cross-sectional, telephone interview of a representative population sample. Secular trends of Canadians aged 12 years and older were examined, using representative samples from the National Population Health and Canadian Community Health Surveys. Unprompted recall of any guidelines for physical activity was very low (4%), whereas prompted recall of the CPAG was higher (37%). Unprompted and prompted recall were higher among women and high-income earners, and increased with level of education. Behaviours associated with "seeking information" and "initiating action" were associated with unprompted and prompted recall. Beliefs about the benefits of physical activity and intention to be active were also associated with prompted recall. Unprompted CPAG recall, knowledge about the amount of activity required to meet the CPAG, intention to be active, "seeking information", and "initiating action" were associated with being "sufficiently active". The CPAG is an appropriate set of public health guidelines or recommendations around physical activity. The low unprompted recall rate points to the need for a coordinated, well-funded approach to communication of these guidelines, involving governmental and non-governmental partners and intermediaries in municipalities, schools, workplaces, and the recreational, public health, and health-care systems.

  2. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C; Guthold, Regina; Haskell, William; Ekelund, Ulf

    2012-07-21

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes to increase activity levels and to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases.

  3. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  4. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  5. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  6. Physically active lessons as physical activity and educational interventions: a systematic review of methods and results.

    PubMed

    Norris, E; Shelton, N; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E

    2015-03-01

    Physically active lessons aim to increase children's physical activity whilst maintaining academic time. This systematic review aimed to investigate the methods used in such interventions and their effects on physical activity and educational outcomes. In March 2014; PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC electronic databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: 1. Classroom lessons containing both PA and educational elements; 2. intervention studies featuring a control group or within-subjects baseline measurement period; 3. any age-group; and 4. English language. Studies assessing physically active lessons within complex interventions were excluded. Data were extracted onto a standardised form. Risk of bias was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool. Eleven studies were identified: five examined physical activity outcomes only, three examined educational outcomes only and three examined both physical activity and educational outcomes. All studies found improved physical activity following physically active lessons: either in the whole intervention group or in specific demographics. Educational outcomes either significantly improved or were no different compared to inactive teaching. Studies ranged from low to high risk of bias. Encouraging evidence of improved physical activity and educational outcomes following physically active lessons is provided. However, too few studies exist to draw firm conclusions. Future high-quality studies with longer intervention periods are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multilayer Scintillation Detector for Nuclear Physics Monitoring of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrin, Sergey; Mayorov, Andrey; Koldashov, Sergey; Batischev, Alexey; Lapushkin, Sergey; Gurov, Yury

    The physical characteristics of the multilayer scintillation spectrometer for identification and energy measurement of cosmic electrons, positrons and nuclei are considered in this presentation. The nuclei energy measurement range is 3-100 MeV/nucleon. This spectrometer is planning for space weather monitoring and investigation of solar-magnetospheric and geophysics effects on satellite. These characteristics were estimated by means of computer simulation. The ionization loss fluctuations, ion charge exchange during pass through detector and, especially, scintillation quenching effect (Bircs effect) were taken into account in calculations. The main results are: 1.) Ions mass identification is possible for hydrogen and helium isotopes 2.) Ions charge identification without mass identification is possible for nuclei from lithium to oxygen The preliminary estimation indicate, that including to spectrometer of thin semiconductor detector (SCD) as first layer makes possible charge identification for Z>8. This may be done by means of comparison of ion range in spectrometer with its energy loss in SCD.

  8. Physical activity in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Schroll, M

    2003-02-01

    This review over previously published articles, describes physical activity changes during ageing from age 50-85 in the 1914-cohort in Glostrup, Denmark, and analyses the association between physical activity and mortality, myocardial infarction, hip fractures and functional ability. The 1914-cohort in Glostrup was examined at age 50 in 1964 and re-examined 1974, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999. Some analyses were based on pooled data (CCPPS: Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies) from three longitudinal population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark: The Copenhagen County Centre for Preventive Medicine in Glostrup, The Copenhagen City Heart Study and The Copenhagen Male Study. Physical activity of work and leisure time was classified into four levels based on questions originally constructed by Saltin and Grimby. all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, hip fracture and functional ability (Avlund mobility index of dependency). The lifetime risk from a sedentary leisure time was analysed in multivariate regression analyses controlling for covariates describing gender, age, life style, education and chronic diseases. Less than one third of the population had a sedentary leisure time. Physical activity definitely influenced health and quality of life over the life course in a positive way: compared to the group of inactive men and women, the mortality was about 60%, the incidence of myocardial infarction 70% and the incidence of hip fractures 75% in the moderate active groups. On top the physically active persons gained independency in activities of daily living.

  9. Physical activity and the healthy mind.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians should seek to enhance the quality rather than the quantity of human life. Physical activity programs can increase life satisfaction through an immediate increase of arousal and a long-term enhancement of self-esteem and body image. In the young child competition can cause excessive arousal, but long-term adverse effects are rare. In the adult a reduction of anxiety and stress and a general feeling of well-being reduce the frequency of minor medical complaints, generating important economic benefits. Physical activity programs also help to correct the reactive depression that accompanies conditions such as myocardial infarction. Interest in physical activity should be stimulated from the earliest years of primary school. The allocation of curricular time to physical education does not hamper academic achievement. Rather, through its impact on psychomotor learning, it enhances the total process of intellectual and psychomotor development. PMID:6337692

  10. [Influence of physical activity on human health].

    PubMed

    Predel, H-G; Tokarski, W

    2005-08-01

    The lack of physical activity -- frequently associated with malnutrition -- has led to a dramatic increase of so-called diseases of civilization in industrial nations. Hereby -- apart from the cardiovascular diseases -- in particular disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as the musculoskeletal system are included. Physical inactivity can be considered a proven risk factor for these diseases. Children and adolescents are increasingly affected. In the development of effective preventive strategies, the enhancement of physical/sportive activities in everyday life as well as with in the framework of systematic health-orientated training plays a central role. This is confirmed by an abundance of scientific studies indicating that regular physical activity has anenormous potential with regard to the physical and psychological health maintenance in all life phases. The underlying biological mechanisms are complex and affect almost all human organic systems. Yet, the health benefit is critically dependent upon the form, duration and intensity. Endurance-orientated activities such as walking, running, cycling etc. performed at a moderate intensity, exercised at least 2 days a week for a duration of 30-60 min, are recommended. This should be supplemented by moderate strength training comprising all relevant muscle groups. An early commencement of regular, continuous, lifelong physical activities is particularly effective and can be, thus, recommended from a health-orientated perspective.

  11. Health-enhancing physical activity among Saudi adults using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

    PubMed

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2007-01-01

    To describe the physical activity profile of Saudi adults living in Riyadh, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short-version telephone format. Physical activity was assessed using the official Arabic short form of IPAQ, intended for use in telephone interview. The instrument asks for times spent in walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity of at least 10 min duration. The sample consisted of 1616 Saudis, between 15 and 78 years of age, living in Riyadh. Participants were drawn from a list of names in the telephone book using a simple random method. Telephone interviews were administered during the spring of 2003 by trained male interviewers. The final sample size was 1064 Saudi males and females (response rate of 66%), with males comprising about 66% of the respondents. Over 43% of Saudis did not participate in any type of moderate-intensity physical activity lasting for at least 10 min. More than 72% of the sample did not engage in any type of vigorous-intensity physical activity lasting for at least 10 min. The proportion of Saudis who walked for 150 min or more per week was 33.3%. Females were engaged more in moderate physical activity than males, whereas males participated more in vigorous activity compared with females. Activity levels did not show significant relationships with education level or job hours per week. Based on the three activity categories established by IPAQ, 40.6% of Saudis were inactive, 34.3% were minimally active and 25.1% were physically active. Physical inactivity increased with advancing age. The data suggest that the prevalence of physical inactivity among Saudis adults is relatively high. Efforts are needed to encourage Saudis to be more physically active, with the goal of increasing the proportion of Saudis engaging in health-enhancing physical activity.

  12. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  13. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    PubMed Central

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Ninety-one percent (n = 42) of all patients returned to their preoperative level of physical activity after EGR. The mean time for return to physical activity was 7.5 (2-24) mo. Ninety-eight percent (n = 45) of all patients were able to return to their preoperative employment status, with a mean time of 3.6 (1-12) mo. Ninety-six percent (n = 23) of all patients with an activity score > 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  14. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C.; Parks, Christine G.; Wilson, Lauren E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004–2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Results Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (PR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.92) or standing (PR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. Conclusion In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. PMID:25773471

  15. IDEEA activity monitor: validity of activity recognition for lying, reclining, sitting and standing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuyu; Larson, Janet L

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the independent negative effects of sedentary behavior on health, but there are few objective measures of sedentary behavior. Most instruments measure physical activity and are not validated as measures of sedentary behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the IDEEA system's measures of sedentary and low-intensity physical activities: lying, reclining, sitting and standing. Thirty subjects, 14 men and 16 women, aged 23 to 77 years, body mass index (BMI) between 18 to 34 kg/m(2), participated in the study. IDEEA measures were compared to direct observation for 27 activities: 10 lying in bed, 3 lying on a sofa, 1 reclining in a lawn chair, 10 sitting and 3 standing. Two measures are reported, the percentage of activities accurately identified and the percentage of monitored time that was accurately labeled by the IDEEA system for all subjects. A total of 91.6% of all observed activities were accurately identified and 92.4% of the total monitored time was accurately labeled. The IDEEA system did not accurately differentiate between lying and reclining so the two activities were combined for calculating accuracy. Using this approach the IDEEA system accurately identified 96% of sitting activities for a total of 97% of the monitored sitting time, 99% and 99% for standing, 87% and 88% for lying in bed, 87% and 88% for lying on the sofa, and 83% and 83% for reclining on a lawn chair. We conclude that the IDEEA system accurately recognizes sitting and standing positions, but it is less accurate in identifying lying and reclining positions. We recommend combining the lying and reclining activities to improve accuracy. The IDEEA system enables researchers to monitor lying, reclining, sitting and standing with a reasonable level of accuracy and has the potential to advance the science of sedentary behaviors and low-intensity physical activities.

  16. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  17. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  18. Monitoring chemical and physical changes during thermal flavor generation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jennifer A; Sivasundaram, Lalitha R; Ottenhof, Marie-Astrid; Farhat, Imad A; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2002-09-11

    On-line techniques were developed to monitor chemical and physical changes occurring during the heating of skim milk powder (SMP). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCIMS) followed the generation and release of volatile compounds from SMP in a packed-bed reactor. Operating conditions were optimized to avoid condensation of high boiling compounds such as maltol, and the system was highly reproducible (CV < 7%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of SMP identified a potential glass transition at an onset temperature of 67.9 degrees C and a series of exothermic events that were related to different stages of the Maillard reaction. No lactose crystallization was found after heating. Using a heated stage reflectance FTIR device, spectra were obtained at different temperatures. Analysis of the data showed a correlation between the intensity ratio at wavenumbers 1017 and 1064 cm(-1) and the glass transition measured by DSC. This FTIR system was not sensitive enough to detect Maillard intermediates. Combining data from the three techniques provides a fuller picture of the physical changes during the Maillard reaction and their effects on the chemical reactions.

  19. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  20. Increased physical activity reduces prevalence of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S; Borawski, Elaine A; Bissada, Nabil F

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown to have a protective relationship with several chronic diseases. Recently, physical activity was also found to reduce the risk of periodontitis in a study in male health professionals. However, the relationship between physical activity and periodontitis in a diverse group of individuals is not thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to examine if there is an association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis in a subset of the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). NHANES III participants 18 years of age or older who had had a periodontal examination and reported to have a similar physical activity (or inactivity) level for 10 years or longer were selected (n=2521). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between physical activity and periodontitis. The analysis was adjusted for: age, gender, race, education, smoking, body mass index, poverty index, vitamin use, healthy eating index, time since last dental visit, gingival bleeding, and dental calculus. Engaging in the recommended level of physical activity was significantly associated with lower periodontitis prevalence (OR=0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.96). Smoking, however, was found to modify this relationship. The association was strong and significant among never (OR=0.46, 95% CI, 0.23-0.93) and former smokers (OR=0.26, 95% CI: 0.09-0.72), but not among current smokers (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.48-2.53). These results suggest that engaging in the recommended level of exercise is associated with lower periodontitis prevalence, especially among never and former smokers.

  1. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  2. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  3. Upgrading physical activity counselling in primary care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verwey, Renée; van der Weegen, Sanne; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Tange, Huibert; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Witte, Luc

    2016-06-01

    The systematic development of a counselling protocol in primary care combined with a monitoring and feedback tool to support chronically ill patients to achieve a more active lifestyle. An iterative user-centred design method was used to develop a counselling protocol: the Self-management Support Programme (SSP). The needs and preferences of future users of this protocol were identified by analysing the literature, through qualitative research, and by consulting an expert panel. The counselling protocol is based on the Five A's model. Practice nurses apply motivational interviewing, risk communication and goal setting to support self-management of patients in planning how to achieve a more active lifestyle. The protocol consists of a limited number of behaviour change consultations intertwined with interaction with and responses from the It's LiFe! monitoring and feedback tool. This tool provides feedback on patients' physical activity levels via an app on their smartphone. A summary of these levels is automatically sent to the general practice so that practice nurses can respond to this information. A SSP to stimulate physical activity was defined based on user requirements of care providers and patients, followed by a review by a panel of experts. By following this user-centred approach, the organization of care was carefully taken into account, which has led to a practical and affordable protocol for physical activity counselling combined with mobile technology.

  4. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  5. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  6. Physical Activity Opportunities before and after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the many ways in which schools can provide physical activity opportunities for students by taking advantage of hours that students might otherwise spend waiting for school to begin or playing computer games after school has ended. The article presents creative strategies for engaging students in activities that are…

  7. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  8. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  9. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-08-01

    Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60-82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012-2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered "healthy" if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m²) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Higher total physical

  10. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1

  11. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.

  12. Do physical activity facilities near schools affect physical activity in high school girls?

    PubMed

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Porter, Dwayne E; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R

    2011-03-01

    To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 p.m. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls' physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with <5 facilities. In addition, girls who attended rural schools with ≥5 facilities reported ∼12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with <5 facilities. No difference existed for girls in urban/suburban schools with ≥5 vs. <5 facilities. When school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  14. Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-Integrated Basketball Activity Compared to Separate and No Physical Activity in Young People with Physical Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational…

  15. Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-Integrated Basketball Activity Compared to Separate and No Physical Activity in Young People with Physical Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational…

  16. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditional logistic regression analyses, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with physical activity levels (measured by average metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure hours per week), controlling for potential confounders. Total adult lifetime activity reduced risk of breast cancer, with individuals in the highest quartile having an OR of 0.80 (CI = 0.67-0.96) compared with the lowest quartile. Reduced risks were most consistent for the highest quartiles of moderate-to-vigorous activities: moderate/vigorous recreational activities (OR = 0.74; CI = 0.62-0.89), outdoor activities (0.81; 0.68-0.97), heavy physical work (0.60; 0.42-0.87), and combined high intensity (metabolic equivalent >6.0) activities (0.75; 0.63-0.90). These relations were not modified by body mass index, menopausal status, or family history of breast cancer. Reductions in risk with moderate/vigorous recreational activities were stronger for larger tumors and those with nodal involvement. Women who increased their recreational activity in their 50s had significantly reduced risk, with those in the highest tertile of change being at a 27% lower risk. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous activities reduce breast cancer risk irrespective of underlying host characteristics.

  17. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  18. Adolescent physical fitness and activity as predictors of adulthood activity.

    PubMed

    Huotari, Pertti; Nupponen, Heimo; Mikkelsson, Lasse; Laakso, Lauri; Kujala, Urho

    2011-08-01

    A 25-year population-based study was conducted to determine how physical fitness and participation in leisure-time physical activity in adolescence (age 12-18 years) predict leisure-time physical activity in adulthood (age 37-43 years). In 1976, five field tests were conducted to measure muscular fitness, agility and aerobic capacity, and self-report weekly frequencies of activity were obtained by questionnaire. A modified questionnaire was repeated in 2001, when participants were age 37-43 years (N = 1525). On the basis of the questionnaire, a physical activity index was calculated both in 1976 and 2001. The odds ratios (OR) for being inactive in adulthood among those who were physically very active in adolescence compared with those who were inactive in adolescence was 0.13 for males (95%CI: 0.06-0.31) and 0.28 for females (95%CI: 0.13-0.59). The odds ratio for adult inactivity among males in the highest versus lowest fitness group in adolescence was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.07-0.81). Activity in adolescence predicted activity in adulthood in both males and females. The risk for adult inactivity was significantly lower for those who were physically active in adolescence. In addition, high fitness predicted adult activity among males but not among females.

  19. Physical activity and lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Aina; Thune, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Since lung cancer is among the cancers with the highest incidence and has the highest mortality rate of cancer worldwide, the means of reducing its impact are urgently needed. Emerging evidence shows that physical activity plays an etiological role in lung cancer risk reduction. The majority of studies support the fact that total and recreational physical activity reduces lung cancer risk by 20-30% for women and 20-50% for men, and there is evidence of a dose-response effect. The biological mechanisms operating between physical activity and lung cancer are likely complex and influenced by many factors including inherited or acquired susceptibility genes, gender, smoking, and other environmental factors. Several plausible biological factors and mechanisms have been hypothesized linking physical activity to reduced lung cancer risk including: improved pulmonary function, reduced concentrations of carcinogenic agents in the lungs, enhanced immune function, reduced inflammation, enhanced DNA repair capacity, changes in growth factor levels and possible gene-physical activity interactions. Future research should target the possible subgroup effects and the biologic mechanisms that may be involved.

  20. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.