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Sample records for physical activity patterns

  1. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  2. Physical activity patterns of Singaporeans in 2001.

    PubMed

    Teh, K C; Ong, V T H

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted on Singaporean males and females to determine the extent of involvement in sport, work-based and home-based physical activities, and other activities such as walking and stairclimbing. A Physical Activity Questionnaire was designed and data collected in conjunction with the Singapore National Sports Participation Survey 2001. Three hundred and ten households with 605 respondents (287 males and 318 females) completed the questionnaire, representing a response rate of 81 percent. Males spent more time doing sports, work-based physical activity and walking and stairclimbing activities while females spent more time in housework. However, females spent more time (568 versus 410 minutes per week) on overall physical activity, mainly due to their heavier involvement in housework. Compared with a similar study in 1997, males and females were doing more sports activities and walking and stairclimbing activities, but had reduced involvement in work-based and home-based activities. Overall, respondents in 2001 were spending about 31 percent less time (457 versus 598 minutes per week) on physical activities than respondents in 1997. There was a reduction in physical activities among males from 476 minutes per week to 410 minutes per week, and a sharper drop among females from 904 minutes per week to 567 minutes per week. Singaporean males and females in 2001 are spending less time on overall physical activities. The trend towards a reduction in overall physical activities from 1997 to 2001 is cause for concern. Relevant organisations would, therefore, need to continue promoting sports and physical activities to the Singapore population.

  3. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  4. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  5. Correlates of US adult physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sydney A; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Evenson, Kelly R

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns may be differentially associated with socio-demographic and health measures. We explored correlates of day-to-day patterns over a week in accelerometer measured physical activity and sedentary behavior to inform intervention development. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adult participants (≥20 years) in 2003-2006 wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Accelerometer data from 7236 participants were used to derive latent classes describing day-to-day patterns over a week of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Correlates of each pattern were identified using multinomial logistic regression from 21 potential variables grouped into four domains: socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history. Older age, female sex, higher body mass index, and history of chronic disease were consistently associated with lower odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. In contrast, being employed, speaking Spanish at home, and having better self-rated health were associated with higher odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were identified from all domains (socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history). Most correlates that were positively associated with physical activity were negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns can inform interventions to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptual Physical Education Course and College Freshmen's Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shangguan, Rulan; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Liu, Jingwen; Zhou, Ke; Clark, Langston; Leitner, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses play a critical role in promoting physical activity (PA) among students in American higher education settings. To date, however, very limited knowledge is available about the effectiveness of such courses. Aims: The primary purpose of the study was to examine effects of a CPE course on altering freshmen…

  7. Physical Activity Patterns of Youth with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Phil E.; MacDonald, Megan; Hornyak, Joseph E.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of children with Down syndrome. A cross-sectional approach and accelerometry were used to measure the time children with Down syndrome (N = 104) spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results indicated that adolescents from ages 14 to 15 years…

  8. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hastert, Theresa A; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Participants include 1994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994-2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330

  10. Patterns of objectively measured physical activity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jesse S; Catellier, Diane J; Evenson, Kelly R; Treuth, Margarita S; Rosamond, Wayne D; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-04-01

    We used latent class analysis (LCA) to assess patterns of physical activity among adults, using the 7 d of accelerometer data from the 2003-2004 NHANES. For each participant, we determined the daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA), and minutes of MVPA that occurred in bouts of 10 min. Participants were then categorized into patterns of activity, using LCA and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. For overall MVPA, five classes of physical activity were defined, including two least active classes, which averaged less than 25 min of MVPA per day and represented 78.7% of the total study population. The most active class averaged 134 min of MVPA per day and comprised 0.9% of the population. The results for bout minutes of MVPA were similar to the patterns produced for overall MVPA, with the exception of a "weekend warrior" class with moderate levels of physical activity Monday through Friday but with a much higher level of activity on the weekend, particularly on Sunday. This class represented 1.8% of the population. Only 1.4% of all days achieved 10 min or more of VPA, and in 91.1% of all days, participants accumulated less than 1 min of VPA. The LCA analysis of VPA did not produce stable results, because of the small number of participants registering any minutes of VPA. Our results indicate that a very large portion of the U.S. population may be classified into patterns of physical activity that represent low levels of MVPA throughout the week. The LCA analysis provided a novel approach for assessing patterns of objectively measured physical activity in epidemiologic studies.

  11. Lifelong physical activity patterns of sedentary Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Sandra L; Berg, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    Increasing physical activity, especially for high-risk groups, is a national priority; yet little is known about the lifelong patterns of physical activity of older Mexican American women. This article describes Mexican American women's current sedentary status by reviewing their physical activity history. Interventions aimed at promoting health in older adults require an understanding of the impact of prior experiences on current health behaviors. Thus, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 71 Mexican American women (aged 50 years or older) recruited from local churches and senior centers. Household, occupational, and leisure activities from age 15 years to present time were reviewed. A lifelong pattern of low occupational and leisure activity and low to moderate household activity were found, with sedentary occupations and no leisure activities predominating. Most believed that current household, occupational and leisure activities provide enough physical activity, thus influencing participation in exercise programs or activities. Attempts to increase physical activity for this group need to begin by teaching them age-appropriate and culturally acceptable physical activities.

  12. Physical activity patterns of youth with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Phil E; MacDonald, Megan; Hornyak, Joseph E; Ulrich, Dale A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of children with Down syndrome. A cross-sectional approach and accelerometry were used to measure the time children with Down syndrome (N = 104) spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results indicated that adolescents from ages 14 to 15 years were the most sedentary and spent the least amount of time in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A general trend of decreasing physical activity as children increase in age was found. This trend is similar to that found among typically developing youth. Participants in this study were found to spend a majority of their day engaged in sedentary activities. Results indicate that most participants were not accumulating the recommended 60 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity.

  13. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  14. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  15. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  16. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  17. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  18. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  19. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    PubMed Central

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly. PMID:27621923

  20. Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Riddoch, Chris J; Mattocks, Calum; Deere, Kevin; Saunders, Jo; Kirkby, Jo; Tilling, Kate; Leary, Sam D; Blair, Steven N; Ness, Andy R

    2007-11-01

    To measure the levels and patterns of physical activity, using accelerometers, of 11-year-old children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Cross-sectional analysis. ALSPAC is a birth cohort study located in the former county of Avon, in the southwest of England. This study used data collected when the children were 11 years old. 5595 children (2662 boys, 2933 girls). The children are the offspring of women recruited to a birth cohort study during 1991-2. The median age (95% CI) of the children is now 11.8 (11.6 to 11.9) years. Physical activity was measured over a maximum of 7 consecutive days using the MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Level and pattern of physical activity. The median physical activity level was 580 counts/min. Boys were more active than girls (median (IQR) 644 (528-772) counts/min vs 529 (444-638) counts/min, respectively). Only 2.5% (95% CI 2.1% to 2.9%) of children (boys 5.1% (95% CI 4.3% to 6.0%), girls 0.4% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.7%) met current internationally recognised recommendations for physical activity. Children were most active in summer and least active in winter (difference = 108 counts/min). Both the mother and partner's education level were inversely associated with activity level (p for trend <0.001 (both mother and partner)). The association was lost for mother's education (p for trend = 0.07) and attenuated for partner's education (p for trend = 0.02), after adjustment for age, sex, season, maternal age and social class. A large majority of children are insufficiently active, according to current recommended levels for health.

  1. Obstetrician practice patterns and recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2010-09-01

    Many women do not attain minimum American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy. This study assessed the self-reported practice patterns and recommendations of 384 obstetricians working in Texas through a mailed survey on physical activity during pregnancy. The most common exercise elements routinely collected from pregnant women included types of exercise (81%), history of exercise before pregnancy (79%), and frequency of exercise (76%). Fewer obstetricians collected duration (68%) or intensity (69%) of exercise. The percentage of obstetricians recommending avoidance of nine household activities and exercises (including lifting groceries, starting a new exercise program, or participating in walking, jogging, or bicycling) was significantly higher with each successive trimester. Most obstetricians agreed that pregnant women would gain some benefit from mild exercise (99.5%), but fewer agreed that moderate (74%) or vigorous exercise (6%) would be beneficial. Sixty-two percent of obstetricians reported that women who have never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Almost all participants agreed that physical activity might make a woman feel more energetic (98%) and improve her labor and delivery (89%), but fewer agreed that exercise during pregnancy causes lower weight babies (23%) or could trigger labor (18%). Dissemination of current recommendations and discussion about the benefits and risks of physical activity during pregnancy, such as through continuing education, appear warranted. Future research could address the causes of disparities between self-reported practice patterns and current ACOG guidelines.

  2. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  3. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  4. Patterns of leisure time and non-leisure time physical activity of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the patterns of physical activity and demographic characteristics associated with those patterns in Korean immigrants in the United States. Participants were 197 women, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized. The inactive pattern was the most frequent pattern in all domains of physical activity except household physical activity. There were differences among the patterns of physical activity that were associated with variations in demographic characteristics. Health care providers who serve immigrants should assess physical activity level and demographic characteristics of the immigrants to enhance their physical activity.

  5. Changing eating and physical activity patterns of US children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R K

    2000-05-01

    The number of US children who are overweight has more than doubled over the last decade. This change has broadened the focus of dietary guidance for children to address nutrient overconsumption and physical activity patterns. Total fat consumption expressed as a percentage of energy intake has decreased among US children. However, this decrease is largely the result of increased total energy intake in the form of carbohydrates and not necessarily due to decreased fat consumption. The majority of children aged 5-17 years are not meeting recommendations for Ca intakes. Much of this deficit is attributed to changing beverage consumption patterns, characterized by declining milk intakes and substantial increases in soft-drink consumption. On average, US children are not eating the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables. US adolescents become less active as they get older, and one-quarter of all US children watch > or = 4 h television each day, which is positively associated with increased BMI and skinfold thickness. There is an urgent need in the USA for effective prevention strategies aimed at helping children grow up with healthful eating and physical activity habits to achieve optimal health.

  6. Daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in institutionalized elderly women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Tome; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Shima, Hiroto; Kishibuchi, Kaoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in elderly women. The subjects comprised 19 elderly women who resided in a nursing home. Time spent lying, sitting, standing and walking and the number of steps taken during the daytime from 10:00 to 16:00 were measured to determine physical activity patterns. Physical fitness measures included muscle strength, balance, flexibility and physical performance. The elderly women spent 18.3% of their daytime walking, 7.31% in a standing position, 56.9% sitting and 17.4% lying down. Our results showed that the time spent in walking or standing positions was significantly associated with balance and physical performance such as walking speed, while the time spent in a sitting position was inversely associated with muscle strength, balance and physical performance. The results of this study suggest that the time the elderly spend on weight-bearing activities and in sedentary behavior are associated with physical fitness.

  7. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  8. Patterns of Physical Activity Outside of School Time among Japanese Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Li; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Nonoue, Keiko; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is beneficial for adolescent health. The physical activity patterns of Japanese adolescents are relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the current patterns of physical activity and to identify sex and grade differences among them. Methods: The participants comprised 714 Japanese adolescents aged…

  9. Patterns of Physical Activity Outside of School Time among Japanese Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Li; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Nonoue, Keiko; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is beneficial for adolescent health. The physical activity patterns of Japanese adolescents are relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the current patterns of physical activity and to identify sex and grade differences among them. Methods: The participants comprised 714 Japanese adolescents aged…

  10. Physical activity and mammographic parenchymal patterns among Greek postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Marmara, Eleni A; Papacharalambous, Xenofon N; Kouloulias, Vassilios E; Maridaki, D Maria; Baltopoulos, J Panayiotis

    2011-05-01

    To examine whether physical activity during the last five years is related to later breast mammographic density in postmenopausal Greek women. We designed a cross-sectional study in 724 women, of ages 45-67 years. An interview-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on duration and intensity of recreational physical activity during five years preceding study recruitment. Mammograms were evaluated according to BIRADS classification and BIRADS score was also estimated. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between physical activity index and breast density according to the BIRADS classification methods. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of mammographic breast density measured by the BIRADS classification method and recreational exercise (OR=-0.10; 95% CI -0.018, -0.001; p=0.022). For one unit increase in physical activity as expressed by the MET-h/week score, the odds of lower versus higher breast density categories are 1.105 greater, given that all of the other variables in the model are held constant. A modifying effect by age at recruitment was evident among participants, with a stronger inverse association between recreational activity and mammographic breast density among older women (OR=-0.036; 95% CI -0.063, -0.009; p=0.009). An inverse association between physical activity and BIRADS score was evident, not reaching statistical significance (OR=0.00; 95% CI -0.009, 0.008; p=0.887). Mammographic breast area was lower in postmenopausal women who participated in sports/recreational physical activity compared to inactive controls. Increasing physical activity levels among postmenopausal women might be a reasonable approach to reduce mammographic density. However, until more physical activity and mammographic breast density studies are conducted that confirm our findings, they have to be interpreted with caution, due to the retrospective nature of our data and the possibility of

  11. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laguna, María; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Gallardo, Cristian; García-Pastor, Teresa; Lara, María-Teresa; Aznar, Susana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure objectively and accurately the physical activity (PA) patterns in Spanish children and adolescents according to their obesity status, gender and age groups. A sample of 487 children and 274 adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study participated in the study. The variables measured were anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and body mass index), and PA was measured during 6 consecutive days using the GT1M accelerometer. Three-way analysis of variance (age × gender × obesity status) showed significant differences in the interaction effect in age, gender and obesity status (normal-weight and overweight/obesity) for mean of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (P = 0.02) and vigorous PA (VPA) (P = 0.014) within the sample. Nine-year-old normal-weight children achieved significantly (P < 0.05) more MVPA on weekdays than 9-year-old overweight/obesity children. During weekend days, all sample achieved significant more MVPA (P < 0.01) and significant more VPA (P < 0.05) than during weekdays. Few children (37.5% of 9-year-old normal-weight and 34.0% of 9-year-old overweight/obese) and adolescents (16.4% and 27.3% normal-weight and overweight/obese, respectively) met the current health-related recommendations of 60 min of MVPA daily. It is clear that activity levels are insufficient for all children, in particular overweight/obese children and adolescents, although the precise nature of the relationship appears to differ between boys and girls. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Patterns of Walkability, Transit, and Recreation Environment for Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marc A; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F

    2015-12-01

    Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20-65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001-2005 from Seattle / King County WA and Baltimore MD / Washington DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-HH). All measures were higher in the HHH than the LLL profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all p<0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L; M-M-M; high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA); and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for transportation (all p<0.05). Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults' PA than the four-component walkability index. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of Walkability, Transit, and Recreation Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Methods Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20–65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001–2005 from Seattle/King County, WA and Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkable/transit/recreation (L-L-L), mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M), moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH), and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). All measures were higher in the H-H-H than the L-L-L profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all p<0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L, M-M-M, high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA), and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for transportation (all p<0.05). Conclusions Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults’ PA than the four-component walkability index. PMID:26232902

  14. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  15. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  16. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  17. Physical activity patterns among Latinos in the United States: putting the pieces together.

    PubMed

    Ham, Sandra A; Yore, Michelle M; Kruger, Judy; Heath, Gregory W; Moeti, Refilwe

    2007-10-01

    Estimates of participation in physical activity among Latinos are inconsistent across studies. To obtain better estimates and examine possible reasons for inconsistencies, we assessed 1) patterns of participation in various categories of physical activity among Latino adults, 2) changes in their activity patterns with acculturation, and 3) variations in their activity patterns by region of origin. Using data from four national surveillance systems (the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002; the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003; the National Household Travel Survey, 2001; and the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Supplement, 2000), we estimated the percentage of Latinos who participated at least once per week in leisure-time, household, occupational, or transportation-related physical activity, as well as in an active pattern of usual daily activity. We reported prevalences by acculturation measures and region of origin. The percentage of Latinos who participated in the various types of physical activity ranged from 28.7% for having an active level of usual daily activity (usually walking most of the day and usually carrying or lifting objects) to 42.8% for participating in leisure-time physical activity at least once per week. The percentage who participated in leisure-time and household activities increased with acculturation, whereas the percentage who participated in occupational and transportation-related activities decreased with acculturation. Participation in an active level of usual daily activity did not change significantly. The prevalence of participation in transportation-related physical activity and of an active level of usual daily activity among Latino immigrants varied by region of origin. Physical activity patterns among Latinos vary with acculturation and region of origin. To assess physical activity levels in Latino communities, researchers should measure all types of physical activity and the effects

  18. Adults' Physical Activity Patterns across Life Domains: Cluster Analysis with Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604

  19. Physical activity patterns of inner-city elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Trost, Stewart G; McCoy, Tara A; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Mallya, Giridhar; Duffy, Meghan L; Foster, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to objectively measure the physical activity (PA) characteristics of a racially and ethnically diverse sample of inner-city elementary schoolchildren and to examine the influence of sex, race/ethnicity, grade level, and weight status on PA. A total of 470 students in grades 4-6 from six inner-city schools in Philadelphia wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL) for up to 7 d. The resultant data were uploaded to a customized Visual Basic EXCEL macro to determine the time spent in sedentary (SED), light-intensity PA (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). On average, students accumulated 48 min of MVPA daily. Expressed as a percentage of monitoring time, students were sedentary for 63% of the time, in LPA 31% of the time, and in MVPA 6% of the time. Across all race/ethnicity and grade level groups, boys exhibited significantly higher levels of MVPA than girls did; fifth-grade boys exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than fourth- and sixth-grade boys did, and sixth-grade girls exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than fourth- and fifth-grade girls did. Hispanic children exhibited lower levels of MVPA than children from other racial/ethnic groups did, and overweight and obese children exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than children in the healthy weight range did. Across the entire sample, only 24.3% met the current public health guidelines for PA. Physical inactivity was significantly greater among females, Hispanics, and overweight and obese students. Fewer than one in four inner-city schoolchildren accumulated the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily. These findings highlight the need for effective and sustainable programs to promote PA in inner-city youth.

  20. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p < 0.05), lower peak activity (p < 0.01), and lower physical activity complexity (p < 0.05) particularly during the morning. Mild AD was not associated with greater sedentary activity or less lower-intensity physical activity across the day after adjusting for non-cognitive covariates. These findings suggest that factors independent of physical capacity and mobility may drive declines in moderate-intensity physical activity, and not lower-intensity or sedentary activity, during the early stage of AD. This underscores the importance of a better mechanistic understanding of how cognitive decline and AD pathology impact physical activity. Findings emphasize the potential value of designing and testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  1. Role of Individual and School Factors in Physical Activity Patterns of Secondary-Level Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Francisco Ruiz; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Montes, Maria Elena Garcia; Bush, Paula Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the importance of individual and school factors as correlates of overall youth physical activity has been demonstrated by previous research, less is known about the relationship of these factors with specific patterns of physical activity during adolescence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the association of…

  2. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Bisgaard, Hans

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effects of gender and BMI on this activity. Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 y participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-wk period. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data. A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time. Activity profiles throughout the year were unique for each sex, with boys being overall more active than girls except for winter months. Preschool children also showed distinct patterns of physical activity during weekdays as compared with weekends and were most active during weekdays. Preschool children in the highest tertile of BMI had a flat yearly activity profile and tended to be less active as compared with those in the lowest tertile. Preschool children showed significant gender differences in physical activity, with distinct patterns throughout the year as well as between weekdays and weekends. A high BMI tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.

  3. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2012-06-06

    Variability exists in children's activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P < .05), independent of child and school level factors. The greatest differences occurred after-school (MPA = 5.5 minutes, VPA = 3.8 minutes, P < 0.001). MPA and VPA were also associated with gender, BMI z-score, number of enrolled children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed.The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly

  4. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P < .05), independent of child and school level factors. The greatest differences occurred after-school (MPA = 5.5 minutes, VPA = 3.8 minutes, P < 0.001). MPA and VPA were also associated with gender, BMI z-score, number of enrolled children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed. The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical

  5. Associations between physical activity and health-related fitness - volume versus pattern.

    PubMed

    Knaeps, Sara; Bourgois, Jan G; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Lefevre, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 3.2 million people die of non-communicable diseases (NCD) each year due to insufficient physical activity. Physical activity guidelines are possibly perceived as too demanding and might thus pose a barrier. We addressed the question if a more stable physical activity pattern is associated with higher levels of health-related fitness than one with high and low intensities, regardless of the physical activity level (PAL). Physical activity was objectively measured in 296 men and women (53.7 ± 8.94 years) with the SenseWear Pro Armband(®). Using this data, the PAL and a Gini index were calculated to report the physical activity pattern. Health-related fitness was expressed as a fitness index. PAL was weakly correlated to health-related fitness (r = 0.38, P < .0001). The Gini index was also weakly correlated to the fitness index (r = 0.23, P < .0001). Results of the ANCOVA showed that participants in the first quartile of PAL always scored significantly lower for health-related fitness than participants in quartile four, after adjustment for the Gini index. These results suggest that as long as the volume of physical activity is high, health-related fitness will be high as well, independent of the physical activity pattern or variability in intensities throughout the day.

  6. Physical activity patterns in urban neighbourhood parks: insights from a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Gavin R; Rock, Melanie; Swanson, Kenda; Burton, Lindsay; Massolo, Alessandro

    2014-09-17

    Many characteristics of urban parks and neighbourhoods have been linked to patterns of physical activity, yet untangling these relationships to promote increased levels of physical activity presents methodological challenges. Based on qualitative and quantitative data, this article describes patterns of activity within urban parks and the socio-demographic characteristics of park visitors. It also accounts for these patterns in relation to the attributes of parks and their surrounding neighbourhoods. A multiple case study was undertaken that incorporated quantitative and qualitative data derived from first-hand observation in a purposive sample of four urban parks. Quantitative data, based on direct observation of visitors' patterns of use and socio-demographic characteristics, were collected using a structured instrument. Differences in frequencies of observed activities and socio-demographic characteristics of visitors were compared between the four parks. Qualitative data, based on direct observation of park characteristics and patterns of use, were generated through digital photography and analyzed through captioning. Quantitative data on patterns in activity and socio-demographic characteristics were synthesized with the qualitative data on park and usage characteristics. A comprehensive portrait of each park in the study was generated. Activity types (sedentary, walking, dog-related, cycling, and play), patterns of park use (time of day, day of week), and socio-demographic characteristics (age group, social group) differed between the four parks. Patterns in park use and activity appeared to be associated with socio-demographic characteristics of the surrounding neighbourhoods as well as the physical and social environmental characteristics specific to each park. Both park and neighbourhood characteristics influence patterns of use and physical activity within parks. The study findings suggest that socio-demographic characteristics of neighbourhoods

  7. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  8. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  9. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A J; Stewart, Roy E; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P

    2013-11-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity levels of persons with PIMD and to analyze these heart rate patterns according to participant characteristics, observed level of activity, days, and time of day. The heart rate patterns of 24 participants with PIMD were measured continuously using a heart rate monitor for 8 h · d for a period of 6 days. Physical activity levels were measured with questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multilevel analysis. The results indicate that the participants use only 32% of their heart rate reserve over 6 days. The intensity of heart rate reserve ranged from 1 to 62%. On a given day, wide ranges in heart rates between participants and within persons were observed. Between days, only small ranges in the heart rate were found. The participants could be grouped into 4 classes according to their heart rate. In addition, factors such as time of day, physical activity, and age are significantly related to heart rate patterns. In conclusion, this study is an important first step in exploring activity patterns based on heart rate patterns in persons with PIMD. The participants used relatively small fractions of their heart rate reserves. Time of day and age appear to have a considerable influence on heart rate patterns. The observed classes in heart rate patterns suggest that other probably more personal and psychosocial factors have significant influences on heart rate patterns, as well.

  10. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001) instrument.…

  11. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001) instrument.…

  12. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  13. The influence of ICT on the activity patterns of children with physical disabilities outside school.

    PubMed

    Lidström, H; Ahlsten, G; Hemmingsson, H

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the outside school activity patterns of children with physical disabilities, and specifically their information and communication technology (ICT) usage compared with that of non-disabled children. In addition, the aim was to investigate the children's opinions on computer use and the associations between their use of the Internet and their interaction with peers. Questionnaire on activities outside school, answered by 215 children and youths with physical disabilities, mean age 12 years 10 months, attending mainstream schools. For group comparisons with non-disabled children, data from the survey 'Kids and Media' were used. In the analysis, two sets of activity patterns were identified, depending on whether the child was disabled or not and on the gender of the child. A higher proportion of children with physical disabilities were engaged in ICT activities, while non-disabled children tended to be engaged in a broader range of activities outside school. The activity pattern was more uniform for boys and girls with disabilities than for their non-disabled peers. Use of the Internet was positively associated with peer interaction. Outside school, the activity patterns of children and youths with physical disabilities seem to be characterized by a focus on ICT activities, which enable children to compensate for their impairment because it suits all. In addition, digital skills developed outside school engage children with physical disabilities, giving them increased access to society and for educational purposes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  15. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  16. Objectively measured patterns of physical activity in primary school children in Coventry: the influence of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Smith, E C; Matyka, K A

    2013-08-01

    The aetiology of increased metabolic risk in South Asians is incompletely understood, but may include modifiable factors such as physical activity. This study assessed patterns of physical activity in UK primary school children and examined the influence of ethnicity. We studied a community sample of children aged 8-9 years attending primary schools in Coventry, UK. One hundred and sixty-one children wore combined physical activity and heart rate monitors for 7 days. Levels of activity and energy expenditure were compared between White European (n = 96) and South Asian children (n = 65). Patterns of physical activity during the school week were also described. Seventy-three per cent of White Europeans compared with only 35% of South Asians achieved international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily (P < 0.0000). South Asians were less active during the week (106 ± 28 vs. 120 ± 32 counts/min, respectively, P = 0.0054) and at weekends (92 ± 34 vs. 108 ± 54 counts/min, P = 0.0118) compared with White Europeans. There were differences in energy expenditure with lower physical activity levels in South Asians (daily average 1.68 ± 0.13 vs. 1.76 ± 0.17, P < 0.0001). Differences were attributable to less activity after school in South Asians (97 ± 29 vs. 120 ± 43 counts/min, P < 0.0000) as daytime activity was comparable between groups (120 ± 41 vs. 124 ± 39 counts/min, P > 0.05). South Asian children in Coventry do significantly less physical activity than White Europeans, mainly attributable to differences in after-school activity. Ethnically tailored interventions should explore whether physical activity can be increased in South Asian children and, if so, whether this increased physical activity improves metabolic health. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  17. Sensory Patterns, Obesity, and Physical Activity Participation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Lisa Mische; Foster, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a public health concern for the population in general and for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. The purpose of this study was to understand relationships between sensory patterns, obesity, and physical activity engagement of children with ASD (N = 77) sampled from a specialized community-based swimming program. This retrospective correlational study analyzed program data. Results show that almost half (42.2%) of the children were overweight or obese, and sensory avoiding behaviors were related to higher body mass index (BMI). Children participated in few formal and informal physically active recreation activities. Sensory seeking behaviors were associated with increased participation in informal activities, and higher BMI was associated with less participation in both formal and informal activities. Practitioners should consider sensory processing patterns and BMI when developing community-based programs to promote physical activity of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Food preferences, eating patterns, and physical activity among adolescents: correlates of eating disorders symptoms.

    PubMed

    French, S A; Perry, C L; Leon, G R; Fulkerson, J A

    1994-06-01

    Food preferences, eating patterns, and physical activity patterns were examined in a cohort of adolescent females and males participating in a longitudinal study of the developmental antecedents of eating disorders. All adolescents (n = 1494) in grades seven through ten in an entire school district completed a survey about their dieting behaviors, eating, and exercise patterns. Principal components analysis showed similar factor structures for food preferences and eating patterns among males and females. Gender differences were present in physical activity patterns. Sports participation was correlated with healthy food preference and was a significant predictor of eating disorders symptoms. Junk food preference was marginally inversely related to eating disorders symptoms in females. Preference for other types of foods and reported intake of foods were not related to eating disorders symptoms. The percent of variance in risk score accounted for by dietary intake and physical activity patterns was small. Psychological and social/environmental variables may explain a larger proportion of the variance in eating disorders risk than the dietary and physical activity variables examined in this study. Implications for understanding the etiology and behavioral expression of eating disorders are discussed.

  19. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Matthews, Charles E; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-01-01

    Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000), an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework). Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement), history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain-specific. These findings

  20. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  1. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  2. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hourani, H M; Atoum, M F

    2007-10-01

    Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and a lighter meal before sunrise. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns during Ramadan fasting. This study was carried out during Ramadan in October 2004. A total of 57 female subjects were recruited from The Hashemite University in Jordan. Body weight, fat percentage, muscle mass, and percentage body water content were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Estimated food records over a duration of three days were used to assess the intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and sugars before and during Ramadan fasting. Physical activity patterns were determined from a three-day activity diary before and during Ramadan fasting; the amount of physical activity was expressed as the physical activity level. Body weight and BMI decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting. The mean energy and nutrients intake before Ramadan (energy; percent carbohydrates:protein:fat was 1,252; 56:12:33) and during Ramadan (1,171; 56:13:34) were not significantly different. The mean physical activity level was 1.54 before Ramadan and 1.51 during Ramadan, and this was also not significantly different. This study revealed that there was a significant weight loss during Ramadan. Estimates of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and sugar did not change, despite the reduction in the number of meals taken. The overall activity patterns remained similar.

  3. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022

  4. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  5. Daily physical activity behavior patterns of Hispanic adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Vigo-Valentín, Alexander; Bush, Kimberly A; Hodge, Samuel R

    2014-08-01

    There is limited evidence on physical activity patterns among Hispanic adolescents in Puerto Rico. This restricts opportunities to implement effective interventions and policies to increase physical activity in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity behaviors of adolescents attending middle and high schools in Puerto Rico based on a compendium of moderate to vigorous physical activities including walking, jogging or running, bicycling, sports and more. A secondary purpose was to examine group differences as a function of gender and school level. A cross-sectional survey research design was used. Students (N = 637) attending public middle and high schools completed a Visual 7-Day Physical Activity Recall survey. Both descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to describe the sample and to determine group differences. Puerto Rican adolescents' levels of physical activity decreased throughout the week. Only a small proportion of them reached at least 60 minutes everyday of the week. Differences were found between middle and high school students' daily and weekly participation in physical activities. Most adolescents do not engage in sufficient physical activity. IMPLICATIONS of the results are discussed and recommendations are articulated for policy makers, educators, and other professionals.

  6. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs. © 2016 APJPH.

  7. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  8. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  9. Diurnal Patterns of Physical Activity in Relation to Activity Induced Energy Expenditure in 52 to 83 Years-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with a declining physical activity level (PAL) and changes in the diurnal activity pattern. Changes in the activity pattern might help explaining the age-associated reduction of physical activity. Objective The aims were to investigate diurnal activity patterns within groups of older adults classified by PAL, to investigate diurnal activity patterns within age-groups and to investigate the association between the drop in activity and aerobic fitness. Methods Thirty-one healthy subjects aged between 52 and 83y were recruited for the study. Subjects were divided in sedentary (PAL<1.75), moderately active (1.75active (1.90activity patterns were based on activity counts from an accelerometer during wake time and then divided in four quarters of equal time length. Additionally, aerobic fitness was measured as maximal oxygen uptake. Results Subjects had a PAL between 1.43 and 2.34 and an aerobic fitness between 18 and 49 ml/kg/min. Overall, activity patterns showed a peak in the first quarter of wake time (around 10AM) followed by a gradual decline of, on average, 5% per hour. Active subjects reached their peak in the first quarter and remained active until after the third quarter (11% drop each quarter on average). Moderately active and sedentary subjects reached their peak during the second quarter with a decrease during the third quarter (respectively 29% and 17% drop each quarter on average). The drop in physical activity between the first and the second half of the wake time was negatively associated with aerobic fitness (r = -0.39, p<0.05). Conclusion Active older adults maintained a larger amount of body movement for longer during their wake time. Diurnal physical activity declined more in adults ≥66 years old with lower aerobic fitness. PMID:27936145

  10. Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Buchser, E.; Rutschmann, B.; Aminian, K.

    2008-02-01

    The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.

  11. Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, A; Buchser, E; Rutschmann, B; Aminian, K

    2008-02-01

    The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.

  12. A review of physical activity patterns in pregnant women and their relationship to psychological health.

    PubMed

    Poudevigne, Mélanie S; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes positively to physical and psychological health. Adverse consequences of inactivity may be an especially important problem among pregnant women. Up to 60% are inactive during pregnancy. This review found consistent evidence that physical activity is reduced during pregnancy; however, few investigators have sought to quantify physical activity patterns among pregnant women using well validated measures. Some of the barriers to physical activity during pregnancy, such as depression, anxiety and fatigue, have been shown to be attenuated by regular exercise performed by non-pregnant samples. There is a need to better understand the relationships between these factors and physical activity during pregnancy. Available retrospective and prospective results suggest that both leisure time and work-related physical activities are decreased across pregnancy. Intensity and duration decrease both during pregnancy compared with pre-pregnancy and in the third trimester compared with the first. There is a need for well designed longitudinal investigations that document pregnancy-related changes in physical activity at frequent intervals during pregnancy using validated and more precise measures of physical activity. Reductions in physical activity and a worsening mood are common during pregnancy. If the relationship between physical inactivity and mood disturbances is indeed observed and maintained during pregnancy, then decreases in physical activity in the third trimester would be expected to result in a worsening mood. In recent years, increased attention has been paid to antenatal mood disturbances, and this research has yielded a host of important findings. Prior correlational and experimental research with non-pregnant samples has demonstrated a consistent relationship between physical inactivity and mood disturbances. Whether this relationship occurs among pregnant women and/or is maintained as women progress during pregnancy is

  13. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    PubMed

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p < 0.01), while women who owned a television reported significantly lower moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and walking for travel (both p < 0.01). Sitting time (mins/wk) was not different between the activity groups, but was associated with triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. Total physical activity was inversely associated with fasting insulin, and physical activity in the work domain was associated with fat free soft tissue mass. The findings of this study show that the majority of urban dwelling black South African women are classified as physically active despite a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease risk factors. Sitting time had detrimental

  14. Blood pressure circadian pattern and physical exercise assessment by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall scale.

    PubMed

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Ibáñez-Jalón, Elisa; González-Viejo, Natividad; Guenaga-Saenz, Nahia; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between regular physical activity, measured objectively and by self-report, and the circadian pattern of 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of healthy patients. We included 1,345 patients from the EVIDENT study (mean age 55 ± 14 years; 59.3% women). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) questionnaire (metabolic equivalents (MET)/hour/week) and the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days; ambulatory arterial BP was measured with a radial tonometer (B-pro device). The dipper-pattern patients showed a higher level of activity than nondipper patients, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR. Physical activity measures correlated positively with the percent drop in systolic BP (SBP; ρ = 0.19 to 0.11; P < 0.01) and negatively with the systolic and diastolic sleep to wake ratios (ρ = -0.10 to -0.18; P < 0.01) and heart rate (ρ = -0.13; P < 0.01). In logistic regression, considering the circadian pattern (1, dipper; 0, nondipper) as the dependent variable, the odds ratio of the third tertile of counts/minute was 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.38; P < 0.01) and of MET/hour/week was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.01-1.75; P = 0.04) after adjustment for confounding variables. Physical activity, as evaluated by both the accelerometer and the 7-day PAR, was associated with a more marked nocturnal BP dip and, accordingly, a lower SBP and diastolic BP sleep to wake ratio. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01083082.

  15. A cluster analysis of patterns of objectively measured physical activity in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul H; Yu, Ying-Ying; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, T H

    2013-08-01

    The health benefits of exercise are clear. In targeting interventions it would be valuable to know whether characteristic patterns of physical activity (PA) are associated with particular population subgroups. The present study used cluster analysis to identify characteristic hourly PA patterns measured by accelerometer. Cross-sectional design. Objectively measured PA in Hong Kong adults. Four-day accelerometer data were collected during 2009 to 2011 for 1714 participants in Hong Kong (mean age 44?2 years, 45?9% male). Two clusters were identified, one more active than the other. The ‘active cluster’ (n 480) was characterized by a routine PA pattern on weekdays and a more active and varied pattern on weekends; the other, the ‘less active cluster’ (n 1234), by a consistently low PA pattern on both weekdays and weekends with little variation from day to day. Demographic, lifestyle, PA level and health characteristics of the two clusters were compared. They differed in age, sex, smoking, income and level of PA required at work. The odds of having any chronic health conditions was lower for the active group (adjusted OR50?62, 95% CI 0?46, 0?84) but the two groups did not differ in terms of specific chronic health conditions or obesity. Implications are drawn for targeting exercise promotion programmes at the population level.

  16. Objectively measured physical activity in two-year-old children - levels, patterns and correlates.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Svensson, Viktoria; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Nero, Håkan; Marcus, Claude

    2015-01-24

    The aim was to describe levels, patterns and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of Swedish children, two years of age, with normal weight, overweight and obese parents. Data from 123 children, 37 with normal-weight parents and 86 with overweight/obese parents, enrolled in the Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project study was used. Children wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for seven days. Average activity (counts per minute), number of steps and time spent in low and high-intensity physical activity and in sedentary was assessed. Differences between weekdays and weekend days were examined as were correlations with sex, body mass index (BMI), motor skills and family-related factors. Children were active at high intensity 11% of the day. On average 55% of the day was spent being sedentary. Number of steps and time in low-intensity physical activity differed between weekdays and weekend days: on weekdays, 363 more steps (p = 0.01) and six more minutes in low physical activity (p = 0.04). No differences were found for any physical activity or sedentary behavior variable by sex, BMI, motor skills or any family-related variable (p = 0.07 - 0.95). Two-year-old children have an intermittent activity pattern, that is almost similar on weekdays and they spend about half of the daytime active. The absence of any association with sex, BMI, motor skills or parental factors indicates that the individual variation in this age group is primarily due to endogenous factors. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01198847 .

  17. Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Tina D.; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Importance Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early-to-middle adulthood. Objective To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and mid-life cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 3,247 adults (black and white race, aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985 to August 31, 2011). Main Outcome and Measures We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/day) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at Year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (323 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23); Stroop, 1.56 (1.13-2.14) but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, (1.47 1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low

  18. Gender differences in physical activity patterns among older adults who fall☆

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Albert, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study describes gender differences in the level and pattern of physical activity in groups of older adults who were frequent fallers, intermittent fallers, or non-fallers. Methods Interviews were conducted with adults aged 50 years and older (N = 1834) at senior centers across Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2011. Self-reported falls and validated measures of physical activity were collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Results Complete follow-up data were available for 1487 participants. Men who fell frequently decreased in recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work compared to the intermittent fallers and non-fallers. This association remained even when controlling for baseline health status. All women—regardless of fall group—engaged in similar levels of recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work over time. For both men and women, frequent fallers also showed a greater decrease in walking activities compared to intermittent fallers and non-fallers. Discussion Frequent falling among older adults is associated with declines in common leisure, household, and walking activities. The effect of falling frequency on physical activity appears to affect men and women differently, generating the hypothesis that interventions to promote physical activity among fallers need to be gender specific. PMID:25535677

  19. Patterns of physical activity determined by heart rate monitoring among diabetic children

    PubMed Central

    Massin, M; Lebrethon, M; Rocour, D; Gerard, P; Bourguignon, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged to participate in physical activity because exercise can benefit insulin sensitivity and improve known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Methods: Physical activity patterns of 127 children and adolescents with stable type 1 diabetes were investigated by 24 hour continuous heart rate monitoring. The percentage of heart rate reserve was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. The results were compared with normative data. Results: Diabetic preschoolchildren accumulated 192.7 (78.1), 39.1 (24.3), and 21.3 (9.4) minutes/day (mean (SD)) of light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, respectively. At the same activity levels, diabetic schoolchildren accumulated 168.9 (76.7), 37.9 (15.9), and 19.0 (14.8) minutes/day, and diabetic teenagers accumulated 166.3 (67.5), 45.6 (26.9), and 25.2 (15.3) minutes/day. Diabetic schoolchildren were significantly more active than healthy peers when considering moderate activity; diabetic teenagers were significantly more active when considering moderate and vigorous activity. There was a negative correlation between the most recent glycated haemoglobin and the time spent in light activities in schoolchildren, and a negative correlation between mean glycated haemoglobin for one year and time spent in light and moderate activities in schoolchildren. Conclusion: The majority of our diabetic patients meet the classical paediatric guidelines for physical activity and compare favourably with their healthy peers. PMID:15941770

  20. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  1. Physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviors of children from urban and rural areas of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Bathrellou, Eirini; Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sidossis, Labros S

    2007-06-01

    A sedentary lifestyle among children is becoming increasingly common and has been linked to future risk of degenerative diseases. Urban residence has been suggested to be a contributing factor to a less active lifestyle; however, not all available studies support this link. In the present study we examined the physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviours of children living in urban and rural areas of Cyprus, where major demographic shifts have occurred the last decades. We studied 1140 children (531 boys; 609 girls), aged 10-12 years, registered in 24 selected elementary public schools from five urban and rural districts of Cyprus. Children completed a semi-quantitative physical activity questionnaire regarding frequency and duration of everyday physical and sedentary activities. Weight and height of the children, as well as demographic and socioeconomic information was collected from children and their guardians. Rural children reported being slightly more active after school and occupied weekly with outdoors chores compared to urban children, who on the other hand reported engaging in sports on a weekly basis more than their rural peers (all p < 0.10). However, the average weekly time spent by urban and rural children on vigorous (8.6 +/- 4.7 and 9.1 +/- 4.8 h/w, respectively; p = 0.193) or moderate-to-vigorous (14.9 +/- 7.6 and 15.2 +/- 7.6 h/w, respectively; p = 0.612) activities, as well as total screen time, were not different. The distribution of children with regards to most other physical activity and inactivity pursuits was similar between urban and rural areas. We found no substantial differences in the physical activity habits and sedentary behaviours among children living in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Hence public health awareness directed to enhance physical activity and decrease sedentary lifestyle among youngsters should focus equally to urban and rural children.

  2. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037

  3. Physical activity patterns among U.S. adults with and without serious psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Catherine A; Stoodt, Georjean; Rohrer, James E; Strine, Tara W; Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S

    2014-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle is recommended for overall health--both physical and mental. Serious psychological distress (SPD) is associated with adverse health behaviors. We compared patterns of physical activity (PA) among adults with and without SPD using current public health guidelines for PA and examined whether adults with SPD were physically active at recommended levels. We used data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess SPD using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale of nonspecific psychological distress and PA categories based on the 2008 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines. Complete data were available for 78,886 adults in 16 states that used an optional BRFSS mental illness and stigma module containing the K6 scale. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The unadjusted prevalence of SPD was 3.9% (95% CI 3.6, 4.2), and the age-adjusted prevalence of SPD was 3.8% (95% CI 3.5, 4.1). After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment, body mass index, smoking status, and heavy drinking, adults with SPD were significantly less likely to be physically active at recommended levels than adults without SPD. PRs were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for limitations to PA. Adults with SPD are less likely to meet current PA recommendations than adults without SPD, highlighting the need for targeted interventions.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns Among U.S. Adults with and without Serious Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Stoodt, Georjean; Rohrer, James E.; Strine, Tara W.; Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A physically active lifestyle is recommended for overall health—both physical and mental. Serious psychological distress (SPD) is associated with adverse health behaviors. We compared patterns of physical activity (PA) among adults with and without SPD using current public health guidelines for PA and examined whether adults with SPD were physically active at recommended levels. Methods We used data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess SPD using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale of nonspecific psychological distress and PA categories based on the 2008 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines. Complete data were available for 78,886 adults in 16 states that used an optional BRFSS mental illness and stigma module containing the K6 scale. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The unadjusted prevalence of SPD was 3.9% (95% CI 3.6, 4.2), and the age-adjusted prevalence of SPD was 3.8% (95% CI 3.5, 4.1). After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment, body mass index, smoking status, and heavy drinking, adults with SPD were significantly less likely to be physically active at recommended levels than adults without SPD. PRs were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for limitations to PA. Conclusion Adults with SPD are less likely to meet current PA recommendations than adults without SPD, highlighting the need for targeted interventions. PMID:24381357

  5. Physical activity patterns among South-Asian adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga D; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Misra, Anoop

    2013-10-12

    Physical activity (PA) has many beneficial physical and mental health effects. Physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. At present there are no systematic reviews on PA patterns among South Asian adults residing in the region. The present study aims to systematically evaluate studies on PA patterns in South Asian countries. A five-staged comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus using keywords 'Exercise', 'Walking', 'Physical activity', 'Inactivity', 'Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'International Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'IPAQ', 'Global Physical Activity Questionnaire' and 'GPAQ', combined with individual country names. The search was restricted to English language articles conducted in humans and published before 31st December 2012. To obtain additional data a manual search of the reference lists of articles was performed. Data were also retrieved from the search of relevant web sites and online resources. The total number of hits obtained from the initial search was 1,771. The total number of research articles included in the present review is eleven (India-8, Sri Lanka-2, Pakistan-1). In addition, eleven country reports (Nepal-3, Bangladesh-2, India-2, Sri Lanka-2, Bhutan-1, Maldives-1) of World Health Organization STEPS survey from the South-Asian countries were retrieved online. In the research articles the overall prevalence of inactivity was as follows; India (18.5%-88.4%), Pakistan (60.1%) and Sri Lanka (11.0%-31.8%). STEPS survey reports were available from all countries except Pakistan. Overall in majority of STEPS surveys females were more inactive compared to males. Furthermore, leisure related inactivity was >75% in studies reporting inactivity in this domain and people were more active in transport domain when compared with the other domains. In conclusion, our results show that there is a wide variation in the prevalence of physical

  6. Physical activity patterns among preadolescent children in Cyprus: the CYKIDS study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize patterns of correlations between variables and reduce a large number of variables to a smaller number of factors. During 2005 we conducted a national, cross-sectional, multistage study among 1140 children (mean age=10.70+/-0.98). Principal component analysis was employed to extract the main factors out of 21 variables assessing children's duration of physical and sedentary activities. Eight factors emerged as important, explaining 63% of the total variance in children's PA patterns. The combined explained variance of 3 factors for exercise was 24.1% (PA and sports after school [11.6%]; home and outside home chores, aerobics, gymnastics, sports [6.8%]; Sports for All, after-school activities [except sports] [5.7%]) and of 5 factors for sedentary activities was 38.9% (video, electronic games, and computers [10.2%]; watching TV, video, and DVD [9.5%]; homework and private lessons [7.3%]; theater cinema, use of mobile phone [6.2%]; afternoon sleep, less private lessons [5.8%]). Further analyses of the emerged factors by gender showed that boys, on a daily basis, are engaged in higher duration in physical activity and sports after school (factor 1) and in electronic games and computers (factor 2), whereas they are engaged in lower durations in factor 4 type behavior (homework and private lessons) and factor 6 type behavior (theater cinema, use of mobile phone). Use of the above factors will inform further research and enable researchers to identify potential differences in physical and sedentary activities patterns by various environmental and sociodemographic variables. Furthermore, associations of factors by gender may inform public health programs.

  7. Effects of providing a nutrition education program for teenagers: dietary and physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Yuen, Dorothy T W

    2009-06-01

    This study enhanced nutritional knowledge in an education program and encouraged healthy dietary habits and regular physical activity among teenagers. A total of 203 adolescents from a secondary school in Hong Kong took part in the study. Their Body Mass Index, dietary habits, and physical exercise pattern were recorded and examined before and after the health education program. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with the fat composition, were high among the participants before the nutrition education program. There was a marked gain in knowledge upon its completion. A follow-up action conducted 3 months later revealed positive outcomes in relation to the diet and physical activity level. The teenagers were able to take control of their health and requested the tuck shop to sell more healthy food and reduce the supply of unhealthy items. The educational initiatives in dietary habits and physical activities proved to be effective in encouraging the teenagers to eat more healthily and to adopt an active lifestyle.

  8. Obesigenic families: parents’ physical activity and dietary intake patterns predict girls’ risk of overweight

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K Krahnstoever; Birch, L Lipps

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether obesigenic families can be identified based on mothers’ and fathers’ dietary and activity patterns. METHODS A total of 197 girls and their parents were assessed when girls were 5 y old; 192 families were reassessed when girls were 7 y old. Measures of parents’ physical activity and dietary intake were obtained and entered into a cluster analysis to assess whether distinct family clusters could be identified. Girls’ skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed and were used to examine the predictive validity of the clusters. RESULTS Obesigenic and a non-obesigenic family clusters were identified. Mothers and fathers in the obesigenic cluster reported high levels of dietary intake and low levels of physical activity, while mothers and fathers in the non-obesigenic cluster reported low levels of dietary intake and high levels of activity. Girls from families in the obesigenic cluster had significantly higher BMI and skinfold thickness values at age 7 and showed significantly greater increases in BMI and skinfold thickness from ages 5 to 7 y than girls from non-obesigenic families; differences were reduced but not eliminated after controlling for parents’ BMI. CONCLUSIONS Obesigenic families, defined in terms of parents’ activity and dietary patterns, can be used predict children’s risk of obesity. PMID:12187395

  9. Sociocultural factors relating to Tongans' and Indigenous Fijians' patterns of eating, physical activity and body size.

    PubMed

    Mavoa, Helen M; McCabe, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews literature between 1974 and 2007 that addresses the impact of sociocultural factors on reported patterns of eating, physical activity (activity) and body size of Tongans and indigenous Fijians (Fijians) in their countries of origin. There have been changes in diet (more imported and fewer traditional foods), activity (reduced, especially in urban settings), residence (rural-urban shift) and body size (increased obesity and at a younger age). The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Tongans and Fijians has increased rapidly over the last two decades and remains among the highest in the world (>80% in Tonga; >40% in Fiji), with more females reported to be obese than males. The few studies that investigated sociocultural influences on patterns of eating, activity and/or body size in this population have examined the impact of hierarchical organisation, rank and status (sex, seniority), values (respect, care, co-operation) and/or role expectations. It is important to examine how sociocultural factors influence eating, activity and body size in order to i) establish factors that promote or protect against obesity, ii) inform culturally-appropriate interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and body size, and iii) halt the obesity epidemic, especially in cultural groups with a high prevalence of obesity. There is an urgent need for more systematic investigations of key sociocultural factors, whilst taking into account the complex interplay between sociocultural factors, behaviours and other influences (historical; socioeconomic; policy; external global influences; physical environment).

  10. Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants’ response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. Methods A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5 ±12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10–15 minutes walk of participants’ residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants’ response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. Results A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, “Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)”, “High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)”, “Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)”, “Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)”, and “Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)”. Country representation differed by

  11. Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marc A; Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Bowles, Heather R; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Bergman, Patrick; Bull, Fiona C; Carr, Harriette; Craig, Cora L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Gomez, Luis Fernando; Hagströmer, Maria; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena; Inoue, Shigeru; Lefevre, Johan; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Matsudo, Sandra; Matsudo, Victor; McLean, Grant; Murase, Norio; Sjöström, Michael; Tomten, Heidi; Volbekiene, Vida; Bauman, Adrian

    2013-03-14

    Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants' response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5±12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10-15 minutes walk of participants' residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants' response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, "Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)", "High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)", "Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)", "Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)", and "Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)". Country representation differed by type (e.g., U.S. disproportionally represented "Safe but

  12. Accelerometer Quantification of Physical Activity and Activity Patterns in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Population Controls.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Simon; Boonen, Annelies; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Arends, Suzanne; Landewé, Robert; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-12-01

    To compare the total amount of physical activity (TPA) and time spent in various activity intensities of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and population controls, and to explore factors related to physical activity (PA). Subjects were asked to wear a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days and to complete a series of questionnaires. Multivariable regressions were used to assess generic determinants of TPA in patients and controls, and in patients to explore demographic and disease-specific determinants of various PA intensities. One hundred and thirty-five patients [51 ± 13 yrs, 60% men, body mass index (BMI) 26.0 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)] and 99 controls (45 ± 12 yrs, 67% men, BMI 25.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were included. Patients did not differ from controls regarding TPA (589 vs 608 vector count/min, p = 0.98), minutes/day spent in sedentary (524 vs 541, p = 0.17), and light PA (290 vs 290 p = 0.95), but spent fewer minutes/day in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA; 23 vs 30 min/day, p = 0.006). Perceived functional ability (physical component summary of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and BMI were associated with TPA independent of having AS (p interaction = 0.21 and 0.94, respectively). Additional analyses in patients showed that time spent in MVPA was negatively influenced by BMI, physical function (Bath AS Functional Index), and disease duration. In patients ≥ 52 years old, a higher Bath AS Disease Activity Index was associated with less time spent in sedentary and more time spent in light activities. Compared with controls, patients with AS had similar TPA, but may avoid engagement in higher intensities of PA. Lower levels of functional ability and higher BMI were associated with lower TPA in both patients and controls.

  13. Physical activity patterns and socio-demographic correlates of physical activity among medical undergraduates in Sri Lanka: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Medagama, Arjuna; Galgomuwa, Manoj; Silva, Chinthani De

    2017-07-27

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide and a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Medical undergraduates are a group of young adults expected to have a sound knowledge of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and have an active lifestyle. To quantifyPA levels among medical undergraduates of a Sri Lankan university and to determine the socio-demographic correlates of physical inactivity. Medical undergraduates in their third, fourth and fifth years of study were recruited for this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 421 students were recruited. Overall 41% were physically inactive. Females (47%) were more inactive than males (34%). The total mean weekly metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes was 1468.2±1873. Males (1676.2±1629) had a higher mean weekly MET minutes than females (1319±20102), p=0.05. 88% owned a portable internet device such as a smartphone or tablet. Students using health-related apps on their devices had significantly higherPA (p=0.01) and lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.04), than those who did not. Binary logistic regression revealed physical inactivity to be significantly associated with gender (p=0.01), not using a health-promoting app on their portable device (p=0.01) and the year of study (p=0.03). Physical inactivity is a significant problem among medical undergraduates. The use of health applications was associated with a higher PA and lower BMI. The reasons for inactivity and the discrepancy in activity levels between males and females needs to be explored in greater detail. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Physical Activity and Social Engagement Patterns during Physical Education of Youth with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Ozturk, Mehmet A.; Kozub, Francis M.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with visual impairments have a greater need to be physically fit because in comparison to sighted peers they have increased demands for energy to carry out everyday tasks (Lieberman & McHugh, 2001). Further, their level of vision influences many critical areas such as motor learning, ability to interact in games, and understanding of…

  15. The utility of the Digi-walker step counter to assess daily physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Welk, G J; Differding, J A; Thompson, R W; Blair, S N; Dziura, J; Hart, P

    2000-09-01

    The Digi-Walker step counter is a promising and cost-effective tool to measure physical activity under free-living conditions. Two specific studies were conducted to evaluate the number of steps required to meet current physical activity guidelines. Thirty-one adults (17 men, 14 women) served as participants. In study 1, we determined the number of steps to complete a mile under two different conditions and three paces. In study 2, we conducted a field trial to examine the relationship between daily step counts and other indices of physical activity. Participants in this study wore a Digi-Walker for 2 consecutive weeks and completed the 7-d physical activity recall (PAR) after each week. In study 1, there were no differences in step counts by site, but steps were inversely related to pace, with values ranging from 1330 to 1996. Individual step counts at a specific pace were negatively correlated with height, weight, leg length, and stride length and were positively correlated with body fatness. In study 2, participants had average daily step counts of 11,603 when structured vigorous activity was included and 8265 when only light and moderate activity were measured. Modest correlations were found between step counts and estimated energy expenditure. Similar correlations were observed when step counts were related to minutes of activity per day and minutes of sitting per day. Pedometers provide a useful indicator of daily step counts but variability in activity patterns make it difficult to establish step count guidelines that correspond with other public health guidelines.

  16. Patterns of daily physical activity during school days in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Paula; Guerra, Sandra; Ribeiro, José C; Duarte, José A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the weekday patterns of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in school children and adolescents and determine if there are periods of the day that are representative of their typical MVPA. The sample comprised 84 subjects (boys, n = 30; girls, n = 54), age 8-15 years old. Daily totals for the physical activity variables were calculated by summing the values from 13 hr of physical activity (PA) measurements (9:00-22:00), with 60-min time blocks comprising each day. The MVPA data values were categorized in four daily periods: morning (9:00-11:59), noon (12:00-14:59), late afternoon (15:00-17.59), and evening (18:00-21.59). Our data show that boys participated significantly more in MVPA than girls. Despite no clear patterns or differences among sex being found, girls showed higher percent of time engaged in MVPA during the morning and early afternoon periods (sum of two periods 51.0%), while boys' percent of time engaged in MVPA is higher at late afternoon and evening periods (sum of two periods 53.8%). The principal components analyses showed four distinct components that accounted for 67% of the variance, as follows: school hours (component 1); lunchtime and outside-school activities (component 2); morning time before school period (component 4); and period before bedtime (component 3) appear as distinct periods of the day. In conclusion, the present study shows that boys engaged more in MVPA than girls. Girls tend to be more active during school periods, while boys are more active after school.

  17. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H

    2016-05-03

    Applying latent class analysis (LCA) to accelerometry can help elucidated underlying patterns. This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity among youth by applying LCA to a nationally representative United States (US) sample. Using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 3998 youths 6-17 years wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for one week, providing > =3 days of wear for > =8 h/day from 6:00 am-midnight. Cutpoints defined sedentary behavior (<100 counts/minute), light activity (100-2295 counts/minute), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > = 2296 counts/minute), and vigorous activity (> = 4012 counts/minute). To account for wear time differences, outcomes were expressed as percent of day in a given intensity. LCA was used to classify daily (Monday through Sunday) patterns of average counts/minute, sedentary behavior, light activity, MVPA, and vigorous activity separately. The latent classes were explored overall and by age (6-11, 12-14, 15-17 years), gender, and whether or not youth attended school during measurement. Estimates were weighted to account for the sampling frame. For average counts/minute/day, four classes emerged from least to most active: 40.9% of population (mean 323.5 counts/minute/day), 40.3% (559.6 counts/minute/day), 16.5% (810.0 counts/minute/day), and 2.3% (1132.9 counts/minute/day). For percent of sedentary behavior, four classes emerged: 13.5% of population (mean 544.6 min/day), 30.1% (455.1 min/day), 38.5% (357.7 min/day), and 18.0% (259.2 min/day). For percent of light activity, four classes emerged: 12.3% of population (mean 222.6 min/day), 29.3% (301.7 min/day), 41.8% (384.0 min/day), and 16.6% (455.5 min/day). For percent of MVPA, four classes emerged: 59.9% of population (mean 25.0 min/day), 33.3% (60.9 min/day), 3.1% (89.0 min/day), and 3.6% (109.3 min/day). For percent of vigorous activity, three classes emerged: 76.8% of

  18. Body weight, eating patterns, and physical activity: the role of education.

    PubMed

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we empirically study the role of education attainment on individual body mass index (BMI), eating patterns, and physical activity. We allow for endogeneity of schooling choices for females and males in a mean and quantile instrumental variables framework. We find that completion of lower secondary education has a significant positive impact on reduction of individual BMI, containment of calorie consumption, and promotion of physical activity. Interestingly, these effects are heterogeneous across genders and distributions. In particular, for BMI and calorie expenditure, the effect of education is significant for females and is more pronounced for women with high body mass and low physical activity. On the other hand, the effect of education on eating patterns is significant mainly for males, being more beneficial for men with elevated calorie consumption. We also show that education attainment is likely to foster productive and allocative efficiency of individuals in the context of BMI formation. Given that the literature suggests that education fosters development of cognition, self-control, and a variety of skills and abilities, in our context it is thus likely to promote lifetime preferences and means of individuals, which in turn enable them to achieve better health outcomes. Education also provides exposure to physical education and to school subjects enhancing individual deliberative skills, which are important factors shaping calorie expenditure and intake. Finally, we show that in the presence of strong socioeconomic inequalities in BMI, education is likely to have a pronounced impact on healthy BMI for the disadvantaged groups, represented in our framework by females.

  19. Effect of Early Adult Patterns of Physical Activity and Television Viewing on Midlife Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tina D; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R; Launer, Lenore J; Whitmer, Rachel A; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low

  20. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Ishaku, Cornelius M.; Oyekola, Jameela; Wakawa, Hajara D.; Lawan, Aliyu; Yakubu, Safira; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the context where adolescents’ physical activity (PA) takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents’ PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time) and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA), and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES) among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12–18 years, 50.4% girls) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk) of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels) with adolescents’ sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups. Results The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk), the least during active transportation (210 min/wk), and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001), active transportation (P<0.001), MVPA (P = 0.023) and total PA (P = 0.003) than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009), home-based PA (P<0.001) and light-intensity PA (P<0.001) than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024) and total PA (P = 0.049) were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009), less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048) and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013). High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0

  1. Dietary Behaviour and Socioeconomic Position: The Role of Physical Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Jonas D.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive association between education level and health outcomes can be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between education and several indices of food intake and potential influencing factors, placing special emphasis on physical-activity patterns, using a representative sample of the German adult population. Methods The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) involved 7,124 participants aged between 18 and 79. Complete information on the exposure (education) and outcome (nutrition) variables was available for 6,767 persons. The associations between ‘education’ and indices of ‘sugar-rich food’, ‘fat-rich food’, ‘fruit-and-vegetable’ and ‘alcohol’ intake were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of education level on nutrition outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region (former East/West Germany), occupation, income and other influencing factors such as physical activity indicators. Results Men and women with only a primary education had a more frequent intake of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods and a less frequent intake of fruit and vegetables and alcohol than people with a tertiary education. ‘Physical work activity’ partly explained the associations between education and sugar-rich food intake. The interference with physical work activity was stronger among men than women. No significant associations between education and energy-dense food intake were observed in the retirement-age group of persons aged 65+ and among persons with low energy expenditure. Conclusions In Germany, adults with a low level of education report that they consume energy-dense foods more frequently – and fruit and vegetables and alcohol less frequently – than adults with a high education level. High levels of physical work activity among adults with a low education level may partly explain why they

  2. Physical activity at 36 years: patterns and childhood predictors in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Kuh, D J; Cooper, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to describe the sex and socioeconomic differences in patterns of physical activity at work and in leisure time of men and women aged 36 years, and to investigate factors in childhood and adolescence which predict high rates of participation in sports and recreational activities in later life. DESIGN--Data collected in childhood, adolescence, and at 36 years on members of a national prospective birth cohort study were used. SETTING--The population sample was resident in England, Scotland, and Wales. SUBJECTS--A stratified sample of about 3500 men and women was studied regularly from birth until 43 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--More men than women reported high rates of sports and recreational activities, gardening, and do-it-yourself. In contrast women reported higher rates of bicycling and walking. Higher levels of education were associated with frequent participation in sports. Individuals often engaged in one type of activity without necessarily engaging in other types. Those who were most active in sport had been above average at sports in school, more outgoing socially in adolescence, had fewer health problems in childhood, were better educated, and had more mothers with a secondary education than those who were less active. CONCLUSIONS--Studies that examine the relationship between physical activity and chronic disease should consider a broad range of pursuits rather than extrapolating from only one area of physical activity, and in their explanations should take account of the possible role of childhood characteristics. The findings suggest the importance of developing skills and habits in childhood as well as of encouraging healthier exercise habits in adults who may have had few opportunities or low motivation previously. Images PMID:1583424

  3. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women's perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk(-1)) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P < 0.01), light (109.45 vs 95.11vs 92.40; P < 0.01) and moderate intensity (81.99 vs 50.69 vs 62.94; P = 0.002). Time spent on most activities remained fairly stable throughout pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second trimester, in total, light and moderate intensity. Women spent most

  4. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. Objectives This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women’s perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. Patients and Methods A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. Results A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk-1) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P < 0.01), light (109.45 vs 95.11vs 92.40; P < 0.01) and moderate intensity (81.99 vs 50.69 vs 62.94; P = 0.002). Time spent on most activities remained fairly stable throughout pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Conclusions Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second

  5. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns using accelerometry from a national sample of United States adults.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Metzger, Jesse S; Herring, Amy H

    2015-02-15

    This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, 7931 adults at least 18 years old wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week, providing at least 3 days of wear for >=8 hours/day. Cutpoints defined moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; >= 2020 and >=760 counts/minute), vigorous physical activity (> = 5999 counts/minute), and sedentary behavior (<100 counts/minute). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior. All estimates were weighted to reflect the United States population. For weighted percent of MVPA out of total wearing time, 5 classes were identified from least to most active: 65.3% of population (weighted mean 9.3 minutes/day), 24.9% (32.1 minutes/day), 3.2% that was low on the weekdays but much higher on the weekends (52.0 minutes/day), 5.9% (59.9 minutes/day), and 0.7% in the highest class (113.6 minutes/day). Using the lower MVPA threshold, 6 classes emerged with each class ranging in population from 1.2% to 43.6%. A vigorous activity class could not be derived due to low prevalence. For weighted percent of sedentary behavior out of total wearing time, 5 classes were identified from most to least sedentary: 6.3% of population (weighted mean 660.2 minutes/day), 25.1% (546.8 minutes/day), 37.7% (453.9 minutes/day), 24.0% (354.8 minutes/day), and 7.0% (256.3 minutes/day). Four of the classes showed generally similar results across every day of the week, with the absolute percents differing across classes. In contrast, the least sedentary class showing a marked rise in percent of time spent in sedentary behavior on the weekend (weighted mean 336.7-346.5 minutes/day) compared to weekdays (weighted mean 255.2-292.4 minutes/day). The LCA models provided a data

  6. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  7. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  8. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  9. Physical activity and pattern of blood pressure in postmenopausal women with hypertension in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Adeniyi, Ade F; Dosa, Bukayo T; Sanya, Arinola O; Awolola, Kehinde O

    2014-04-01

    Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. It compared BP pattern and adiposity variables [body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)] between two PA groups. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 220 participants in this cross-sectional survey after obtaining their informed consent. International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA level, while a 16-item questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic and clinical profiles of the women. BP, BMI and WHR were assessed using standard measurement procedures. Descriptive statistics of mean ± standard deviation were used for data summarization and independent t-test was used to compare variables between low level and moderate to vigorous level PA groups. Participants' mean values include: age 61.6 ± 8.5 years, years since menopause 12.75± 8.15, BMI 28.63±4.99kg/m(2), WHR 1.11±0.08, SBP and DBP 145.9±17.9; 93.7±11.4 mmHg respectively. Mean values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those with moderate to vigorous even though the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Involvement in moderate to vigorous physical activities among menopausal women in Nigeria should be encouraged. This may reduce hypertension and adiposity with a possible control of cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Behavior change and the freshman 15: tracking physical activity and dietary patterns in 1st-year university women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Martin Ginis, Kathleen Anne

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained physical activity and dietary logs 4 times throughout the year. Caloric intake decreased over 12 months in all participants (p = .01). There was little change in physical activity in participants who lost weight (p = .73, d = .18). Those who gained weight experienced a trend toward decreased physical activity (p = .13, d = .38). A significant Time X Group interaction on physical activity (p = .04) suggests that physical activity patterns differed substantially between individuals who gained weight and those who lost weight. Reduction in physical activity appears to be the defining characteristic in freshman weight gain.

  11. Physical Activity Patterns among Walkers and Compliance with Public Health Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Ann P.; Reeves, Mathew J.; McGee, Harry B.; Pivarnik, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed data from the 1998 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to determine the prevalence of walking for physical activity and the proportions of walkers who met current public health physical activity recommendations. Results indicated that in 1998, approximately 38.6 percent of U.S. adults walked for physical activity. Less than 40…

  12. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity.

  13. Physical activity patterns by campus housing status among African American female college students.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity protects against heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and cancer. Fewer than 40% of African American women obtain recommended amounts of physical activity. Healthy Campus 2010 identifies physical activity as a top priority for improving the health of college students. However, during college, women tend to reduce their levels of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between campus housing and physical activity behaviors in a sample of African American female college students (N = 138). Participants who lived on campus were significantly more likely to meet the recommended amounts of both moderate and vigorous physical activity than students who lived off campus (44% vs. 19%). The results demonstrate the importance of campus fitness resources in explaining the role that the built environment can play in increased physical activity among this population. Recommendations for the use of the campus's built environment and fitness resources are provided.

  14. Mood and Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity Patterns in Youth with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michael, Julie C; El Nokali, Nermeen E; Black, Jessica J; Rofey, Dana L

    2015-10-01

    To provide initial insight into physical activity patterns and predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by using a multisensor activity monitor. Cross-sectional study analyzing baseline MVPA data using real-time continuous monitoring of physical activity. Body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of MVPA. A large, urban children's hospital in the United States. Thirty-five youth (aged 12 to 21 years) previously diagnosed with PCOS (mean BMI = 38.0 kg/m(2); mean age = 15.4 years, 79% white) who were participants in a behavioral lifestyle intervention. Total steps, total MVPA, longest continuous bout of MVPA, and frequency of MVPA bouts lasting for 5 to 9 minutes and 10 or more minutes. Sixty percent of youth averaged at least 1 daily MVPA bout lasting 10 or more minutes, and 14% averaged a daily MVPA bout lasting 30 or more minutes. BMI was negatively correlated with MVPA bout duration (P = .04). Parental ratings of depression, but not self-report ratings, were predictive of participants' total MVPA (β = -.46; P = .01), number of 5- to 9-minute bouts (β = -.39; P = .03), and bouts of 10 or more minutes (β = -.35; P = .05). Youth with PCOS may benefit from being prescribed multiple bouts of MVPA lasting less than 30 continuous minutes to meet national recommendations and achieve health benefits. BMI and parental endorsement of child's depression symptoms may be important to consider when assessing and prescribing MVPA to youth with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weekday and weekend physical activity patterns of French and Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aibar, Alberto; Bois, Julien E; Zaragoza Casterad, Javier; Generelo, Eduardo; Paillard, Thierry; Fairclough, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns during specific segments of the day remain unclear. In order to develop a clearer understanding this study examined country and gender differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels during specific segments of weekdays and weekend days, and explored the contribution of each segment to PA guidelines. Morpho-demographic, socio-economic and PA data were collected from a sample of 829 French and Spanish adolescents (45.0% Spanish; 55.2% females; 14.33±.73 years). Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were worn for seven days to assess adolescents' MVPA for three segments of weekdays (school-travel-time, school-time, and non-school-time), and weekend days (morning-time, afternoon-time and night-time). Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. The most active segments were non-school-time (29.2±17.5 min) and school-time (25.8±14.2 min) during weekdays, and morning-time (28.2±25.8 min) on weekend days. Except for school-time, Spanish adolescents were more significantly active than French adolescents during all segments. Significant gender differences were found in all segments. Country differences highlight the need to recognise cultural contexts that influence adolescents' PA. Common European-wide strategies may be insufficient to increase MVPA levels if cultural variability is not considered. Spanish and French PA intervention programmes should target girls and low-active boys during non-school-time and weekends.

  16. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns123

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. Results: On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P < 0.001); girls, 2.30 (1.66, 3.08) (P < 0.001)] when adjusted for socioeconomic status, percentage of body fat, and total energy intake. Peak hourly MVPA differed for breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P < 0.001). Inconsistent breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P < 0.03]. Conclusions: Eating breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents. PMID:24284440

  17. Preschool Daily Patterns of Physical Activity Driven by Location and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Chelsey R.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Fees, Bronwyn S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool children are recommended to spend at least 15 minutes/hour (25% time) in light-to-vigorous physical activity (total physical activity, TPA). Preschool provider practices, such as whether children are put in small group or whole-group activities, are likely to affect children's TPA levels during preschool. The current study…

  18. Preschool Daily Patterns of Physical Activity Driven by Location and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Chelsey R.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Fees, Bronwyn S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool children are recommended to spend at least 15 minutes/hour (25% time) in light-to-vigorous physical activity (total physical activity, TPA). Preschool provider practices, such as whether children are put in small group or whole-group activities, are likely to affect children's TPA levels during preschool. The current study…

  19. Parental characteristic patterns associated with maintaining healthy physical activity behavior during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2016-05-06

    Parental characteristics that influence child physical activity (PA) behavior often co-occur. An analytic approach that considers these co-occurring patterns can help researchers better understand the overall context of parental influence. The study aims were to: (1) identify diverse patterns of the relationships among parental characteristics, (2) examine the influence of these parental patterns on child sport participation and moderate-to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) trajectories during childhood and adolescence, and (3) examine whether family support mediates the influence of the parental patterns on child sport participation and MVPA trajectories. We used data from 408 Iowa Bone Development Study cohort families (97% Caucasians; 65 % mothers with a 4-year college degree). From ages 5 to 19 years, the cohort participated in seven accelerometry assessments, reported sports participation every 6 months, and reported perceived family support for PA at age 15. Parents reported family income, education level, and regular PA participation in high school and adulthood. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent classes represented among these parental characteristics. Sex-adjusted multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict sports participation trajectories and MVPA trajectories by latent class and family support. Three parent latent classes were identified: higher family socioeconomic status (SES) and regular PA in both high school and adulthood by both the father and mother (Group 1); lower family SES and regular PA in high school by the father (Group 2); and lower family SES and no regular PA in high school by the father (Group 3). Sex-adjusted ORs of the "drop-out from sports participation" pattern for the children in Groups 1 and 2, compared to Group 3, were 0.38 (95% CI = 0.20, 0.72) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.26, 1.00), respectively. Sex-adjusted ORs of the "decreasing from moderate MVPA" pattern for the children

  20. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patterns of Participation in Daily Physical and Play Activities

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Panahi, Nekoo; Ranjbar, Elaheh; Moshayedi, Pouria; Shafiei, Masih; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates several neurodevelopmental impairments which may end in impairments in motor or physical activities. Daily physical activity involvement was investigated in a total of 83 children (52 boys and 31 girls) with ASD aged 6–15 years. Results indicated that only 10 (12%) of children with ASD were physically active. Children were predominantly engaged in solitary play rather than social play activities. Gender, family income, and household structure were found to be associated with activity scores. Financial burden and lack of opportunities were noted as the leading barriers to physical activities. In conclusion, findings indicated a low rate of physical activity participation in children with ASD that is closely associated with sociodemographic variables. PMID:26171247

  1. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Brychta, Robert J.; Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Johannsson, Erlingur; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Marinac, Catherine R.; Davis, Megan; Koster, Annemarie; Caserotti, Paolo; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Harris, Tamara; Chen, Kong Y.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 ± 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger population-based longitudinal observational-cohort study in the greater Reykjavik area of Iceland. A subpopulation (n = 72) repeated the 7-day measurement during seasonal periods with greater (13.4 ± 1.4 h) and lesser (7.7 ± 1.8 h) daylight. Results: Cross-sectional analyses using multiple linear regression models revealed that day length was a significant independent predictor of sleep duration, mid-sleep, and rise time (all p < 0.05). However, the actual within-individual differences in sleep patterns of the repeaters were rather subtle between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. Compared to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 ± 80 vs. 487 ± 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 ± 18.3 vs. 40.2 ± 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar between men and women and between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. BMI, age, gender, and overall PA all contributed to the variations in sleep parameters using multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The sleep and PA characteristics of this unique population revealed some gender differences, but there was limited variation in response to significant daylight changes which may be due to long-term adaptation. Citation: Brychta RJ, Arnardottir NY, Johannsson E, Wright EC, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Marinac CR, Davis M, Koster A, Caserotti P, Sveinsson T, Harris T, Chen KY. Influence of day length and physical activity on sleep patterns in older Icelandic men and women. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):203–213. PMID:26414978

  2. Practice patterns, counseling and promotion of physical activity by sports medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Pojednic, Rachele M; Polak, Rani; Arnstein, Fred; Kennedy, Mary A; Bantham, Amy; Phillips, Edward M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined sports medicine physicians with an established interest in physical activity to investigate attitudes surrounding exercise, physical activity and patient-counseling behavior. The degree to which physicians' personal knowledge of physical activity and related resources, involvement with common activities, and perceived barriers were assessed. An internet survey was designed in four domains: (1) counseling behavior, (2) tools and resources, (3) appropriateness of common physical activities for patients and (4) barriers. The survey was sent to 3570 members of two electronic mailing lists - Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, Boston, MA and The American College of Sports Medicine. Surveys were emailed during 2011-2012 and analyzed in 2013-2014. Each survey contained 39 questions. The response rate of the surveys was 16%. Of 412 physicians, 74% regularly recommended physical activity, 66% talked about exercise with patients, and 49% included as a vital sign. Only 26% of physicians provided a written exercise prescription. ACSM's Exercise is Medicine(®) (37%) was the most popular resource. Walking, followed by aerobic activity, strength training and cycling were the most recommended forms of activity and were associated with physicians' personal experiences. The most potent inhibitor was time. Physicians with an interest in exercise and physical activity recognize the importance of recommending and counseling patients on exercise and physical activity. Physician counseling was associated with personal familiarity with physical activity. Increasing knowledge and experience with exercise, physical activity and counseling behavior is an important component to encourage physical activity assessment and promotion by sports medicine physicians. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Breit, Marc; Netzer, Michael; Weinberger, Klaus M; Baumgartner, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars) were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID) for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs) in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2), showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P < 0.001). In the class of amino acids, highest values were shown for alanine (MFC = 1.42, P < 0.001), classified as late marker and strong predictor. Glucose yields a delayed response pattern, similar to a hockey stick function, being classified as delayed marker and ranked as moderate predictor (MFC = 1.32, P < 0.001). These findings coincide with existing knowledge on central metabolic pathways affected in exercise physiology, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and glycogenolysis. The presented modeling approach

  4. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Marc; Netzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars) were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID) for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs) in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2), showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P < 0.001). In the class of amino acids, highest values were shown for alanine (MFC = 1.42, P < 0.001), classified as late marker and strong predictor. Glucose yields a delayed response pattern, similar to a hockey stick function, being classified as delayed marker and ranked as moderate predictor (MFC = 1.32, P < 0.001). These findings coincide with existing knowledge on central metabolic pathways affected in exercise physiology, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and glycogenolysis. The presented modeling approach

  5. Physical Activity Patterns of PETE Majors: Do They Walk the Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVine, Mary E.; Ray, Cortney

    2006-01-01

    It is well established and supported by research that regular physical activity has positive benefits to health. Currently, there is much concern about the decreasing amount of physical activity in adults and children with a corresponding increase in obesity and morbidity/ mortality rates. This study was designed to investigate the activity…

  6. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  7. Patterns and correlates of physical activity in adolescents in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Burton, N W; Trost, S G

    2017-04-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged public health importance of physical activity (PA), few studies have examined levels of PA in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of PA in adolescents in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 798 students, aged 13-17 years; 48% girls, from eight purposively selected secondary schools in Dhaka city, Bangladesh completed a self-administered questionnaire including the 3-Day PA Recall. Parents completed a separate questionnaire to provide household/family-level data. Multilevel generalized linear modelling was used to identify the correlates of PA for boys and girls. Two-thirds (66%) of the adolescents met the recommendations of 60 min/day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily, with more boys than girls (76% and 55%, respectively). The most common activities reported were walking for travel (42%), cricket (33%) and household chores (30%). Multivariable modelling showed that girls' PA was positively associated with mother's education level, walking to school, involvement in school sports and having home sports equipment. Boys' PA was positively associated with mother's employment, having home sports equipment, having a playground at school and walking to school. One third of adolescents in Bangladesh were insufficiently active with girls less active than boys. Walking to school and access to sports facilities including playgrounds and home equipment may be important to promote activity among Bangladeshi adolescents, with special attention to the girls. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of life events on physical activity patterns of Dutch older adults: a life history method.

    PubMed

    Kenter, Elise J; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Lottman, Irene; van Rossum, Mariët; Bekedam, Margreet; Crone, Mathilde R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve well-being and health during older age. This study explored how life events influence PA patterns of older adults. Seventeen interviews with older adults were conducted using a life history method. PA patterns during the life course were identified, including information on when, how and why changes in PA occurred. Four different response patterns that affect PA patterns after life events (e.g. death of partner) were discerned as follows: 'I want to be physically active, but there are too many barriers', 'I have reached a point in my life where I do not have to be so active any more', 'I need to exercise now if I want to live the life I want' and 'I have always been active and cannot do without PA'. Which response pattern an older adult held was strongly related to PA development during earlier life (physical capital), and present and future self-conceptions. When developing interventions to enhance PA in older age, it is important to take into account the diversity of views on PA, based on physical capital and current and future self-conceptions. The life history method appeared valuable, providing a thorough understanding of changes in PA patterns.

  9. Correlates and geographic patterns of knowledge that physical activity decreases cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A Susana; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Vanderpool, Robin C; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-04-01

    While many lifestyle-related cancer risk factors including tobacco use, poor diet, and sun exposure are well recognized by the general public, the role of physical activity in decreasing cancer risk is less recognized. Studies have demonstrated gender-, race/ethnicity-, and age-based disparities in cancer risk factor knowledge; however, beliefs and geographic factors that may be related to knowledge are under-examined. In this study, we analyzed data from the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey to determine correlates of knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and reduced cancer risk in the adult US population. We generated geographic information system maps to examine the geographic distribution of this knowledge. Results revealed that there is confusion among US adults about the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk: Respondents who believed that cancer is not preventable had significantly lower odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p < .001) whereas respondents who believed that cancer is caused by one's behavior had almost two times the odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p < .001). Those who were aware of current physical activity guidelines were also significantly more likely to know that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p < .01). Observed geographic variability in knowledge was consistent with geographic trends in obesity and physical inactivity. Correlates of cancer risk factor knowledge point to opportunities for targeted interventions.

  10. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  11. Patterns of weekday and weekend physical activity in youth in 2 Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Comte, Melisa; Hobin, Erin; Majumdar, Sumit R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Ball, Geoff D C; McGavock, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Few Canadian children are meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines for optimal growth and health. There is little information describing the patterns of PA among Canadian youth, so it is difficult to determine where the deficits occur. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of youth and windows of time characterized by low PA and high sedentary behaviour. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 626 youth (aged 10-15 years) in 2 Canadian provinces. The primary exposure variables included geographic setting (rural vs. urban), sex, and days of the week (weekend days vs. weekdays). The primary outcome measures were minutes of light PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior, assessed with accelerometry. Compared with weekdays, MVPA was ∼30% lower on weekend days (55.8 ± 23.0 min vs. 38.7 ± 26.7 min; p < 0.001), whereas light PA was ∼15% higher. Significantly more youth achieved an average of >60 min of MVPA on weekdays than on weekend days (46% vs. 22%; p < 0.001). Sex-specific differences in MVPA were more pronounced on weekdays than on weekend days (∼13 vs ∼8 min per day; p < 0.01). Youth in rural settings achieved ∼9 fewer minutes of MVPA daily than youth in urban settings (p < 0.001). In youth 10 to 15 years of age, daily MVPA is lower and light PA is higher on weekend days than on weekdays. Girls and students living in rural areas were particularly vulnerable to low levels of MVPA.

  12. Patterns and correlates of objectively measured free-living physical activity in adults in rural and urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Assah, Felix; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas; Brage, Soren

    2015-07-01

    Urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa is changing lifestyles and raising non-communicable disease burden. Understanding the underlying pattern of physical activity and its correlates may inform preventive interventions. We examined correlates of objectively-measured physical activity in rural and urban Cameroon. Participants were 544 adults resident in rural (W-156, M-89) or urban (W-189, M-110) regions. Physical activity was measured using individually-calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing over seven continuous days. Sociodemographic data were collected by self-report. Independent associations of sociodemographic correlates with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analysed in multivariate regression models. Rural dwellers were significantly more active than their urban counterparts (PAEE: 58.0 vs 42.9 kJ/kg/day; MVPA: 107 vs 62 min/day; MVPA of 150 min/week in >10 min bouts: 62 vs 39%) and less sedentary (923 vs 1026 min/day); p<0.001. There was no significant seasonal difference (dry vs rainy) in activity in urban dwellers whereas in rural dwellers activity was higher during dry seasons compared to rainy seasons (p<0.001). Age, obesity and education showed significant inverse associations with activity. Urban dwellers who considered themselves adequately active were only as active as rural dwellers who thought they were not adequately active. This is the first study providing data on sociodemographic patterning of objectively-measured physical activity in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa. Age, urban residence, obesity and higher educational level are important correlates of lower levels of physical activity. These suggest targets for public health interventions to improve physical activity in Cameroon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Lifestyle counseling in overweight truck and bus drivers - Effects on dietary patterns and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Puhkala, Jatta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Aittasalo, Minna; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Kärmeniemi, Paula; Sallinen, Mikael; Olkkonen, Seppo; Tokola, Kari; Ojala, Anna; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    We studied dietary patterns, physical activity (PA), and monthly goal setting in a weight reduction intervention in long-distance professional drivers. The study was conducted in Finland in 2009-2012. Male drivers with waist circumference > 100 cm were randomized to a lifestyle counseling (LIFE, N = 55) and a reference (REF, N = 58) group. During 12 months, LIFE participated in 6 face-to-face and 7 telephone counseling sessions on diet and PA. Dietary patterns were assessed using an index combining food diary and counselor interview, and PA with the number of daily steps using a pedometer. Monthly lifestyle goals, perceived facilitators and barriers, and adverse effects of PA in the LIFE participants were monitored using counselors' log books. Forty-seven (85%) LIFE participants completed the 12-month program. After 12 months, the mean dietary index score improved by 12% (p = 0.002, N = 24), and the number of daily steps increased by 1811 steps (median; p = 0.01, N = 22). The most frequent dietary goals dealt with meal frequency, plate model, and intake of vegetables, fruits, and berries. The most common PA mode was walking. Typical facilitators to reach monthly lifestyle goals were support from family and friends and ailment prevention; typical barriers were working schedules and ailments. Adverse effects, most commonly musculoskeletal pain, occurred among 83% of the LIFE participants. Positive changes in lifestyle habits were observed during counseling. Monthly lifestyle counseling combining face-to-face and phone contacts seemed appropriate to long-distance drivers. Barriers for reaching lifestyle changes, and adverse effects of PA were common and need to be addressed when planning counseling. Clinical Trials NCT00893646.

  14. Patterns of Physical Activity among American Indian Children: An Assessment of Barriers and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated barriers to participation in physical activity by American Indian elementary school students. Data from interviews, observations, and surveys indicated that barriers at school included lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff people for physical education. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were also…

  15. Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (<8 h) on school days. The review of the literature (30 studies) showed that the Spanish adolescents sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.

  16. Prevention: Changing children's diet and physical activity patterns via schools, families, and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter focuses on identifying intervention approaches to prevent childhood obesity. Childhood obesity results from an energy imbalance whereby the energy consumed (diet) has exceeded the energy expended (resting metabolic rate and physical activity). Obesity prevention relies on understan...

  17. The association between time spent in vigorous physical activity and dietary patterns in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Durksen, Anita; Downs, Shauna; Mollard, Rebecca; Forbes, Laura; Ball, Geoff D C; McGavock, Jon

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity interventions targeting weight status have yielded mixed results. This variability may be attributed to compensatory changes in dietary patterns after increasing physical activity (PA) levels. Therefore, we sought to determine whether dietary patterns varied with time spent in vigorous-intensity PA in youth. Cross-sectional analysis of 330 youth enrolled in a school-based prospective cohort in central Alberta. Physical activity was assessed with waist mounted accelerometers (Actical) worn for 7 days. Main outcomes included consumption of unhealthy foods and the unhealthy food index obtained from a validated web-based 24-hour dietary recall instrument. Secondary outcomes included macronutrient intake, food group (Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating) intake, and diet quality. Compared with youth participating in < 7 min/ day of vigorous physical activity, those achieving ≥ 7 min/day displayed no change in healthy or unhealthy food consumption. However, linear regression suggests a modest association between diet quality and vigorous-intensity PA. These data demonstrate that in this cohort of Canadian youth, time spent being physically active is associated with healthier dietary patterns and not with increased consumption of unhealthy foods.

  18. Patterns of habitual physical activity in youth with and without Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castner, Diobel M; Tucker, Jared M; Wilson, Kathleen S; Rubin, Daniela A

    2014-11-01

    Children classified as overweight or obese and those with disabilities are at a greater risk of not meeting the minimum recommendation of 60 min a day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA). Youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) appear to participate in less PA compared to nonsyndromal children, likely due to syndrome-related factors. However, description of PA patterns in youth with PWS is lacking. The purpose of this study was to characterize PA in youth with PWS and to compare it to PA in children with nonsyndromal obesity. Twenty-four youth with PWS (ages 8-16 years) and 40 obese children without PWS (OB) (ages 8-11 years) wore accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Data were screened for compliance and classified into PA intensities: sedentary behavior (SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate plus vigorous (MVPA). Youth with PWS spent 19.4% less time in weekly LPA (p=0.007) and 29.8% less time in weekly VPA compared to OB controls (p=0.036). All other intensities were similar between groups. In addition, PWS participated in less LPA and VPA during the weekends compared to OB, and less LPA on weekdays when compared to OB. There was also a trend towards PWS participating in less MVPA during the weekends and less VPA during the weekends than OB controls. There was a trend towards PWS participating in less VPA on weekends compared to weekdays, while OB participated similarly in VPA on weekdays and weekend days. On average, neither PWS nor OB children met minimum MVPA recommendations. The results suggest there is a need to design exercise programs for PWS youth that focus on integrating vigorous intensity activities, especially during the weekends when structured PA may not be available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical activity levels and pattern of use for youth participants at a traditional aquatic venue.

    PubMed

    Ramos, William D; Chen, Ya-Ling; Kang, Sangguk

    2017-06-01

    In an effort to encourage youth to acquire recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), we need to examine affordances available to enhance opportunities. Included for consideration should be built environments such as swimming pools which can have significant impacts through leisure service delivery to promote active lifestyles. For this study, The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), was employed at a traditional aquatic venue during July and August in the Midwestern region of the U.S. Data was collected on three physical activity postures for youths age 4 to 18 along with variables including: (a) age, (b) gender, (c) physical activity posture, and (d) areas of participation termed target areas. A total of 3780 observations were taken into account during analysis. To detect differences among key variables, One-Way ANOVA and t-tests were performed. Descriptive results indicated that MVPA accounted for 70% of activity in the aquatic venue. Overall, female youths generated more MVPA within target areas compared to males, and youth as a single group consistently scored higher in all target areas as well as overall in MVPA. Significant differences were discovered in relation to several target areas. Findings from the study indicate that the use of a traditional aquatic venue can have positive impacts on youth physical activity and assist in meeting national standards for daily requirements of MVPA. It is also indicated that design features of an aquatic venue can play a role in determining levels of engagement and physical activity.

  20. Physical activity pattern of prepubescent Filipino school children during school days.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan, Metromanila, in MVPA and sports during a school day. The Filipino-modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (F_PAQ_C) was administered in English and Filipino. Additional data was collected on sex, age, type of school, and amount of time spent using television and computers. Children's self-assessment of physical activities (1 question in the F_PAQ_C) was correlated with their cumulative F_PAQ_C score. Three hundred eighty subjects (167 boys, 213 girls) participated. Participation in MVPA varied between sex and age groups, from 56.1% to 65.0%. Fewer than 10% of participants were very active. The children were more active during physical education classes than at recess or lunch, after class, or in the evening. Walking for exercise, jumping, jogging and running, free play, and dance were most common. Boys, younger children, and private school students most commonly engaged in MVPA. Self-assessed physical activity had modest correlation (r(2)= 0.21) with cumulative F_PAQ_C score, after adjusting for sex, age, and school type. Most children were not physically active during the school day, except in physical education classes. To reduce the gap between recommended and current activity levels, more opportunities should be provided for preteen Filipino children to engage in MVPA during and after school.

  1. Patterns of physical activity in free-living adults in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Buchowski, M S; Acra, S; Majchrzak, K M; Sun, M; Chen, K Y

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the amount and patterns of physical activity (PA), body fatness, and age in a heterogeneous adult population in the free living. Cross-sectional study of the amount of PA over a 1-week period. The amount of body movements during PA (PA counts*10(3)) and time spent on various PA intensity categories were calculated from a triaxial accelerometer and compared with subject characteristics, including body fat from hydrodensitometry. Adult healthy men (n=48) and women (n=72) were recruited from the Nashville, Tennessee area and their PA was monitored in their free-living environment. The average weekday PA counts (176.5+/-60.3, P=0.002, r(2)=0.294), PA counts day-to-day variability (47.3+/-32.7, P=0.002, r(2)=0.286), daily maximum PA counts (241.9+/-89.2, P=0.001, r(2)=0.327), minute-to-minute variability on weekdays (0.281+/-0.091, P=0.001, r(2)=0.362), and the difference between maximum and minimum daily PA counts (130.6+/-78.3, P=0.008, r(2)=0.243) were significantly and negatively correlated with body fatness. During awake time, both men and women spent 10-12 h on low intensity (1.0-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)) PA, approximately 1 h on moderate (3.0-5.9 MET), and less than 10 min on vigorous (>6.0 MET) PA each day. On weekends, men and women spent more time at rest (1 MET), less time on low-intensity PA, and men spent more time on moderate PA than on weekdays. In adults living in the Southern US the amount of free-living PA was negatively correlated with body fatness. Both men and women spent the majority of active time on low and moderate PA. PA patterns on weekends were different than on weekdays and were related to sex and age, but not to body fatness. National Institutes of Health, US.

  2. Associations between life stress and patterns of food intake and physical activity in the Boston Puerto Rican health study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Previous research supports a relationship between psychological stress and chronic disease, particularly in low-income minority populations. Stress may affect health, in part, through its influence on dietary and physical activity patterns. Objective: To probe this hypothesis, we examin...

  3. An institutional pilot study to investigate physical activity patterns in boys with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, V; Hilliard, P; Stephens, S; Zhang, C; Whitney, K; Carcao, M

    2016-09-01

    Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder characterized by musculoskeletal bleeding. Trauma-induced bleeding into joints and muscles may be associated with participation in physical activities. Recognizing this, persons with haemophilia may limit physical activities to avoid bleeding. The characterization of physical activity profiles (type, intensity, frequency and duration) in children with differing severities of haemophilia has not been well documented. This is required to better understand the relationship between physical activity and bleeding in children with haemophilia. This study was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study to compare the quantity, type and intensity of physical activity as measured by accelerometry in boys with different haemophilia severities. Subjects wore an accelerometer daily for 1 week and completed validated self-report PedHAL and 3DPAR questionnaires. Accelerometer activity levels were classified as sedentary, light, moderate or vigorous. A total of 66 males were enrolled, 24 had mild/moderate and 42 had severe haemophilia. Subjects average age was 11.52 years (±3.99) and their average BMI was 20.74 kg m(2) (±5.68). Boys with severe haemophilia reported significantly more time per day spent in sedentary activities compared to those with mild/moderate haemophilia. Furthermore, the amount of time engaged in sedentary activities increased with age in those boys with severe haemophilia, whereas the opposite was true in those with mild/moderate haemophilia. We speculate that prophylaxis in children with severe haemophilia permitted them to engage in similar amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as children with mild/moderate haemophilia. Increasing sedentary time in the severe cohort with age may be attributed to increasing arthropathy among other psychosocial factors. © 2016 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns and Self-Efficacy of Selected College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Matt; Drolet, Judy C.; Ogletree, Roberta J.

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the fact that Americans are becoming less active. This study was designed to examine the levels of exercise-specific self-efficacy and physical activity rates in a selected group of college students. Students were recruited as they entered a fitness facility. Participation consisted of completing a survey that…

  5. Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

  6. [Physical activity patterns of school adolescents: Validity, reliability and percentiles proposal for their evaluation].

    PubMed

    Cossío Bolaños, Marco; Méndez Cornejo, Jorge; Luarte Rocha, Cristian; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Canqui Flores, Bernabé; Gomez Campos, Rossana

    2016-08-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is important for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. To validate a questionnaire for measuring patterns of PA, verify the reliability, comparing the levels of PA aligned with chronological and biological age, and to develop percentile curves to assess PA levels depending on biological maturation. Descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample non-probabilistic quota of 3,176 Chilean adolescents (1685 males and 1491 females), with a mean age range from 10.0 to 18.9 years. An analysis was performed on, weight, standing and sitting height. The biological age through the years of peak growth rate and chronological age in years was determined. Body Mass Index was calculated and a survey of PA was applied. The LMS method was used to develop percentiles. The values for the confirmatory analysis showed saturations between 0.517 and 0.653. The value of adequacy of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was 0.879 and with 70.8% of the variance explained. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.81 to 0.86. There were differences between the genders when aligned chronological age. There were no differences when aligned by biological age. Percentiles are proposed to classify the PA of adolescents of both genders according to biological age and sex. The questionnaire used was valid and reliable, plus the PA should be evaluated by biological age. These findings led to the development of percentiles to assess PA according to biological age and gender. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Physical activity patterns of school adolescents: Validity, reliability and percentiles proposal for their evaluation].

    PubMed

    Cossío Bolaños, Marco; Méndez Cornejo, Jorge; Luarte Rocha, Cristian; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Canqui Flores, Bernabé; Gomez Campos, Rossana

    2017-02-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is important for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. To validate a questionnaire for measuring patterns of PA, verify the reliability, comparing the levels of PA aligned with chronological and biological age, and to develop percentile curves to assess PA levels depending on biological maturation. Descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample non-probabilistic quota of 3,176 Chilean adolescents (1685 males and 1491 females), with a mean age range from 10.0 to 18.9 years. An analysis was performed on, weight, standing and sitting height. The biological age through the years of peak growth rate and chronological age in years was determined. Body Mass Index was calculated and a survey of PA was applied. The LMS method was used to develop percentiles. The values for the confirmatory analysis showed saturations between 0.517 and 0.653. The value of adequacy of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was 0.879 and with 70.8% of the variance explained. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.81 to 0.86. There were differences between the genders when aligned chronological age. There were no differences when aligned by biological age. Percentiles are proposed to classify the PA of adolescents of both genders according to biological age and sex. The questionnaire used was valid and reliable, plus the PA should be evaluated by biological age. These findings led to the development of percentiles to assess PA according to biological age and gender.

  8. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  9. Patterns of physical activity defined by continuous heart rate monitoring among children from Liège.

    PubMed

    Massin, M M; Bourguignont, A; Lepage, Ph; Gérard, P

    2004-01-01

    Health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are well documented. We therefore investigated the physical activity patterns of 200 children from Liège. They were monitored continuously using a 24-hour Holter monitoring system during normal weekdays and the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. Preschool children attained 184.3+/-54.2, 40.7+/-16.1, 15.8+/-6.9 and 6.0+/-7.2 minutes/day (mean+/-SD) between 20% to 40%, 40% to 50%, 50% to 60%, and greater than 60% of HRR, respectively. At the same %HRR intensities, schoolchildren attained 165.6+/-74.6, 32.1+/-12.1, 15.8+/-6.7 and 7.0+/-5.9 minutes/day, and teenagers attained 159.2+/-68.3, 32.1+/-23.5, 13.1+/-6.0 and 6.1+/-6.3 minutes/day. Age was a significant predictor of the intercept and slope of the time spent in physical activity and %HRR relationship. In Liège the average youth accumulates +/-30 to 40 minutes/day of moderate-intensity physical activity and +/-20 minutes/day of high-intensity physical activity. Those children meet the classical revised guidelines for physical activity but do not compare favourably with children from elsewhere. On the other hand, they get more than 2 1/2 to 3 hours/day of low-intensity physical activity. Our findings suggest that children from Liège are not engaged in sedentary behaviour but do not experience the ideal amount and type of physical activity classically believed to benefit the cardiopulmonary system. Public health strategies should be adapted to our findings.

  10. Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

    2010-02-01

    The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  11. Pattern of Physical Activity Among Sri Lankan Adults in the District of Colombo: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    De Silva Weliange, Shreenika; Fernando, Dulitha; Gunatilake, Jagath

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor of many non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of physical activity among Sri Lankan adults in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The study was carried out among a sample of 1320 adults aged 20 to 59 years, selected using stratified, cluster sampling method. Physical activity was assessed using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire validated for Sri Lanka. The prevalence of sufficient physical activity was 82.0% (CI = 78.5-85.0) for males and 79.7% (CI = 76.5-82.6) for females. The odds of having sufficient activity were lower with increase in the level of urbanisation. Activity was achieved mainly through domestic and transport related activity. Only 21.7% carried out at least some activity for leisure. As Sri Lanka continues to urbanize, it is important to find strategies to increase the level of activity especially at leisure. © 2016 APJPH.

  12. Weekday and weekend patterns of physical activity and sedentary time among Liverpool and Madrid youth.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Rico, Elena; Hilland, Toni A; Foweather, Lawrence; Fernández-Garcia, Emilia; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among English and Spanish youth are high and vary within different regions of each country. Little though is known about these during specific periods of the day. The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity (PA) and sedentary time during segments of the day and week, and compare these critical contexts between youth in the Liverpool and Madrid areas of England and Spain, respectively. PA was objectively assessed in 235 Liverpool- and 241 Madrid youth (aged 10-14 years) who wore accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Minutes of sedentary time, moderate PA, vigorous PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were calculated for weekdays, weekend days, school time, non-school time and after-school. Between-country differences were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Madrid youth spent significantly more time in sedentary activities than their Liverpool counterparts. Madrid youth engaged in more minutes of moderate intensity physical activity (MPA) than Liverpool youth during weekdays, school time and non-school time (P<0.01). Liverpool children recorded more time in vigorous physical activity (VPA) than Madrid peers during week days and weekend days (P<0.01) and during school time and after-school periods (P<0.01). The MVPA was significantly higher among Madrid youth during non-school time (P<0.01). Around 25% of all youth achieved recommended levels of MVPA. Low levels of MVPA and systematic differences in sedentary time, MPA and VPA exist between Liverpool and Madrid youth. Interventions targeted at the least-active children during weekends, after-school and non-school periods within the cultural contexts common to each city are required.

  13. Physical Activity Patterns in Portuguese Adolescents: The Contribution of Extracurricular Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Aires, Luisa; Seabra, Andre; Ribeiro, Jose; Welk, Gregory; Mota, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, two sports systems exist, one through schools and the other in community clubs. The purpose was to determine the impact of extra-curricular sports (EC sports) on boys' and girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). 208 adolescents (79 boys and 129 girls), between 12 and 18 years old, wore an accelerometer over seven days.…

  14. Physical Activity Patterns in Portuguese Adolescents: The Contribution of Extracurricular Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Aires, Luisa; Seabra, Andre; Ribeiro, Jose; Welk, Gregory; Mota, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, two sports systems exist, one through schools and the other in community clubs. The purpose was to determine the impact of extra-curricular sports (EC sports) on boys' and girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). 208 adolescents (79 boys and 129 girls), between 12 and 18 years old, wore an accelerometer over seven days.…

  15. Physical Activity Patterns in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Bonin, Cecilia; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Zambotti, Francesca; Livornese, Dario; Donà, Silvia; Tosi, Flavia; Baldisser, Giulia; Ihnatava, Tatsiana; Di Sarra, Daniela; Bonora, Enzo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the volume of physical activity (PA) throughout pregnancy in normal-weight vs overweight/obese women, and to investigate which factors may predict compliance to PA recommendations in these women throughout gestation. In 236 pregnant women, 177 normal-weight and 59 overweight/obese (median[IQR] BMI 21.2[19.9–22.8] vs 26.5[25.5–29.0] kg/m2, respectively), medical history, anthropometry and clinical data, including glucose tolerance, were recorded. In addition, pre-pregnancy PA was estimated by the Kaiser questionnaire, while total, walking and fitness/sport PA during pregnancy were assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) modified questionnaire, at 14–16, 24–28 and 30–32 weeks of gestation. PA volume was very low in the first trimester of pregnancy in both groups of women. However, it increased in the second and third trimester in normal-weight, but not in overweight/obese subjects. Higher pre-pregnancy PA was a statistically significant predictor of being physically active (>150 minutes of PA per week) during all trimesters of gestation. In conclusion, physical activity volume is low in pregnant women, especially in overweight/obese subjects. PA volume increases during pregnancy only in normal-weight women. Pre-pregnancy PA is an independent predictor of achieving a PA volume of at least 150 min per week during pregnancy. PMID:27829017

  16. Source and Type of Support for In-School Physical Activity: Differential Patterns for Demographic Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Noel L.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Thomas, Erica; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Centeio, Erin E.; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results of prior research on social support (SS) for physical activity (PA) have been inconsistent. Purpose: The study aim was to expand the SS and PA literature by focusing on children, examining associated variables such as weight, race/ethnicity, and sex, and use objectively measured PA and inclusive targets of SS. Methods:…

  17. Physical Activity Pattern of Prepubescent Filipino School Children during School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B.; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. Methods: This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan,…

  18. Physical Activity Pattern of Prepubescent Filipino School Children during School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B.; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. Methods: This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan,…

  19. Electromyographic Pattern during Gait Initiation Differentiates Yoga Practitioners among Physically Active Older Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lelard, Thierry; Doutrellot, Pierre-Louis; Temfemo, Abdou; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-01-01

    During gait initiation, postural adjustments are needed to deal with balance and movement. With aging, gait initiation changes and reflects functional degradation of frailty individuals. However, physical activities have demonstrated beneficial effects of daily motor tasks. The aim of our study was to compare center of pressure (COP) displacement and ankle muscle co-activation during gait initiation in two physically active groups: a group of walkers (n = 12; mean age ± SD 72.6 ± 3.2 years) and a yoga group (n = 11; 71.5 ± 3.8 years). COP trajectory and electromyography of leg muscles were recorded simultaneously during five successive trials of gait initiation. Our main finding was that yoga practitioners had slower COP displacements (p < 0.01) and lower leg muscles % of coactivation (p < 0.01) in comparison with walkers. These parameters which characterized gait initiation control were correlated (r = 0.76; p < 0.01). Our results emphasize that lengthy ankle muscle co-activation and COP path in gait initiation differentiate yoga practitioners among physically active subjects. PMID:28659774

  20. Physical activity (PA) among middle-aged women: initial and current influences and patterns of participation.

    PubMed

    Codina, Nuria; Pestana, José V; Armadans, Immaculada

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the initial and current influences for doing physical activity (PA), current levels of PA participation, and future plans for it. Participants were 200 women aged 45 to 64 years old. Factor loadings of influences were explored using Principal Components Analysis. Pearson bivariate correlations, t-test, and ANOVA were used to show the differences among the influences, sociodemographic characteristics, and present/future PA participation. Personal fulfillment was the main initial influence, while health benefits/self-care, and outdoor/family activities were the most important current influences. The results highlight the factors that best explain present PA participation and also plans for activity in the future.

  1. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  2. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt an

  3. Physical Activity and Sleep Patterns in Hemodialysis Patients in a Suburban Environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Schantel; Han, Maggie; Ye, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hanjie; Meyring-Wösten, Anna; Bonner, Marcee; Young, Candace; Thijssen, Stephan; Marsh, Daniel; Kotanko, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are less active than their healthy counterparts. They are often plagued with sleep disorders that affect the quality of their sleep. Our aim was to objectively quantify activity and sleep quality among HD patients in a suburban HD population. Activity and sleep parameters were measured using a commercially available activity tracker in 29 HD patients from Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Patients in the feedback group received their activity and sleep data at each dialysis treatment. In addition, questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of the study period. Patients were stratified based on activity levels and sleep quality. Patients walked an average of 5,281 steps/day and slept 370.5 min/night. Informing patients about their daily number of steps taken, did not increase activity. Only 3% of the population followed were active, defined as walking more than 10,000 steps per day. Patients walked significantly less on dialysis days compared to the other days of the week. Many of the patients experienced poor sleep quality, with patients in the first shift experiencing the greatest disturbance to their sleep/wake cycle. Patients in a suburban environment walked much less than those in a previously studied urban population. They rarely met the recommended goal of 10,000 steps/day, even on non-dialysis days. Interventions to increase physical activity may target any day of the week, particularly HD days. Prospective, long-term studies are needed to evaluate the use of activity trackers in dialysis patients and their impact on physical activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Differences between work and leisure in temporal patterns of objectively measured physical activity among blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Gupta, Nidhi; Korshøj, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-09-28

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is generally associated with favorable cardiovascular health outcomes, while occupational physical activity (OPA) shows less clear, or even opposite, cardiovascular effects. This apparent paradox is not sufficiently understood, but differences in temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA have been suggested as one explanation. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which work and leisure (non-occupational time) differ in temporal activity patterns among blue-collar workers, and to assess the modification of these patterns by age and gender. This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of male (n = 108) and female (n = 83) blue-collar workers, aged between 21 and 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage of work and leisure time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations (<1 min, 1-5 min, 5-10 min, 10-30 min, 30-60 min and > 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to test a) possible differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives, and b) the modification of these differences by age and gender. OPA showed a larger percentage time walking in brief (<5 min) periods [mean (SD): 33.4 % (12.2)], and less time in prolonged (>30 min) sitting [7.0 % (9.3)] than LTPA [walking 15.4 % (5.0); sitting 31.9 % (15.3)], even after adjustment for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity type. These marked differences in the temporal pattern of OPA and LTPA were modified by gender, but not age. We found that the temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA among blue-collar workers were markedly different even after adjustment for total physical activity time, and that this

  5. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Nicola J; Magarey, Anthea A; Golley, Rebecca; Curnow, Fiona; Sawyer, Michael G

    2008-05-30

    To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Parental physical activity (p = 0.03-0.008), size of backyard (p = 0.001) and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003) were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p < 0.001) and presence of playstation (p = 0.02) were associated with more indoor sedentary time. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.02) and restricting high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.009). Lower intake of non-core foods was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.007), cordial/carbonated drinks (p < 0.001) and high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.003). Lower fruit and vegetable intake was associated with reminding child to 'eat up' (p = 0.007) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). Higher intake of non-core foods was associated with giving food 'treats' (p = 0.03) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). The availability of food groups in the home was associated with children's intake of these foods (fruit and vegetables, p < 0.001; fat in dairy, p = <0.001; sweetened beverages, p = 0.004-<0.001; non-core foods, p = 0.01-<0.001). Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  6. Not just couch potatoes or gym rats: alternative non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity guidelines among sedentary full-time employees

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is, especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving, represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially

  7. Differences in patterns of physical participation in recreational activities between children with and without intellectual and developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Wen; Rodger, Sylvia; Copley, Jodie

    2017-08-01

    Children with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) are at risk of experiencing limited participation in recreational activities, where they may be present but not physically engaged. To compare patterns of physical engagement in recreational activities between children with and without IDD. Fifty children with IDD (26 boys, 24 girls; mean age 8.7 years) were matched for age and sex with 50 typically developing children. Parents completed a questionnaire which captured participation in 11 recreational activities involving hand use as an indication of physical engagement. More than 80% of children in both groups participated physically in eight recreational activities, but fewer children with IDD participated in six activities when compared with typically developing children. Children with IDD also participated less frequently in five activities and required more assistance to participate in all the 11 activities. Parents wanted their child with IDD to participate in 10 recreational activities with less assistance. The difference between the groups related to participation frequency, independence, and parents' desire for changes in their child's participation. Greater efforts are needed to address these differences and to support recreational participation in children with IDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Physical activity and accelerometer; methodological training, recommendations and movement patterns in school].

    PubMed

    Calahorro Cañada, Fernando; Torres-Luque, Gema; Lopez Fernandez, Iván; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria; Álvarez Carnero, Elvis

    2014-09-21

    Over the last years, the use of accelerometers has become relevant to quantify physical activity among youth. Methods used with accelerometers might modify the results and the possibility to compare different papers. These devices have been proved to be effective and valid quantifying long periods of physical activity compared to other methods. To show methodological criteria regarding physical activity assessed by accelerometry with schoolars. It was conducted a review of the literature related to accelerometers and scholar-aged subjects at PubMed from January 2002 to August 2013, selecting 133 papers. As far as it is shown, it appears to be some tendencies related to the choice of attachment of the device, wearing time and a shorter epoch-length; however, it has been found a wide variability regarding the model of accelerometer and cutoff points used. The different criterion used makes it difficult to compare methodological aspects among studies in spite of some papers carried out similar methods. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative study of pattern recognition classifiers to predict physical activities using smartphones and wearable body sensors.

    PubMed

    Kouris, Ioannis; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless body area network platform that performs physical activities recognition using accelerometers, biosignals and smartphones. Multiple classifiers and sensor combinations were examined to identify the classifier with the best recognition performance for the static and dynamic activities. The Functional Trees classifier proved to provide the best results among the classifiers evaluated (Naive Bayes, Bayesian Networks, Support Vector Machines and Decision Trees [C4.5, Random Forest]) and was used to train the model which was implemented for the real time activity recognition on the smartphone. The identified patterns of daily physical activities were used to examine conformance with medical advice, regarding physical activity guidelines. An algorithm based on Skip Chain Conditional Random Fields, received as inputs the recognized activities and data retrieved from the GPS receiver of the smartphone to develop dynamic daily patterns that enhance prediction results. The presented platform can be extended to be used in the prevention of short-term complications of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

  10. Patterns and Predictors of Change in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Over Time in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sasaki, Jeffer E; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is very little known about the pattern and predictors of changes in physical activity over time. This study examined changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over a 30-month time period and the demographic and clinical predictors of such changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). 269 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and completed a demographic/clinical scale every 6 months over a 30-month period. Data were analyzed using latent class growth modeling (LCGM). LCGM identified a two-class model for changes in levels of MVPA over time. Class 1 involved higher initial levels of MVPA and linear decreases in MVPA over time, whereas Class 2 involved lower initial levels of MVPA and linear increases in MVPA over time. LCGM further indicated that males were more likely (OR = 5.8, P < .05) and those with higher disability status were less likely (OR = 0.51, P < .05) to belong to Class 1 than Class 2. Levels of MVPA change over time in persons with RRMS and the pattern of change suggests that behavioral physical activity interventions for persons with MS might target men and those with lower disability.

  11. [Media use and physical activity patterns of adolescent participants in obesity therapy: Analysis of the impact of selected sociodemographic factors].

    PubMed

    Wulff, Hagen; Wagner, Petra

    2016-02-01

    To meet the challenge of obesity, effective therapeutic concepts for adolescents focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. Particularly relevant are nutrition and physical activity patterns associated with media use, which can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. For the optimization of obesity therapy approaches, it is essential to analyze these sociodemographic factors to adjust the aims, content, and methods of interventions, and to use the potential of media in treatment concepts. Thus, the research question is: what are the media and physical activity patterns of 11- to 17-year-old participants in obesity therapy, depending on sociodemographic factors? The national multicenter study was conducted from 2012 to 2013. A questionnaire was administered to 564 participants aged 13.4 ± 1.6 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables physical activity, media use, and sociodemographic factors. Participants were physically active for 1 h on 3.3 ± 1.8 days per week, 8.5 % daily. Televisions, mobile phones, and computers were available in all sociodemographic groups and were used for 2 h per day. Sociodemographic differences can be seen in the extent of media usage (h/day). These differences can be found between girls and boys concerning their usage of mobile phones (2.49 vs. 1.90; p  < 0.001), between 11- to 13- and 14- to 17-year-old children concerning their usage of game consoles (0.55 vs. 1.65; p  = 0.007), and in the correlation analysis of media usage and physical activity. Compared with existing literature, the survey results reveal reduced activity and increased media use, which vary among the groups. Thus, differentiated therapy approaches appear to be reasonable. Future research needs to evaluate to what extent media, despite the risks, can contribute to the methodological support of therapy, training, and aftercare concepts.

  12. Patterns of physical activity and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona (Spain) in 2012.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Trasserra, Alicia; Pérez, Anna; Continente, Xavier; O'Brien, Kerry; Bartroli, Montse; Teixidó-Compaño, Ester; Espelt, Albert

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona in 2012. Cross-sectional survey to assess risk factors in a representative sample of secondary school students (aged 13-16 years, International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 2, n=2,162; and 17-18 years, ISCED 3, n=1016) in Barcelona. We estimated MVPA prevalence overall, and for each independent variable and each gender. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to examine the factors associated with high-level MVPA, and obtained prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Only 13% of ISCED 2 and 10% of ISCED 3 students met the WHO physical activity recommendations. This percentage was lower among girls at both academic levels. MVPA was lower among ISCED 3 compared to ISCED 2 students, and among students with a lower socioeconomic status. Physical activity was associated with positive self-perception of the health status (e.g., positive self-perception of health status among ISCED 2 compared to ISCED 3 students: PR=1.31 [95%CI: 1.22-1.41] and 1.61 [95%CI: 1.44-1.81] for boys and girls, respectively]. The percentage of teenagers who met WHO MVPA recommendations was low. Strategies are needed to increase MVPA levels, particularly in older girls, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Participating in Politics Resembles Physical Activity: General Action Patterns in International Archives, United States Archives, and Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  14. Participating in politics resembles physical activity: general action patterns in international archives, United States archives, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-02-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity.

  15. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  16. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Spurrier, Nicola J; Magarey, Anthea A; Golley, Rebecca; Curnow, Fiona; Sawyer, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Methods Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Results Parental physical activity (p = 0.03–0.008), size of backyard (p = 0.001) and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003) were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p < 0.001) and presence of playstation (p = 0.02) were associated with more indoor sedentary time. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.02) and restricting high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.009). Lower intake of non-core foods was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.007), cordial/carbonated drinks (p < 0.001) and high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.003). Lower fruit and vegetable intake was associated with reminding child to 'eat up' (p = 0.007) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). Higher intake of non-core foods was associated with giving food 'treats' (p = 0.03) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). The availability of food groups in the home was associated with children's intake of these foods (fruit and vegetables, p < 0.001; fat in dairy, p = <0.001; sweetened beverages, p = 0.004–<0.001; non-core foods, p = 0.01–<0.001). Conclusion Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity

  17. Household factors, family behavior patterns, and adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines among children at risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Crain, A Lauren; Jaka, Meghan M; Langer, Shelby L; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the proportion of children adhering to recommended physical activity and dietary guidelines, and examine demographic and household correlates of guideline adherence. Cross-sectional (pre-randomization) data from a behavioral intervention trial designed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children. A total of 421 children (aged 5-10 years) at risk for obesity (body mass index percentile, 70-95). Physical activity (accelerometry), screen time (parent survey), and fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (24-hour dietary recall). Proportions meeting guidelines were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between demographic and household factors and whether children met recommended guidelines for (1) physical activity (≥ 60 min/d), (2) screen time (≤ 2 h/d), (3) fruit and vegetable intake (≥ 5 servings/d), and (4) sugar-sweetened beverage avoidance. Few children met more than 1 guideline. Only 2% met all 4 recommended guidelines and 19% met none. Each guideline had unique sociodemographic and domain-specific household predictors (ie, availability of certain foods and beverages, media, and active play and exercise equipment). Families equipped to promote healthy child behavior patterns in 1 activity or dietary domain may not be in others. Results have implications for the development of interventions to affect children's weight-related behaviors and growth trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical activity patterns of ethnic children from low socio-economic environments within the UK.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael Joseph; Birch, Samantha Louise; Cox, Valerie; Blackett, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines for health benefits. PA behaviours are complex and depend on numerous interrelated factors. The study aims to develop current understanding of how children from low Socio-economic environments within the UK use their surrounding built environments for PA by using advanced technology. The environment was assessed in 96 school children (7-9 years) using global positioning system (GPS) monitoring (Garmin Forerunner, 305). In a subsample of 46 children, the environment and PA were assessed using an integrated GPS and heart rate monitor. The percentage of time spent indoor, outdoor, in green and non-green environments along with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in indoor and outdoor environments were assessed. A 2-by-2 repeated measures analysis of covariance, controlling for body mass index, BF%, assessed the environmental differences. The findings show that 42% of children from deprived wards of Coventry fail to meet PA guidelines, of which 43% was accumulated during school. Children engaged in more MVPA outdoor than indoor environments (P < 0.01) and a greater amount of time was spent in non-green environments (P < 0.01). Increased time outdoors was negatively associated with BF%. In conclusion, outdoor environments are important for health-enhancing PA and reducing fatness in deprived and ethnic children.

  19. ADHD Medication, Dietary Patterns, Physical Activity, and BMI in Children: A Longitudinal Analysis of the ECLS-K Study.

    PubMed

    Bowling, April; Davison, Kirsten; Haneuse, Sebastien; Beardslee, William; Miller, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    This study examined relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stimulant use, and BMI change in a nationally representative cohort of children as well as differences in diet and physical activity that may mediate associations between stimulant use and BMI change. By using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999 (N = 8,250), we modeled BMI and z score change by ADHD and stimulant start time, examined the odds of unhealthy diet and physical activity predicted by ADHD and stimulant use, and performed mediation analysis assessing indirect effects of health behaviors. Early stimulant use predicted short-term BMI reductions, but any stimulant use predicted increased BMI growth between fifth grade (mean age = 11.2 years) and eighth grade (mean age = 14.3 years). Children with ADHD had higher odds of poor diet regardless of medication. Health behaviors were not associated with BMI change after controlling for medication use. Stimulant use predicted higher BMI trajectory between fifth and eighth grade but did not affect dietary or physical activity patterns. Future research should explore potential mechanisms by which early and long-term stimulant use may affect metabolism, while clinicians should initiate nutrition counseling with families of children with ADHD, regardless of medication prescription, at or shortly after diagnosis. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Patterns in Active Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like, chaotic patterns. We describe how active systems can be stabilised by tuning a physical feature of the system, friction. We demonstrate how the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter and demonstrate vortex ordering at the wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organisation of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects may be a useful step towards the design and control of active materials.

  1. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Karen B; Herrin, Jeph; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2011-06-01

    We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute(-1) for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p<0.001). The NOW children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers.

  2. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children

    PubMed Central

    DORSEY, KAREN B.; HERRIN, JEPH; KRUMHOLZ, HARLAN M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. Methods We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute−1 for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. Results The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus 17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p < 0.001). The NOW children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers. PMID:20883127

  3. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  4. Walking or dancing: patterns of physical activity by cross-sectional age among U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2013-10-01

    To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups.

  5. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database.

    PubMed

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J; Andersen, Lars B; Cardon, Greet; Page, Angie; Davey, Rachel; Grøntved, Anders; Hallal, Pedro C; Janz, Kathleen F; Kordas, Katarzyna; Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena J; Sardinha, Luis B; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008-2010) providing ≥ 1 day accelerometer data (International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD)). Linear regression was used to investigate age-related patterns in vigorous-intensity activity; models included age (exposure), adjustments for monitor wear-time and study. Moderate-intensity activity was examined for comparison. Interactions were used to investigate whether the age/vigorous-activity association differed by sex, weight status, ethnicity, maternal education and region. A 6.9% (95% CI 6.2, 7.5) relative reduction in mean vigorous-intensity activity with every year of age was observed; for moderate activity the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had comparatively lower average vigorous-intensity activity at 5.0-5.9 y. Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5

  6. The Influences of Physical Activity on Patterns of Sleep Behavior of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A light exercise program was set up for 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease who exercised each day for 40 minutes. Their sleep patterns were compared with a control group who did not exercise. Results indicate that those who participated in the exercise program manifested 40% less restless behavior, while those in the non-exercise group showed a…

  7. Patterns, predictors and effects of texting intervention on physical activity in CHD - insights from the TEXT ME randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Jay; Redfern, Julie; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K

    2016-11-01

    Mobile phone text message interventions are used to support behaviour change including physical activity, but we have less insight into how these interventions work and what factors predict response. To study the effect of TEXT ME (Tobacco EXercise and dieT Messages) text message intervention on physical activity domains, consistency of effects across sub-groups and its additive value in patients that received traditional cardiac rehabilitation programme. This is a secondary analysis of the TEXT ME, a randomized clinical trial of lifestyle-focused text message intervention compared with usual care in patients with coronary heart disease. A quarter of the messages were designed specifically to encourage physical activity. Sedentary time and physical activity were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. At baseline, 85% of the 710 participants reported low physical activity levels. At six months, compared with controls, the intervention arm reported higher recreational physical activity (471 vs. 307 metabolic equivalent-min/week, p = 0.001) and travel physical activity (230 vs. 128 MET-min/week, p = 0.002), similar work-related physical activity and lower sedentary times (494 vs. 587 min, p < 0.001). Male gender, high baseline physical activity, cardiac rehabilitation participation and text message intervention predicted physically active status at six months. Subjects that received both cardiac rehabilitation and text messaging intervention were more likely to achieve target physical activity levels compared with cardiac rehabilitation alone (odds ratio 7.07 vs. 1.80, p < 0.001). The TEXT ME intervention improved recreational and travel physical activity, reduced sedentary times but had no effects on work-related physical activity. It had incremental benefits at achieving target physical activity levels even in patients participating in the traditional cardiac rehabilitation programme. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  8. Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  9. Weekend warrior physical activity pattern and common mental disorder: a population wide study of 108,011 British adults.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-07-14

    The dose-response association between physical activity (PA) and mental health is poorly described. We explored cross-sectional associations between physical activity and common mental disorder (psychological distress) in 'weekend warriors' who do all their exercise in one or two sessions per week. Adult participants (n = 108,011, age = 47 ± 17 yrs., 46.5% men) were recruited from general population household-based surveys (Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey) from 1994 to 2004. Data were pooled and analyzed using logistic regression models. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was self-reported and psychological distress was measured using the 12 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Psychological distress (GHQ-12 > 3) was prevalent in 14.5% of the sample. In healthy participants an inverse association between PA and psychological distress was optimal at the PA guideline (150 mins/wk. MVPA or 75 min/wk. Vigorous PA) regardless of whether it was accumulated in one or two bouts per week "Weekend warrior" (odd ratio = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.63, 0.73) or as more frequent daily bouts (odd ratio = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.64, 0.72) in comparison to the inactive reference group. In participants with chronic health conditions an inverse association between PA and psychological distress was also evident at lower doses (one or two sessions of PA a week below PA guideline) (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.68, 0.77). Undertaking vigorous intensity PA as part of the PA guideline conferred additional benefit in women (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.75, 1.00), but not men. Mental health benefits may be accrued through different PA patterns, thus individual approaches to prescribing exercise should be promoted.

  10. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern-The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Clark, Bronwyn K; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Duncan, Mitch J; Brown, Wendy

    2017-03-10

    Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA), in working women. Young (31-36 years; 2009) and mid-aged (59-64 years; 2010) women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day) and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time) on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines) in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer), work hours (part-time; full-time) and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night). The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women.

  11. Evaluation of dietary pattern stability and physical activity in three consecutive generations of women.

    PubMed

    Noori, Marzie Asgari; Ghiasvand, Reza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize major dietary patterns (DPs) in three consecutive generations and to delineate DP changes. Usual dietary intakes of 547 women from three generations were assessed using a validated dish-based Food Frequency Questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to identify DPs, participants' scores for each DP were calculated and changes in DP scores and mean consumption of food groups were evaluated. Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), participants were ranked according to their scores receiving for each DP. Three major DPs, defined as Traditional (TDP), Healthy (HDP), and Western (WDP) and the comparison of DP adherence between generations showed that TDP remained stable over time. WDP and HDP scores increased from Generation1 to the recent. Based on LCA, the "multifarious class" was similar in three generations. The "traditional class", "transitional class", and "health conscious class" were defined within the oldest, middle-aged, and younger generation, respectively. The younger women tended to have higher score for both WDP and HDP. This paradox may be as a result of health conscious behaviors parallel the unfavorable inevitable lifestyle changes.

  12. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  13. The impact of the built environment on young people's physical activity patterns: a suburban-rural comparison using GPS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-08-24

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying

  14. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study.

    PubMed

    Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren

    2014-02-24

    Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (<60 min moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity/d). During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in

  15. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS IN CHILEAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Martino-Fuentealba, Pía; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los perjuicios de la inactividad física y de la conducta sedentaria (CS) en la salud de los niños han sido ampliamente respaldados por la evidencia. Sin embargo, existe limitada evidencia de cómo estos comportamientos se manifiestan en los preescolares. Por este motivo, este estudio tuvo como propósito evaluar los patrones de actividad física (AF) y CS de forma objetiva en preescolares chilenos. Método: 25 niños (4,8 } 0,50 años, 48% hombres) completaron la monitorización ambulatoria con el acelerómetro e inclinómetro ActivPALTM micro. Se midieron tiempos caminando, de pie y sentado/acostado, además de pasos acumulados por día, para ser comparados según día de la semana y período del día. Resultados: el tiempo promedio caminando fue de 147,2 } 52,23 minutos/día. El tiempo en CS fue de 468,3 } 92,22 minutos/día, con diferencias estadísticas entre días entre semana y fin de semana (484,8 vs. 426,8 min/día, p = 0,03). El 50% de los pasos fueron sumados en acumulaciones menores a 100 pasos/minuto, mientras un 50% del tiempo en CS fue acumulado en intervalos de duración de 35 segundos o menos. Discusión: los preescolares presentan patrones intermitentes de AF y CS. En los días entre semana se sientan más que durante el fin de semana, por lo cual se presenta una posibilidad de modificar este comportamiento durante el período de clases. Este reporte de patrones de AF y CS en preescolares presenta información valiosa para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para mejorar los niveles de AF y disminuir el tiempo en CS en preescolares.

  16. Comparison of Patterns of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Between Children With Cerebral Palsy and Children With Typical Development.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Forde, Cuisle; Hussey, Juliette M; Gormley, John

    2015-12-01

    Reduced participation in physical activity and increased time spent in sedentary behavior are associated with overweight, chronic disease, and disability. In order to optimize recommendations and interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in children with cerebral palsy (CP), knowledge of their physical activity and sedentary behavior is needed. The aim of this study was to describe light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior in preadolescent children with and without CP and compare physical activity and sedentary behavior between the 2 groups. This was a cross-sectional study of 33 children, aged 6 to 10 years, with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-III) and 33 age- and sex-matched children with typical development. Physical activity was measured using the RT3 accelerometer over 7 days. Children with CP spent more time in sedentary behavior and accumulated less total activity, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and sustained bouts of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA). They also accumulated a fewer number of bouts of MVPA and vigorous activity, despite spending a similar amount of time in each bout. The small number of children in GMFCS levels II and III did not allow for adjustment for GMFCS level when comparing physical activity between children with and without CP. Preadolescent children with CP spent less time in moderate and vigorous activity and more time in sedentary behavior than children with typical development. Children with CP also accumulated less continuous MVPA and vigorous activity as a result of achieving fewer sustained bouts of MVPA and vigorous activity throughout the day. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  17. Patterns of Physical Activity and Overweight among 7-13-Year-Old Russian Children: A 7-Year Nationally Representative Monitoring Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Popkin, B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This is a repeated cross-sectional study of overweight and physical activity (PA) and inactivity patterns of successive samples of 7-13-year-old Russian children who were surveyed six times between 1995 and 2002 as part of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. This analysis focused on moderate/vigorous (MOD/VIG) PA (e.g., active commuting to…

  18. Patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Jenkins, Sue; Cecins, Nola; Phillips, Martin; Sanders, Lucas H; Hill, Kylie

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare patterns of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with healthy controls. Participants 6-10 weeks following lobectomy for NSCLC and healthy controls wore two activity monitors for 7 days. Waking hours were divided into time spent in SB (<1.5 metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs)), light intensity PA (LIPA ≥ 1.5 to <3.0METs) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (≥3.0METs). Daily steps were also recorded. Data were available in 20 participants with NSCLC (13 females; 68 ± 10 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; 69 ± 5 years). The NSCLC group accumulated a greater percentage of time in SB in uninterrupted bouts ≥30 minutes (49% vs. 42%; p = 0.048). Further, the NSCLC group spent a lower percentage of waking hours in LIPA (21 ± 9% vs. 26 ± 8%; p = 0.04) and accumulated a lower percentage of time in this domain in uninterrupted bouts ≥10 minutes (13% vs. 19%; p = 0.025). The NSCLC group also had a lower daily step count (8863 ± 3737 vs. 11,856 ± 3024 steps/day; p = 0.009). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was similar in both groups (p = 0.92). People following curative intent treatment for NSCLC spend more time in prolonged bouts of SB at the expense of LIPA.

  19. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  20. Physical Activity Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG or the Guidelines) are an essential resource for health professional and policymakers. Based on the latest science, they provide guidance on how children and adults ...

  1. The effect of dietary and physical activity pattern on metabolic profile in individuals with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Palmese, Laura B; Reutenauer, Erin L; Liskov, Ellen; Grilo, Carlos M; Tek, Cenk

    2012-10-01

    With the rate of obesity on the rise worldwide, individuals with schizophrenia represent a particularly vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of individuals with schizophrenia in relation to dietary and physical activity habits compared with healthy controls. Dietary and physical activity habits of 130 individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were compared with 250 body mass index-, age-, and sex-matched and racially matched controls from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using a 24-hour diet recall and a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Individuals with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin compared with matched controls. In addition, these individuals had an increased waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure than did the comparison group. Daily energy intake was not different between groups; however, individuals with schizophrenia consumed significantly greater amounts of sugar and fat. Individuals with schizophrenia reported engaging in moderate physical activity less frequently compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys group, but there was no difference in reported vigorous physical activity. These findings suggest that the dietary and physical activity habits of individuals with schizophrenia contribute to an adverse metabolic profile. Increased opportunities for physical activity and access to healthy foods for individuals with schizophrenia may ease the burden of disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The association of major patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep with health-related quality of life: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Bayán-Bravo, Ana; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; Gutierrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    To examine the prospective association of patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the general population of Spain. A cohort study with 4271 individuals aged ≥ 18 years was recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up prospectively through 2012. Activity patterns were derived from factor analysis. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 questionnaire, and suboptimal HRQL was defined as a score below the sex-specific sample median. Three main activity patterns were identified. A higher adherence to the pattern named "vigorous activity-seated at the computer" was inversely associated with a suboptimal score in the physical-composite summary (PCS) of the SF-12 (multivariate adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for the highest vs. the lowest quartile 0.71; 95% confidence interval [IC] 0.55-0.90; p-trend=0.003). The "light activity-seated for reading" pattern was inversely associated with a suboptimal score in the mental-composite summary (aOR=0.73; 95% CI=0.61-0.89; p-trend=0.002). However, a higher adherence to the "seated for watching TV-daytime sleeping" pattern was directly associated with suboptimal PCS (aOR=1.35; 95% CI=1.10-1.66; p-trend=0.008). Patterns including any physical activity were associated with better physical or mental HRQL. However, a pattern defined by sedentary behavior with diurnal sleep showed worse HRQL and should be a priority target of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Voluntary and involuntary running in the rat show different patterns of theta rhythm, physical activity, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2014-05-01

    Involuntarily exercising rats undergo more physical and mental stress than voluntarily exercising rats; however, these findings still lack electrophysiological evidence. Many studies have reported that theta rhythm appears when there is mental stress and that it is affected by emotional status. Thus we hypothesized that the differences between voluntary and involuntary movement should also exist in the hippocampal theta rhythm. Using the wheel and treadmill exercise models as voluntary and involuntary exercise models, respectively, this study wirelessly recorded the hippocampal electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and three-dimensional accelerations of young male rats. Treadmill and wheel exercise produced different theta patterns in the rats before and during running. Even though the waking baselines for the two exercise types were recorded in different environments, there did not exist any significant difference after distinguishing the rats' sleep/wake status. When the same movement-related parameters are considered, the treadmill running group showed more changes in their theta frequency (4-12 Hz), in their theta power between 9.5-12 Hz, and in their heart rate than the wheel running group. A positive correlation between the changes in high-frequency (9.5-12 Hz) theta power and heart rate was identified. Our results reveal various voluntary and involuntary changes in hippocampal theta rhythm as well as divergences in heart rate and high-frequency theta activity that may represent the effects of an additional emotional state or the sensory interaction during involuntary running by rats.

  4. TRADITIONAL FOODS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH CULTURAL FACTORS IN A DIVERSE ALASKA NATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana G; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Schumacher, Mary C; Johnson, Jennifer S; Lanier, Anne P; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of traditional food and physical activity use and associations with cultural factors among 3,830 Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in 3 regions of Alaska. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Methods Participants (2,323 women and 1,507 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire that included information on diet, physical activity, life-style and cultural factors. Results Over 92% of participants reported eating at least 1 traditional food in the past year. The top 3 traditional foods reported were fish, moose and agutaq (a mixture of berries and fat). The percentage of people who consumed traditional foods varied by region and age but not by sex (p<0.01). Almost 70% of participants engaged in at least one traditional harvesting physical activity. Picking berries or greens, cutting/smoking fish or meat and fishing were the most common activities. Participation in traditional physical activity was highest in south-west Alaska and was higher among men than women, but did not differ by age (p<0.01). Both traditional food and physical activity were associated with greater tribal self-identification, speaking a Native language at home, using traditional remedies and participating in or attending traditional events (p<0.05). Conclusions The EARTH Study found relationships between traditional food use, physical activities, cultural activities and behaviours. Consumption of a variety of traditional foods and participation in traditional physical activities remain an important part of the contemporary Alaska Native life-style. Efforts to promote and sustain these foods and activities in AN/AI populations may lead to improved health outcomes. PMID:19024803

  5. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  6. Associations between physical activity patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls aged 13-21 years: a cross-sectional study (GEBaHealth Project).

    PubMed

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Lonnie, Marta; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-08-02

    Similar to other countries, trends of decreasing levels of physical activity (PA) and an increasing prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns are observed among girls in Poland. Better understanding of potentially inter-related behaviours within this population can help to design tailored interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Girls aged 13-21 years (n = 1107) were randomly selected for the study. PA was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long (IPAQ-L). Dietary data were collected with food frequency questionnaires. PA patterns and dietary patterns were drawn separately by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression was used to find the associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns. Four major PA patterns ('School/work activity', 'Active recreation', 'Yard activity' and 'Walking and domestic activity') and four dietary patterns ('Traditional Polish', 'Fruit & vegetables', 'Fast food & sweets' and 'Dairy & fats') were identified. Level of PA was the highest in the upper tertile of 'School/work activity' pattern (mean 1372.2 MET-minutes/week, 95 % Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1285.9-1458.5). Girls in upper tertiles of 'Yard activity', 'Active recreation' and 'School/work activity' patterns had significantly higher chances of being in the upper tertile of the 'Fruit and vegetables' dietary pattern (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95 % CI: 1.50-3.14, p < 0.0001; OR 2.02, 95 % CI: 1.41-2.91; p < 0.001 and OR 1.76, 95 % CI: 1.24-2.51, p < 0.01 respectively; all adjusted for confounders) in comparison to bottom tertiles. Weak, but significant inverse associations were found between upper tertiles of 'Active recreation' and 'Yard activity' patterns and unhealthy dietary patterns. We found associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. Girls with the highest

  7. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8-18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children.

  8. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8–18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  9. Effects of postweaning social and physical deprivation on locomotor activity patterns and explorative behavior in female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Moritz; Schaefers, Andrea T U

    2010-05-01

    Social and physical deprivation during adolescence has detrimental consequences for brain maturation and cognitive functions. To test the hypothesis that social and physical deprivation during mouse adolescence would disrupt activity and exploration behavior, we exposed mice either to deprived or enriched rearing (postnatal days 21-60) and assessed activity and exploration of adult mice individually or in mixed treatment groups. In automated group compartments, deprived-reared mice displayed higher locomotor activity, reduced explorative behavior and shifted activity timing compared to enriched-reared mice. Contrastingly, distance and timing of wheel running were largely unaffected by deprived rearing. Our results demonstrate that postweaning social and physical deprivation has measurable effects on mouse locomotor and exploratory behavior, and that such effects may be discernable depending on the activity type studied. Our results further emphasize the importance of the sensitive postweaning period for shaping adult behavioral profiles.

  10. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Breast Cancer Survivors: New Insight into Activity Patterns and Potential Intervention Targets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Steeves, Jeremy; McClain, James; Alfano, Catherine M.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Inactivity and sedentary behavior are related to poorer health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, few studies examining these behaviors in survivors have used objective measures, considered activities other than moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity (MVPA) and/or sedentary behavior (i.e. low intensity activities) or compared survivors to healthy controls. The purpose of the present study is to compare accelerometer-measured activity of various intensities (total, light, lifestyle, MVPA) and sedentary behavior between breast cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Methods An imputation-based approach of independent sample t-tests adjusting for multiple comparisons was used to compare estimates of participation in each activity and sedentary behavior between survivors [n=398; M(SD)age=56.95 (9.11)] and block-matched non-cancer controls [n=1120; M(SD)age=54.88 (16.11)]. Potential moderating effects of body mass index (BMI), age, and education were also examined. Results Breast cancer survivors registered less daily total (282.8 v. 346.9) light (199.1 v. 259.3) and lifestyle (62.0 v. 71.7) activity minutes and more MVPA (21.6 v. 15.9) and sedentary behavior (555.7 v. 500.6) minutes than controls (p<0.001 for all). These relationships were largely consistent across BMI, age and education. On average, survivors spent an estimated 66.4% of their waking time sedentary and 31.1% in light/lifestyle activity and 2.6% in MVPA. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors are more sedentary and participate in less low intensity activity than controls. Although survivors registered more MVPA, these levels were insufficient. Future research should explore these differences and potential benefits of targeting low intensity activities and reducing sedentary time in this population. PMID:26026737

  11. Outcomes of a School-Based Intervention (RESCATE) to Improve Physical Activity Patterns in Mexican Children Aged 8-10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin-Ramirez, E.; Castillo-Martinez, L.; Orea-Tejeda, A.; Vergara-Castaneda, A.; Keirns-Davis, C.; Villa-Romero, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools…

  12. Application and Reliability of the Retrospective Interview Procedure to Trace Physical Activity Patterns in Master Athletes and Nonactive Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Horton, Sean; Kraemer, Krista; Weir, Patricia; Deakin, Janice M.; Cote, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies. The purpose of the first study was to determine if lifestyle variables and past involvement in physical activity was related to current activity levels in master athletes and sedentary older adults. Retrospective interviews were conducted with 12 master athletes and 12 sedentary older adults. Results…

  13. Application and Reliability of the Retrospective Interview Procedure to Trace Physical Activity Patterns in Master Athletes and Nonactive Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Horton, Sean; Kraemer, Krista; Weir, Patricia; Deakin, Janice M.; Cote, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies. The purpose of the first study was to determine if lifestyle variables and past involvement in physical activity was related to current activity levels in master athletes and sedentary older adults. Retrospective interviews were conducted with 12 master athletes and 12 sedentary older adults. Results…

  14. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98).

    PubMed

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-12-15

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively

  15. Occupational physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among Canadian adults: does physical activity at work help to explain the socio-economic patterning of body weight?

    PubMed

    Barberio, Amanda; McLaren, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The behavioural and socio-cultural processes underlying the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and body mass index (BMI) remain unclear. Occupational physical activity (OPA) is one plausible explanatory variable that has not been previously considered. 1) To examine the association between OPA and BMI, and 2) to examine whether OPA mediates the SEP-BMI association, in a Canadian population-based sample. This cross-sectional study was based on secondary analysis of the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey data, focusing on adults (age 25-64) working at a job or business (men, n = 1,036; women, n = 936). BMI was based on measured height and weight and we derived a novel indicator of OPA from the National Occupational Classification Career Handbook. Our analytic technique was ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for a range of socio-demographic, health and behavioural covariates. OPA was marginally associated with BMI in women, such that women with medium levels of OPA tended to be lighter than women with low levels of OPA, in adjusted models. No associations between OPA and BMI were detected for males. Baron and Kenny's (1986) three conditions for testing mediation were not satisfied, and thus we were unable to proceed with testing OPA as a mediator. Notwithstanding the small effects observed in women, overall the associations between OPA and BMI were neither clear nor strong, which could reflect conceptual and/or methodological reasons. Future research on this topic might incorporate other plausible explanatory variables (e.g., job-related psychosocial stress) and adopt a prospective design.

  16. Patterns and perceptions of physical activity and sedentary time in male transport drivers working in regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; Bush, Robert A; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-08-01

    To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69 years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion of time spent in sedentary (<150 cpm), light (151-2,689 cpm) and moderate+ (≥2,690 cpm) intensity categories. Paired sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences between categories on a workday/off-workday (n=16), and during work/non-work time (n=15). Interviews were conducted with 28 drivers and six managers to explore perceptions and ideas relating to workplace PA opportunities. Sedentary time was significantly higher on off-work (64% of wear time) than work (52%) days (p<0.05), while the opposite was the case for light intensity time (off-workday=33%; workday=44%; p<0.05). On workdays, sedentary time was significantly lower when employees were working (44%) than when not working (60%; p<0.05). No significant differences were found for time spent in moderate+ PA. Driver perceptions indicated that PA opportunities (walking club and corporate gym membership) were being adopted by some drivers. However, at this depot, perceived health issues and organisational barriers (shift work and irregular driving routines), tended to preclude some drivers from engaging with these opportunities. Findings contest the notion that a sedentary occupation such as driving necessitates an inactive work environment. This research informs ongoing intervention efforts to target inactive drivers who are struggling to take advantage of existing workplace-related PA opportunities. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Levels and patterns of daily physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively in older care home residents in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barber, S E; Forster, A; Birch, K M

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is important for maintaining independence and quality of life in older people living in care homes. Little is known about patterns of physical activity or sedentary behavior in this population. Thirty-three care home residents (82.6 ± 9.2 years) wore an ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometer for seven days, which provided minutes of sedentary behavior and low, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants undertook the Mini-Mental State Examination and care staff reported activities of daily living (Barthel index) and functional ambulation classification (FAC) for each participant. Participants spent on average 79% of their day sedentary, 14% in low, 6% in light, and 1% in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Activity levels did not significantly differ between days or hours of the day (P > .05). Levels of physical activity were very low and time being sedentary was high. This study can inform physical activity and sedentary behavior interventions for care homes' residents.

  18. The frequency of osteogenic activities and the pattern of intermittence between periods of physical activity and sedentary behaviour affects bone mineral content: the cross-sectional NHANES study.

    PubMed

    Chastin, Sebastien Fm; Mandrichenko, Oleksii; Skelton, Dawn A

    2014-01-06

    Sedentary behaviours, defined as non exercising seated activities, have been shown to have deleterious effects on health. It has been hypothesised that too much sitting time can have a detrimental effect on bone health in youth. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by exploring the association between objectively measured volume and patterns of time spent in sedentary behaviours, time spent in specific screen-based sedentary pursuits and bone mineral content (BMC) accrual in youth. NHANES 2005-2006 cycle data includes BMC of the femoral and spinal region via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns through accelerometry, self reported time spent in screen based pursuits (watching TV and using a computer), and frequency of vigorous playtime and strengthening activities. Multiple regression analysis, stratified by gender was performed on N = 671 males and N = 677 females aged from 8 to 22 years. Time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviours is negatively associated with femoral BMC (males and females) and spinal BMC (females only) after correction for time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. Regression coefficients indicate that an additional hour per day of screen-based sitting corresponds to a difference of -0.77 g femoral BMC in females [95% CI: -1.31 to -0.22] and of -0.45 g femoral BMC in males [95% CI: -0.83 to -0.06]. This association is attenuated when self-reported engagement in regular (average 5 times per week) strengthening exercise (for males) and vigorous playing (for both males and females) is taken into account. Total sitting time and non screen-based sitting do not appear to have a negative association with BMC, whereas screen based sedentary time does. Patterns of intermittence between periods of sitting and moderate to vigorous activity appears to be positively associated with bone health when activity is clustered in time and inter-spaced with long

  19. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.

  20. Patterns of leisure-time physical activity using multivariate finite mixture modeling and cardiovascular risk factors in the Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ying Kuen; Yu, Gary; Wall, Melanie M; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Willey, Joshua Z

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity is currently commonly summarized by simple composite scores of total activity, such as total metabolic equivalent score (METS), without further information about the many specific aspects of activities. We sought to identify more comprehensive physical activity patterns, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors. The Northern Manhattan Study is a multiethnic cohort of stroke-free individuals. Questionnaires were used to capture multiple dimensions of leisure-time physical activity. Participants were grouped into METS categories and also into clusters by multivariate mixture modeling of activity frequency, duration, energy expenditure, and number of activity types. Associations between clusters and risk factors were assessed using χ(2) tests. Using data available in 3293 participants, we identified six model-based clusters that were differentiated by frequency and diversity of activities, rather than activity duration. High activity clusters had lower prevalence of the risk factors compared with those with lower activity; associations with obesity and hypertension remained significant after adjusting for METS (P = .027, .043). METS and risk factors were not significantly associated after adjusting for the clusters. Data-driven clustering method is a principled, generalizable approach to depict physical activity and form subgroups associated with cardiovascular risk factors independently of METS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Variability of Physical Activity Patterns by Type of Day and Season in 8-10-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Ann V.; Hughes, Dylan R.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) compare physical activity across two seasons and, within those seasons, across school and vacation time, and (b) compare the proportion of children meeting the activity thresholds recommended by Tudor-Locke et al. (2004) at each time point. Thirty-six boys, between the ages of 8 and 10 years (M age = 8.8 years,…

  2. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  3. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  4. Patterns of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation in a British Birth Cohort at Early Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60–64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index. PMID:24911018

  5. Patterns of leisure-time physical activity participation in a British birth cohort at early old age.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn R; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60-64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥ 2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index.

  6. Association between sedentary and physical activity patterns and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Saudi men: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea; Elkilany, Ahmed; Alhariri, Mohammed

    2015-12-12

    This study examined the association between objectively measured physical activity patterns and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Saudi men. The study was cross-sectional, and 84 healthy men from the Saudi population (age 37.6 ± 8.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.4 ± 5.4 kg/m(2)) were recruited. Measurements of physical activity were made using triaxial accelerometers over 7 consecutive days of leisure time physical activity. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured, and fasting blood samples taken to measure glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and triglycerides (TG). A total 21.4 % of participants had three or more risk factors for MetS, with low HDL levels the most frequent factor. Light physical activity (LPA) and BMI explained 13 % of the variation in TG. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with a minimum 10-min per session (10-min MVPA), LPA, and BMI explained 16 % of the variation in HDL. Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with risk factors of MetS, although odds ratios indicated that decreased sedentarism does have a protective effect against MetS. LPA and 10-min MVPA were associated with elevated HDL levels among Saudi men. Future studies should confirm whether time spent physically active independent of intensity is an important factor in improving HDL levels.

  7. Physical activity patterns of American Indian and Alaskan Native people living in Alaska and the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Diana; Schumacher, Mary C; Lanier, Anne P; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Asay, Elvin; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Edwards, Sandra L; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of self-reported physical activity (PA) and effects on health measures. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Education and Research Towards Health study participants from Alaska and the Southwestern United States enrolled from 2004 to 2007. Total of 10,372 American Indian and Alaskan Native people (AI/AN) of at least 18 years. Participants completed computer-assisted, self-administered questionnaires, and anthropometric and health measurements were taken of each participant. Analysis of variance, chi2 tests, and multiple linear regressions were used. Almost 23% of participants reported less than 30 minutes per week of moderate or vigorous activities. Half (49%) reported no vigorous activities. Characteristics associated with more time spent performing vigorous activity were male gender, age less than 40 years, higher income and education levels, and living in a rural area. Almost 70% of Alaskan participants and 36% of Southwest participants engaged in wild food-harvesting activities. Participants with higher levels of activity had significantly better clinical characteristics (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, and waist circumference). AI/AN people engage in many different physical activities, including traditional harvesting activities. Women had lower levels of PA than men, and participation in vigorous PA was associated with better clinical characteristics. These data can be used to guide health promotion efforts in AI/AN populations.

  8. Obesity and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  9. [Regional differences on patterns of physical activity and leisure sedentary time: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study, including a million people from 10 regions].

    PubMed

    Fan, Mengyu; Lyu, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yu, Canqing; Du, Huaidong; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-08-01

    To describe the gender and regional differences in patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior across 10 study areas through data from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) that involving half a million adults. The baseline survey of CKB took place in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China during 2004-2008. After excluding those who had a prior history of heart disease, stroke and/or cancer, 486 514 participants (age: 30-79 y) were included in the analyses. MET-h/d was calculated for each one of the participant, based on the type, duration and intensity of self-reported physical activity, along with time spent on sedentary activity. These data were compared, after standardization for age between sex and study areas. The mean total physical activity was 22.9 MET-h/d among men, 20.6 MET-h/d among women, and the mean sedentary leisure time appeared 3.1 h/d in men and 2.9 h/d in women. In men, the total physical activity ranged from 13.3 MET-h/d in Haikou to 31.3 MET-h/d in Zhejiang, while in women it ranged from 14.7 MET-h/d to 30.2 MET-h/d across the 10 areas. For sedentary leisure time, it ranged from 2.0 h/d in Zhejiang to 3.8 h/d in Sichuan in men and 1.6 h/d to 3.7 h/d in women. In both men and women, occupational physical activities (77.6% and 59.8% respectively) accounted for most of the daily activities, while leisure time physical activities accounted for the least (3.1% in both men and women). Among men, the proportion of occupational physical activity ranged from 86.5% in Zhejiang to 69.4% in Haikou (69.4%), while in women it ranged from 74.8% in Zhejiang to 40.9% in Henan. Gansu (men 17.8%, women 18.1%) reported the highest proportion of transportation physical activities. Among women, areas reporting the highest proportion of physical activity at home would include Henan (54.0%) and Hunan (39.1%), whereas adults in Zhejiang (20.0%) reported the lowest proportion. Among men, Hunan (18.0%) reported the highest proportion of physical activity at home

  10. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  11. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Patterns in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis and Age- and Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Kelly A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Evans, Rachel E; McNarry, Melitta A

    2017-09-05

    Regular physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as important in the care of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) but there is a dearth of evidence regarding physical activity levels (PAL) or how these are accrued in those with CF. Physical activity was measured by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days by eighteen children (10 boys; 12.4 ± 2.8 years) with mild to moderate CF and eighteen age- and sex-matched controls (10 boys; 12.5 ± 2.7 years). Both CF and healthy children demonstrated similar PAL and patterns of accumulation across the intensity spectrum, with higher levels of PA during weekdays in both groups. FEV1 was predicted by high-light PA in CF compared to low-light PA in healthy children. These findings highlight weekends and light PA as areas warranting further research for the development of effective intervention strategies to increase PA in the youth CF population.

  12. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical activity, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555

  13. The Role of Leisure Activities in Mediating the Relationship between Physical Health and Well-Being: Differential Patterns in Old and Very Old Age.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; van der Linden, Bernadette W A; Sauter, Julia; Gabriel, Rainer; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-07-05

    Recently, Paggi et al. [Gerontology 2016;62:450-458] for the very first time showed in a cross-sectional sample of 259 adults aged 18-81 years that the relation of physical health to psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of leisure activity participation. To extend this framework, we followed theories on successful aging and vulnerability to propose to add a differential perspective predicting that certain individuals may be more vulnerable than others and therefore may show differences in the mediation pattern. Specifically, we examined whether mediation patterns were differential in certain populations, such as in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. We analyzed data from 3,080 individuals on physical health (number of chronic diseases, subjective health status, and subjective evaluation of change in health over the last 10 years), frequency of participation in 18 leisure activities, and physical and psychological well-being using moderated mediation models with a path model approach that allowed the simultaneous estimation of all model paths, including their significance. We found that the relation of physical health to physical and psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of activity participation. For physical (but not for psychological) well-being, this mediation was more pronounced in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. These moderated mediations were attributable to differential relations of physical health to frequency of activity participation and to differential relations of frequency of activity participation to physical well-being between the investigated moderator levels. Present data suggest that participation in leisure activities may play a key role in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being, particularly

  14. Mobility disability and the pattern of accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity behaviors in people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ezeugwu, Victor; Klaren, Rachel E.; A. Hubbard, Elizabeth; Manns, Patricia (Trish); Motl, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity and high sedentary behavior levels are major concerns in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and these differ depending on the level of mobility disability. However, the manner in which daily activity is accumulated is currently unknown in this population. Methods A secondary analysis was performed on a combined data set of persons with MS from two previous investigations of physical activity and symptomatic or quality of life outcomes in the United States over a two year period (2007–2009). Mobility disability status was determined using the Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) while activity behavior was objectively monitored using an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days. Results Persons with MS who have mobility disability were involved in sedentary behavior, light and moderate intensity activity for 65%, 34% and 1% of the day, respectively compared to 60%, 37%, and 3%, respectively in those without mobility disability (p < 0.05). Breaks in sedentary time did not differ by mobility disability status. Compared to those without mobility disability, the average number of sedentary bouts longer than 30 min was greater in those with mobility disability (p = 0.016). Conclusion Persons with MS with mobility disability are less active, engage in more sedentary behavior and accumulate prolonged sedentary bouts. PMID:26844077

  15. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can include working, exercising, performing household chores, and leisure-time activities such as walking, tennis, hiking, bicycling, ... active ( 4 ). A pooled analysis of data on leisure-time physical activity (activities done at an individual’s ...

  16. Patterns of yoga practice and physical activity following a yoga intervention for adults with or at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina; Innes, Kim E; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Kulbok, Pamela; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-01-01

    The current study described patterns of yoga practice and examined differences in physical activity over time between individuals with or at risk for type 2 diabetes who completed an 8-week yoga intervention compared with controls. A longitudinal comparative design measured the effect of a yoga intervention on yoga practice and physical activity, using data at baseline and postintervention months 3, 6, and 15. Disparate patterns of yoga practice occurred between intervention and control participants over time, but the subjective definition of yoga practice limits interpretation. Multilevel model estimates indicated that treatment group did not have a significant influence in the rate of change in physical activity over the study period. While age and education were not significant individual predictors, the inclusion of these variables in the model did improve fit. Findings indicate that an 8-week yoga intervention had little effect on physical activity over time. Further research is necessary to explore the influence of yoga on behavioral health outcomes among individuals with or at risk for type 2 diabetes.

  17. Patterns of Yoga Practice and Physical Activity Following a Yoga Intervention for Adults With or at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gina; Innes, Kim E.; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Kulbok, Pamela; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background The current study described patterns of yoga practice and examined differences in physical activity over time between individuals with or at risk for type 2 diabetes who completed an 8-week yoga intervention compared with controls. Methods A longitudinal comparative design measured the effect of a yoga intervention on yoga practice and physical activity, using data at baseline and postintervention months 3, 6, and 15. Results Disparate patterns of yoga practice occurred between intervention and control participants over time, but the subjective definition of yoga practice limits interpretation. Multilevel model estimates indicated that treatment group did not have a significant influence in the rate of change in physical activity over the study period. While age and education were not significant individual predictors, the inclusion of these variables in the model did improve fit. Conclusions Findings indicate that an 8-week yoga intervention had little effect on physical activity over time. Further research is necessary to explore the influence of yoga on behavioral health outcomes among individuals with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22232506

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  19. Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the interaction between biological susceptibility and environmental risk is complex and that further study of behavioral typologies related to obesity and associated behaviors is important to further elucidate the nature of obesity risk and how to approach it for intervention. The current investigation aims to identify phenotypical lifestyle patterns that might begin to unify our understanding of obesity and obesity related behaviors. Methods Individuals who had recently lost substantial weight of their own initiative completed measures of intentional weight control behaviors and lifestyle behaviors associated with eating. These behaviors were factor analyzed and the resulting factors were examined in relation to BMI, recent weight loss, diet, and physical activity. Results Four meaningful lifestyle and weight control behavioral factors were identified— regularity of meals, TV related viewing and eating, intentional strategies for weight control, and eating away from home. Greater meal regularity was associated with greater recent weight loss and greater fruit and vegetable intake. Greater TV related viewing and eating was associated with greater BMI and greater fat and sugar intake. More eating away from home was related to greater fat and sugar intake, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less physical activity. Greater use of weight control strategies was most consistently related to better weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Compared to the individual behavior variables, the identified lifestyle patterns appeared to be more reliably related to diet, physical activity, and weight (both BMI and recent weight loss). These findings add to the growing body of literature identifying behavioral patterns related to obesity and the overall weight control strategy of eating less and exercising more. In future research it will be important to replicate these behavioral factors (over time and in other samples) and

  20. The relative importance of socioeconomic indicators in explaining differences in BMI and waist:hip ratio, and the mediating effect of work control, dietary patterns and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kjøllesdal, Marte Råberg; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Mosdøl, Annhild; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Socioeconomic differences in overweight are well documented, but most studies have only used one or two indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of the present study was to explore the relative importance of indicators of SEP (occupation, education and income) in explaining variation in BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR), and the mediating effect of work control and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, smoking and physical activity). The Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study, was carried out in 2000-1, Oslo, Norway. Our sample included 9235 adult working Oslo citizens, who attended a health examination and filled in two complementary FFQ with < 20% missing responses to food items. Four dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis, and were named 'modern', 'Western', 'traditional' and 'sweet'. In multivariate models, BMI and WHR were inversely associated with education (P < 0.001/P < 0.001) and occupation (P = 0.002/P < 0.001), whereas there were no significant associations with income or the work control. The 'modern' (P < 0.001) and the 'sweet' (P < 0.001) dietary patterns and physical activity level (P < 0.001) were inversely associated, while the 'Western' dietary pattern (P < 0.001) was positively associated with both BMI and WHR. These lifestyle factors could not fully explain the socioeconomic differences in BMI or WHR. However, together with socioeconomic factors, they explained more of the variation in WHR among men (21%) than among women (7%).

  1. Outcomes of a school-based intervention (RESCATE) to improve physical activity patterns in Mexican children aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Colín-Ramírez, E; Castillo-Martínez, L; Orea-Tejeda, A; Vergara-Castañeda, A; Keirns-Davis, C; Villa-Romero, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 5) or control (n = 5) groups and followed up during 12 months. Physical and sedentary activities were assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 and 12 months. At the end of follow-up, there was a significant increase in the performance of moderate physical activity (MPA) among children in intervention group who had not performed MPA at baseline any day of the week (40%, P = 0.04) but not in the control group (8%, P = not significant). The intervention group also showed a significant reduction in the proportion of children who spent more than 3 hours a day playing video games (from 23 to 13%, P = 0.01), while control group did not show significant changes. Given these findings, we conclude that intervention was able to modify positively physical activity and reduce time spent on such sedentary activities as video games among those at highest risk studied children.

  2. Adiposity, dietary and physical activity patterns in ethnic Chinese youths: a cross-country comparison of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z

    1994-06-01

    During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.

  3. Levels of physical activity and sleep patterns among older people with dementia living in long-term care facilities: A 24-h snapshot.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Murfield, Jenny; Draper, Brian; Beattie, Elizabeth; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy M

    2017-08-01

    To objectively measure over a 24-h period the daytime and nighttime levels of physical activity and sleep patterns of older people with dementia living in long-term care facilities. Nested within a larger research program, this cross-sectional study involved 415 residents, aged ≥60 years, with a documented diagnosis of dementia, from 28 long-term care facilities in south-east Queensland, Australia. Residents wore SenseWear(®) activity armbands continuously for 24h, with data recorded for: step count; total energy expenditure; metabolic equivalent of task (MET); and the amount of time spent physically active, lying down, awake, and asleep. Residents' levels of cognitive impairment (assessed using the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale) and agitation (assessed using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short Form), and demographic data were also collected. From a total of 415 residents monitored with the SenseWear(®) activity armbands, 192 met the valid wear-time of 21h or more, and had activity and sleep data recorded. These residents were largely inactive during the daytime (engaged in an average of 1.8h of light physical activity), but achieved recommended amounts of sleep at night (average of 6.8h). There was considerable variation within the sample, and activity and sleep differed by sex (p<0.001), age (p=0.010), mobility (p<0.001), and antipsychotic usage (p=0.030). These data can be used by long-term care clinicians to assist in planning interventions and care approaches which promote physical activity and good sleep practices, and are individualized to physical and cognitive capabilities. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000508673). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Habitual Physical Activity and Plasma Metabolomic Patterns Distinguish Individuals with Low vs. High Weight Loss during Controlled Energy Restriction1234

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Brian D; Keim, Nancy L; Fiehn, Oliver; Adams, Sean H; Van Loan, Marta D; Newman, John W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Total weight loss induced by energy restriction is highly variable even under tightly controlled conditions. Identifying weight-loss discriminants would provide a valuable weight management tool and insights into body weight regulation. Objective: This study characterized responsiveness to energy restriction in adults from variables including the plasma metabolome, endocrine and inflammatory markers, clinical indices, body composition, diet, and physical activity. Methods: Data were derived from a controlled feeding trial investigating the effect of 3–4 dairy product servings in an energy-restricted diet (2092 kJ/d reduction) over 12 wk. Partial least squares regression was used to identify weight-loss discriminants in 67 overweight and obese adults. Linear mixed models were developed to identify discriminant variable differences in high- vs. low-weight–loss responders. Results: Both pre- and postintervention variables (n = 127) were identified as weight-loss discriminants (root mean squared error of prediction = 1.85 kg; Q2 = 0.43). Compared with low-responders (LR), high-responders (HR) had greater decreases in body weight (LR: 2.7 ± 1.6 kg; HR: 9.4 ± 1.8 kg, P < 0.01), BMI (in kg/m2; LR: 1.0 ± 0.6; HR: 3.3 ± 0.5, P < 0.01), and total fat (LR: 2.2 ± 1.1 kg; HR: 8.0 ± 2.1 kg, P < 0.01). Significant group effects unaffected by the intervention were determined for the respiratory exchange ratio (LR: 0.86 ± 0.05; HR: 0.82 ± 0.03, P < 0.01), moderate physical activity (LR: 127 ± 52 min; HR: 167 ± 68 min, P = 0.02), sedentary activity (LR: 1090 ± 99 min; HR: 1017 ± 110 min, P = 0.02), and plasma stearate [LR: 102,000 ± 21,000 quantifier ion peak height (QIPH); HR: 116,000 ± 24,000 QIPH, P = 0.01]. Conclusions: Overweight and obese individuals highly responsive to energy restriction had accelerated reductions in adiposity, likely supported in part by higher lipid mobilization and combustion. A novel observation was that person

  5. Habitual physical activity and plasma metabolomic patterns distinguish individuals with low vs. high weight loss during controlled energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Keim, Nancy L; Fiehn, Oliver; Adams, Sean H; Van Loan, Marta D; Newman, John W

    2015-04-01

    Total weight loss induced by energy restriction is highly variable even under tightly controlled conditions. Identifying weight-loss discriminants would provide a valuable weight management tool and insights into body weight regulation. This study characterized responsiveness to energy restriction in adults from variables including the plasma metabolome, endocrine and inflammatory markers, clinical indices, body composition, diet, and physical activity. Data were derived from a controlled feeding trial investigating the effect of 3-4 dairy product servings in an energy-restricted diet (2092 kJ/d reduction) over 12 wk. Partial least squares regression was used to identify weight-loss discriminants in 67 overweight and obese adults. Linear mixed models were developed to identify discriminant variable differences in high- vs. low-weight-loss responders. Both pre- and postintervention variables (n = 127) were identified as weight-loss discriminants (root mean squared error of prediction = 1.85 kg; Q(2) = 0.43). Compared with low-responders (LR), high-responders (HR) had greater decreases in body weight (LR: 2.7 ± 1.6 kg; HR: 9.4 ± 1.8 kg, P < 0.01), BMI (in kg/m(2); LR: 1.0 ± 0.6; HR: 3.3 ± 0.5, P < 0.01), and total fat (LR: 2.2 ± 1.1 kg; HR: 8.0 ± 2.1 kg, P < 0.01). Significant group effects unaffected by the intervention were determined for the respiratory exchange ratio (LR: 0.86 ± 0.05; HR: 0.82 ± 0.03, P < 0.01), moderate physical activity (LR: 127 ± 52 min; HR: 167 ± 68 min, P = 0.02), sedentary activity (LR: 1090 ± 99 min; HR: 1017 ± 110 min, P = 0.02), and plasma stearate [LR: 102,000 ± 21,000 quantifier ion peak height (QIPH); HR: 116,000 ± 24,000 QIPH, P = 0.01]. Overweight and obese individuals highly responsive to energy restriction had accelerated reductions in adiposity, likely supported in part by higher lipid mobilization and combustion. A novel observation was that person-to-person differences in habitual physical activity and magnitude

  6. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and relationship to generalized distress among Canadians with arthritis or rheumatism.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Deborah; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Dritsa, Maria

    2003-11-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology and possible mental health benefits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) for persons with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. We examined the prevalence of LTPA and its association to generalized distress among Canadians with rheumatic conditions. The 1996-97 National Population Health Survey interview data from respondents with rheumatic conditions (n = 10,700) and persons with no chronic conditions (n = 19791) in the same age range (20-79 yrs) were selected for analyses. Self-reported data on forms and frequency of LTPA engaged in over the past 3 months were collected. Intensity of LTPA was expressed as total energy expenditure, with respondents classified as Active (> or = 3.0 kcal/kg/day), Moderate (1.5-2.9 kcal/kg/day), and Inactive (< 1.5 kcal/kg/day). Generalized distress was assessed using a subset of items from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Similar to persons with no chronic conditions, roughly 56% of persons with rheumatic conditions engaged in regular LTPA (12 or more 15-minute sessions per month). Only 13.2% of women and 18.9% of men with rheumatic conditions were sufficiently active at the level recommended to yield optimal health benefits. Both moderate and higher intensity LTPA was associated with less generalized distress. This relationship was more pronounced for women and for middle-aged and older patients with rheumatic conditions. A significant proportion of Canadians with rheumatic conditions are physically inactive. Even moderate intensity LTPA is associated with decreased generalized distress. Better efforts must be directed at promoting LTPA as part of the multidisciplinary management of this condition.

  7. Dietary patterns in obese pregnant women; influence of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity in the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Angela C; Seed, Paul T; Patel, Nashita; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robinson, Sian M; Sanders, Thomas A; Sattar, Naveed; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M

    2016-11-29

    Understanding dietary patterns in obese pregnant women will inform future intervention strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes and the health of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity advice on dietary patterns in obese pregnant woman participating in the UPBEAT study, and to explore associations of dietary patterns with pregnancy outcomes. In the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial, pregnant obese women from eight UK multi-ethnic, inner-city populations were randomly assigned to receive a diet/physical activity intervention or standard antenatal care. The dietary intervention aimed to reduce glycemic load and saturated fat intake. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (15(+0)-18(+6) weeks' gestation), post intervention (27(+0)-28(+6) weeks) and in late pregnancy (34(+0)-36(+0) weeks). Dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis of the baseline FFQ data, and changes compared in the control and intervention arms. Patterns were related to pregnancy outcomes in the combined control/intervention cohort (n = 1023). Four distinct baseline dietary patterns were defined; Fruit and vegetables, African/Caribbean, Processed, and Snacks, which were differently associated with social and demographic factors. The UPBEAT intervention significantly reduced the Processed (-0.14; 95% CI -0.19, -0.08, P <0.0001) and Snacks (-0.24; 95% CI -0.31, -0.17, P <0.0001) pattern scores. In the adjusted model, baseline scores for the African/Caribbean (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: OR = 2.46; 95% CI 1.41, 4.30) and Processed (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.23, 3.41) patterns in the entire cohort were associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes. In a diverse cohort of obese pregnant women an intensive dietary intervention improved Processed and Snack dietary pattern scores. African/Caribbean and Processed

  8. Influence of School Schedules on Physical Activity Patterns in Primary School Children: A Case Study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Leban, Bruno; Piredda, Simona; Vacca, Maria Marcella; Mura, Gioia

    2017-07-01

    Considering the relevant amount of time spent by children at school, it is essential to ensure that suitable levels of physical activity (PA) are guaranteed. This study aimed to assess possible changes induced in the amount and type of PA performed following the 2 schedules in Italian primary schools, namely regular and full time (30-40 h/week respectively). A sample of 169 children wore a triaxial accelerometer 24h/day for 7 consecutive days. Raw data were processed to calculate the number of steps, amount and intensity of the PA performed in morning, afternoon and evening time slots. During weekday afternoon times (1:30 to 4:30 PM), children attending the full-time schedule spent significantly less time in sedentary behavior with respect to those who attend the regular time (54.7% vs. 60.0%, P < .001) and more time in moderate-to-vigorous activity (18.0% vs. 15.0%, P = .004). No differences between morning and evening times were found. The structure of the full time schedule, which includes a second recess, promotes higher and more intense levels of PA during the afternoon. Such information represent a useful input in planning differential PA activities for children attending the regular time to achieve similar PA levels for the whole school population.

  9. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  10. Mediating role of television time, diet patterns, physical activity and sleep duration in the association between television in the bedroom and adiposity in 10 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Schuna, John M; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; LeBlanc, Allana G; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-05-13

    Having a TV in the bedroom is associated with adiposity in children. It is not known how lifestyle behaviours (television viewing time, diet patterns, physical activity, and sleep duration) mediate this association. The objective of this study was to examine the mediating role of these lifestyle behaviours in the association between TV in the bedroom and percent body fat (% BF). Cross-sectional data from 1 201 children (57.3% female; mean age = 9.8 years) from Ottawa, Canada and Baton Rouge, USA were examined. % BF was directly measured. Accelerometers were used to determine physical activity and sleep duration (24-h, 7-day protocol). Questionnaires were used to assess TV viewing time and healthy/unhealthy diet patterns (derived using factor analysis from food frequency questionnaire data). Canadian boys and girls with a TV in their bedroom had a higher % BF, watched more TV and had unhealthier diets. American boys and girls with a TV in their bedroom watched more TV, while boys had a higher % BF and a more unhealthy diet, and girls had less MVPA. In Canadian girls, TV viewing time mediated the association between having a TV in the bedroom and adiposity, independent of diet patterns, MVPA, and sleep duration. Other lifestyle mediators were not significant in Canadian boys or in US children. TV viewing is a mediating lifestyle behaviour in the association between TV in the bedroom and adiposity in Canadian girls. Future research is needed to identify lifestyle behaviours as intermediate mediators.

  11. Health impact modelling of different travel patterns on physical activity, air pollution and road injuries for São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Tainio, Marko; Goodman, Anna; Edwards, Phil; Haines, Andy; Gouveia, Nelson; Monteiro, Carlos; Woodcock, James

    2017-11-01

    São Paulo city, Brazil, faces challenges caused by rapid urbanization. We illustrate how future travel patterns could lead to different health consequences in the city. We evaluated the health impacts of different travel pattern scenarios for the São Paulo adult population by comparing the travel patterns of São Paulo in 2012 with counterfactual scenarios in which the city adopted travel patterns of i) those living in the city's expanded centre; ii) London (2012); iii) a highly motorized São Paulo (SP California); and iv) a visionary São Paulo (SP 2040), with high levels of walking and cycling and low levels of car and motorcycle use. For each scenario we estimated changes in exposure to air pollution, road injury risk, and physical activity. Health outcomes were estimated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and premature deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the main sources of uncertainty. We found considerable health gains in the SP 2040 scenario (total 63.6k DALYs avoided), with 4.7% of premature deaths from ischemic heart disease avoided from increases in physical activity alone. Conversely, we found substantial health losses in the scenario favouring private transport (SP California, total increase of 54.9k DALYs), with an increase in road traffic deaths and injuries among pedestrians and motorized vehicles. Parameters related to air pollution had the largest impact on uncertainty. Shifting travel patterns towards more sustainable transport can provide major health benefits in São Paulo. Reducing the uncertainties in the findings should be a priority for empirical and modelling research on the health impacts of such shifts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Background Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Aim Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. Material and Methods PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9–75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9–12, 13–17, 18–64, and 65–75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Results Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Conclusion Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the

  13. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9-75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9-12, 13-17, 18-64, and 65-75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the Spanish population.

  14. Parent-Adolescent Patterns of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep Among a Sample of Overweight and Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tu, Andrew W; Watts, Allison W; Masse, Louise C

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parent and adolescent levels of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep among a group of overweight and obese adolescents. Baseline data of parent-adolescent pairs who enrolled in a lifestyle modification intervention were analyzed for this study (n = 176). Participants completed questionnaires about their screen time (TV, video game, and computer time), wore an accelerometer for 8 days, and completed a sleep diary for 1 week. In total, 98 parent-adolescent dyads provided valid data for the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between parent and adolescent's moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA), step counts, sedentary behaviors, and sleep duration. Analyses were split by weekday, weekday evening and weekend. Parent-adolescent MVPA was significantly associated on weekdays (b = 0.18; SE = 0.08; β = 0.26), weekday evenings (b = 0.21; SE = 0.08; β = 0.28), and weekends (b = 0.29; SE = 0.12; β = 0.27). This study found associations between parent-child video game time on weekends (b = 1.10; SE = 0.49; β = 0.24) and computer time on weekdays (b = 0.42; SE = 0.19; β = 0.23). Adolescent sleep was associated with parental sleep on weekdays only (b = 0.38; SE = 0.09; β = 0.46). The findings warrant further investigation into the direction and mechanism of the relationship between parent and adolescent weight related behaviors.

  15. Effects of Training and Detraining on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity Patterns, Cardiovascular Variables, and HRQoL after 3 Health-Promotion Interventions in Institutionalized Elders.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandrina; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and quality of life (QoL) of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a) A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36); (b) Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c) An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d) Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i) ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii) Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii) Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL.

  16. Effects of Training and Detraining on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity Patterns, Cardiovascular Variables, and HRQoL after 3 Health-Promotion Interventions in Institutionalized Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Alexandrina; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and quality of life (QoL) of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a) A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36); (b) Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c) An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d) Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i) ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii) Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii) Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL. PMID:22332008

  17. Prevalence, Patterns, and Correlates of Physical Activity Among the Adult Population in Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS I Study.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Rosana; Serón, Pamela; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Matta, María G; Gutierrez, Laura; Chung-Shiuan, Chen; Lanas, Fernando; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Bazzano, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    Few data are available on population level regarding domain-specific correlates of physical activity (PA) in Latin America. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PA patterns and their main sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. CESCAS I is a population-based prospective cohort study with a 4-stage stratified sampling of a general population of 7,524 adults aged 35 to 74 years from 4 midsized cities in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. PA was assessed using the transcultural adaptation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form. The questionnaire asked about frequency (days per week) and duration (minutes per day) of moderate and vigorous intensity activities in 3 different domains: work, leisure time, and active transportation (walking and bicycling). PA levels of ≥600 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes per week was considered sufficiently active. Odds ratios for associations of sufficiently active status with sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Almost 65%) of the participants reported ≥600 MET minutes per week. The lowest prevalence of sufficiently active individuals was seen in Temuco, Chile (58.0%), among women (58.7%), older individuals (55.4%), those with higher educational level (61.6%), and homemakers (53.4%). Approximately 22.8% of the population reported no PA. In multivariable analysis, PA levels were lower among women, individuals who were older, obese, university educated, with clerical work, retired/unemployed or homemakers, and those with physical limitations. Future interventions to increase PA levels in the Southern Cone of Latin America must take into account disparities by gender and socioeconomic status. The promotion of PA during leisure time in women--unemployed and homemakers--and of active transportation for those performing office or

  18. Patterns of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-Based Media Use and Positive and Negative Health Indicators in the U.S. and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Janssen, Ian; Boyce, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine: 1) how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media use (SBM) relate to physical and social health indicators, and 2) cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Essentially identical questions and methodologies were used in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children cross-sectional surveys of nationally-representative samples of American (N = 14,818) and Canadian (N = 7,266) students in grades 6 to 10. Items included questions about frequency of PA, SBM, positive health indicators (health status, self-image, quality of life, and quality of family and peer relationships), and negative health indicators (health complaints, physical aggression, smoking, drinking, and marijuana use). Results In regression analyses controlling for age and gender, positive health indicators were uniformly positively related to PA while two negative health indicators were negatively related to PA. However, PA was positively related to physical aggression. The pattern for SBM was generally the opposite; SBM was negatively related to most positive health indices and positively related to several of the negative health indicators. The notable exception was that SBM was positively related to the quality of peer relationships. Although there were cross-national differences in the strength of some relationships, these patterns were essentially replicated in both countries. Conclusions Surveys of nationally representative samples of youth in two countries provide evidence of positive physical and social concomitants of PA and negative concomitants of SBM. These findings suggest potential positive consequences of increasing PA and decreasing SBM in adolescents and provide further justification for such efforts. PMID:19380098

  19. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Physical Activity among the Adult Population of the Southern Cone of Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS I Study

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Rosana; Serón, Pamela; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Matta, María G; Gutierrez, Laura; Chung-Shiuan, Chen; Lanas, Fernando; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Bazzano, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few data are available on population level regarding domain-specific correlates of physical activity (PA) in Latin America. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PA patterns and their main sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Methods CESCAS I is a population-based prospective cohort study with a 4-stage stratified sampling of a general population of 7,524 adults aged 35–74 years from four mid-sized cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. PA was assessed using the transcultural adaptation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form (IPAQ). The questionnaire asked about frequency (days/week) and duration (minutes/day) of moderate and vigorous intensity activities in three different domains: work, leisure time and active transportation (walking and bicycling). PA levels ≥ 600 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes/week was considered sufficiently active (SA). Odds ratios for associations of SA status with sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results Almost sixty five percent (64.8%) of the participants reported ≥ 600 MET minutes/week. The lowest prevalence of sufficiently active individuals was seen in Temuco, Chile (58.0 %), among women (58.7%), older individuals (55.4%), those with higher educational level (61.6%) and homemakers (53.4%). Approximately 22.8% of the population reported no PA. In multivariable analysis, PA levels were lower among women, individuals who were older, obese, university educated, with clerical work, retired/unemployed or homemakers, and those with physical limitations. Conclusions Future interventions to increase PA levels in the Southern Cone of Latin America must take into account disparities by gender and socioeconomic status. The promotion of PA during leisure time in women –unemployed and homemakers– and of active

  20. Relationship Between Physical Activity Patterns and Metabolic Syndrome Among Male Coal Miners of Shanxi Province in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Xu, Shu-Hong; Guan, Hongwei; Wang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China. The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 3076 males aged 18-65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633-0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516-0.762). Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.

  1. Physical Activity Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Videos Glossary of Terms Success Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329- ...

  2. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  3. No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for

  4. A CLINICAL GUIDE TO THE ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS IN THE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE: PART 1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen-Honeycutt, Jena; Nasypany, Alan; Baker, Russell T.; May, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate assessment and interventions for breathing patterns prior to assessment of the patient's musculoskeletal complaint may be beneficial. Breathing pattern disorders (BPDs) are remediable and influenced by biochemical, biomechanical, psychological, and/or unknown factors. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to demonstrate the integratration of a BPD assessment into a standard clinical musculoskeletal orthopedic examination. Clinical Assessment The observation of a patient's breathing pattern begins when they enter the clinic, is followed by palpation and orthopedic tests, which allows for proper classification of BPDs. Outcomes Disease-oriented measures guide the assessment and classification of BPD, while patient-oriented measures describe clinically important differences among patient values. Classification There are many possible variations of classifications of BPD, however, six primary dysfunctions found in the literature have become the foundation of the BPD assessment. Discussion and Conclusion Restoring proper breathing mechanics and neuromuscular motor control patterns during breathing may result in a decrease in pain, improved patient outcomes, and overall patient well being associated with their primary musculoskeletal complaint. A comprehensive evaluation of breathing patterns, as a part of an orthopedic examination, may guide a clinician in providing effective and appropriate treatments to decrease pain and improve function. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27757292

  5. Students' development of models of magnetic materials, patterns of group activity, and social norms in a physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation is a study of students' model development processes in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers. It details the models of magnetic materials developed and used by students during a unit on static electricity and magnetism. In this inquiry-based course, the class developed and formally accepted a model, in the form of diagrams and descriptions, that is very similar to the accepted magnetic domains model. They did this without textbooks or lectures on magnetism. Before adopting this model, however, most groups in the class temporarily used models involving opposite charges at the two ends of magnetized nails. How did the students do it? The explanation involves detailed study of the groups' interactions and use of structure in the classroom environment. This dissertation uses two theoretical frameworks to analyze interactions. It applies Yackel and Cobb's (1996) concepts of classroom social norms to characterize aspects of the classroom participation structure which affected groups' construction and declaration of models. It also applies distributed cognition ideas to analyze the sense-making conversations that small groups had when constructing group responses. This research found that conversations in one small group could be characterized into sixteen categories. Important categories included "extending ideas" which involved gradual deepening and elaboration of the group's understanding of their model(s), and "joint typing", an interactive process by which group members collaborated on typed statements or group diagrams and simultaneously developed common language for communicating their ideas to each other. Some of these categories of activity were closely connected to computer use. Also, four classroom norms are described. One small group social classroom norm involved group members developing a "common ground" consisting of agreed-upon group statements. Three sociophysics norms which characterize the whole class

  6. A CLINICAL GUIDE TO THE ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS IN THE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE: PART 2, A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Erin B.; Nasypany, Alan; Baker, Russell T.; May, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breathing pattern disorders (BPDs) are characterized by persistent, suboptimal breathing strategies that may result in additional musculoskeletal pain and/or dysfunction. The purpose of this case series was to examine the effects of Primal Reflex Release Technique (PRRT) and breathing exercise interventions in physically active individuals that presented with a primary complaint of musculoskeletal pain, a BPD, and startle reflexes. Subjects The assessment techniques described in Part 1 of this series were used to identify three student athletes (aged 16-22) who presented with musculoskeletal pain of the low back, mid back, and knee, BPDs, and startle reflexes. The subjects were unable to identify an apparent source of their pain. Intervention The clinician's classification of the subject's breathing patterns guided intervention(s). Each subject was treated once with PRRT and/or a breathing reflex triggering exercise. Results Each of the three subjects demonstrated clinically important improvements on the numerical pain rating scale specific to their tender areas and/or with their primary musculoskeletal complaint. Discussion These findings suggest that it may be useful to assess for a BPD and startle reflexes along with a standard orthopedic evaluation in the physically active athlete. Treatment of BPD's may positively impact musculoskeletal pain and/or dysfunction. Further research is needed to understand the effects of treatment of BPD's and how these effects relate to musculoskeletal dysfunction. Summary The prevalence of BPD with startle reflexes is unknown and implications regarding the assessment for and treatment of BPD has limited research; however, positive results were demonstrated for the three subjects after normalizing breathing patterns. Level of Evidence 4 PMID:27904799

  7. Association of self-reported physical activity patterns and socio-demographic factors among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is still not known whether overweight men have different patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported physical activity (PA) compared with normal-weight men. Thus, this study examined the perceived PA patterns and associated socio-demographic factors among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,420 men (aged 44.48.3years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey relating to socio-demographic variables, BMI status, and a short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and binary logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Normal-weight men were significantly more likely to attain 150 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous PA than overweight men (26.6% vs. 21.3%; p=0.035), whereas there were no significant proportional differences in total PA and walking between the two BMI subgroups. With PA, a significant interaction was observed between BMI status and household income (p=0.004 for total PA; p=0.02 for walking). In the subgroup analyses, having a lower household income (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96) was negatively associated with attaining 150 minutes of walking per week among normal-weight men. No significant associations between household income and attaining 150 minutes per week of total PA and walking were found among overweight men. Conclusions The results revealed that patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported PA in overweight men are different from those in normal-weight men. This finding suggests the necessity of developing specific strategies for PA intervention among overweight men. Socio-demographic correlates of PA may be more important for normal-weight than overweight men. PMID:22490124

  8. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  9. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P < .05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P < .01). Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks: Linkages to Higher Physical Activity, Unhealthy Beverage Patterns, Cigarette Smoking, and Screen Media Use

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865

  11. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  12. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 22, 2016 Physical Activity and Your Heart in the News April 6, ...

  13. Obesity History and Daily Patterns of Physical Activity at Age 60-64 Years: Findings From the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel; Huang, Lei; Hardy, Rebecca; Crainiceanu, Adina; Harris, Tamara; Schrack, Jennifer A; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Kuh, Diana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of current body mass index (BMI) and obesity history with daily patterns of physical activity. At age 60-64, participants from a British birth cohort study wore accelerometers for 5 days. Accelerometry counts were log-transformed and mean log-counts were used to derive a summary variable indicating total daily log-activity counts. Among those with complete data (n = 1,388) the associations of current BMI and age of first obesity were examined with: (a) total daily log-activity counts and (b) total log-activity counts in four segments of the day. Higher current BMI and younger age at obesity were strongly associated with lower levels of total daily activity at age 60-64 even after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic factors, and health status. The fully-adjusted mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -581.7 (95% confidence interval: -757.2, -406.3) when comparing BMI ≥35 kg/m2 with <25 kg/m2, representing an 18.4% difference. Participants who had been obese since early adulthood had the lowest levels of activity (mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -413.1 (-638.1, -188.2) when comparing those who were obese by age 26 or 36 with those who were never obese, representing a 13.1% difference). Obese older adults may require targeted interventions and additional support to improve their daily activity levels. As younger generations with greater lifetime exposure to obesity reach old age the proportion of adults achieving sufficient levels of activity to realize its associated health benefits is likely to decline.

  14. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  15. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p < 0.05) was confirmed. Belonging to a cluster other than "Mediterranean-like" was significantly associated with obesity. The low consumption of Med-diet patterns among youth, and the frequent association of sociocultural, psychological issues and inappropriate lifestyle with overweight/obesity, highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach including market policies, to promote a wider awareness of the Mediterranean eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  16. Energy assessment: physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  17. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  18. Deriving the reference value from the circadian motor active patterns in the "non-dementia" population, compared to the "dementia" population: What is the amount of physical activity conducive to the good circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Ayuto; Kume, Yu; Tsugaruya, Megumi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The circadian rhythm in older adults is commonly known to change with a decrease in physical activity. However, the association between circadian rhythm metrics and physical activity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine circadian activity patterns in older people with and without dementia and to determine the amount of physical activity conducive to a good circadian measurement. Circadian parameters were collected from 117 older community-dwelling people (66 subjects without dementia and 52 subjects with dementia); the parameters were measured continuously using actigraphy for 7 days. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine reference values for the circadian rhythm parameters, consisting of interdaily stability (IS), intradaily variability (IV), and relative amplitude (RA), in older subjects. The ROC curve revealed reference values of 0.55 for IS, 1.10 for IV, and 0.82 for RA. In addition, as a result of the ROC curve in the moderate-to-vigorous physical Activity (MVPA) conducive to the reference value of the Non-parametric Circadian Rhythm Analysis per day, the optimal reference values were 51 minutes for IV and 55 minutes for RA. However, the IS had no classification accuracy. Our results demonstrated the reference values derived from the circadian parameters of older Japanese population with or without dementia. Also, we determined the MVPA conducive to a good circadian rest-active pattern. This reference value for physical activity conducive to a good circadian rhythm might be useful for developing a new index for health promotion in the older community-dwelling population.

  19. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  20. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  1. Gender and grade differences in objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns among Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Nonoue, Keiko; Oka, Koichiro

    2015-12-18

    Physical activity levels in childhood have decreased, making the promotion of children's physical activity an important issue. The present study examined gender and grade differences in objectively measured sedentary behavior, physical activity, and physical activity guideline attainment among Japanese children and adolescents. In total, 329 boys and 362 girls age 3-15 years completed the survey. School grade, gender, height, and weight were collected by questionnaires and physical activity objectively measured using an accelerometer (Lifecorder Suzuken Co.). Physical activity level (in MET) was classified as sedentary (<1.5), light (≥1.5 to <3), moderate (≥3 to <6), or vigorous (≥6). Continuous zero accelerometer counts for ≥20 min were censored and a valid accelerometry study required at least 3 days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) with > 600 min/day total wear time. Two-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for weight status and accelerometer wear time, were used to examine gender and grade differences in physical activity variables and the likelihood of physical activity guideline attainment by gender and grade level. Participants were sedentary 441.4 (SD, 140.1) min/day or 53.7 % of the average daily accelerometer wear time of 811.2 (118.7) min, engaged in light physical activity 307.1 (70.0) min or 38.4 % of wear time, moderate physical activity 34.6 (14.8) min (4.3 %), vigorous physical activity 28.3 (19.1) min (3.6 %), and took 12462.6 (4452.5) steps/day. Boys were more physically active and took more steps/day than girls. Students in higher grades were less active than those in lower grades. Boys were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than girls (OR: 2.07, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.96). Preschoolers (6.66, 4.01-11.06), lower-grade elementary school students (17.11, 8.80-33.27), and higher-grade elementary school students (7.49, 4.71-11.92) were more likely to meet guidelines than junior high

  2. The Maltreated Adolescent: Patterns of Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)

  3. Physical activity and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and perceived academic stress in students attending college in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Sonia Y; Fabián, Carla; Pagán, Ideliz; Ríos, Josué L; González, Anaisa M; Betancourt, Jesmari; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    The academic environment usually generates stress in students. Increasing physical activity (PA) is one of the stress-coping strategies for students; however, students usually reduce their PA while enrolled in college. To determine the association between PA, self-perceived academic load and stress, and dietary patterns in students attending college in Puerto Rico. A proportional stratified sample of 275 students from UPR-MSC completed a self-administered questionnaire on socioeconomic status, academic load and stress, body composition, dietary patterns, and PA. Chi2 was used to assess the association between variables. Most of the participants were female (68%), were aged 21 to 30 years (88%), and had low annual household incomes ($0-$24,999) (43%). Women reported higher levels of stress (p < 0.001) than did men. Overweight and obesity was found in 35.4%, while most students reported a light PA level (46.5%), which was higher among women (p < 0.001). During periods of greater stress, most students increased sedentary activities (68%), and -30% reported a decrease in moderate and vigorous activities; however, 60% reported that PA was an effective coping strategy and 66% would use it again. There was a negative association between PA and stress: those with higher levels of stress had lower PA levels (p = 0.06). No significant associations were found between PA and the others variables studied (p > 0.05). Most students reported sedentary lifestyles during periods of greater stress. High level of stress were positively associated with a light PA level.

  4. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  5. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves.

    PubMed

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve, which represents an abstraction of an individual's normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics.

  6. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves

    PubMed Central

    Dawadi, Prafulla N.; Cook, Diane J.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve, which represents an abstraction of an individual’s normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics. PMID:27346990

  7. Physical activity patterns in the French 18-74-year-old population: French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé, ENNS) 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Salanave, Benoit; Vernay, Michel; Szego, Emmanuelle; Malon, Aurélie; Deschamps, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2012-11-01

    To describe detailed physical activity and sedentary behaviour in French adults across physical activity categories. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé, ENNS), conducted in 2006-2007, was a national cross-sectional survey based on three-stage random sampling. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to classify participants into three physical activity categories. Time spent in a sitting position and time spent in front of a screen were used as markers of sedentary behaviour. France. Adults (n 2971) aged 18 to 74 years were included. Overall, 29·5 % of men and 23·6 % of women were classified into the high-IPAQ category, while 36·1 % of men and 37·5 % of women were in the low-IPAQ category. For each intensity level of physical activity (vigorous intensity, moderate intensity or walking), the number of active days per week decreased from the high- to the low-IPAQ category and daily duration of physical activity was longer in the high-IPAQ category than in the other two categories; 6 % of adults declared neither vigorous nor moderate nor walking activities. For most adults in the low-IPAQ category, an increasing number of active days per week would be sufficient to attain the moderate-IPAQ category. This should be taken into account in public health initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity.

  8. Spatial physical activity patterns among primary school children living in neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study using accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Bürgi, Rahel; Tomatis, Laura; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-03-22

    Neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been shown to be related to health status and overweight independent of individual SES. However, results about the association between neighbourhood SES and physical activity among children are ambiguous. Particularly, it is unknown how socioeconomic factors influence the spatial context of children's moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB). This study aimed to investigate by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometry whether locations where children engage in MVPA and SB differ by neighbourhood SES. Participants included 83 children aged 7-9 from nine public schools located in a low- and high-SES area in Zurich, Switzerland. Children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point assigned to one of eight activity settings. The amount and proportion of MVPA and SB were calculated for every setting. To investigate differences between the two SES groups, multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted. Both SES groups achieved most minutes in MVPA at own school, on streets and at home and recorded the highest proportions of MVPA in recreational facilities, streets and other schools. The highest amounts and proportions of SB were found at home and own school. High-SES children accumulated significantly more minutes in MVPA and SB in parks, sport facilities, other schools and streets, while the low-SES group spent more time in both activities in other places. When taking the total time spent in a setting into account and using the proportion of MVPA or SB, the only differences between the two groups were found at other schools and outside, where the high-SES children showed a significantly higher activity level (p-values <0.001). Several differences in the spatial activity pattern between children from low- and

  9. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  10. ActiTrainer-determined segmented moderate-to-vigorous physical activity patterns among normal-weight and overweight-to-obese Czech schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Snoblová, Romana; Gecková, Andrea Madarásová

    2014-03-01

    This study uncovered the patterns of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in normal-weight and overweight/obese children before, during, and after school lessons. ActiTrainer-based MVPA was assessed over 2 school days (with and without a physical education lesson [PEL] in a sample of three hundred thirty-eight 9- to 11-year-old children (50.3 % female; 29.6 % overweight/obese), in the Czech Republic, during spring 2012. MVPA was quantified based on the step count (number), MVPA duration, and MVPA heart-rate response (minutes). No differences in the MVPA based on the time during the school day were confirmed in normal-weight versus overweight/obese girls, whereas normal-weight boys significantly exceed their overweight/obese peers in step count and after-school and daylong MVPA. Active participation in PEL contributes to a significantly higher step count, exercise duration, and MVPA heart-rate response in normal-weight and overweight/obese boys (p < 0.001) and normal-weight (p < 0.001) and overweight/obese (p < 0.04) girls during school time. Moreover, active participation in PEL significantly (p < 0.04) increases the overall daily step count, duration, and MVPA heart-rate response in normal-weight boys and overweight/obese girls. Active exercise during PEL accounted for 16.7 % of the total number of steps, 25.1 % of overall MVPA duration, and 24.1 % of the MVPA heart-rate response in 9- to 11-year-old children. During days with a PEL, a significantly (p < 0.02) higher number of overweight/obese girls and a higher number of normal-weight boys achieved the duration of 60 min/day of MVPA compared with days without a PEL. Adding one PEL or an equivalent amount of MVPA to the daily school routine appears to be a promising strategy to effectively increase daily MVPA, particularly among overweight/obese girls.

  11. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  12. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  13. Dynamic Patterns in Active Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülicher, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Biological matter is inherently dynamic and exhibits active properties. A key example is the force generation by molecular motors in the cell cytoskeleton. Such active processes give rise to the generation of active mechanical stresses and spontaneous flows in gel-like cytoskeletal networks. Active material behaviors play a key role for the dynamics of cellular processes such as cell locomotion and cell division. We will discuss intracellular flow patterns that are created by active processes in the cell cortex. By combining theory with quantitative experiments we show that observed flow patterns result from profiles of active stress generation in the system. We will also consider the situation where active stress is regulated by a diffusing molecular species. In this case, spatial concentration patterns are generated by the interplay of stress regulation and self-generated flow fields.

  14. The Impact of the Built Environment on Young People’s Physical Activity Patterns: A Suburban-Rural Comparison Using GPS

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13–14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people’s PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in

  15. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  16. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  17. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  18. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  19. Patterns and correlates of physical activity behaviour over 10 years in older adults: prospective analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lee; Gardner, Benjamin; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-04-15

    Few studies have examined how levels of activity intensity fluctuate throughout later life in older adults and no study has identified correlates of sustained activity levels in this age group. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate stability of activity over a 10-year period and identify potential correlates of sustained activity levels in older adults. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participant-reported physical activity data were collected in 2002 (baseline), 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Participant age, sex, smoking, depressive symptoms, work status, wealth, and long-standing illness were recorded at baseline. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline exposure variables and persistent physical activity (reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week at all 6 assessments over the 10-year time period). A total of 5022 participants (mean age 61 years; 2114 male) were included in the analyses. There was reasonable stability in the physical activity measure over the 6 time points (Cronbach's α 0.85). There was an overall trend for increasing levels of inactivity and a reduction in vigorous activity. Age, female sex, having ever smoked, long-standing illness, arthritis, obesity, and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of being persistently active (defined as reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week over all 6 assessment points). Those with greater wealth were 4 times more likely to be persistently active. In the present analyses time spent in vigorous-intensity activity declined in later life. A range of sociodemographic and biomedical factors were associated with being persistently active in older adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Patterns and correlates of physical activity behaviour over 10 years in older adults: prospective analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Gardner, Benjamin; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined how levels of activity intensity fluctuate throughout later life in older adults and no study has identified correlates of sustained activity levels in this age group. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate stability of activity over a 10-year period and identify potential correlates of sustained activity levels in older adults. Design Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participant-reported physical activity data were collected in 2002 (baseline), 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Participant age, sex, smoking, depressive symptoms, work status, wealth, and long-standing illness were recorded at baseline. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline exposure variables and persistent physical activity (reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week at all 6 assessments over the 10-year time period). Results A total of 5022 participants (mean age 61 years; 2114 male) were included in the analyses. There was reasonable stability in the physical activity measure over the 6 time points (Cronbach's α 0.85). There was an overall trend for increasing levels of inactivity and a reduction in vigorous activity. Age, female sex, having ever smoked, long-standing illness, arthritis, obesity, and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of being persistently active (defined as reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week over all 6 assessment points). Those with greater wealth were 4 times more likely to be persistently active. Conclusions In the present analyses time spent in vigorous-intensity activity declined in later life. A range of sociodemographic and biomedical factors were associated with being persistently active in older adults. PMID:25877281

  1. Assessing physical activity using wearable monitors: measures of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Ekelund, Ulf; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity may be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The quantitative assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors is grounded in the measurement of energy expenditure. Six main categories of wearable monitors are currently available to investigators: pedometers, load transducers/foot-contact monitors, accelerometers, HR monitors, combined accelerometer and HR monitors, and multiple sensor systems. Currently available monitors are capable of measuring total physical activity as well as components of physical activity that play important roles in human health. The selection of wearable monitors for measuring physical activity will depend on the physical activity component of interest, study objectives, characteristics of the target population, and study feasibility in terms of cost and logistics. Future development of sensors and analytical techniques for assessing physical activity should focus on the dynamic ranges of sensors, comparability for sensor output across manufacturers, and the application of advanced modeling techniques to predict energy expenditure and classify physical activities. New approaches for qualitatively classifying physical activity should be validated using direct observation or recording. New sensors and methods for quantitatively assessing physical activity should be validated in laboratory and free-living populations using criterion methods of calorimetry or doubly labeled water.

  2. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  3. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  4. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  5. Night eating syndrome and its association with weight status, physical activity, eating habits, smoking status, and sleep patterns among college students.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Potter, Stacey; Szymanski, Hailey; Smith, Karen; Pringle, Lindsay; Herman, Christine; Uribe, Manuela; Fu, Zhuxuan; Chung, Mei; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-06-02

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal ingestion. The main objective of this study was to assess the percentage of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with the diagnostic criteria for NES, and explore its association with body mass index (BMI), dietary habits, physical activity, smoking status, and sleep patterns, among a sample of college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 413 undergraduate students, mean age of 20.6 ± 1.68 SD, at Central Michigan University. Students completed an online survey including demographic information and the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Participants were grouped based on self-reporting of the presence and frequency of night eating-related symptoms and behaviors related to the diagnostic criteria for NES as follows: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full-syndrome night eater. Pearson's Chi-squared, Student's t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to test the association between students with and without any night eating behavior in relation to BMI, lifestyle variables, and sleep duration/quality. Results showed that the proportion of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with full-syndrome of NES was 1.2%. There were no significant differences between students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with any level of NES and those without any night eating behavior regarding BMI, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking status. NES was significantly related to sleep duration (P = 0.023). Students complying with symptoms consistent with any level of NES reported shorter sleep time and had higher total PSQI score (6.73 ± 4.06) than students without the syndrome (5.61 ± 2.61) (P = 0.007). Although the percentage of students complying with full-syndrome NES was relatively low in our student sample

  6. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  7. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  8. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  9. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accelerometer-Derived Pattern of Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Persons with Mobility Disability: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Manns, Patricia; Ezeugwu, Victor; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Vallance, Jeff; Healy, Genevieve N

    2015-07-01

    To describe objectively determined sedentary and activity outcomes (volume and pattern) and their associations with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in individuals with and without mobility disability. Cross-sectional. Population based. Community-dwelling older adults (≥60) living in the United States who were participants in the 2003 to 2004 or 2005 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified as with or without mobility disability according to responses to self-reported questions about ability to walk, climb stairs, and/or use of ambulatory aids. Accelerometer-derived sedentary and activity variables for volume (time in sedentary (<100 counts per minute (cpm)), very light- (100-759 cpm), light- (760-1,951 cpm), and moderate- to vigorous- (≥1,952 cpm) intensity activity and pattern (number of breaks from sedentary time, duration of sedentary bouts, duration of activity bouts). Survey-weighted regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, and smoking, were used to examine the associations between pattern of activity and cardiometabolic health risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Of the 2,017 participants, 547 were classified as having a mobility disability. Participants with mobility disability had more sedentary time and less active time than those without. Sedentary bouts were longer and active bouts shorter in those with disability. The total number of sedentary breaks (transitions from sedentary to nonsedentary) differed between groups after adjustment for total sedentary time. Fewer breaks, longer sedentary bouts, and shorter activity bouts were associated with higher average waist circumference regardless of disability status. This study provides rationale for the development and testing of interventions to change the pattern of activity (e.g., include more breaks and longer activity bout durations) in older adults with mobility disability.

  12. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  13. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  14. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  15. Physical Activity Pattern and Personal-Social Factors of Mothers During Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight Based On MET Scale: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Karimlou, Masoud; Sajjadi, Homeira; Dejman, Masoumeh; Vameghi, Meroe; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir

    2013-07-01

    Low birth weight is one of the most important public health issues in developing and developed countries and identifying its etiology is important for prevention. Considering the unknown impact of physical activity on low birth weight, this research was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and low birth weight. This research was conducted using a case-control design. The control group was made of 500 women with normal birth weight infants and the case group included 250 women with low birth weight infants from the selected hospitals in city of Tehran. The information was gathered using a researcher-made questionnaire which was prepared for determining the relationship between mothers' lifestyle during pregnancy and infants' low birth weight using social determinants of health approach. In this questionnaire, scope of physical activity was investigated in three groups of athletic activities, activities at home and leisure activities. Activity intensity was determined using MET scale and the data were analyzed in SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and logistic regression. In the present research, based on the results of multiple logistic regression test, an increase in the time spent on sport activities (OR = 2.20) and home activities (OR =1.44) (P = 0.003) was accompanied by increased chance of giving birth to low birth weight infants; in contrast, one hour increase of leisure activities decreased the probability of low birth weight infants by 0.32 (P = 0.008). An increase in the time spent on sport and home activities, even after considering other influential factors, was related to low birth weight.

  16. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Its Relation to Student Physical Activity Patterns at a Large U.S. Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Centeio, Erin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Ramirez, Tere; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    This study examined student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge and its relationship to physical activity (PA). The participants were undergraduate students from a large U.S. state university. HRF knowledge was assessed using a test consisting of 150 multiple choice items. Differences in HRF knowledge scores by sex, ethnicity, and years in…

  17. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  18. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  19. The Influence of Physical Education on Physical Activity Levels of Urban Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of physical education in shaping physical activity patterns. Seventy-one Hispanic and African American elementary students participated in the study. Students attended one 30- and one 60-min physical education class weekly. Pedometer steps were used to estimate physical activity. Data suggest that…

  20. The Influence of Physical Education on Physical Activity Levels of Urban Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of physical education in shaping physical activity patterns. Seventy-one Hispanic and African American elementary students participated in the study. Students attended one 30- and one 60-min physical education class weekly. Pedometer steps were used to estimate physical activity. Data suggest that…

  1. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  2. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Sosič, Rok; Hicks, Jennifer L; King, Abby C; Delp, Scott L; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-07-20

    To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.

  3. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  4. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  5. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  6. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  7. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  8. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  9. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  10. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  11. Synergistic and Antagonistic Interplay between Myostatin Gene Expression and Physical Activity Levels on Gene Expression Patterns in Triceps Brachii Muscles of C57/BL6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Mishra, Sanjibita; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of myostatin expression and physical activity have both been associated with transcriptome dysregulation and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The transcriptome of triceps brachii muscles from male C57/BL6 mice corresponding to two genotypes (wild-type and myostatin-reduced) under two conditions (high and low physical activity) was characterized using RNA-Seq. Synergistic and antagonistic interaction and ortholog modes of action of myostatin genotype and activity level on genes and gene pathways in this skeletal muscle were uncovered; 1,836, 238, and 399 genes exhibited significant (FDR-adjusted P-value < 0.005) activity-by-genotype interaction, genotype and activity effects, respectively. The most common differentially expressed profiles were (i) inactive myostatin-reduced relative to active and inactive wild-type, (ii) inactive myostatin-reduced and active wild-type, and (iii) inactive myostatin-reduced and inactive wild-type. Several remarkable genes and gene pathways were identified. The expression profile of nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit (Naca) supports a synergistic interaction between activity level and myostatin genotype, while Gremlin 2 (Grem2) displayed an antagonistic interaction. Comparison between activity levels revealed expression changes in genes encoding for structural proteins important for muscle function (including troponin, tropomyosin and myoglobin) and for fatty acid metabolism (some linked to diabetes and obesity, DNA-repair, stem cell renewal, and various forms of cancer). Conversely, comparison between genotype groups revealed changes in genes associated with G1-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle of myoblasts and the expression of Grem2 proteins that modulate the cleavage of the myostatin propeptide. A number of myostatin-feedback regulated gene products that are primarily regulatory were uncovered, including microRNA impacting central functions and Piezo proteins that make cationic current

  12. Colloidal motility and patterning by physical chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Abecassis, Benjamin; Cottin-Bizonne, Cecile; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2009-11-01

    We developped a microfluidic setup to show the motility of colloids or biomolecules under a controlled salt gradient thanks to the diffusiophoresis phenomenon [1,2]. We can therefore mimic chemotaxis on simple physical basis with thrilling analogies with the biological chemotaxis of E. Coli bacteria: salt dependance of the velocity [3] and log-sensing behavior [4]. In addition with a temporally tunable gradient we show we can generate an effective osmotic potential to trap colloids or DNA. These experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations and an asymptotic ratchet model. Finally, we use these traps to generate various patterns and because concentration gradients are ubiquitous in nature, we question for the role of such a mecanism in morphogenesis [5] or positioning perspectives in cells [6]. [4pt] [1] B. Abecassis, C. Cottin-Bizonne, C. Ybert, A. Ajdari, and L. Bocquet, Nat. Mat., 7(10):785--789, 2008. [2] Anderson, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, 21, 1989. [3] Y. L. Qi and J. Adler, PNAS, 86(21):8358--8362, 1989. [4] Y. V. Kalinin, L. L. Jiang, Y. H. Tu, and M. M. Wu, Biophys. J., 96(6):2439--2448, 2009. [4] J. B. Moseley, A. Mayeux, A. Paoletti, and P. Nurse, Nat., 459(7248):857--U8, 2009. [6] L. Wolpert, Dev., 107:3--12, 1989

  13. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  14. Effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day shift before a night shift on physical activities and sleep patterns of single nurses and married nurses with children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Misuzu; Akamatsu, Yasuhiro; Furui, Hikari; Tomita, Teruyuki; Watanabe, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after a day shift (D-N). Physical activity levels were recorded with a physical activity volume meter to measure sleep/wake time more precisely without restricting subjects' activities. The duration of sleep before a night shift of married nurses was significantly shorter than that of single nurses for both shift schedules. Changing shift from the D-N to the HF-N increased the duration of sleep before a night shift for both groups, and made wake-up time earlier for single nurses only. Repeated ANCOVA of the series of physical activities showed significant differences with shift (p < 0.01) and marriage (p < 0.01) for variances, and age (p < 0.05) for a covariance. The paired t-test to compare the effects of changing shift patterns in each subject group and ANCOVA for examining the hourly activity differences between single and married nurses showed that the effects of a change in shift schedules seemed to have less effect on married nurses than single nurses. These differences might due to the differences of their family/home responsibilities.

  15. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  16. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  17. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  18. Sexual activity patterns in rams.

    PubMed Central

    Bernon, D E; Shrestha, J N

    1984-01-01

    Behaviour was measured in reproductively experienced rams from three crossbred strains and two pure breeds (Suffolk and Finnish Landrace) in an attempt to develop a method for rapid screening of sexually aggressive rams and to measure breed differences in sexual activity. A set sequential pattern of activity need not occur in sexually experienced rams, and components of their sexual behaviour may be influenced by the estrual status of the ewe. The data indicate that the number of attempted mounts is an acceptable selection tool, with a mount following a short period of investigation most likely to be followed by coitus. Two sequential ten minute periods are sufficient for rapid screening of rams for short-term sexual activity levels. PMID:6713255

  19. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  20. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  1. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  2. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  3. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  4. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  5. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  6. Physical activity decreases diverticular complications.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Liu, Yan L; Aldoori, Walid H; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity on diverticular complications. This study prospectively examined the associations between physical activity and diverticular bleeding and diverticulitis. We studied 47,228 US males in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort who were aged 40-75 years and free of diverticular disease, gastrointestinal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline in 1986. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticular disease on biennial follow-up questionnaires were sent supplemental questionnaires outlining details of diagnosis and treatment. Physical activity was assessed every 2 years. Men recorded the average time per week spent in eight recreational activities, and flights of stairs climbed per day. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs). During 18 years of follow-up, 800 cases of diverticulitis and 383 cases of diverticular bleeding were identified. Total cumulative physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. After adjustment for potential confounders, the RR for men in the highest quintile of total activity (> or = 57.4 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/week) was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.58-0.95) for diverticulitis and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77) for bleeding, as compared with men in the lowest quintile (< or = 8.2 MET-h/week). Vigorous activity was inversely related to diverticulitis in a high vs. low comparison (multivariable RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86) and bleeding (multivariable RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90), whereas nonvigorous activity was not. These results were similar for recent (simple updated) and baseline activity. Data from this large prospective cohort suggest that physical activity lowers the risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Vigorous activity appears to account for this association.

  7. Nordic Walking: A Simple Lifetime Physical Activity for Every Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Luis; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Children who become competent in a wide variety of motor skills and movement patterns are more likely to remain physically active for life. Physical education can achieve this goal by providing an extensive selection of activities and by including learning units that encourage students to increase their skill level and stay active year-round.…

  8. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  9. Patterns of sedentary behavior and physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gennuso, Keith P; Thraen-Borowski, Keith M; Gangnon, Ronald E; Colbert, Lisa H

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between various objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) variables and physical function in older adults, examine the measurement properties of an SB questionnaire, and describe the domains of SB in our sample. Forty-four older adults (70 ± 8 years, 64 % female) had their SB measured via activPAL activity monitor and SB questionnaire for 1 week followed by performance-based tests of physical function. The pattern of SB was more important than total SB time. Where a gender by SB interaction was found, increasing time in SB and fewer breaks were associated with worse function in the males only. The SB questionnaire had acceptable test-retest reliability but poor validity compared to activPAL-measured SB. The majority of SB time was spent watching television, using the computer and reading. This study provides further evidence for the association between SB and physical function and describes where older adults are spending their sedentary time. This information can be used in the design of future intervention to reduce sedentary time and improve function in older adults.

  10. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  11. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  12. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  13. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditional logistic regression analyses, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with physical activity levels (measured by average metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure hours per week), controlling for potential confounders. Total adult lifetime activity reduced risk of breast cancer, with individuals in the highest quartile having an OR of 0.80 (CI = 0.67-0.96) compared with the lowest quartile. Reduced risks were most consistent for the highest quartiles of moderate-to-vigorous activities: moderate/vigorous recreational activities (OR = 0.74; CI = 0.62-0.89), outdoor activities (0.81; 0.68-0.97), heavy physical work (0.60; 0.42-0.87), and combined high intensity (metabolic equivalent >6.0) activities (0.75; 0.63-0.90). These relations were not modified by body mass index, menopausal status, or family history of breast cancer. Reductions in risk with moderate/vigorous recreational activities were stronger for larger tumors and those with nodal involvement. Women who increased their recreational activity in their 50s had significantly reduced risk, with those in the highest tertile of change being at a 27% lower risk. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous activities reduce breast cancer risk irrespective of underlying host characteristics.

  14. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors for Nuclear Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2015-10-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Nowadays, advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from the old generation of multi wire gaseous chamber (MWPCs) to a new family commonly refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGD technologies combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Several technical breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area MPGDs, making them cost effective and high performance detector candidates for future nuclear physics (NP) and high energy physics (HEP) experiments. We give in the present talk, an overview of the state of the art of the MPGDs. We will then briefly present the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 with the goal of further advancing technological developments and applications of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems. Finally we report on the rich and diverse R&D activities on MPGDs to prepare for the detector challenges of the next generation of accelerators and for the frontiers of physics research.

  15. Physical Activity Transitions and Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century in the United States (U.S.) has experienced a dramatic increase in life expectancy among adult men and women, an increase unprecedented in the history of this country. As a result, the pattern of disease and conditions most responsible for death in the U.S. shifted during the past century from infectious diseases and unintentional injuries to the current array of the leading causes of mortality dominated by the chronic diseases. During this same period, daily lifestyle dramatically shifted from a life full of active living to one of inactivity. The argument has been made that in the case of human beings, there has been little or no change in our genotype within the past 50 years. However, there have been major changes documented in the living environment among economically developed societies during this same time period. Through the collection of epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings, evidence exists to suggest that physical inactivity is associated with the onset of chronic diseases of our day. Trends in physical inactivity evident through the monitoring of transport, recreational, sport, and purposeful activity have demonstrated that the current lifestyle of the 21st century has contributed substantially to the chronic disease burden in the U.S. and elsewhere. By addressing the domains that influence physical activity behaviors including the environment (both physical and social/cultural), health systems access, and behavioral correlates of physical activity and inactivity, the current chronic disease crisis can potentially be addressed. PMID:20161359

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior within the Stages of the Transtheoretical Model: Latent Structural Modeling of Stage-Specific Prediction Patterns in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first study to test whether the stages of change of the transtheoretical model are qualitatively different through exploring discontinuity patterns in theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables using latent multigroup structural equation modeling (MSEM) with AMOS. Discontinuity patterns in terms of latent means and prediction patterns…

  17. The Theory of Planned Behavior within the Stages of the Transtheoretical Model: Latent Structural Modeling of Stage-Specific Prediction Patterns in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first study to test whether the stages of change of the transtheoretical model are qualitatively different through exploring discontinuity patterns in theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables using latent multigroup structural equation modeling (MSEM) with AMOS. Discontinuity patterns in terms of latent means and prediction patterns…

  18. [Experiences in promoting physical activity].

    PubMed

    Mena-Bejarano, Beatriz

    2006-12-01

    Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of some experiences emphasising physical activity in promoting health in Bogotá. A documentary review of theoretical models of intervention was first undertaken, followed by examining guidelines proposed in international declarations and in Bogotá related to physical activity. Three-phase analysis was carried. 1) The exploratory phase involved collecting general information regarding programmes pertaining to physical activity aimed at preventing non-transmittable chronic diseases (NTCD) and promoting health. 2) The descriptive phase involved characterising programmes for promoting physical activity according to their objectives, scope and the strategies and methodologies used in such processes. 3) The analytical phase involved a critical analysis of current programmes in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The programmes analysed here promoted self-management and autonomy by producing support networks and training leaders for guaranteeing their sustainability. The programmes involved people and the community by holding practical and theoretical workshops which did not cover the whole vital human process, but concentrated on specific population groups. They were deficient in broadcasting in the mass-media.

  19. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  20. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  1. Effect of a diet and physical activity intervention on body weight and nutritional patterns in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Travier, N; Fonseca-Nunes, A; Javierre, C; Guillamo, E; Arribas, L; Peiró, I; Buckland, G; Moreno, F; Urruticoechea, A; Oviedo, G R; Roca, A; Hurtós, L; Ortega, V; Muñoz, M; Garrigós, L; Cirauqui, B; Del Barco, S; Arcusa, A; Seguí, M A; Borràs, J M; Gonzalez, C A; Agudo, A

    2014-01-01

    Energy restriction from a low-calorie diet and increased energy expenditure induced by physical activity (PA) could promote weight loss/maintenance and be important determinants of breast cancer (BC) prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess participation and adherence of overweight and obese BC survivors to a lifestyle intervention and to demonstrate the capacity of this intervention to induce weight loss and nutritional changes. This single-arm pre-post study, which involved one-hourly weekly diet sessions delivered by a dietician and 75-min bi-weekly PA sessions of moderate-to-high intensity led by PA monitors, was offered to overweight and obese BC survivors shortly after treatment. Before and after the intervention, anthropometry, dietary information, quality of life (QoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were collected. A total of 112 BC survivors were invited to participate: 42 of them started the intervention and 37 completed it. Participants attended more than 90 % of the sessions offered and showed a significant weight loss of 5.6 ± 2.0 kg, as well as significant decreases in body mass index, fat mass and waist circumference. Significant decreases in total energy (-25 %), fat (-35 %), saturated fat (-37 %) and carbohydrate (-21 %) intakes were observed while QoL and CRF showed significant increases. This feasibility study demonstrated the success of a short-term diet and PA intervention to induce weight loss and promote healthful changes in BC survivors. Assessing the long-term effects of these changes, and in particular their possible impact of BC prognosis, and designing interventions reaching a wider number of BC survivors are still issues to be addressed.

  2. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  3. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Viester, Laura; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Proper, Karin I; van Dongen, Johanna M; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-01-30

    The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). MAIN STUDY PARAMETERS/ENDPOINTS: The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme, if proven effective, can be directly

  4. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  5. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  6. Accelerometer Cut-Points and Youth Physical Activity Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Jorge; Valente, Monica; Aires, Luisa; Silva, Pedro; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the effects of specific cut-off scoring points (on the estimated prevalence of meeting health-related guidelines for physical activity in youth) and, second, to document the differences in gender physical activity patterns according to two different cut-off points. The sample comprised 62…

  7. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN NONOVERWEIGHT AND OVERWEIGHT HISPANIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood obesity among U.S. Hispanic children and adolescents, quantitative, objective data on their patterns and levels of physical activity are scarce. Our objectives were: 1) To describe qualitatively the types of physical activities in which nonoverweight and over...

  8. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  9. Physical Activity, Sports Participation, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David R.; Blanton, Curtis J.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to evaluate the relationship between physical activity, sports participation, and suicide among college students. Overall, selected physical activity patterns were associated in a non-systematic manner with decreased or increased odds of suicidal behavior among male and female…

  10. Accelerometer Cut-Points and Youth Physical Activity Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Jorge; Valente, Monica; Aires, Luisa; Silva, Pedro; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the effects of specific cut-off scoring points (on the estimated prevalence of meeting health-related guidelines for physical activity in youth) and, second, to document the differences in gender physical activity patterns according to two different cut-off points. The sample comprised 62…

  11. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  12. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  13. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  14. The geography of recreational physical activity in England.

    PubMed

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy P

    2011-01-01

    Levels of physical activity have declined considerably over recent decades in England, and there is evidence that activity patterns vary across areas. Previous studies of the geography of physical activity have frequently relied on model based synthetic estimates. Using data from a large population survey this study develops a direct measure of recreational physical activity and investigates variations in activity patterns across English Local Authorities. For both sexes the results show a distinct geography of recreational physical activity associated with north/south variations and urban/rural status. The environmental and behavioural factors driving those patterns are still poorly understood. We conclude that the variations observed might reflect recreational opportunities and the socio-cultural context of areas.

  15. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  16. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  17. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  18. The type A behavior pattern, physical fitness, and psychophysiological reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lake, B W; Suarez, E C; Schneiderman, N; Tocci, N

    1985-01-01

    Joint effects of the Type A behavior pattern and aerobic fitness were examined with regard to heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) changes elicited by laboratory challenges. Sixty-one college students were classified as Type A or B using the Structured Interview (SI), and as physically fit or sedentary using self-reports of activity level and estimated VO2max values obtained on a step test. Subjects were challenged with the SI, presentation of a snake, mental arithmetic, a cold pressor task, and two competitive card games. Significant A-B differences were found only on the SI and the card games. During the SI: As displayed significantly greater BP increases than Bs; sedentary subjects showed greater BP increases than fit subjects; and sedentary As revealed greater BP increases than either fit As, fit Bs, or sedentary Bs. In contrast, during the competitive games, physically fit As showed reliably greater BP increases than either sedentary As, sedentary Bs, or fit Bs. Since the physically fit subjects were almost exclusively varsity athletes and the sedentary subjects were college students who reported following a sedentary lifestyle, the differences between sedentary and fit groups may have been due to differences in aerobic fitness or to the improved ability of competitive athletes or those engaged in fitness training to match arousal level to task requirements.

  19. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  20. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

  1. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

  2. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  3. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  4. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Janssen, James A; Kolacz, Jacek; Shanahan, Lilly; Gangel, Meghan J; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; Wideman, Laurie

    2017-01-05

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA) patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian). Parents reported their children's temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13) and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males' high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12). Males' surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54) and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12). No predictions from females' childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, and surgency may directly seek out pastimes that involve PA

  5. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  6. Visual Templates in Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.

    2010-01-01

    In this research article, I present evidence of the existence of visual templates in pattern generalization activity. Such templates initially emerged from a 3-week design-driven classroom teaching experiment on pattern generalization involving linear figural patterns and were assessed for existence in a clinical interview that was conducted four…

  7. Visual Templates in Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.

    2010-01-01

    In this research article, I present evidence of the existence of visual templates in pattern generalization activity. Such templates initially emerged from a 3-week design-driven classroom teaching experiment on pattern generalization involving linear figural patterns and were assessed for existence in a clinical interview that was conducted four…

  8. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  9. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  10. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  11. The Measurement and Interpretation of Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ann V; Eston, Roger G

    2007-09-01

    The accurate and reliable assessment of physical activity is necessary for any research study where physical activity is either an outcome measure or an intervention. The aim of this review is to examine the use of objective measurement techniques for the assessment and interpretation of children's physical activity. Accurate measurement of children's activity is challenging, as the activity is characteristically sporadic and intermittent, consisting of frequent, short bouts. Objective measures of physical activity include heart rate telemetry, pedometry and accelerometry, and each of these methods has strengths and limitations. Heart rate is suited to the measurement of sustained periods of moderate and vigorous activity, pedometry provides a valid measure of total activity, and accelerometry provides a valid measure of total activity as well as the pattern and intensity of activity. As the weaknesses of heart rate and accelerometry for the assessment of activity are not inter-correlated, a combination of the two methods may be more accurate than either method alone. Recent evidence suggests that the Actiheart, an integrated accelerometer and heart rate unit, provides a more accurate prediction of children's energy expenditure than either heart rate or accelerometry alone. However, the cost of the Actiheart is prohibitive for large-scale studies. The pedometer is recommended when only the total amount of physical activity is of interest. When the intensity or the pattern of activity is of interest, accelerometry is the recommended measurement tool. Key pointsThe use of objective measures to assess physical activity in children is recommended.Pedometers provide an inexpensive objective measure of total activity that is highly correlated with more sophisticated techniques, e.g. accelerometry, and has been used to identify relationships between health and activity in children.Accelerometry allows examination of the temporal pattern and intensity of children

  12. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  13. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  14. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  15. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  16. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  17. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  18. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  19. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  20. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  1. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  2. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  3. [Habitual physical activity during growth].

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Falgairette, Guy

    2004-04-01

    The three objectives of the present review of the literature were to: characterize the evolution of habitual physical activity (HPA) during growth; evaluate the tracking of HPA from childhood to adulthood; and analyse the level of HPA in children and adolescents according to public health recommendations. Data indicates that HPA decreases from childhood to adulthood about 7% per year, with a great reduction during puberty and adolescence concurrent to changes in the type of physical activity. It appears that HPA is not quite steady (0.09 < r < 0.66) during growth, which means that behavioural changes occur. Being very active during childhood or adolescence does not necessarily translate into a high level of HPA in adulthood. The mean values of HPA of children and adolescents vary from 15 to 90 min.day(-1) between studies, and for most of them HPA has been higher or close to public health recommendations. However, these results mask a great number of children and adolescents who are inactive or becoming inactive (40 to 45% of the population).

  4. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  5. Physical Activity during Pregnancy: Impact of Applying Different Physical Activity Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katie M.; Campbell, Christina G.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple guidelines and definitions of physical activity (PA) have been used to study the benefits of activity during pregnancy. The different guidelines lead to a wide range of prevalence estimates and this has led to conflicting reports about activity patterns during pregnancy. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess PA using a pattern-recognition monitor for a 7-day period at week 18 (n = 55) and week 35 (n = 66) of pregnancy. The amount of activity performed and the number of women meeting six different PA guidelines were evaluated. Adherence to PA guidelines ranged from 5 to 100% and 9 to 100% at weeks 18 and 35, respectively. All women achieved the 500 MET-minute guideline and nearly all women accumulated ≥150 minutes of weekly moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at both time points. Only 22% and 26% participated in ≥3 sessions of MVPA lasting ≥30 minutes at both time points and this further declined to 5% and 9% when the guideline was increased to ≥5 sessions of 30 minutes. The amount of PA during pregnancy varied drastically depending on which guideline was used. Further research is warranted to clearly identify the patterns of activity that are associated with healthy pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23476778

  6. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  7. Rural-Urban Differences in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Overweight Prevalence of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…

  8. Rural-Urban Differences in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Overweight Prevalence of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…

  9. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a “Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind” that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call “Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind.” While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  10. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  11. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  12. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  13. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  14. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  15. Insights in public health: Is the gap growing? Patterns in poverty-related disparities in nutrition and physical activity in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Buchthal, Vanessa

    2014-10-01

    A recent Harvard study on national dietary trends found that the gap in healthy dietary behaviors between low-income and middle/upper-income Americans widened between 2000 and 2010. Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2009 on differences in obesity-related behaviors between moderate-high income, low-income, and poverty-level Hawai'i residents were examined to explore whether Hawai'i data on obesity-related behaviors reflected this national trend. While most differences between groups were not statistically significant, a consistent pattern was seen across all measures that suggested a growing gap between low-income and moderate/high income Hawai'i residents. Data from community studies on pedestrian injury, park use, transportation, and healthy food access were examined. This data suggests that individuals residing in low-income neighborhoods in Hawai'i experience higher barriers to the adoption of healthier behaviors. Further data is needed to document poverty-related gaps in the adoption of health behaviors among youth and within Hawai'i's ethnic groups, communities and geographic areas.

  16. [Physical activity and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this article is to review the present knowledge about physical activity and reproductive health. Medline and manual search for articles related to exercise and menstrual function, and exercise and pregnancy were performed. Repetitive intensive exercise with increased stress hormone utilisation seems to partly explain the disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The prevalence of menstrual irregularities is higher among athletes who participate in sports in which leanness is considered important for performance. Most of the studies concerning exercise-induced amenorrhoea have focused on low body weight and low fat ratio of body weight. However, energy drain and nutrient deficiency have been found to be important variables explaining menstrual irregularity in athletes. Loss of bone mass is related to menstrual irregularities hence it is important that menstrual irregularity not is considered a "normal" aspect of being an athlete. There are a number of positive effects and a few hypothetical risks related to exercise during pregnancy. There are no clinically controlled studies allowing us to draw conclusions about the effect of intensive training during pregnancy. Physically active women should be aware of the importance of sufficient energy intake to keep their regular menstrual cycle. Moderate exercise during pregnancy is recommended.

  17. Impulsivity moderates the association between physical activity and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leasure, J. Leigh; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that physical activity and alcohol consumption are positively associated, but potential moderators of this relationship remain unclear. Both physical activity and alcohol drinking are potentially reinforcing and may be more strongly associated among individuals who tend to be higher in reward seeking and related processes governed by the prefrontal cortex. Thus, behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, such as impulsivity, may influence the association between physical activity and alcohol intake. The present study therefore evaluated dimensions of impulsivity as moderators of the association between physical activity and alcohol consumption. We surveyed 198 undergraduate students and obtained self-reports of their drinking habits, physical activity, and dimensions of impulsivity. We found that moderate but not vigorous physical activity was positively associated with drinking. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate dimensions of impulsivity as moderators of the association between physical activity (vigorous or moderate) and drinks per week. Results revealed a consistent pattern of interactions between the positive urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity and moderate physical activity on number of drinks per week. For both interactions, there was a significant positive association between moderate physical activity and drinking at higher but not lower levels of impulsivity. We conclude that impulsivity moderates the positive association between physical activity and alcohol consumption. These results have significant implications for the develop ment of prevention and treatment programs for alcohol use disorders. PMID:24525252

  18. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  19. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  20. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  1. Physical activity in police beyond self-report.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D

    2014-03-01

    Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

  2. Can we modulate physical activity in children?

    PubMed

    Reilly, J J

    2011-10-01

    There is concern that interventions that use physical activity to prevent obesity in children might be undermined by an 'Activitystat', which exerts an effect to maintain a low set point for physical activity. The present critique summarises evidence from systematic reviews of interventions, from empirical tests of the Activitystat hypothesis, from studies on the heritability of physical activity in childhood and the physical activity of children of and adolescents across a wide range of physical and cultural environments. This body of evidence is inconsistent with the Activitystat hypothesis in its current form, and suggests that the emphasis on physical activity in obesity prevention interventions in children should be increased, not reduced.

  3. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  4. Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

  5. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A ``Physics of Music'' Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional systems, such as string and wind instruments, to the two-dimensional membranes and plates of the percussion family. Although the sand patterns attributed to Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) are often demonstrated for this purpose using metal plates,2-4 the use of drumheads offers several pedagogical and practical advantages in the lab.

  6. Validation of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers for the assessment of physical activity in preschool children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given the unique physical activity patterns of preschoolers, wearable electronic devices for quantitative assessment of physical activity require validation in this population. Study objective was to validate uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers in preschoolers. Room calorimetry was performed over 3...

  7. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  8. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  9. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  10. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system. PMID:27273339

  11. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  12. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  13. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Français Русский Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on ...

  14. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  15. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  16. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  17. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  18. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  19. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  20. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  1. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  2. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  3. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  4. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  5. Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

    PubMed

    Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

    2004-01-01

    The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

  6. High resolution micro-pattern gas detectors for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhtman, L.; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrovnikov, V.; Bondar, A.; Fedotovich, G.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Maltsev, T.; Nikolenko, D.; Rachek, I.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-07-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs) allow operation at very high background particle flux with high efficiency and spatial resolution. This combination of parameters determines the main application of these detectors in particle physics experiments: precise tracking in the areas close to the beam and in the end-cap regions of general-purpose detectors. MPGDs of different configurations have been developed and are under development for several experiments in the Budker INP. The system of eight two-coordinate detectors based on a cascade of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) is working in the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider in the tagging system that detects electrons and positrons that lost their energy in two-photon interactions and left the equilibrium orbit due to a dedicated magnetic system. Another set of cascaded GEM detectors is developed for the almost-real Photon Tagging System (PTS) of the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring. The PTS contains three very light detectors with very high spatial resolution (below 50 μm). Dedicated detectors based on cascaded GEMs are developed for the extracted electron beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider. These devices will allow precise particle tracking with minimal multiple scattering due to very low material content. An upgrade of the coordinate system of the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 collider is proposed on the basis of the resistive micro-WELL (μ-rWELL). A research activity on this subject has just started.

  7. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  8. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  9. Oral motor patterns during feeding in severely physically disabled children.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K

    1997-12-01

    Oral motor patterns during feeding were investigated in 58 patients with severe physical disability. Five patients showed a pattern resembling sucking. Twenty-nine exhibited an up-and-down movement of the jaw and protrusion of the tongue. Among these, the mouth opened when the food entered and the lips closed before swallowing in 20 patients; the mouth was constantly open in nine. Eight had an up-and-down movement of the jaw without protrusion of the tongue. These patterns were frequently seen in patients with spastic tetraplegia caused by neonatal asphyxia and compensated for oral motor impairment. Sixteen patients showed lateral movement of the jaw at some time during feeding; in these patients the texture of the food was more coarse than in those with other patterns.

  10. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  12. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  13. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  14. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  15. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  16. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  17. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  18. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  19. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    PubMed Central

    Chappel, Stephanie E.; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E.; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time. PMID:27706057

  20. [Physical activity and management of obese patients].

    PubMed

    Oppert, J M; Balarac, N

    2001-09-01

    Physical activity is recognized as an integral part of obesity treatment, in association with other therapeutic means. A major benefit of physical activity is the association with better long-term maintenance of weight loss. Physical activity has also positive psychological effects and increases quality of life. An evaluation of the usual level of physical activity and inactivity is needed for each patient. Physical activity counselling should be individualized and graded, in a perspective of individual progression. In subjects with massive obesity, remobilization based on physiotherapy techniques is the first step. All patients should be given simple advice to decrease sedentary behavior: use the stairs instead of the escalators, limit the time spent seated, etc. In general, current physical activity recommendations for the general population fit well with a majority of obese patients, i.e. a minimum of 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking or equivalent) on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Physical activities of higher intensities (endurance training programme) can be proposed on an individual basis. The type of physical activity required for long-term weight maintenance, and the question of adherence to physical activity recommendations in obese patients should be further investigated.

  1. How Much Physical Activity Do Adults Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  2. Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Impaired Physical Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Ellen A; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; López-García, Esther

    2016-10-19

    Information about nutritional risk factors of functional limitation is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Mediterranean diet and risk of physical function impairment in older adults. We used data from 1,630 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥60 years. In 2008-2010, adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was measured with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Study participants were followed up through 2012 to assess incident impairment in agility and mobility as well as impairment in overall physical functioning, defined as a ≥5-point decrease from baseline to follow-up in the physical component summary of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we identified 343 individuals with agility limitation, 212 with mobility limitation, and 457 with decreased overall physical functioning. No association was found between the MDS score and the likelihood of impaired agility or mobility, although a 2-point increment in the MDS score was marginally associated with lower likelihood for decreased overall physical function. Compared to individuals in the lowest tertile of the MEDAS score, those in the highest tertile showed a lower odds of agility limitation (odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.48; 0.94, p trend = .02), mobility limitation (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.88, p trend = .01), and decreased overall physical functioning (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.45; 0.79, p trend < .001). In this prospective cohort study, a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, especially when measured with the MEDAS, was associated with a lower likelihood of physical function impairment in older adults.

  3. Prescribing physical activity in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fuscaldo, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity is a powerful weapon for individuals interested in health maintenance. Many benefits of regular physical activity are well known to the medical community including improved weight control, healthier cardiovascular system, and tighter diabetic control. Less recognized benefits of physical activity may include stronger bones, better sleep, lower blood pressure, improved mood, opportunities for personal enjoyment, cancer prevention, and even a longer lifespan. Despite these numerous incentives, less than a quarter of the U.S. population is active enough to gain the rewards (13). West Virginians are among the least physically active; more than 40% of state residents engage in no leisure time physical activity at all (15), so it is critical that physicians in the state take a much more active role in prescribing physical activity for their patients. Although more research is needed, data exists to suggest counseling by physicians does result in increased physical activity (20-23). Attention to risk factors and specific red flags can help decide when formal pre-exercise stress testing is necessary. An organized approach includes development of the mode, frequency, duration, intensity and progression of exercise by a physician who knows the patient's interests and limitations (28). The most current consensus guidelines suggest 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily (12). Physicians need to encourage this goal during office visits and there appears to be benefit in putting specific physical activity advice in the form of a written prescription (21).

  4. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  5. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  6. Using Pedometers to Promote Physical Activity in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lori; Tannehill, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Some schools across the country have recently reduced the time and frequency that students spend participating in physical education. During the school day children spend considerably more time sitting and listening than they do moving and being physically active. Devoting more time to academics may be producing more knowledgeable and academically…

  7. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  8. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  9. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  10. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  11. Physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Frank; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clément; Demougeot, Céline; Mougin, Fabienne; Wendling, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease and is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease. For the general population, the World Health Organization has issued detailed recommendations on the type of physical activity appropriate for decreasing the cardiovascular risk. The objective of this work is to review available data on the effects of physical activity in patients with RA. RA is responsible for a marked decrease in physical activity. Physical activity significantly diminishes both the cardiovascular risk and the DAS 28. Vascular benefits from physical activity include improved endothelial function and slowing of the atherosclerotic process. Physical activity also has favorable effects on bone, slowing radiographic disease progression in small joints and increasing bone mineral density at the femoral neck, although these effects are not statistically significant. Finally, engaging in physical activity increases self-esteem, alleviates symptoms of depression, improves sleep quality, and decreases pain perception. Aerobic exercise is the most commonly advocated type of physical activity. Most interventions were of short duration (4 weeks) and involved aerobic activity (running or cycling) for 60minutes a day 5 days a week. Resistance training has been shown to decrease systemic inflammation and increase muscle strength. The main obstacles to physical activity in patients with RA are related to both the patients, who lack both motivation and knowledge, and the rheumatologists, who also lack knowledge and place insufficient emphasis on promoting physical activity. Physical activity provides many benefits in patients with RA and should be widely performed. Promoting physical activity should be among the objectives of therapeutic patient education for RA. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  13. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  14. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  15. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  16. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  17. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  18. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  19. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  20. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  1. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  2. Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazi, Robert P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A series of questions and answers helps teachers and leaders understand how much physical activity is enough for children and adolescents, discussing the guidelines used to make recommendations; childrens' and adolescents' unique physical activity needs; lifetime activity needs; and aerobic versus strength, endurance, and flexibility training. (SM)

  3. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Behavior of Physical Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    1995-01-01

    In this study researchers conducted exercise testing, collected data on demographics and physical activity, analyzed data by gender and major, and compared results with data on nonphysical education m