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Sample records for physical activity-related injury

  1. Physical activity-related injuries in older adults: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; Theou, Olga; Little, Robert M D; Vandervoort, A A; Raina, Parminder

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic scoping review to identify and document the breadth of literature related to physical activity-related injuries in older adults. The population of interest was adults (both males and females) over the age of 65 years, participating in exercise, leisure-time, or sport-type physical activities. The initial search yielded 16,828 articles, with 43 articles ultimately included. The final 43 articles utilized the following study designs: three experimental (two randomized control and one non-randomized control), 14 prospective studies, and 26 retrospective. The results of this scoping review would suggest that it may be premature to provide definitive incidence rates, causes, and correlates of physical activity-related injuries in older adults. However, the current literature does not suggest that older adults are at an increased risk of injury from participation in physical activities. Future research should utilize a consistent definition of 'injury' and consistent and comprehensive descriptors of injuries--including intensity level of engagement of activity and burden/severity of injury. In addition, injury rates in specific populations are needed, particularly for the oldest-old, for those in assisted-living situations, and for subgroups with clinical conditions. Finally, greater surveillance and documentation of older adult initiatives and interventions are needed in order to identify programs successful in reducing the injury rates of their target populations.

  2. A Social Cognitive Perspective of Physical-Activity-Related Behavior in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine student and teacher physical-activity-related behavior using the theory of planned behavior and self-efficacy theory. Although teachers reported an overwhelmingly positive attitude toward teaching physical activity lessons to promote fitness development, they only devoted 4% of their class time to…

  3. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  4. Sports activities related to injuries? A survey among 9–19 year olds in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, P; Renaud, A; Narring, F

    2001-01-01

    Background—Most data on sports injuries are gathered in clinical settings so that their epidemiology in the general population is not well known. Objective—To explore the link between sports injuries with the type and the amount of sports activity and biological factors. Methods—In 1996, 3609 in-school adolescents 10–19 years (1847 girls and 1762 boys) participated in a regional survey. This included anthropometric measurements and a self administered questionnaire. Results—Altogether 28.2% of girls and 35.9% of boys reported one or more sports injuries during the previous year and 2.1% of girls and 6.5% of boys reported at least one hospitalization due to a sports injury. Using the mean rate of injuries as reference level, some sports are highly related to injury occurrence: body building (relative risk (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 1.9), skateboarding and rollerskating (RR 1.6, 1.4 to 1.8), athletics (RR 1.5, 1.3 to 1.7), snowboarding (RR 1.5, 1.4 to 1.6), basketball (RR 1.3, 1.2 to 1.4), soccer (RR 1.3, 1.2 to 1.4), and ice hockey (RR 1.2, 1.1 to 1.3). Using a logistic regression, several variables associated with a higher risk of injury were identified: the amount of physical activity, high risk sports, and Tanner pubertal stages. Conclusion—The risk of sports injury increases not so much with age but with exposure to specific sports and with pubertal development. PMID:11289534

  5. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines and Musculoskeletal Injury: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James R.; DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Custodio, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Health and Human Services disseminated physical activity guidelines for Americans in 2008. The guidelines are based on appropriate quantities of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity and resistance exercise associated with decreased morbidity and mortality risk and increased health benefits. However, increases in physical activity levels are associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. We related the amount and type of physical activity conducted on a weekly basis with the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Methods Prospective, observational study using weekly Internet tracking of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and resistance exercise behaviors and musculoskeletal injuries in 909 community-dwelling women for up to 3 years. Primary outcome was self-reported musculoskeletal injuries (total, physical activity-related, and non physical activity-related) interrupting typical daily work and/or exercise behaviors for ≥2 days or necessitating health care provider visit. Results Meeting versus not meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with more musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 – 1.85, P = 0.02), but was not associated with musculoskeletal injuries unrelated to physical activity (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75 – 1.29, P = 0.92), or with musculoskeletal injuries overall (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.95 – 1.39, P = 0.14). Conclusions Results illustrate the risk of musculoskeletal injury with physical activity. Musculoskeletal injury risk rises with increasing physical activity. Despite this modest increase in musculoskeletal injuries, the known benefits of aerobic and resistance physical activities should not hinder physicians from encouraging patients to meet current physical activity guidelines for both moderate-to-vigorous exercise and resistance exercise behaviors with the intent of achieving health benefits

  6. Analysis on sports and recreation activity-related eye injuries presenting to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Yoo, In Sool; Cho, Jin Seong; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Jeong, Tae Oh; Yeom, Seok Ran; Kim, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Ok

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence and general characteristics of sports-related eye injuries in patients visiting the Emergency Department. METHODS A cross-sectional, multi-center, observational study. Patients with an injured eye who visited the Emergency Department at one of nine hospitals in Korea were enrolled. All data were prospectively collected between March and September 2010 using a questionnaire. Eye injuries that occurred during risky sports were examined by gender and age. Additionally, the rate of open globe injuries that occurred with and without protective eyewear was examined for each activity. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 446 patients had sports-related eye injuries. Teenagers (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old) had the most eye injuries. Eye injuries accounted for 0.2% of Emergency Department patients. Baseball was the most common cause of sports-related eye injuries, followed by soccer and hiking. Protective gear was worn by 9.4% of all patients. Patients that were 30-39 years of age had the highest rate of protective gear use, followed by patients that were 40-49 years of age. The proportion of sports-related eye injuries that were open-globe injuries was highest for soccer and hiking. CONCLUSION Although injuries were most common in patients below the age of 10 years, these patients had the lowest rate of protective eyewear use. Injuries in adults over 40 years of age most commonly occurred during hiking, but the rate of protective eyewear use was low. Young athletes should be educated on and provided with protective eyewear and policies protective gear use should be established. For older adults, eye protection should be encouraged, especially during hiking. PMID:27803871

  7. Health physics technician injury reduction.

    PubMed

    Bump, Stephen; Whitten, Dianne; Caballero, Marta; Banaszynski, Judy; Keelean, Kathy; Miller, John

    2002-05-01

    As part of a safety summit sponsored by Fluor Hanford Occupational Health and Safety, it was noted that Health Physics Technicians (HPTs) have one of the highest injury rates at Hanford. A multi-disciplined team made up of HPTs, health physics professionals, health physics management, indostrial hygienists, and medical personnel was established to determine causes and corrective actions. Committee activities included reviewing and characterizing occupational injuries and illnesses, assessing areas affecting the health of HPTs, soliciting field input, performing field evaluations of tasks, and making recommendations for improvements to senior management. Five areas showed a need for immediate improvement: manmachine interface (human factors and ergonomics), work environment, procedures, people, and communications. A key area of risk identified is the lack of ergonomic design considerations of the survey instruments currently used. There are several cases of cumulative trauma disorder requiring surgery. These cases are directly related to use of health physics instrumentation and/or survey techniques. The committee has made ergonomics and instrument redesign/modification its key initiative for 2001. The committee is encouraging vendor support and is seeking feedback from other health physics organizations regarding their experience and any recommendations they would like to make. Some success has already been achieved through an ergonomics-training program aimed at all HPTs and their supervisors. In addition, there have been several changes made to the way surveys are conducted, survey frequencies have been reduced, and the way modifications have been made to existing instrumentation. This is a long-term initiative with broad support within the Hanford HPT community. This document reports the progress made thus far on the initiative.

  8. Physical activity related information sources predict physical activity behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini; Boule, Normand G

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key management strategy for type 2 diabetes. Despite the known benefits, PA levels are low. Whether the low level of PA is related to lack of knowledge or support is not fully understood. This study was conducted to describe where and how often adults with type 2 diabetes receive and seek information related to PA and examine the relationships between the source and quality of PA information with PA behaviors. A series of questions related to the source and quality of PA information were added to a baseline survey distributed to the participants (N = 244) of the Canadian Aerobic and Resistance Training in Diabetes (CARED) study. Physicians and television were found to be the main sources of PA-related information. In our cross-sectional model, sources of PA-related information other than that from health care professionals explained 14% (p = .05) and 16% (p < .05) of the variance for aerobic-based and resistance training behaviors and 22% (p < .01) and 15% (p < .05) for these behaviors in our longitudinal model. Physical activity (PA)-related information is widely available to adults with type 2 diabetes. Neither the quantity nor the quality of the PA information provided by health care professionals predicted PA behavior. These data provide further insight into the modes with which PA can be promoted to adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21170787

  9. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  10. Suprathreshold Heat Pain Response Predicts Activity-Related Pain, but Not Rest-Related Pain, in an Exercise-Induced Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Simon, Corey B.; Valencia, Carolina; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Borsa, Paul A.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR), a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal. PMID:25265560

  11. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842

  12. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  13. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E.; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Context  Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. Objective  To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Preparticipation physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Results  Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Conclusions  Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the

  14. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  15. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  16. Physical Agents for Soft Tissue Injury.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The clinical management of soft tissue injuries of the lower limb commonly includes physical agents such as electrotherapy or ultrasound. However, the evidence about the effectiveness of physical agents varies, and their use remains controversial. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, examined the benefits and safety risks of various physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Importantly, the review looked closely at the quality of the RCTs and focused on studies with low risk of bias. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating patients with such musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):555. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0503. PMID:27363571

  17. Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Sedentary and Physically Active Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootman, Jennifer M.; Macera, Carol A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Martin, Malissa; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries among adults with above average activity levels enrolled in the Dallas Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participant surveys and examinations indicated that one-quarter of all respondents reported musculoskeletal injuries (most of which were activity- related). Sport participants had the…

  18. Child physical punishment, injury and abuse (part two).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Dianne; Cousins, Judy

    2005-09-01

    This is the second paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. Paper one concentrated on the extent of child physical punishment, injuries sustained and the relationship between macrotheoretical factors. It highlighted a continuum between child physical discipline, injuries and child physical abuse. Paper two introduces the reader to microtheoretical factors that contribute to child physical punishment and its relationship with child physical injuries and abuse. The focus is on parental and child influences, lifestyle factors and socialisation of parents. It will integrate macrotheroretical factors highlighted in paper one and microtheroretical factors presented in this paper into a framework for the prevention of child physical injury and abuse based on an ecological model.

  19. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  20. Sports injuries in physical education teacher education students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Verrelst, R; Cardon, G; De Clercq, D

    2014-08-01

    Sports injuries could be highly detrimental to the career of a physical education teacher education (PETE) student. To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs, sports injuries in 128 first-year academic bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Common risk factors for sports injuries, taken from the literature, were also evaluated by means of logistic regression analysis. We found an incidence rate of 1.91 and an injury risk of 0.85, which is higher than generally found in a sports-active population. Most injuries involved the lower extremities, were acute, newly occurring injuries, and took place in non-contact situations. More than half of all injuries lead to an inactivity period of 1 week or more and over 80% of all injuries required medical attention. A major part of these injuries happened during the intracurricular sports classes. Few differences were seen between women and men. A history of injury was a significant risk factor (P = 0.018) for the occurrence of injuries, and performance of cooling-down exercises was significantly related to a lower occurrence of ankle injuries (P = 0.031). These data can inform future programs for the prevention of sports injuries in PETE students.

  1. Physical Examination and Imaging Studies in Posterolateral Corner Injuries.

    PubMed

    Martin, R Kyle; Berdusco, Randa; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Posterolateral corner (PLC) knee injuries are relatively rare, but can lead to significant instability, dysfunction, and chronic knee pathologies. Early identification and timely management of PLC injuries is important to ensure that the best clinical outcomes are obtained. Appropriate use of physical examination tests and imaging studies is a crucial part of the initial assessment, allowing identification of all associated injuries and accurate preoperative planning. In this article, we will present an evidence-based approach for the initial assessment of PLC injuries by focusing on the physical examination and relevant imaging studies.

  2. Physical and chemical injuries to eyes and eyelids.

    PubMed

    Pargament, Jonathan M; Armenia, Joseph; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Ocular and periocular injuries are common reasons for emergency department visits. In fact, an estimated 2 million Americans suffer ocular injuries each year. Evaluation and treatment of physical and chemical injuries to the eyes and eyelids begin with a systematic examination. Visual acuity and pupillary reaction should be assessed first. Evaluation of the eye should precede examination of the periocular structures due to the potential for causing further damage to a full-thickness ocular injury with manipulation of the eyelids. Physical injuries to the eyes and periocular structures include lacerations, abrasions, foreign bodies, and open globe injuries and can range from minor irritation to visual devastation. Chemical injuries can be divided into alkali and acid injuries. Alkali burns are more common, due to the prevalent use of alkali substances in industrial and home cleaning applications, and usually result in more serious injuries. Definitive care of chemical injuries ranges from topical antibiotics to full-thickness skin grafts with the goal of preventing cicatricial scarring and exposure of the ocular surface. Familiarity with the various types of ocular and periocular injuries is important for all medical professionals and is critical to providing the most appropriate management.

  3. Injuries during leisure physical activity in a Swedish municipality.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, K S; Timpka, T; Bjurulf, P

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiologic basis for planning community programmes preventing injuries during leisure physical activity, especially participation in sports. A total population survey of unintentional injuries was carried out in an area with a population of over 41,000. All sports injuries (n = 933) occurring within a 12-month period and requiring medical care were noted, giving a ratio of 22.5 per 1000 inhabitants. The majority of the injuries occurred in soccer (38.9%), followed by injuries in basketball/volleyball/handball (10.9%), and bandy/hockey (9.2%). The results correspond to previous studies in southern Scandinavia. In northern communities, the proportion of injuries in winter sports has been shown to be higher. Identification of these similarities and differences between the studies makes it possible to use the findings together in the design of general community-based sports injury prevention programmes suited to northern European conditions.

  4. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs.

  5. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  6. Physical surrogate leg to evaluate blast mine injury.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Duane S; Williams, Kevin; Salisbury, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Antipersonnel blast landmines pose a significant threat in affected areas, with injuries to the lower extremity and amputation being common. Addressing a need for injury prediction and protection evaluation, a 50th percentile physical surrogate lower leg was developed incorporating the load transmission paths in the lower leg. Biofidelic and frangible materials were evaluated and selected based on high deformation rate properties compared to those for human tissues. The predicted leg injuries from experimental blast testing were in agreement with injury data for unprotected and protected legs. Post-test examination was found to be the only consistent and reliable evaluation method for predicting injury outcome, and an evaluation based on tissue damage was shown to be sensitive to changes in loading conditions, not possible with existing approaches. This study identified the severity of calcaneal fracture as the primary determinant of serious injury, which should be the focus of future protection development.

  7. Physical Disability After Injury-Related Inpatient Rehabilitation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R.; Winston, Flaura K.; Zhao, Huaqing; Stineman, Margaret G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the residual physical disability after inpatient rehabilitation for children 7 to 18 years old with traumatic injuries. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 7 to 18 years who underwent inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic injuries from 2002 to 2011. Patients were identified from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation. Injuries were captured by using standardized Medicare Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Patient Assessment Instrument codes. Functional outcome was measured with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. A validated, categorical grading system of the FIM motor items was used, consisting of clinically relevant levels of physical achievement from grade 1 (need for total assistance) to grade 7 (completely independent for self-care and mobility). RESULTS: A total of 13 798 injured children underwent inpatient rehabilitation across 523 facilities during the 10-year period. After a mean 3-week length of stay, functional limitations were reduced, but children still tended to have residual physical disabilities (median admission grade: 1; median discharge grade: 4). Children with spinal cord injuries, either alone or in combination with other injuries, had lower functional grade at discharge, longer lengths of stay, and more comorbidities at discharge than those with traumatic brain injuries, burns, and multiple injuries (P < .0001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Children had very severe physical disability on admission to inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic injuries, and those with spinal cord injuries had persistent disability at discharge. These traumatic events during critical stages of development may result in a substantial care burden over the child’s lifespan. PMID:23248228

  8. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury.

  9. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  10. The physical basis of explosion and blast injury processes.

    PubMed

    Proud, W G

    2013-03-01

    Energetic materials are widely used in civilian and military applications, such as quarrying and mining, flares, and in munitions. Recent conflicts have involved the widespread use of improvised explosive devices to attack military, civilians and infrastructure. This article gives a basic overview of explosive technology and the underlying physical processes that produce the injuries encountered. In particular aspects relevant to primary and secondary injuries are discussed. PMID:23631318

  11. The physical basis of explosion and blast injury processes.

    PubMed

    Proud, W G

    2013-03-01

    Energetic materials are widely used in civilian and military applications, such as quarrying and mining, flares, and in munitions. Recent conflicts have involved the widespread use of improvised explosive devices to attack military, civilians and infrastructure. This article gives a basic overview of explosive technology and the underlying physical processes that produce the injuries encountered. In particular aspects relevant to primary and secondary injuries are discussed.

  12. Is preoperative physical activity related to post-surgery recovery? A cohort study of patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Hanna; Angerås, Ulf; Bock, David; Börjesson, Mats; Onerup, Aron; Fagevik Olsen, Monika; Gellerstedt, Martin; Haglind, Eva; Angenete, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to assess the association between preoperative level of activity and recovery after breast cancer surgery measured as hospital stay, length of sick leave and self-assessed physical and mental recovery. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Patients included were those scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery, between February and November 2013, at two participating hospitals in the Western Region of Sweden. Participants Patients planned for breast cancer surgery filled out a questionnaire before, as well as at 3 and 6 weeks after the operation. The preoperative level of activity was self-assessed and categorised into four categories by the participants using the 4-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS). Main outcome measure Our main outcome was postoperative recovery measured as length of sick leave, in-hospital stay and self-assessed physical and mental recovery. Results 220 patients were included. Preoperatively, 14% (31/220) of participants assessed themselves to be physically inactive, 61% (135/220) to exert some light physical activity (PA) and 20% (43/220) to be more active (level 3+4). Patients operated with mastectomy versus partial mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection versus sentinel node biopsy were less likely to have a short hospital stay, relative risk (RR) 0.88 (0.78 to 1.00) and 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96). More active participants (level 3 or 4) had an 85% increased chance of feeling physically recovered at 3 weeks after the operation, RR 1.85 (1.20 to 2.85). No difference was seen after 6 weeks. Conclusions The above study shows that a higher preoperative level of PA is associated with a faster physical recovery as reported by the patients 3 weeks post breast cancer surgery. After 6 weeks, most patients felt physically recovered, diminishing the association above. No difference was seen in length of sick leave or self-assessed mental recovery between inactive or more active

  13. Musculoskeletal injuries in physical education versus non-physical education teachers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lennert; Vercruysse, Sien; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen; Witvrouw, Erik; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers have a physically demanding job, putting them at a considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries. To structurally develop tailored injury prevention programmes for PE teachers, a clear understanding of the extent, characteristics and underlying factors of their musculoskeletal injuries compared to referents is necessary. Therefore, the current study prospectively followed 103 PE teachers and 58 non-PE teachers, who registered musculoskeletal injuries and time of exposure to sports participation during one school year. Pearson χ(2)-tests and independent samples t-tests determined significant differences between PE and non-PE teachers regarding demographics and variables possibly related to injury occurrence. PE teachers had 1.23 and non-PE teachers 0.78 injuries/teacher/school year. This difference was significantly different after adjustment for hours spent weekly on intracurricular teaching during the career and for injury history during the preceding six months (P = 0.009; OR = 0.511; 95% CI = 0.308-0.846). PE teachers' most affected body parts were the knee and the back. PE teachers had a more extensive injury history (P < 0.001), a higher work- (P < 0.001) and sport index (P < 0.001), practiced more sports (P < 0.002) and taught more extracurricular sports (P = 0.001). Future injury prevention programmes should take account for the great injury history and heavy physical load in PE teachers.

  14. Musculoskeletal injuries in physical education versus non-physical education teachers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lennert; Vercruysse, Sien; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen; Witvrouw, Erik; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers have a physically demanding job, putting them at a considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries. To structurally develop tailored injury prevention programmes for PE teachers, a clear understanding of the extent, characteristics and underlying factors of their musculoskeletal injuries compared to referents is necessary. Therefore, the current study prospectively followed 103 PE teachers and 58 non-PE teachers, who registered musculoskeletal injuries and time of exposure to sports participation during one school year. Pearson χ(2)-tests and independent samples t-tests determined significant differences between PE and non-PE teachers regarding demographics and variables possibly related to injury occurrence. PE teachers had 1.23 and non-PE teachers 0.78 injuries/teacher/school year. This difference was significantly different after adjustment for hours spent weekly on intracurricular teaching during the career and for injury history during the preceding six months (P = 0.009; OR = 0.511; 95% CI = 0.308-0.846). PE teachers' most affected body parts were the knee and the back. PE teachers had a more extensive injury history (P < 0.001), a higher work- (P < 0.001) and sport index (P < 0.001), practiced more sports (P < 0.002) and taught more extracurricular sports (P = 0.001). Future injury prevention programmes should take account for the great injury history and heavy physical load in PE teachers. PMID:26419187

  15. Physical Training, Fitness, and Injuries: Lessons Learned From Military Studies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bruce H; Hauschild, Veronique D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of medical encounters across the U.S. military services resulting in more than 2.0 million clinic visits per year. Almost 50% of military service members experience an injury each year and half of those injuries are caused by physical training (PT), exercise, or sports. To prevent a problem as large and complex as injuries in the military requires a systematic approach. Several key questions must be answered to effectively address a problem such as injuries: (1) how big is the problem? (2) what are the causes and risk factors for the problem? (3) do modifiable risk factors for the problem exist? and (4) what works to prevent the problem? The article discusses leading causes of injuries for U.S. Army populations. It then explores key risk factors for exercise and training-related injuries: (1) the amounts of training, (2) types of training activities, (3) participants level of fitness, and (4) personal health risk behaviors. The article concludes with a review of prevention strategies illustrating interventions that have been shown to be effective, and others that are not effective. The data presented suggest that PT and exercise cause injuries and that modifications of training are most likely to prevent the problem. PMID:26506200

  16. Physical Training, Fitness, and Injuries: Lessons Learned From Military Studies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bruce H; Hauschild, Veronique D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of medical encounters across the U.S. military services resulting in more than 2.0 million clinic visits per year. Almost 50% of military service members experience an injury each year and half of those injuries are caused by physical training (PT), exercise, or sports. To prevent a problem as large and complex as injuries in the military requires a systematic approach. Several key questions must be answered to effectively address a problem such as injuries: (1) how big is the problem? (2) what are the causes and risk factors for the problem? (3) do modifiable risk factors for the problem exist? and (4) what works to prevent the problem? The article discusses leading causes of injuries for U.S. Army populations. It then explores key risk factors for exercise and training-related injuries: (1) the amounts of training, (2) types of training activities, (3) participants level of fitness, and (4) personal health risk behaviors. The article concludes with a review of prevention strategies illustrating interventions that have been shown to be effective, and others that are not effective. The data presented suggest that PT and exercise cause injuries and that modifications of training are most likely to prevent the problem.

  17. A comparison of physical activity-related social-cognitive factors between those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and diabetes free adults.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Karunamuni, Nandini; Brunet, Stephanie

    2009-10-01

    Despite strong evidence supporting the benefits of physical activity in managing and preventing diabetes, the majority of Canadians living with or without diabetes are insufficiently active to achieve health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in key physical activity-related, psychosocial constructs from major social-cognitive theories/models for individuals with type 1 diabetes (n = 695), type 2 diabetes (n = 1540) and those without diabetes (n = 829). The relatively similar scores reported for the social-cognitive constructs between the groups suggest that theoretically driven, generic population-based strategies operationalizing key socio-cognitive constructs for promoting physical activity may have utility for the general and diabetes specific populations. However, both diabetes groups reported significantly lower (p < 0.001) response efficacy (benefits of physical activity) scores, and higher scores for cons of performing physical activity than the non-diabetes group (p < 0.001). Further, the type 1 diabetes group had significantly higher (p < 0.05) physical activity cons scores than the other two study groups. The findings of this study may guide practitioners in designing population-based, physical activity programs that capitalize on generic strategies for the general and diabetes populations, and identify efforts as to where specific tailoring (e.g. emphasizing physical activity benefits) is needed for those living with diabetes.

  18. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²).

  19. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Arigo, Danielle R.; Raggio, Greer A.; Kaufman, Alison I.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). Method The PAAQ was administered to three distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; one sample also wore accelerometers for seven days (at baseline and six months later). Results The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = 0.89) and two subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = 0.86, Behavioral Commitment α = 0.85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; ps < 0.05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over six months (p = 0.05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over one week (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults. PMID:25106049

  20. Physical demands, injuries, and conditioning practices of stock car drivers.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Suchomel, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical demands, injuries, and conditioning practices of stock car drivers. Forty stock car drivers from 27 states in the United States participated in the interviews for 43.9 ± 13.9 minutes. The interviews examined background information, the physical demands of racing, injuries associated with racing, and the athletic and fitness background and practices of the subjects. Numerical data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results revealed significant correlation between track points standings and the length of the resistance training sessions (R = -0.71, p = 0.002) and subject self-assessment of their fitness (R = -0.53, p = 0.045). Results also revealed that "upper-body strength" was identified as the most important physical demand. Extreme fatigue was the most common feeling after a demanding race. Subjects reported that shoulder fatigue was the most common form of muscle soreness experienced after a race. Back and torso injuries were the most common injury, although head injuries most frequently required medical attention. The subjects' biggest fear was fire, followed closely by head and neck injury. The bench press and running were the most commonly performed resistance training and cardiovascular exercises, respectively. Subjects reported that their highest motivation for training was to improve their racing performance. Many subjects had athletic backgrounds with football identified as the sport they had most commonly participated in. This study provides additional detailed information. Results of this study can assist strength and conditioning professionals in the development of strength and conditioning programs for performance enhancement and injury prevention that are specific to the needs of this population of athletes.

  1. Occupational health problems and injuries among Quebec's physical educators.

    PubMed

    Lemoyne, Jean; Laurencelle, Louis; Lirette, Michel; Trudeau, François

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the traumatology of teaching physical education (PE) and to document the causes and mechanisms of injuries in this occupation. Our sample was composed of 314 physical educators (PEs) teaching at three school levels (primary school, secondary school and college) who responded to a questionnaire survey. The results showed a 0.55 rate of recent lesion per teacher per year (0.65 for women and 0.51 for men). A total of 37.6% of subjects were affected by a lesion during the last year at work. Subjects with a higher weekly frequency of leisure physical activities or endurance activities (five times and more) were less affected by chronic lesions as well as those who frequently practiced aerobic physical activities. Prevalence of chronic injuries was higher in older teachers. Our results confirm that the rate of lesions in this group of workers is high, and that school level and respondent age may influence the rate of lesion and the characteristics of risk factors. In particular, the effect of ageing and teaching specialization on the incidence of occupational problems in PEs warrants further research. Given the relatively high rate of injuries among PE teachers, we suggest that it is necessary to further explore preventive strategies to reduce occupational risk in these workers. In particular, prophylactic physical activity outside of work may represent such a strategy since PEs more active outside their work have lower chronic injury prevalence. PEs gave long periods of standing the highest rating for movements or positions most likely to cause them occupational injuries. It can thus be suggested to find ways to reduce standing position sustained for long periods.

  2. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  3. Injury biomechanics, neuropathology, and simplified physics of explosive blast and impact mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bandak, F A; Ling, G; Bandak, A; De Lanerolle, N C

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact to the head are two types of loading shown to result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While mTBI from these two causes shares some common features behaviorally, there are distinct differences in the pathophysiology of the underlying injury mechanisms. Various elucidations have been offered in the literature to explain the organic damage associated with mTBI resulting from both types of loading. The current state of understanding in this field is somewhat limited by the degree of appreciation of the physics and biomechanics governing the effects of explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact on the head, which has resulted in the various approaches to the investigation of the operative brain injury "wounding mechanisms". In this chapter we provide a simplified description of terminology associated with forces on the head from explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact, to assist readers in the field in evaluating interpretations of brain injury "wounding" processes. Remarkably, mTBI from either loading is shown generally to result in only a small loss of neurons, with hippocampal neurons appearing to be particularly vulnerable to explosive blast shock waves. Explosive blast studies in large animal models show a unique pattern of periventricular injury, which is different from the classic diffuse axonal injury. Both astrocyte and microglial activation are also seen in explosive blast as well as impact trauma, but this may be a general secondary brain injury response, nonspecific to explosive blast or blunt trauma. Additionally, while moderate to severe impact closed head injuries sometimes result in petechial hemorrhages or hematomas, they do not appear to be associated with explosive blast mTBI even with repeated exposure to blasts.

  4. Injury biomechanics, neuropathology, and simplified physics of explosive blast and impact mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bandak, F A; Ling, G; Bandak, A; De Lanerolle, N C

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact to the head are two types of loading shown to result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While mTBI from these two causes shares some common features behaviorally, there are distinct differences in the pathophysiology of the underlying injury mechanisms. Various elucidations have been offered in the literature to explain the organic damage associated with mTBI resulting from both types of loading. The current state of understanding in this field is somewhat limited by the degree of appreciation of the physics and biomechanics governing the effects of explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact on the head, which has resulted in the various approaches to the investigation of the operative brain injury "wounding mechanisms". In this chapter we provide a simplified description of terminology associated with forces on the head from explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact, to assist readers in the field in evaluating interpretations of brain injury "wounding" processes. Remarkably, mTBI from either loading is shown generally to result in only a small loss of neurons, with hippocampal neurons appearing to be particularly vulnerable to explosive blast shock waves. Explosive blast studies in large animal models show a unique pattern of periventricular injury, which is different from the classic diffuse axonal injury. Both astrocyte and microglial activation are also seen in explosive blast as well as impact trauma, but this may be a general secondary brain injury response, nonspecific to explosive blast or blunt trauma. Additionally, while moderate to severe impact closed head injuries sometimes result in petechial hemorrhages or hematomas, they do not appear to be associated with explosive blast mTBI even with repeated exposure to blasts. PMID:25702211

  5. Physical therapy treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Schroeder, Sally; LaBarbera, Jacqueline; McDowell, Shari; Zanca, Jeanne M.; Natale, Audrey; Mumma, Sherry; Gassaway, Julie; Backus, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective To describe the nature and distribution of activities during physical therapy (PT) delivered in inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and discuss predictors (patient and injury characteristics) of the amount of time spent in PT for specific treatment activities. Methods Six hundred patients from six inpatient SCI centers were enrolled in the SCIRehab study. Physical therapists documented details, including time spent, of treatment provided during 37 306 PT sessions that occurred during inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Ordinary least squares regression models associated patient and injury characteristics with time spent in specific PT activities. Results SCIRehab patients received a mean total of 55.3 hours of PT over the course of their rehabilitation stay. Significant differences among four neurologic groups were seen in the amount of time spent on most activities, including the most common PT activities of strengthening exercises, stretching, transfer training, wheelchair mobility training, and gait training. Most PT work (77%) was provided in individual therapy sessions; the remaining 23% was done in group settings. Patient and injury characteristics explained only some of the variations seen in time spent on wheelchair mobility, transfer and bed mobility training, and range of motion/stretching. Conclusion Analysis yielded both expected and unexpected trends in SCI rehabilitation. Significant variation was seen in time spent on PT activities within and among injury groups. Providing therapeutic strengthening treatments consumed the greatest proportion of PT time. About one-quarter of all PT services were provided in group settings. Details about services provided, including time spent, will serve as a starting point in detailing the optimal treatment delivery for maximal outcomes. PMID:21675354

  6. Effect of educational intervention on physical activity-related knowledge, attitude and behavior of among first-grade students of male high schools

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Malekmakan, Esmaeil; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Regular physical activity has positive effects on physical, mental and social aspects of individual and community health. Considering the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases such as primary hypertension, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases for which sedentary lifestyle is a responsible factor, health policy makers have planned to encourage people to do more physical activities. Development of beneficial health habits during childhood and early adolescence are very important because the behaviors, which start at adolescence tend to continue into adulthood, too. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention on physical activity-related knowledge, attitude and behavior of the first grade students in male high schools of Bavanat in 2010. Materials and Methods: In this prospective experimental study, after selecting two qualified schools from five high schools, all students of one school (two classes including 42 individuals) were randomly assigned to the experimental group and all the students of another high school (two classes including 43 individuals) were randomly assigned to the control group. The data gathering tool was a 4-section questionnaire which included demographic questions, knowledge- and attitude-related questions and the questionnaire of physical activity performance. The first three sections of the questionnaire were the researcher-designed and validated by face and content validity. Test-retest and internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) methods were used to determine the reliability of knowledge questionnaire and attitude questionnaire, respectively. For the measurement of physical activity behavior, a self-reporting questionnaire (valid and reliable Garcia scale) was used in this study. After conducting the pretest, the educational intervention was done for the experimental group. Post-tests were conducted immediately and 1 month after intervention. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS18

  7. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level.

  8. 77 FR 3106 - Damages Received on Account of Personal Physical Injuries or Physical Sickness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ..., damages received from a legal suit, action, or settlement agreement must be based upon ``tort or tort type..., the section 104(a)(2) exclusion was not limited to damages for physical injuries or sickness. The tort... 3106-3108] [FR Doc No: 2012-1255] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1...

  9. History and physical examination of hip injuries in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Hamedan Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Hip fracture is the most common injury occurring to elderly people and is associated with restrictions of the activities of the patients themselves. The discovery of a hip fracture can be the beginning of a complex journey of care, from initial diagnosis, through operational procedures to rehabilitation. The patient's history and physical examination form the basis of the diagnosis and monitoring of elderly patients with hip problems and dictate the appropriate treatment strategy to be implemented. The aim of this study is to discuss the different diagnoses of hip pain in a case study of an elderly woman who initially complained of pain in her right knee following a fall at home. It shows that musculoskeletal physical examination determined the management of the hip fracture that was found to be present. In addition, the aim of this article is to review diagnostic tests such as radiographs and recommend appropriate management and treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients.

  10. Effects of an osteoporosis prevention training program on physical activity-related stages of change and self-efficacy among university students, Shiraz, Iran: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    KAVEH, MOHAMMAD HOSSIEN; GOLIJ, MONIRE; NAZARI, MAHIN; MAZLOOM, ZOHREH; REZAEIAN ZADEH, ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major problem in today's world, being characterized by decreased bone mass and bone change. Due to deficiency of theory-based studies in young population, especially in students, there are significant knowledge gaps of effective planning. Thepresent study was performed in response to this need. The present study investigated the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity related stages of change and self-efficacyin preventing osteoporosis among university students. Methods:In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT: IRCT201212016261N2), 152 female students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected through multi-stages cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=76) and a control (n=76) group.The pre-and post-intervention data were collected using the Stages of Exercise Change Questionnaire (SECQ) of Marcos with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.89 and also the self-efficacy scale with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88 and Test-Retest Correlation Coefficient of 0.80. The educational intervention for the experimental group took place through problem-based learning method, small group discussion, and training manuals. In addition, training CDs and brochures were given to the subjects and short SMSs were sent to them. The data were analyzed throughSPSS, version 14, usingMann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and regression tests. Results:Pre-intervention findings showed that participants had behavioral constructs below the expected levels. The results showed that the experimental group received significant statisticalincrease after the intervention in stage of change. Before the intervention, the mean scores of stages of changes in the experimental groups was 2.28±0.86 but this rose to 3±0.84 in the first post-test and 3.22±0.84 in the second post-test. The control group showed a significant increase in stage of change without intervention (pre-test 2.04±0.82, first post

  11. What Predicts Injury from Physical Punishment? A Test of the Typologies of Violence Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Miriam; Durrant, Joan E.; Chabot, Martin; Trocme, Nico; Brown, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the power of child, perpetrator, and socio-economic characteristics to predict injury in cases of reported child physical abuse. The study was designed to assess the validity of the assumption that physically injurious incidents of child physical abuse are qualitatively different from those that do not result in…

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  13. The use of physical agents in rehabilitation of athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    Hillman, S K; Delforge, G

    1985-07-01

    The competitive athlete's motivation to return to activity following injury presents a challenge to the sports medicine specialist to utilize the most effective rehabilitation procedures available. Safe return to competition necessitates maximal restoration of those components of physical fitness affected by injury (such as muscular strength, power, endurance). Various forms of superficial heat and cold application, deep heat modalities, and electrical currents have been used to supplement therapeutic exercise in this process. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cold for the control of exercise-induced edema and as a prelude to performance of prescribed exercise have been widely recognized. Although short wave and microwave diathermy appear to have lost much of their appeal as deep tissue heating modalities, the thermal and mechanical effects of ultrasound continue to make it a widely used modality in sports medicine. Adaptation of alternating electrical currents for use in transcutaneous nerve stimulation has given the sports medicine clinician a useful modality for pain management. The more recently developed "Russian" electrical stimulator provides a promising modality for muscle re-education and restoration of muscular strength.

  14. Initial evaluation of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: history, physical examination, imaging studies, surgical and nonsurgical indications.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vidriero, Emilio; Simon, David A; Johnson, Donald H

    2010-12-01

    Compared with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, posterior cruciate ligament injuries are a rare event. The mechanisms are predictable and a thorough physical examination is mandatory to rule out or define combined injury patterns. Stress radiography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are very helpful adjuncts. Acute and chronic injuries require slightly different approaches. As our understanding of normal and pathologic knee joint kinematics develops, nonoperative rehabilitation goals and operative techniques continue to evolve.

  15. Risk Factors for Physical Injury Among Help-Seeking Battered Women

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Physical injuries among battered women represent risks for both acute and long-term physical health functioning. The current study assessed the nature and extent of minor and severe injuries among a help-seeking sample of battered women. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess the unique roles of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking to the prediction of minor and severe injuries in battered women. Not unexpectedly, length of relationship abuse and severity of physical aggression were the most robust predictors of minor and severe physical injuries. Consistent with other research findings, psychological abuse and stalking, as a block, contributed uniquely to the prediction of severe injuries. Results are discussed in terms of implications for future research and intervention with battered women. PMID:18757347

  16. Soccer injuries and their relation to physical maturity.

    PubMed

    Backous, D D; Friedl, K E; Smith, N J; Parr, T J; Carpine, W D

    1988-08-01

    A prospective study of injuries encountered during participation in a summer soccer camp for youths aged 6 through 17 years revealed an injury incidence of 10.6 per 1000 hours for girls (107 injuries in 458 girls) and 7.3 per 1000 hours for boys (109 injuries in 681 boys). For both sexes, the incidence of injury increased at age 14 years. One certified athletic trainer (W.D.C.) assessed and documented all injuries during the course of the study. Seventy percent of injuries involved the lower extremities. Contusions represented 35.2%, strains 27.8%, sprains 19.4%, and fractures and dislocations 2% of all reported injuries. The ankle was the most frequent site of injury in both sexes. Quadriceps strain was a common injury in boys. The boys with the highest incidence of injury were tall (greater than 165 cm) and had a weak grip (less than 25 kg), suggesting that skeletally mature but muscularly weak boys may be more susceptible to injury while playing soccer with peers of the same chronological age.

  17. Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A retrospective examination was conducted of injuries, physical fitness, and their association among Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent trainees. Methods Injuries and activities associated with injuries were obtained from a review of medical records in the medical clinic that served the new agents. A physical fitness test (PFT) was administered at Weeks 1, 7 and 14 of the 17-week new agent training course. The PFT consisted of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, a 300-meter sprint, and a 1.5-mile run. Injury data were available from 2000 to 2008 and fitness data were available from 2004 to early 2009. Results During the survey period, 37% of men and 44% of women experienced one or more injuries during the new agent training course (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.31). The most common injury diagnoses were musculoskeletal pain (not otherwise specified) (27%), strains (11%), sprains (10%), contusions (9%), and abrasions/lacerations (9%). Activities associated with injury included defensive tactics training (48%), physical fitness training (26%), physical fitness testing (6%), and firearms training (6%). Over a 6-year period, there was little difference in performance of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, or the 300-meter sprint; 1.5-mile run performance was higher in recent years. Among both men and women, higher injury incidence was associated with lower performance on any of the physical fitness measures. Conclusion This investigation documented injury diagnoses, activities associated with injury, and changes in physical fitness, and demonstrated that higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower injury risk. PMID:21981817

  18. Volume of Physical Activity and Injury Occurrence in Young Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Gianoudis, Jenny; Webster, Kate E.; Cook, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition) and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04) and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01) participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes. Key points Basketball players participating in larger amounts of running-type physical activity, in addition to regular training and competition, may be predisposed to overuse injury Future studies using larger sample sizes are required to investigate the precise volumes of physical activity that increase injury risk This would assist in the development of participation guidelines to decrease the current injury rates observed in the young athletic population. PMID:24150146

  19. Volume of physical activity and injury occurrence in young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Gianoudis, Jenny; Webster, Kate E; Cook, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition) and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04) and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01) participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes. Key pointsBasketball players participating in larger amounts of running-type physical activity, in addition to regular training and competition, may be predisposed to overuse injuryFuture studies using larger sample sizes are required to investigate the precise volumes of physical activity that increase injury riskThis would assist in the development of participation guidelines to decrease the current injury rates observed in the young athletic population.

  20. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. Aims: We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson S index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. Methods: We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. Results: We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by the small frequency separation, as well as an anti-correlation between the S index and the oscillation amplitudes. We argue that the average activity level of the stars shows a stronger correlation with the small frequency separation than with the absolute age that is often considered in the literature. Conclusions: The phenomenological laws discovered in this paper have the potential to become new important diagnostics to link stellar evolution theory with the dynamics of global magnetic fields. In particular we argue that the relation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the oscillation amplitudes is in good agreement with the findings of direct numerical simulations of magneto-convection.

  1. The state of head injury biomechanics: past, present, and future part 2: physical experimentation.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Werner; Monson, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    This presentation is the continuation of the article published in Critical Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 29(5-6), 2001. That issue contained topics dealing with components and geometry of the human head, classification of head injuries, some early experimental studies, and tolerance considerations. It then dealt with head motion and load characterization, investigations during the period from 1939 to 1966, injury causation and early modeling efforts, the 1966 Head Injury Conference and its sequels, mechanical properties of solid tissues, fluid characterization, and early investigation of the mechanical properties of cranial materials. It continued with a description of the systematic investigations of solid cranial components and structural properties since 1966, fetal cranial properties, analytical head modeling, and numerical solutions of head injury. The paper concluded with experimental dynamic loading of human living and cadaver heads, dynamic loading of surrogate heads, and head injury mechanics. This portion of the paper describes physical head injury experimentation involving animals, primarily primates, human cadavers, volunteers, and inanimate physical models. In order to address the entire domain of head injury biomechanics in the two-part survey, it was intended that this information be supplemented by discussions of head injury tolerance and criteria, automotive and sports safety considerations, and the design of protective equipment, but Professor Goldsmith passed away before these sections could be completed. It is nevertheless anticipated that this attenuated installment will provide, in conjunction with the first part of the survey, a valuable resource for students and practitioners of head injury biomechanics.

  2. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury.

  3. Physical and chemical injury as causes of sudden cardiac death: the forensic forum.

    PubMed

    Riddick, L

    1994-01-01

    Physical and chemical injuries account for the largest number of sudden, unexpected cardiac deaths in persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. Blunt-force injuries, lacerations, avulsions, and contusions of the heart and great vessels sustained during motor vehicle crashes constitute the most prevalent type of lethal physical trauma to the cardiovascular system. The second most prevalent type of trauma is from penetrating and perforating wounds inflicted by firearms. The mechanisms of these injuries are discussed, with emphasis placed on those factors contributing to lethality. The three most prevalent chemicals associated with sudden cardiac death-ethyl alcohol, cocaine, and tricylic antidepressants-are briefly mentioned.

  4. The physical basis of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Plataki, Maria; Hubmayr, Rolf D

    2010-01-01

    Although mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it can aggravate or cause lung injury, known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The biophysical characteristics of heterogeneously injured ARDS lungs increase the parenchymal stress associated with breathing, which is further aggravated by MV. Cells, in particular those lining the capillaries, airways and alveoli, transform this strain into chemical signals (mechanotransduction). The interaction of reparative and injurious mechanotransductive pathways leads to VILI. Several attempts have been made to identify clinical surrogate measures of lung stress/strain (e.g., density changes in chest computed tomography, lower and upper inflection points of the pressure–volume curve, plateau pressure and inflammatory cytokine levels) that could be used to titrate MV. However, uncertainty about the topographical distribution of stress relative to that of the susceptibility of the cells and tissues to injury makes the existence of a single ‘global’ stress/strain injury threshold doubtful. PMID:20524920

  5. Injuries to Athletes with Physical Disabilities: Prevention Implications.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, L E

    1986-09-01

    In brief: While athletes with disabilities may not be injured any more often than the able-bodied, the types of injuries they sustain are specific to their disabilities and sports. Wheelchair athletes, for example, are especially susceptible to hypothermia and hyperthermia due to their inactive leg muscles, vasomotor paralysis, and reduced evaporative heat loss and cooling. This review of current literature reveals that high-risk sports are track and field, basketball, and road racing, with soft-tissue injuries the most common among wheelchair athletes. Carpal tunnel syndrome is also a characteristic injury. Many preventive measures are suggested, including prescription of sport chairs tailored to an athlete's body type, disability, and sport.

  6. The evaluation of physical exam findings in patients assessed for suspected burn inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Ching, Jessica A; Shah, Jehan L; Doran, Cody J; Chen, Henian; Payne, Wyatt G; Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of singed nasal hair (SN), carbonaceous sputum (CS), and facial burns (FB) as indicators of burn inhalation injury, when compared to the accepted standard of bronchoscopic diagnosis of inhalation injury. An institutional review board approved, retrospective review was conducted. All patients were suspected to have burn inhalation injury and subsequently underwent bronchoscopic evaluation. Data collected included: percent burn TBSA, burn injury mechanism, admission physical exam findings (SN, CS, FB), and bronchoscopy findings. Thirty-five males and twelve females met inclusion criteria (n = 47). Bronchoscopy was normal in 31 patients (66%). Data were analyzed as all patients and in subgroups according to burn TBSA and an enclosed space mechanism of injury. Physical exam findings (SN, CS, FB) were evaluated individually and in combination. Overall, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values calculated were poor and inconsistent, and they did not improve within subgroup analysis or when physical findings were combined. Further statistical analysis suggested the physical findings, whether in isolation or in combination, have poor discrimination between patients that have and do not have inhalation injury (AUC < 0.7, P > .05) and poor agreement with the diagnosis made by bronchoscopy (κ < 0.4, P > .05). This remained true in the subgroup analysis as well. Our data demonstrated the findings of SN, CS, and FB are unreliable evidence for inhalation injury, even in the context of an enclosed space mechanism of injury. Thus, these physical findings are not absolute indicators for intubation and should be interpreted as one component of the history and physical.

  7. Strategies for optimizing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Williams, Thomas J; Deuster, Patricia A; Butler, Nikki L; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    With downsizing of the military services and significant budget cuts, it will be more important than ever to optimize the health and performance of individual service members. Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) represent a major threat to the health and fitness of Soldiers and other service members that degrade our nation's ability to project military power. This affects both financial (such as the economic burden from medical, healthcare, and disability costs) and human manpower resources (Soldiers medically unable to optimally perform their duties and to deploy). For example, in 2012, MSIs represented the leading cause of medical care visits across the military services resulting in almost 2,200,000 medical encounters. They also result in more disability discharges than any other health condition. Nonbattle injuries (NBIs) have caused more medical evacuations (34%) from recent theaters of operation than any other cause including combat injuries. Physical training and sports are the main cause of these NBIs. The majority (56%) of these injuries are the direct result of physical training. Higher levels of physical fitness protect against such injuries; however, more physical training to improve fitness also causes higher injury rates. Thus, military physical training programs must balance the need for fitness with the risks of injuries. The Army has launched several initiatives that may potentially improve military physical readiness and reduce injuries. These include the US Army Training and Doctrine Command's Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements and Gender Neutral Physical Performance Standards studies, as well as the reimplementation of the Master Fitness Trainer program and the Army Medical Command's Soldier Medical Readiness and Performance Triad Campaigns. It is imperative for military leaders to understand that military physical readiness can be enhanced at the same time that MSIs are prevented. A strategic paradigm shift in the military's approach

  8. Strategies for optimizing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Williams, Thomas J; Deuster, Patricia A; Butler, Nikki L; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    With downsizing of the military services and significant budget cuts, it will be more important than ever to optimize the health and performance of individual service members. Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) represent a major threat to the health and fitness of Soldiers and other service members that degrade our nation's ability to project military power. This affects both financial (such as the economic burden from medical, healthcare, and disability costs) and human manpower resources (Soldiers medically unable to optimally perform their duties and to deploy). For example, in 2012, MSIs represented the leading cause of medical care visits across the military services resulting in almost 2,200,000 medical encounters. They also result in more disability discharges than any other health condition. Nonbattle injuries (NBIs) have caused more medical evacuations (34%) from recent theaters of operation than any other cause including combat injuries. Physical training and sports are the main cause of these NBIs. The majority (56%) of these injuries are the direct result of physical training. Higher levels of physical fitness protect against such injuries; however, more physical training to improve fitness also causes higher injury rates. Thus, military physical training programs must balance the need for fitness with the risks of injuries. The Army has launched several initiatives that may potentially improve military physical readiness and reduce injuries. These include the US Army Training and Doctrine Command's Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements and Gender Neutral Physical Performance Standards studies, as well as the reimplementation of the Master Fitness Trainer program and the Army Medical Command's Soldier Medical Readiness and Performance Triad Campaigns. It is imperative for military leaders to understand that military physical readiness can be enhanced at the same time that MSIs are prevented. A strategic paradigm shift in the military's approach

  9. The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Favell, J E; McGimsey, J F; Jones, M L

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a treatment package on the self-injurious behavior of three profoundly retarded persons who appeared to enjoy the physical restraints used to prevent their self-injury. The treatment package included physically restraining subjects contingent on increasing periods of time during which no self-injury occurred, and providing them with toys and attention during intervals between restraints. A reversal and multiple-baseline analysis documented that the rapid and complete reduction in self-injury by all subjects was due to this treatment package. Because these results suggested that physical restraint might function as a positive reinforcer, in a third experiment physical restraint was applied contingent on a marble placement response with one subject. A reversal design demonstrated that toy play systematically increased when each response resulted in restraint. The experiments have implications for the nonaversive remediation of self-injury in individuals who are restrained, as well as for the development and maintenance of self-injury in natural settings.

  10. The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as positive reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Favell, J E; McGimsey, J F; Jones, M L

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a treatment package on the self-injurious behavior of three profoundly retarded persons who appeared to enjoy the physical restraints used to prevent their self-injury. The treatment package included physically restraining subjects contingent on increasing periods of time during which no self-injury occurred, and providing them with toys and attention during intervals between restraints. A reversal and multiple-baseline analysis documented that the rapid and complete reduction in self-injury by all subjects was due to this treatment package. Because these results suggested that physical restraint might function as a positive reinforcer, in a third experiment physical restraint was applied contingent on a marble placement response with one subject. A reversal design demonstrated that toy play systematically increased when each response resulted in restraint. The experiments have implications for the nonaversive remediation of self-injury in individuals who are restrained, as well as for the development and maintenance of self-injury in natural settings. PMID:670112

  11. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  12. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DIAGNOSING MENISCAL INJURIES: CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Gobbo, Ricardo da Rocha; Rangel, Victor de Oliveira; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Pires, Luiz Antônio Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2) was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered positive when one was positive. In the individual analysis, it was enough for the test to be positive. Results: The analysis showed that the set of five meniscal tests presented sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, accuracy of 75%, positive likelihood of 1.53 and negative likelihood of 0.26. Individually, the tests presented accuracy of between 48% and 53%. Conclusion: The set of maneuvers for meniscal injuries presented a good accuracy and significant value, especially for ruling out injury. Individually, the tests had less diagnostic value, although the Apley test had better specificity. PMID:27047833

  13. [Controlled release oxycodone--a new option in the treatment of severe and very severe pain. Review of studies on neuropathic, physical activity-related and postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Stiehl, M

    2004-08-01

    Opioids are used not only in the treatment of cancer pain, but also pain of non-malignant genesis. In recent years, the efficacy of controlled release (CR) oxycodone in the treatment of the above-mentioned types of pain has been investigated in a number of clinical studies. The present article reviews the clinical studies that have been already published. Thanks to its outstanding pharmacological and pharmacodynamic properties, CR oxycodone is fast acting and brings about long lasting pain relief, coupled with benefits for physical and mental activities. This results in a significant quality-of-life improvement. Oral therapy with CR oxycodone is safe and can be precisely controlled. Since there are no clinical relevant metabolites, there is no danger of accumulation in patients with renal infarction due to these metabolites. Side effects are those typical for opioids, and are readily manageable. CR oxycodone is a good alternative in the treatment of non-cancer pain and can be recommended as first-line treatment for the above-mentioned indications. PMID:16739361

  14. Injury risk associated with physical demands and school environment characteristics among a cohort of custodial workers.

    PubMed

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Hossain, Shahadut; Village, Judy

    2011-08-01

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between work exposures and injury risk among custodians. The relationship between injury risk and occupational physical demands (e.g. pushing/pulling, lifting) and school environment characteristics (e.g. school type, season) was investigated among a cohort of 581 school custodians over a 4-year period. In the final Poisson regression models, the risk of injury was associated with time spent in pushing/pulling tasks in a dose-response manner increasing to a five-fold risk among the highest quartile of exposure (risk ratio = 5.15, 95% CI 1.00, 26.5). Injury risk was also associated with working during the school year compared to the summer, working in a school with grass vs. gravel grounds and working in a school with detached classrooms. Results help to target interventions such as alternative methods for floor cleaning to reduce the pushing/pulling demands of custodial work and to support decisions for alternatives to detached classrooms and grass surfaces. Statement of Relevance: This study examines ergonomic factors (physical demand exposures, school environment characteristics) associated with injury risk among custodial school workers. The findings help schools to target interventions to reduce the physical demands associated with injuries and to design school environments to reduce exposures.

  15. Cohort study of physical activity and injury among Latino farm workers

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Li, Chin-Shang; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Schenker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study characterized physical activity and its association with injury among Latino farm workers. Methods An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline and follow-up data on 843 and 640 Latino farm workers, respectively. Participants were 18–55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA at baseline interview. The questionnaire assessed self-reported physical activity and risk of injury. Results The 12 month prevalence of injury decreased from 9.0% at baseline to 6.9% at follow up interview. In GEE models adjusted for age, follow-up time, gender, smoking, income and years working in agriculture, poor/fair self-assessed health status (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.82) and 2–3 hours per day of sitting/watching TV/using a computer (OR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.30–0.83) were significantly associated with injury. Conclusions Physical activity was not associated with injury in this population. Efforts to reduce injuries should focus on known risk factors such as poor health status. PMID:25943698

  16. Reliability of physical examination as a predictor of vascular injury after penetrating neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Azuaje, Rafael E; Jacobson, Lewis E; Glover, Jennifer; Gomez, Gerardo A; Rodman, George H; Broadie, Thomas A; Simons, Clark J; Bjerke, H Scott

    2003-09-01

    The policy of routine angiography (ANG) for all penetrating neck wounds results in a high rate of negative studies. The medical records of all patients who presented to Wishard Memorial Hospital and Methodist Hospital of Indiana with penetrating injuries to the neck from January 1992 to April 2001 were reviewed. All patients who were hemodynamically stable underwent four-vessel ANG to evaluate for vascular injury irrespective of findings on physical examination (PE). A total of 216 patients sustained penetrating neck injuries. Patients were divided according to positive or negative PE findings and the results of ANG. Of the 63 patients with a positive PE, 40 (68%) also had a positive ANG finding. Of the 89 patients with negative PE, only 3 had a positive ANG and none of these injuries required operative repair. PE therefore had a 93 per cent sensitivity (SEN) and a 97 per cent negative predictive value (NPV) for predicting the results of ANG. The SEN and NPV of PE for detecting vascular injuries requiring operative repair were both 100 per cent. In this series, no patient with a negative PE had a vascular injury that required operative repair, irrespective of zone of injury. Routine ANG may therefore be unnecessary for patients with penetrating neck injuries and a negative PE.

  17. Effective components of exercise and physical activity-related behaviour-change interventions for chronic non-communicable diseases in Africa: protocol for a systematic mixed studies review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Igwesi-Chidobe, Chinonso N; Godfrey, Emma L; Kengne, Andre P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for a high burden of mortality and morbidity in Africa. Evidence-based clinical guidelines recommend exercise training and promotion of physical activity behaviour changes to control NCDs. Developing such interventions in Africa requires an understanding of the essential components that make them effective in this context. This is a protocol for a systematic mixed studies review that aims to determine the effective components of exercise and physical activity-related behaviour-change interventions for chronic diseases in Africa, by combining quantitative and qualitative research evidence from studies published until July 2015. Methods and analysis We will conduct a detailed search to identify all published and unpublished studies that assessed the effects of exercise and physical activity-related interventions or the experiences/perspectives of patients to these interventions for NCDs from bibliographic databases and the grey literature. Bibliographic databases include MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. We will include the following African regional databases: African Index Medicus (AIM) and AFROLIB, which is the WHO's regional office database for Africa. The databases will be searched from inception until 18 July 2015. Appraisal of study quality will be performed after results synthesis. Data synthesis will be performed independently for quantitative and qualitative data using a mixed methods sequential explanatory synthesis for systematic mixed studies reviews. Meta-analysis will be conducted for the quantitative studies, and thematic synthesis for qualitative studies and qualitative results from the non-controlled observational studies. The primary outcome will include exercise adherence and physical activity behaviour changes. This review protocol is reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and

  18. Development and reliability of a scale of physical-activity related informal social control for parents of Chinese pre-schoolers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents’ perceived informal social control, defined as the informal ways residents intervene to create a safe and orderly neighbourhood environment, may influence young children’s physical activity (PA) in the neighbourhood. This study aimed to develop and test the reliability of a scale of PA-related informal social control relevant to Chinese parents/caregivers of pre-schoolers (children aged 3 to 5 years) living in Hong Kong. Methods Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured, multi-step brainstorming technique, was conducted with two groups of caregivers (mainly parents; n = 11) of Hong Kong pre-schoolers in June 2011. Items collected in the NGT sessions and those generated by a panel of experts were used to compile a list of items (n = 22) for a preliminary version of a questionnaire of informal social control. The newly-developed scale was tested with 20 Chinese-speaking parents/caregivers using cognitive interviews (August 2011). The modified scale, including all 22 original items of which a few were slightly reworded, was subsequently administered on two occasions, a week apart, to 61 Chinese parents/caregivers of Hong Kong pre-schoolers in early 2012. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the items and scale were examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-tests, relative percentages of shifts in responses to items, and Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results Thirteen items generated by parents/caregivers and nine items generated by the panel of experts (total 22 items) were included in a first working version of the scale and classified into three subscales: “Personal involvement and general informal supervision”, “Civic engagement for the creation of a better neighbourhood environment” and “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children”. Twenty out of 22 items showed moderate to excellent test-test reliability (ICC range: 0.40-0.81). All three subscales of informal social control

  19. Physical exercise improves arterial stiffness after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle; Currie, Katharine D.; West, Christopher R.; Gee, Cameron M.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), the gold-standard assessment of central arterial stiffness, has prognostic value for cardiovascular disease risk in able-bodied individuals. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV in athletes and non-athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional comparison. Methods Aortic PWV was assessed in 20 individuals with motor-complete, chronic SCI (C2–T5; 18 ± 8 years post-injury) using applanation tonometry at the carotid and femoral arterial sites. Ten elite hand-cyclists were matched for sex to 10 non-athletes; age and time since injury were comparable between the groups. Heart rate and discrete brachial blood pressure measurements were collected throughout testing. Outcome measures Aortic PWV, blood pressure, heart rate. Results Aortic PWV was significantly lower in athletes vs. non-athletes (6.9 ± 1.0 vs. 8.7 ± 2.5 m/second, P = 0.044). There were no significant between-group differences in resting supine mean arterial blood pressure (91 ± 19 vs. 81 ± 10 mmHg) and heart rate (60 ± 10 vs. 58 ± 6 b.p.m.). Conclusion Athletes with SCI exhibited improved central arterial stiffness compared to non-athletes, which is in agreement with the previous able-bodied literature. This finding implies that chronic exercise training may improve arterial health and potentially lower cardiovascular disease risk in the SCI population. PMID:24976366

  20. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as

  1. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as

  2. Correlations between injury, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion among college athletes.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Rheba E; Symonds, Matthew L

    2010-03-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to obtain information concerning injury incidence and perceptions of training intensities and fatigue levels among college athletes via a survey study. A second purpose was to illuminate correlations between the collected data. This study employed an investigator-designed survey instrument administered to 411 NCAA Division II male and female athletes, with 149 completed responses. The survey included 3 themes: injury incidence, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion. Men and women spent 4.5 days per week training using moderate- and high-intensity levels. Fifty percent of the total number of athletes reported chronic injury. During the competition season, physical exhaustion occurred "frequently" 30.86 and 23.53% of the time with men and women, respectively. In the noncompetition season, physical exhaustion was "frequently" experienced 19.75 and 17.65% of the time among men and women, respectively. Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found with acute injury for men and chronic injury for women. Also, training intensity levels and physical and mental exhaustion for men and women were statistically significant. The current investigators found the training involved 2-3 hours of moderate to high intensity 4.5 days per week both during competition and noncompetition; women and men spent 2-3 hours of light intensity 1.31 and 1.45 days per week, respectively. Women and men in addition to training, engaged in 3.78 and 4.43 hours of leisure physical activity per week. The investigators recommend tapering, periodization, and rest to help avoid overuse syndrome, overreaching, and overtraining that leads to excessive physical and mental exhaustion and injury.

  3. Effect of Physical and Academic Stress on Illness and Injury in Division 1 College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Bryant, Kirk R; Johnstone, Brick; Ivey, Patrick A; Sayers, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Stress-injury models of health suggest that athletes experience more physical injuries during times of high stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased physical and academic stress on injury restrictions for athletes (n = 101) on a division I college football team. Weeks of the season were categorized into 3 levels: high physical stress (HPS) (i.e., preseason), high academic stress (HAS) (i.e., weeks with regularly scheduled examinations such as midterms, finals, and week before Thanksgiving break), and low academic stress (LAS) (i.e., regular season without regularly scheduled academic examinations). During each week, we recorded whether a player had an injury restriction, thereby creating a longitudinal binary outcome. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression model to properly account for the dependency induced by the repeated observations over time within each subject. Significance for regression models was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. We found that the odds of an injury restriction during training camp (HPS) were the greatest compared with weeks of HAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, p = 0.0003) and LAS (OR = 3.65, p < 0.001). However, the odds of an injury restriction during weeks of HAS were nearly twice as high as during weeks of LAS (OR = 1.78, p = 0.0088). Moreover, the difference in injury rates reported in all athletes during weeks of HPS and weeks of HAS disappeared when considering only athletes that regularly played in games (OR = 1.13, p = 0.75) suggesting that HAS may affect athletes that play to an even greater extent than HPS. Coaches should be aware of both types of stressors and consider carefully the types of training methods imposed during times of HAS when injuries are most likely. PMID:26049791

  4. Effect of Physical and Academic Stress on Illness and Injury in Division 1 College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Bryant, Kirk R; Johnstone, Brick; Ivey, Patrick A; Sayers, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Stress-injury models of health suggest that athletes experience more physical injuries during times of high stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased physical and academic stress on injury restrictions for athletes (n = 101) on a division I college football team. Weeks of the season were categorized into 3 levels: high physical stress (HPS) (i.e., preseason), high academic stress (HAS) (i.e., weeks with regularly scheduled examinations such as midterms, finals, and week before Thanksgiving break), and low academic stress (LAS) (i.e., regular season without regularly scheduled academic examinations). During each week, we recorded whether a player had an injury restriction, thereby creating a longitudinal binary outcome. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression model to properly account for the dependency induced by the repeated observations over time within each subject. Significance for regression models was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. We found that the odds of an injury restriction during training camp (HPS) were the greatest compared with weeks of HAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, p = 0.0003) and LAS (OR = 3.65, p < 0.001). However, the odds of an injury restriction during weeks of HAS were nearly twice as high as during weeks of LAS (OR = 1.78, p = 0.0088). Moreover, the difference in injury rates reported in all athletes during weeks of HPS and weeks of HAS disappeared when considering only athletes that regularly played in games (OR = 1.13, p = 0.75) suggesting that HAS may affect athletes that play to an even greater extent than HPS. Coaches should be aware of both types of stressors and consider carefully the types of training methods imposed during times of HAS when injuries are most likely.

  5. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies. PMID:26848872

  6. Orthopedic Surgeons and Physical Therapists Differ in Assessment of Need for Physical Therapy After Traumatic Lower-Extremity Injury

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Ellen J.; Castillo, Renan C.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lower-extremity injuries constitute the leading cause of trauma hospitalizations among people under the age of 65 years. Rehabilitation has the potential to favorably influence the outcomes associated with traumatic lower-extremity injuries. Objectives The objectives of this study were to explore variability in surgeon and physical therapist assessments of the need for physical therapy in patients with traumatic lower-extremity injuries and to determine the factors associated with assessments of need. Design This study was a retrospective cohort investigation. Methods Participants were 395 patients treated by reconstruction in the Lower-Extremity Assessment Project. They were evaluated at 8 level I trauma centers at 3, 6, and 12 months after hospitalization by an orthopedic surgeon and a physical therapist to determine the need for physical therapy. Analyses included multilevel logistic regression. Results Chi-square analyses showed that surgeon and therapist assessments of need differed statistically across trauma centers. Surgeons were more likely to assess a need for therapy at 3 months when participants had low work self-efficacy, impaired knee flexion range of motion (ROM), and weight-bearing limitations and at 6 and 12 months when participants had impaired knee flexion ROM and weight-bearing and balance limitations. Therapists were more likely to assess a need for therapy at 3 months when participants had moderate to severe pain and at 6 and 12 months when participants had low work self-efficacy, pain, impaired knee flexion ROM, and balance limitations. Conclusions The results revealed variability in assessments of the need for physical therapy at the provider and trauma center levels. Differences in provider assessments highlight the need for communication and further investigation into the outcomes and timing of physical therapy for the treatment of traumatic lower-extremity injuries. PMID:19875460

  7. Women in Physics: Unnecessary, Injurious and out of Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistiakowsky, Vera

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the history of the participation of women in science, particularly physics, and the reasons for the differences between men and women. Discrimination, although difficult to document, is considered in the article. (SA)

  8. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  9. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use. PMID:27635252

  10. Physical injury, PTSD symptoms, and medication use: examination in two trauma types.

    PubMed

    Cody, Meghan W; Beck, J Gayle

    2014-02-01

    Physical injury is prevalent across many types of trauma experiences and can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and physical health effects, including increased medication use. Recent studies suggest that PTSD symptoms may mediate the effects of traumatic injury on health outcomes, but it is unknown whether this finding holds for survivors of different types of traumas. The current study examined cross-sectional relationships between injury, PTSD, and pain and psychiatric medication use in 2 trauma-exposed samples, female survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs; n = 315) and intimate partner violence (IPV; n = 167). Data were obtained from participants at 2 trauma research clinics who underwent a comprehensive assessment of psychopathology following the stressor. Regression with bootstrapping suggested that PTSD symptoms mediate the relationship between injury severity and use of pain medications, R(2)  = .11, F(2, 452) = 28.37, p < .001, and psychiatric medications, R(2)  = .06, F(2, 452) = 13.18, p < .001, as hypothesized. Mediation, however, was not moderated by trauma type (ps > .05). Results confirm an association between posttraumatic psychopathology and medication usage and suggest that MVA and IPV survivors alike may benefit from assessment and treatment of emotional distress after physical injury.

  11. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  12. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: What Physical and Sport Educators Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Natasha P.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among children and youth suggests that increased awareness, attention, and training must be disseminated to frontline personnel. Physical and sport educators have an increased chance of identifying students who are currently engaging in NSSI because of the nature of their work. This…

  13. Preference for Progressive Delays and Concurrent Physical Therapy Exercise in an Adult with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase self-control and engagement in a physical therapy task (head holding) for a man with acquired traumatic brain injury. Once impulsivity was observed (i.e., repeated impulsive choices), an experimental condition was introduced that consisted of choices between a small immediate reinforcer, a large…

  14. Health implications of physical activity in individuals with spinal cord injury: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Fernhall, Bo; Heffernan, Kevin; Jae, Sae Young; Hedrick, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity has demonstrated beneficial effects on health and longevity in the general population, and physically active individuals are at lower risk for many chronic diseases compared to their sedentary peers. Individuals with disabilities in general are less active than individuals without disabilities, but it is still unknown if physical activity confers the same level of risk reduction in populations with as without disabilities. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have among the lowest levels of physical activity participation compared to other populations. They also demonstrate early onset of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. This literature review discusses evidence for the potential benefits of physical activity in persons with SCI and provides a summary of pertinent studies to date. Although being physically active and physically fit appears to be associated with several health benefits in persons with SCI, most studies are small and little longitudinal evidence exists. Future studies will be needed to address this need.

  15. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Herbert, William G

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed. PMID:27757043

  16. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury. PMID:27170345

  17. Correlation between physical activity, fitness, and musculoskeletal injuries in police officers.

    PubMed

    Nabeel, Ismail; Baker, Beth A; McGrail, Michael P; Flottemesch, Thomas J

    2007-09-01

    In order to explore the correlation between physical activity, fitness, and injury among police officers, a cross section of active-duty members of the Minneapolis Police Department were surveyed about their level of fitness, physical activity, and prevalence of injury and chronic pain within the past year. In the study, officers with the highest self-reported fitness levels were less likely to experience sprains (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.88), back pain (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.09-0.88), and chronic pain (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.73) than those who considered themselves less fit. Officers who were the most physically active were about a third as likely to report back pain (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10-0.73) and less than half as likely to report chronic pain (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91) as those who engaged in less activity. And officers with a BMI greater than 35 were 3 times more likely to report back pain (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.17-9.66) than those whose BMI fell in the normal range (18-25). Thus, officers who engage in higher levels of physical activity and are more physically fit have a lower prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and chronic pain.

  18. Blast induced mild traumatic brain injury/concussion: A physical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, Yan; Hubler, Graham K.; DePalma, Ralph G.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, a consensus exists that low intensity non-impact blast wave exposure leads to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Considerable interest in this "invisible injury" has developed in the past few years but a disconnect remains between the biomedical outcomes and possible physical mechanisms causing mTBI. Here, we show that a shock wave travelling through the brain excites a phonon continuum that decays into specific acoustic waves with intensity exceeding brain tissue strength. Damage may occur within the period of the phonon wave, measured in tens to hundreds of nanometers, which makes the damage difficult to detect using conventional modalities.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  20. Physical Examination and Imaging of the Acute Multiple Ligament Knee Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Examination and evaluation of the patient a with multiple ligament injured knee is a complicated process and best done in a methodical, comprehensive fashion with a particular emphasis placed on assessment of supporting soft tissues. Tissues that can be damaged during this devastating injury include bones, ligaments, meniscus, articular cartilage, and neurovascular structures. Uses of diagnostic imaging and the physical examination process will be described in this article. PMID:21509120

  1. Psychological Sequelae of the Station Nightclub Fire: Comparing Survivors with and without Physical Injuries Using a Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Nhi-Ha T.; Nadler, Deborah L.; Shie, Vivian; Fregni, Felipe; Gilman, Stephen E.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveying survivors from a large fire provides an opportunity to explore the impact of emotional trauma on psychological outcomes. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of survivors of The Station Fire. Primary outcomes were post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale – Revised) and depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine differences in symptom profiles between those with and without physical injuries. The free-response section of the survey was analyzed qualitatively to compare psychological sequelae of survivors with and without physical injuries. Results 104 participants completed the study survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. The mean age of respondents was 32 years, 62% were male, and 47% experienced a physical injury. No significant relationships were found between physical injury and depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom profiles. In the qualitative analysis, the emotional trauma that survivors experienced was a major, common theme regardless of physical injury. Survivors without physical injuries were more likely to experience survivor guilt, helplessness, self-blame, and bitterness. Despite the post-fire challenges described, most survivors wrote about themes of recovery and renewal. Conclusions All survivors of this large fire experienced significant psychological sequelae. These findings reinforce the importance of mental health care for all survivors and suggest a need to understand factors influencing positive outcomes. PMID:25536085

  2. Influence of physical exercise on traumatic brain injury deficits: scaffolding effect.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor

    2012-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be due to a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts normal brain function; it presents an ever-growing, serious public health problem that causes a considerable number of fatalities and cases of permanent disability annually. Physical exercise restores the healthy homeostatic regulation of stress, affect and the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Physical activity attenuates or reverses the performance deficits observed in neurocognitive tasks. It induces anti-apoptotic effects and buttresses blood-brain barrier intactness. Exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. Exercise intervention protects against vascular risk factors that include hypertension, diabetes, cellular inflammation, and aortic rigidity. It induces direct changes in cerebrovasculature that produce beneficial changes in cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and vascular disease improvement. The improvements induced by physical exercise regimes in brain plasticity and neurocognitive performance are evident both in healthy individuals and in those afflicted by TBI. The overlap and inter-relations between TBI effects on brain and cognition as related to physical exercise and cognition may provide lasting therapeutic benefits for recovery from TBI. It seems likely that some modification of the notion of scaffolding would postulate that physical exercise reinforces the adaptive processes of the brain that has undergone TBI thereby facilitating the development of existing networks, albeit possibly less efficient, that compensate for those lost through damage.

  3. Return to work after spinal cord injury: the potential contribution of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Noreau, L; Shephard, R J

    1992-08-01

    The history, physical characteristics and fitness status of 60 persons who had sustained a spinal cord injury at least 3 years previously were considered in relation to current occupation. All subjects had completed their education, 39 being gainfully employed and 21 unemployed. The general characteristics of the sample, mainly beneficiaries of the Quebec Automobile Insurance Plan, were typical of spinal cord injured individuals in North America. The working group had a significantly higher current level of education than those who were unemployed (p less than .01). In terms of physical fitness, the workers were lighter, with a lower body mass index and a higher aerobic power (p less than .05). Isokinetic testing suggested a trend toward a higher peak torque in the workers. The total work performed (Nm.kg-1) during an isokinetic endurance test (25 biphasic contraction at 180 degrees.sec-1) was significantly higher in the workers, suggesting that such muscular endurance might be even more useful than greater peak isokinetic strength during vocational activities. However, the likelihood of employment was unrelated to habitual patterns of either aerobic exercise or overall physical activity. No significant differences of physical fitness or physical activity habits were found between workers holding sedentary versus physically demanding jobs. The results verified the positive relationship between physical fitness (body composition, aerobic power, muscular endurance) and the gainful employment of paraplegics, but failed to show any significant relationship between physical fitness and the acceptance of physically demanding work by such individuals.

  4. Measurement of Physical Performance and Objective Fatigability in People with Mild-to-Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritta, Catherine; Cherian, Binu; Macaden, Ashish S.; John, Judy Ann

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to objectively measure the physical performance and physical endurance of patients with traumatic brain injury with minimization of cognitive and psychological fatigue, and to compare the physical performance of brain injured patients with that of healthy controls. This was a nonrandomized partially blinded controlled…

  5. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  6. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  7. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  8. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  9. Childhood adversities and adult use of potentially injurious physical discipline in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using data derived from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1,186), this study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan with a special focus on the confounding effects of 11 other types of childhood adversities (CAs) and the intervening effects of mental disorders and socioeconomic status. Bivariate analyses revealed that having experienced physical discipline as children and five other CAs was significantly associated with the use of physical discipline as parents in the Japanese community examined. However, childhood physical discipline was the only CA that remained significant after adjusting for the other CAs. The association of childhood physical discipline with adult perpetration was independent of the respondents’ mental disorders and household income. No significant gender differences were found in the associations between childhood physical discipline and adult perpetration. The current study on Japan provided empirical support consistent with results found in other countries regarding the intergenerational transmission of child physical abuse. PMID:26478655

  10. Barriers to Leisure-Time Physical Activities in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Groves, Mary D; Sanchez, Jacqueline N; Hudson, Cassandra E; Jao, Rachel G; Kroll, Meghan E

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the personal, environmental, and activity barriers to leisure-time physical activities (LTPAs) among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A survey instrument was administered to 85 participants with SCI. Personal barriers to LTPAs included issues involving motivation, pain, scheduling, and financial resources. Environmental barriers marked the issues regarding availability and accessibility to specialized programs, activities, and professional services. Activity barriers included limitations in equipment, training, and personal skills required by the selected activities. Significant negative correlations were found between these barriers and the levels of physical activity and satisfaction with physical activity. While working with clients with SCI, occupational therapists should identify those LTPA barriers and possible solutions in order to establish individualized action plans for enhancing participation in LTPAs. PMID:27218889

  11. Enhancing primary care for persons with spinal cord injury: More than improving physical accessibility.

    PubMed

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    In Ontario, Canada, legislation exists that mandates that all medical practices be fully accessible by 2025, in an effort to improve access to primary care for persons with physical disabilities. The simple removal of physical barriers may not guarantee improved access to appropriate care. In this clinical note, members of an interprofessional primary care-based Mobility Clinic reflect on opportunities to improve primary care beyond just better physical accessibility for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The importance of collaborations between funders, researchers, and clinicians are examined. Using a participatory action research model, the unique perspective of consumers and consumer networks are incorporated into the Mobility Clinic's clinical and research efforts to improve primary care for persons with SCI. PMID:26111044

  12. Effects of personal and occupational stress on injuries in a young, physically active population: a survey of military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bedno, Sheryl; Hauret, Keith; Loringer, Kelly; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Mallon, Timothy; Jones, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to document risk factors for any injury and sports- and exercise-related injuries, including personal and occupational stress among active duty service members (SMs) in the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. A total of 10,692 SMs completed the April 2008 Status of Forces Survey of Active Duty Members. The survey asked about demographics, personal stress and occupational stress, injuries from any cause, and participation in sports- and exercise- related activities in the past year. The survey used a complex sampling procedure to create a representative sample of SMs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of injury outcomes with potential risk factors. 49% of SMs sought medical care for an injury in the past year and 25% sustained a sports- and exercise-related activities injury. Odds of injury were higher for the Army and Marine Corps than for the Air Force or Navy. This survey showed that higher personal and occupational stress was associated with higher risks of injury. SMs who experienced higher levels of personal or occupational stress reported higher risks of injuries. The effects of stress reduction programs on injury risks should be evaluated in military and other young physically active populations.

  13. Ability of Preseason Body Composition and Physical Fitness to Predict the Risk of Injury in Male Collegiate Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Grant, John A.; Bedi, Asheesh; Kurz, Jennifer; Bancroft, Richard; Gagnier, Joel J.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injuries in collegiate ice hockey can result in significant time lost from play. The identification of modifiable risk factors relating to a player’s physical fitness allows the development of focused training and injury prevention programs targeted at reducing these risks. Purpose: To determine the ability of preseason fitness outcomes to predict in-season on-ice injury in male collegiate ice hockey players. Study Design: Prognostic cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Athlete demographics, percentage body fat, aerobic capacity (300-m shuttle run; 1-, 1.5-, 5-mile run), and strength assessment (sit-ups, push-ups, grip strength, bench press, Olympic cleans, squats) data were collected at the beginning of 8 successive seasons for 1 male collegiate ice hockey team. Hockey-related injury data and player-level practice/game athlete exposure (AE) data were also prospectively collected. Seventy-nine players participated (203 player-years). Injury was defined as any event that resulted in the athlete being unable to participate in 1 or more practices or games following the event. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the ability of the independent variables to predict the occurrence of on-ice injury. Results: There were 132 injuries (mean, 16.5 per year) in 55 athletes. The overall injury rate was 4.4 injuries per 1000 AEs. Forwards suffered 68% of the injuries. Seventy percent of injuries occurred during games with equal distribution between the 3 periods. The mean number of days lost due to injury was 7.8 ± 13.8 (range, 1-127 days). The most common mechanism of injury was contact with another player (54%). The odds of injury in a forward was 1.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.4) that of a defenseman and 3 times (95% CI, 1.2-7.7) that of a goalie. The odds of injury if the player’s body mass index (BMI) was ≥25 kg/m2 was 2.1 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.8) that of a player with a BMI <25 kg/m2. The odds ratios for bench press

  14. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    PubMed Central

    Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Di Pierro, Carla; Lopes, Alexandre D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1) "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2) "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. PMID:24845023

  15. Gender Differences in the Relative Impact of Physical and Relational Bullying on Adolescent Injury and Weapon Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.; Zane, Jazmin I.

    2010-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, concurrent associations were assessed among physical bullying, relational bullying, physical victimization, relational victimization, injury and weapon carrying using data from the population of 1300 adolescent girls and 1362 adolescent boys in grades 7-12 in a Colorado school district. For both genders, being a…

  16. Mediated effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange and empowerment in predicting perceived injury risk.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Jeffery; Matthews, Russell A; Foley, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    In the context of conservation of resources theory, we examine the indirect (mediated) effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange (LMX) and empowerment on perceived injury risk in a heterogeneous sample (N = 226) of individuals employed in occupations related to production, construction and installation/maintenance. Positioning work role stressors and upward safety communications as two important mediating variables, as predicted, LMX and empowerment demonstrated significant indirect effects on perceived injury risk. Results from our model also provide preliminary evidence that an asymmetrical dualistic process exists in terms of the effect physical risk factors have on perceived injury risk via depletion of both psychological (i.e. role stressors) and physical resources (i.e. physical symptoms). Theoretical and practical implications based on the results of our model are also discussed.

  17. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  18. Beyond the physical injuries: child and parent coping with medical traumatic stress after pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, Susan E; Campbell, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Experiencing a traumatic event and then the required care for the physical injuries can elicit stress symptoms in the injured child and parents. Stress-related symptoms affect a significant number of injured children and can have an impact on emotional and physical health outcomes after injury. Yet the majority of children who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder postinjury go undiagnosed and untreated. Medical traumatic stress symptoms that occur often as adaptive responses initially can persist. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed when the stress symptoms persist less than 1 month postinjury and affect normal functioning. Inclusion of screening for acute stress and the development of models and guidelines are needed to systematically incorporate the care for the emotional trauma as an integral part of pediatric trauma care. Pediatric trauma nurses with knowledge and resources are in a position to minimize potentially traumatic aspects of the care they deliver, recognize traumatic stress symptoms, and help parents to support their child's coping and promote appropriate help seeking.

  19. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  20. What makes home health workers think about leaving their job? The role of physical injury and organizational support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention. PMID:26833177

  1. What makes home health workers think about leaving their job? The role of physical injury and organizational support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention.

  2. Body composition modifications in people with chronic spinal cord injury after supervised physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Lopes, Guilherme Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of body composition variables is important for planning of better activities in relation to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objectives (1) To evaluate changes in body composition in patients with SCI after a supervised physical activity process; (2) To correlate total body fat with time since injury. Design Pre-post intervention. Setting Sarah Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brazil. Participants Fifty-three men with SCI aged 18–52 years with duration of injury >3 years. Interventions The subjects were divided into three groups: tetraplegia (TT) (C5–C8), high paraplegia (HP) (T1–T6), and low paraplegia (LP) (T7–L2). Body composition was estimated in the first and last weeks of hospitalization. Outcome measures Body weight (kg), skinfolds sum (mm), absolute (kg), and relative (%) fat and lean body mass. Results Body weight increased in TT and decreased in HP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.1–1.5; and −1.0 kg, 95%CI −2.0 to 0.0, respectively; P < 0.05). Skinfolds sum decreased only in HP (−13.1 mm, 95%CI −20.7 to −5.5; P < 0.05). Absolute and relative body fat decreased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Lean body mass (LBM) percentage increased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Absolute LBM increased in TT and LP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.3–1.3; and 1.3 kg, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.8, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between time since injury and skinfolds sum for the three groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion TT, HP, and LP demonstrated favorable changes in body composition after 29 days of supervised physical activity. However, these changes were different in direction and magnitude. PMID:22330114

  3. Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration

  4. Simulation of blast-induced early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul A; Ford, Corey C

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm3 voxels) five material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female data set. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior, and lateral directions. Three-dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric stress within the first 2 ms of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 ms time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early-time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI. PMID:19449961

  5. Association of physical examination with pulmonary artery catheter parameters in acute lung injury*

    PubMed Central

    Grissom, Colin K.; Morris, Alan H.; Lanken, Paul N.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Orme, James F.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Thompson, B. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Objective To correlate physical examination findings, central venous pressure, fluid output, and central venous oxygen saturation with pulmonary artery catheter parameters. Design Retrospective study. Setting Data from the multicenter Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial of the National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Patients Five hundred thirteen patients with acute lung injury randomized to treatment with a pulmonary artery catheter. Interventions Correlation of physical examination findings (capillary refill time >2 secs, knee mottling, or cool extremities), central venous pressure, fluid output, and central venous oxygen saturation with parameters from a pulmonary artery catheter. Measurements We determined association of baseline physical examination findings and on-study parameters of central venous pressure and central venous oxygen saturation with cardiac index <2.5 L/min/m2 and mixed venous oxygen saturation <60%. We determined correlation of baseline central venous oxygen saturation and mixed venous oxygen saturation and predictive value of a low central venous oxygen saturation for a low mixed venous oxygen saturation. Measurements and Main Results Prevalence of cardiac index <2.5 and mixed venous oxygen saturation <60% was 8.1% and 15.5%, respectively. Baseline presence of all three physical examination findings had low sensitivity (12% and 8%), high specificity (98% and 99%), low positive predictive value (40% and 56%), but high negative predictive value (93% and 86%) for cardiac index <2.5 and mixed venous oxygen saturation <60%, respectively. Central venous oxygen saturation <70% predicted a mixed venous oxygen saturation <60% with a sensitivity 84%, specificity 70%, positive predictive value 31%, and negative predictive value of 96%. Low cardiac index correlated with cool extremities, high central venous pressure, and low 24-hr fluid output; and low mixed venous oxygen saturation correlated with knee mottling and

  6. A musculoskeletal approach to the preparticipation physical examination. Preventing injury and improving performance.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W B; Chandler, T J; Uhl, T; Maddux, R E

    1989-01-01

    Preparticipation physical examinations provide information concerning an athlete's ability to participate safely in sports. By collecting information specific to the musculoskeletal system in addition to that from a general medical examination, information can be gained that may improve performance and help prevent certain injuries. Two thousand one hundred seven athletes from a variety of sports from the junior high to the college level were examined using specific tests for flexibility, strength, and endurance. Females were significantly more flexible than were males on all flexibility measurements, and males were significantly stronger than were females on all strength measurements. Upper-body athletes were tighter in dominant side internal rotation and significantly looser in dominant side external rotation. Lower-body athletes, especially females, were significantly tighter in the leg muscles. These results indicate that the adaptations of the musculo-skeletal system are sport specific and depend on the body area that is placed under stress.

  7. Classification of metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate injuries: history and physical examination variables.

    PubMed

    Nery, Caio; Coughlin, Michael J; Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando C; Mann, Tania Szejnfeld; Catena, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Although metatarsophalangeal (MTP) plantar plate tears are common, they are still often missed. The purpose of this study is to find the best clinical variables to define and grade the plantar plate injuries. Sixty-eight patients (100 MTP joints) were graded arthroscopically and divided into five groups (0 to IV) according to the anatomical classification. Their medical records were reviewed to establish correlations of clinical findings with the anatomical lesions. The positive correlations found were acute pain, widening of the interdigital space, loss of ground touch, positivity of the MTP joint drawer test, reduction of the toe purchase, and toe supination. The drawer test is the most reliable and accurate tool to classify and grade the plantar plate lesion, followed by ground touch and rotational deformities. It is possible to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of plantar plate tears by means of the combination of both clinical history and physical examination data.

  8. Gender differences in the relative impact of physical and relational bullying on adolescent injury and weapon carrying.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Richard L; Stein, Judith A; Zane, Jazmin I

    2010-12-01

    Using structural equation modeling, concurrent associations were assessed among physical bullying, relational bullying, physical victimization, relational victimization, injury and weapon carrying using data from the population of 1300 adolescent girls and 1362 adolescent boys in grades 7-12 in a Colorado school district. For both genders, being a relational bully was a significantly stronger predictor of weapon carrying than being a physical bully, and both bullying types were significant predictors of more weapon carrying. For both genders, being a victim of physical bullying, a victim of relational bullying, or being a relational bully significantly predicted more injury. In latent means comparisons, adolescent girls reported more relational victimization and adolescent boys reported more physical bullying and victimization, more weapon carrying, and more injury. The relative strength of relational bullying on weapon carrying, and the health-related consequences of bullying on interpersonal violence and injury support concerted efforts in schools to mitigate these behaviors. Attention to differences related to age and gender also is indicated in the design of bullying mitigation programs.

  9. Injuries to primary school pupils and secondary school students during physical education classes and in their leisure time.

    PubMed

    Videmsek, Mateja; Karpljuk, Damir; Mlinar, Suzana; Mesko, Maja; Stihec, Joze

    2010-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the frequency of injuries in primary and secondary schools during leisure time and physical education classes in school as well as in group and individual sports. The sample included 2842 pupils from nine primary schools and 1235 students from five secondary schools in Slovenia. The data were processed with the SPSS statistical software package and the frequencies and Crosstabs were calculated. The results showed that substantially more pupils and students were injured in their leisure time than during physical education classes. Girls were more frequently injured in group and individual sports practiced during physical education classes and in individual sports practiced in their leisure time, whereas boys suffered more injuries in group sports practiced in their leisure time. As regards group sports, pupils and students were most frequently injured while playing football in their leisure time whereas, during physical education classes, they suffered most injuries in volleyball, followed closely by basketball and football; as regards individual sports, pupils and students were most frequently injured while cycling and rollerblading in their leisure time, whereas during physical education classes they suffered most injuries in athletics.

  10. Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and physical exam in assessment of injuries to posterolateral corner of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gury, Lucas Archanjo; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Angelini, Fábio Janson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging, clinical examination and intraoperative identification of posterolateral corner injuries of the knee. METHODS: We compared the findings of physical examination under anesthesia and intraoperative findings as the gold standard for the posterolateral corner injury with the reports of the MRIs of patients who underwent reconstruction of the posterolateral corner. Thus, we evaluated the use of MRI for the diagnosis of lesions. RESULTS: We found a sensitivity of 100% in lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), 86.96% in lesions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), 57.58% in lesions of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and 24.24 % in tendon injuries of the popliteal muscle (PMT). CONCLUSION: Posterolateral corner injury is difficult to visualize and interpret; therefore, MRI imaging should not be used alone for diagnosis. Level of Evidence II. Diagnostic Studies. PMID:25061416

  11. Relationship of physical therapy inpatient rehabilitation interventions and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: The SCIRehab project

    PubMed Central

    Teeter, Laura; Gassaway, Julie; Taylor, Sally; LaBarbera, Jacqueline; McDowell, Shari; Backus, Deborah; Zanca, Jeanne M.; Natale, Audrey; Cabrera, Jordan; Smout, Randall J.; Kreider, Scott E. D.; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Background/objective Examine associations of type and quantity of physical therapy (PT) interventions delivered during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and patient characteristics with outcomes at the time of discharge and at 1 year post-injury. Methods Physical therapists delivering routine care documented details of PT interventions provided. Regression modeling was used to predict outcomes at discharge and 1 year post-injury for a 75% subset; models were validated with the remaining 25%. Injury subgroups also were examined: motor complete low tetraplegia, motor complete paraplegia, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) D motor incomplete tetra-/paraplegia. Results PT treatment variables explain more variation in three functionally homogeneous subgroups than in the total sample. Among patients with motor complete low tetraplegia, higher scores for the transfer component of the discharge motor Functional Independence Measure () are strongly associated with more time spent working on manual wheelchair skills. Being male is the most predictive variable for the motor FIM score at discharge for patients with motor complete paraplegia. Admission ASIA lower extremity motor score (LEMS) and change in LEMS were the factors most predictive for having the primary locomotion mode of “walk” or “both (walk and wheelchair)” on the discharge motor FIM for patients with AIS D injuries. Conclusion Injury classification influences type and quantity of PT interventions during inpatient SCI rehabilitation and is a strong predictor of outcomes at discharge and 1 year post-injury. The impact of PT treatment increases when patient groupings become more homogeneous and outcomes become specific to the groupings. Note This is the second of nine articles in the SCIRehab series. PMID:23318034

  12. Virtual reality pain control during physical therapy range of motion exercises for a patient with multiple blunt force trauma injuries.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hunter G; Patterson, David R; Soltani, Maryam; Teeley, Aubriana; Miller, William; Sharar, Sam R

    2009-02-01

    Patients with severe blunt force trauma injuries (e.g., multiple fractures and/or internal injuries) often experience severe to excruciating pain during medical procedures. We explored the adjunctive use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to distract a patient with multiple blunt trauma injuries from his procedural pain during physical therapy. The patient was a 32-year-old male hospitalized after suffering upper and lower extremity injuries when he was hit by a semi truck as a pedestrian. While a nurse assisted the patient's passive range of motion (ROM) leg exercises over two days, the patient spent a total of 10 minutes of physical therapy with no distraction and 10 minutes in VR (within-subjects design, order randomized). Three 0 to 10 graphic-rating-scale pain scores for each of the two treatment conditions served as the primary dependent variables. The patient reported a reduction in pain when distracted with VR. "Pain unpleasantness" ratings during physical therapy dropped from "severe" (mean = 8.5) to "mild/moderate" (4.5). The patient's ROM was 1 degree less during VR on day 1, but the patient achieved 15 degrees greater ROM during VR on day 2. The present study provides preliminary evidence that immersive VR can be an effective adjunctive, nonpharmacologic pain-reduction technique for a patient with multiple blunt trauma injuries experiencing severe pain during physical therapy. The potential utility of VR analgesia for movement or exercise therapy for patients with blunt force trauma injuries should be explored in controlled studies.

  13. A multidimensional physical therapy program for individuals with cerebellar ataxia secondary to traumatic brain injury: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sartor-Glittenberg, Cecelia; Brickner, Lori

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this case series is to describe changes in impairments and activity limitations in three individuals with severe cerebellar ataxia from traumatic brain injury (TBI) who participated in a long-term, multidimensional physical therapy program. A secondary purpose is to document use of a climbing wall for these persons. Each of the individuals had a TBI, severe ataxia and was admitted to a transitional neuro-rehabilitation day treatment program. The first person, a 22-year-old, was 6 years post injury and had 127 individual physical therapy sessions over 12 months. The second person, a 16-year-old, was 5½ months post injury and had 187 individual therapy sessions over 19 months. The third person, a 20-year-old, was 6 months post injury and had 89 individual therapy sessions over 23 months. An integrative treatment approach was used, and the individuals participated in activities to minimize ataxia and improve mobility. Each of them made gains in coordination, balance, balance confidence, endurance and mobility. The three individuals with cerebellar ataxia participated in a long-term, individualized, multidimensional physical therapy treatment program, and made improvements in all areas of impairment and activity limitations. This study reinforces the need for long-term, multidimensional physical therapy for individuals with ataxia.

  14. Systematic Review of Theory-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilroy, Jereme; Knowlden, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 200,000 individuals have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and more than 12,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Lowered physical functioning caused by SCI often leads to a sedentary lifestyle, increasing risk for chronic diseases, secondary medical conditions, and lower quality of life. Purpose: The aim…

  15. Crown-of-thorns starfish predation and physical injuries promote brown band disease on corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sefano M.; Pollock, F. Joseph; Bourne, David G.; Willis, Bette L.

    2014-09-01

    Brown band (BrB) disease manifests on corals as a ciliate-dominated lesion that typically progresses rapidly causing extensive mortality, but it is unclear whether the dominant ciliate Porpostoma guamense is a primary or an opportunistic pathogen, the latter taking advantage of compromised coral tissue or depressed host resistance. In this study, manipulative aquarium-based experiments were used to investigate the role of P. guamense as a pathogen when inoculated onto fragments of the coral Acropora hyacinthus that were either healthy, preyed on by Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish; COTS), or experimentally injured. Following ciliate inoculation, BrB lesions developed on all of COTS-predated fragments ( n = 9 fragments) and progressed up to 4.6 ± 0.3 cm d-1, resulting in ~70 % of coral tissue loss after 4 d. Similarly, BrB lesions developed rapidly on experimentally injured corals and ~38 % of coral tissue area was lost 60 h after inoculation. In contrast, no BrB lesions were observed on healthy corals following experimental inoculations. A choice experiment demonstrated that ciliates are strongly attracted to physically injured corals, with over 55 % of inoculated ciliates migrating to injured corals and forming distinct lesions, whereas ciliates did not migrate to healthy corals. Our results indicate that ciliates characteristic of BrB disease are opportunistic pathogens that rapidly migrate to and colonise compromised coral tissue, leading to rapid coral mortality, particularly following predation or injury. Predicted increases in tropical storms, cyclones, and COTS outbreaks are likely to increase the incidence of coral injury in the near future, promoting BrB disease and further contributing to declines in coral cover.

  16. Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Warm-up for Unit Physical Training: A Case Series of Two Flying Squadrons.

    PubMed

    Shumway, Joshua D; Anderson, Danielle N; Bishop, Brett

    2016-05-01

    Injury prevention has been assessed and studied in professional and collegiate athletic populations, but application to the military setting has been limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an injury prevention warm-up in two flying squadrons. At the commanders' request, two Air Force flying squadrons (276 individuals) were provided an injury prevention warm-up of evidence-based exercises, which focused on functional range of motion and dynamic core stability. The routine was performed before unit physical training twice a week. The number of injuries did not significantly decrease after the injury prevention warm-up compared to 12 months before the intervention. However, the amount of time a subject was "grounded," duty not involving flying, because of a musculoskeletal injury decreased significantly from 146 days per month to 73 days per month (p = 0.02). A quick, generic warm-up of evidence-based exercises may decrease the number of limited duty days in a flying population. PMID:27168558

  17. Incidence of Self-Reported Interpersonal Violence Related Physical Injury in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Payman; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Rad Goodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Saadat, Soheil; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence is the cause of death for 1.5 million people in a year. Objectives: Our study aimed to estimate the incidence rate of self-reported interpersonal violence related physical injury (VRPI) and its associated factors in Iran. Patients and Methods: The sample included people ranged from 15 to 64 years old who were residing in Iran. A total of 1525 clusters were selected from the whole country. Six families were selected from each cluster via a systematic random sampling method. Then, the residential units were identified and the interviewers contacted the inhabitants. In the next step, one of the family members was selected by using Kish grid method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire and consisted of two sections; demographics and project related data. Face validity and content validity of our questionnaire were investigated based on expert opinions and the reliability was confirmed by a pilot study, as well. The inclusion criteria were considered for choosing the interviewers. An interviewer was assigned for each 42 participants (7 clusters). An educational seminar was held for the administrative managers (54 persons) and interviewers (230 persons) for a week. The field work was distributed among all 46 Medical Sciences universities in Iran. In each university, administrative issues were related to an executive director. Mann-Whitney U test and odds ratio were used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval. α value was considered less than 5%. Results: The frequency of VRPI among 7886 participants was 24 during the last three months. The incidence rate of interpersonal VRPI was estimated at 3.04 per 1000 population (95% CI: 2.66-3.42) during a three-month interval in Iran. The incidence was 4.72 per 1000 population (95% CI: 4.01-5.43) for males and 1.78 per 1000 population (95% CI: 1.39-2.17) for females during a three-month interval. The mean (SD) of age of the participants with and without a history of VRPI were 26.5 (7

  18. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population. PMID:26741478

  19. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Horn, Susan D.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Timpson, Misti L.; Carroll, Deborah M.; Smout, Randy J.; Hammond, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe use of Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT) and Speech Therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Design Multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Setting 9 U.S. and 1 Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. Participants 2130 patients admitted for initial acute rehabilitation following TBI. Patients were categorized based on admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogenous groups. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in the activities, per 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Results Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. While advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. Conclusions The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous PBE studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. PMID:26212399

  20. DNA injury is acutely enhanced in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Tarperi, Cantor; Montagnana, Martina; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Benati, Marco; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Bonaguri, Chiara; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Schena, Federico

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise. Fifteen adult and trained athletes performed four sequential trials with increasing running distance (5-, 10-, 21- and 42-km) in different periods of the year. The γ-H2AX foci parameters were analyzed before and 3h after the end of each trial. The values of all γ-H2AX foci parameters were enhanced after the end of each trial, with values gradually increasing from the 5- to the 42-km trial. Interestingly, a minor increase of γ-H2AX foci was still evident after 5- to 10-km running, but a much higher increase occurred when the running distance exceeded 21km. The generation of DNA injury was then magnified by running up to 42-km. The increase of each γ-H2AX foci parameter was then found to be associated with both running distance and average intensity. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the running distance was significantly associated with average intensity and post-run variation in the percentage of cells with γ-H2AX foci. We can hence conclude that aerobic exercise may generate an acute DNA damage in trained athletes, which is highly dependent upon running distance and average intensity. PMID:27374303

  1. Physical activity benefits bone density and bone-related hormones in adult men with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chain, Amina; Koury, Josely C; Bezerra, Flávia Fioruci

    2012-09-01

    Severe bone loss is a recognized complication of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Physical exercise contributes to bone health; however, its influence on bone mass of cervical SCI individuals has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on bone mass, bone metabolism, and vitamin D status in quadriplegics. Total, lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur and radius bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed in active (n = 15) and sedentary (n = 10) quadriplegic men by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, IGF1, osteocalcin and NTx were measured in serum. After adjustments for duration of injury, total body mass, and habitual calcium intake, bone indices were similar between groups, except for L1-L4 BMD Z score that was higher in the sedentary group (P < 0.05). Hours of physical exercise per week correlated positively with 25(OH)D (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) and negatively with PTH (r = -0.50; P < 0.05). Femur BMD was negatively associated with the number of months elapsed between the injury and the onset of physical activity (r = -0.60; P < 0.05). Moreover, in the active subjects, both L1-L4 BMD Z score (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and radius BMD (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) were positively associated with calcium intake. In this cross-sectional study, both the onset of physical activity after injury and the number of hours dedicated to exercise were able to influence bone density and bone-related hormones in quadriplegic men. Our results also suggest a positive combined effect of exercise and calcium intake on bone health of quadriplegic individuals.

  2. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C.

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  3. Operational Physical Performance and Fitness in Military Women: Physiological, Musculoskeletal Injury, and Optimized Physical Training Considerations for Successfully Integrating Women Into Combat-Centric Military Occupations.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H; Van Arsdale, Stephanie J; Kelly, Karen; Kraemer, William J

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations from a 2014 United States Department of Defense (DoD) Health Affairs Women in Combat symposium addressing physiological, musculoskeletal injury, and optimized physical training considerations from the operational physical performance section. The symposium was held to provide a state-of-the-science meeting on the U.S. DoD's rescinding of the ground combat exclusion policy opening up combat-centric occupations to women. Physiological, metabolic, body composition, bone density, cardiorespiratory fitness, and thermoregulation differences between men and women were briefly reviewed. Injury epidemiological data are presented within military training and operational environments demonstrating women to be at a higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries than men. Physical training considerations for improved muscle strength and power, occupational task performance, load carriage were also reviewed. Particular focus of this article was given to translating physiological and epidemiological findings from the literature on these topics toward actionable guidance and policy recommendations for military leaders responsible for military physical training doctrine: (1) inclusion of resistance training with special emphasis on strength and power development (i.e., activation of high-threshold motor units and recruitment of type II high-force muscle fibers), upper-body strength development, and heavy load carriage, (2) moving away from "field expediency" as the major criteria for determining military physical training policy and training implementation, (3) improvement of load carriage ability with emphasis placed on specific load carriage task performance, combined with both resistance and endurance training, and (4) providing greater equipment resources, coaching assets, and increased training time dedicated to physical readiness training. PMID:26741902

  4. Operational Physical Performance and Fitness in Military Women: Physiological, Musculoskeletal Injury, and Optimized Physical Training Considerations for Successfully Integrating Women Into Combat-Centric Military Occupations.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H; Van Arsdale, Stephanie J; Kelly, Karen; Kraemer, William J

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations from a 2014 United States Department of Defense (DoD) Health Affairs Women in Combat symposium addressing physiological, musculoskeletal injury, and optimized physical training considerations from the operational physical performance section. The symposium was held to provide a state-of-the-science meeting on the U.S. DoD's rescinding of the ground combat exclusion policy opening up combat-centric occupations to women. Physiological, metabolic, body composition, bone density, cardiorespiratory fitness, and thermoregulation differences between men and women were briefly reviewed. Injury epidemiological data are presented within military training and operational environments demonstrating women to be at a higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries than men. Physical training considerations for improved muscle strength and power, occupational task performance, load carriage were also reviewed. Particular focus of this article was given to translating physiological and epidemiological findings from the literature on these topics toward actionable guidance and policy recommendations for military leaders responsible for military physical training doctrine: (1) inclusion of resistance training with special emphasis on strength and power development (i.e., activation of high-threshold motor units and recruitment of type II high-force muscle fibers), upper-body strength development, and heavy load carriage, (2) moving away from "field expediency" as the major criteria for determining military physical training policy and training implementation, (3) improvement of load carriage ability with emphasis placed on specific load carriage task performance, combined with both resistance and endurance training, and (4) providing greater equipment resources, coaching assets, and increased training time dedicated to physical readiness training.

  5. When physics meets biology: low and high-velocity penetration, blunt impact, and blast injuries to the brain.

    PubMed

    Young, Leanne; Rule, Gregory T; Bocchieri, Robert T; Walilko, Timothy J; Burns, Jennie M; Ling, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems. PMID:25999910

  6. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High-Velocity Penetration, Blunt Impact, and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Young, Leanne; Rule, Gregory T.; Bocchieri, Robert T.; Walilko, Timothy J.; Burns, Jennie M.; Ling, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems. PMID:25999910

  7. When physics meets biology: low and high-velocity penetration, blunt impact, and blast injuries to the brain.

    PubMed

    Young, Leanne; Rule, Gregory T; Bocchieri, Robert T; Walilko, Timothy J; Burns, Jennie M; Ling, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems.

  8. Enhancing physical activity guidelines: a needs survey of adults with spinal cord injury and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Brianne L; Lemay, Valérie; Ainsworth, Victoria; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preferences of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and health care professionals (HCP) regarding the content and format of a SCI physical activity guide to support recently released SCI physical activity guidelines. Seventy-eight people with SCI and 80 HCP completed a survey questionnaire. Participants with SCI identified desired content items and their preferences for format. HCP rated the helpfulness of content items to prescribe physical activity. All content items were rated favorably by participants with SCI and useful by HCP. The risks and benefits of activity and inactivity, and strategies for becoming more active, were rated high by both samples. Photographs and separate information for those with paraplegia versus tetraplegia were strongly endorsed. These data were used to guide the development of an SCI physical activity guide to enhance the uptake of physical activity guidelines for people with SCI. The guide was publically released November 11, 2011.

  9. Relationships between Personality Disorders, Social Disturbances, and Physical Disability Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lezak, Muriel D.

    1987-01-01

    The post-injury psychosocial problems of 42 adult male head injury patients over a 3-year period were evaluated using the Portland Adaptability Inventory. In all time periods, the areas most impaired were social contact, work/school, and leisure as well as elevated frequencies of problems with anxiety, depression, and significant relationships.…

  10. The Use of Consumer Injury Registry Data to Evaluate Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; Wilson, Modena H.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptive case information evaluated by 68 medical personnel included a fall from a highchair as the explanation of an injury, with or without injury pattern data obtained for such falls from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Respondents given the CPSC data appropriately had less confidence in the explanation. (Author/JW)

  11. Stated preferences for the removal of physical pain resulting from permanently disabling occupational injuries. A contingent valuation study of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jiune-Jye; Liu, Jin-Tan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2005-05-01

    Within the process of calculating the true costs of illness, physical pain is a component of intangible, or human, costs. One method of estimating the monetary value of such costs is the 'contingent valuation method' (CVM), a stated preference method based upon the elicitation of levels of willingness to pay (WTP) facilitated through surveys. This study is amongst the first of its kind to apply CVM to the estimation of the cost of the removal of physical pain resulting from permanently disabling occupational injuries. We assume that a painkilling drug has been invented to mitigate physical pain with the advantages of validity and instantaneity, and without any side effects. The WTP of each of the respondents is determined by a two-step sequential-bidding process. The maximum WTP under log normal distribution was NT 1791 US dollars/day (65.1 US dollars), whilst under Weibull distribution it was NT 1913 US dollars/day (69.6 US dollars). Older respondents, those with higher household income, fall injuries, longer periods of hospitalization, or with a perceived demand for the painkilling drug in excess of one day, displayed a positive independent effect on the eliciting of their WTP. In addition, respondents with higher 'out-of-pocket' expenses, or where the interview took place 2 years or more after the injury occurred, responded with a lower WTP.

  12. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  13. Disability, Home Physical Environment and Non-Fatal Injuries among Young Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hui-yun; Yu, Chuan-hua; Du, Yu-kai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We compared the patterns of medically attended injuries between children with and without disabilities and explored the residential environment risks in five counties of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China by a 1∶1 matched case-control study based on the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – ICF. Methods 1201 children aged 1–14 with disabilities and 1201 their healthy counterparts matched as having the same gender, same age, and lived in the same neighborhood were recruited in our study. Characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months were compared between children with and without disabilities. The associations among disability status, home environment factors and injuries were examined in logistic regression analysis taking into account sociodemographic factors. Results Children with disabilities had a significantly higher prevalence of injury than children without disabilities (10.2% vs. 4.4%; P<.001). The two groups differed significantly in terms of number of injury episodes, injury place and activity at time of injury. Falls were the leading mechanism of injury regardless of disability status. Most of the injury events happened inside the home and leisure activities were the most reported activity when injured for both groups. The univariate OR for injury was 4.46 (2.57–7.74) for the disabled children compared with the non-disabled children. Disabled children whose family raised cat/dog(s) were 76% more likely to be injured during the last 12 months (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.02, 3.02),comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. And for children without disabilities, those whose family had cat/dog(s) were over 3 times more likely to having injuries comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. Conclusions Children with disabilities had a significantly increased risk for injury. Interventions to prevent residential injury are an

  14. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: stroke and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E Paul

    2011-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) has potential benefits after stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI), especially in improving efficiency and functional capacity in activities of daily living. Currently, many who could benefit from PA may be routinely excluded from participation because of myths related to functional capacity and the concern for harm. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature for reports of adverse events during exercise after stroke or SCI, and to provide recommendations regarding exercise participation in supervised and unsupervised environments. Studies were evaluated for quality, and the summary level and quality of evidence were evaluated using the AGREE rubric, modified to address the main outcome measure of adverse events. Levels of exercise stress were evaluated for aerobic activities, using an established rubric. Included in the current analysis were 32 studies for stroke and 4 for SCI. In aggregate, this yielded a total of 730 experimental participants with stroke and 143 with SCI. It should be noted that almost all studies were not designed to examine naturally occurring adverse events from PA. Significant contraindications to unsupervised exercise include manifestation of autonomic dysreflexia in SCI and cardiovascular comorbidity after stroke. There are clear benefits of exercise training on physiological outcomes in stroke and SCI, but the relation between outcomes and safety remains unclear. However, taken on balance, the risk-to-benefit ratio favors the recommendation of exercise. This recommendation is based on studies in which participants were almost universally screened for participation in supervised environments. Thus, the grading of evidence for finding adverse events to support this conclusion is inadequate.

  15. Precise survival time and physical activity after fatal left ventricle injury from sharp pointed weapon: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Kolopp, Martin; Coudane, Henry; Martrille, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Survival time and physical activity following fatal injury are especially important during investigation of homicide cases and the estimation of a victim's survival time and physical activity following a fatal injury from a sharp weapon is a commonly raised issue, particularly at trial. According to the literature, survival time and physical activity after cardiac damage are short-term estimates without high accuracy. We report the homicide case of a young man who died as a result of a left ventricle injury caused by a sharp pointed weapon. This case is based on evidence from a video surveillance camera that recorded the whole scene after the fatal injury: The victim showed an adapted physical activity for 38 s, although the left ventricle incision measured 2 cm. Despite several cases in the literature, it is not possible to correlate precisely the size of the wounds and the acting capability.

  16. Precise survival time and physical activity after fatal left ventricle injury from sharp pointed weapon: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Kolopp, Martin; Coudane, Henry; Martrille, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Survival time and physical activity following fatal injury are especially important during investigation of homicide cases and the estimation of a victim's survival time and physical activity following a fatal injury from a sharp weapon is a commonly raised issue, particularly at trial. According to the literature, survival time and physical activity after cardiac damage are short-term estimates without high accuracy. We report the homicide case of a young man who died as a result of a left ventricle injury caused by a sharp pointed weapon. This case is based on evidence from a video surveillance camera that recorded the whole scene after the fatal injury: The victim showed an adapted physical activity for 38 s, although the left ventricle incision measured 2 cm. Despite several cases in the literature, it is not possible to correlate precisely the size of the wounds and the acting capability. PMID:26914799

  17. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  18. Physical demands and injuries to the upper extremity associated with the space program.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Steven F; Williams, David; Jones, Jeffrey; Strauss, Samuel; Clark, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    Hand and upper-extremity overuse and repetitive injuries in astronauts have been and continue to be a common problem in the space program. The demands on upper-extremity use in the astronaut training program, the zero-gravity environment, the extreme temperature conditions of space, the effects of space travel on human physiology/anatomy, and the constraints and pressures of space suits and gloves all can negatively impact upper-extremity function in ways that can result in overuse/repetitive injuries. Future plans for space exploration include endeavors that will continue and even increase the demands on the hand and upper extremity.

  19. Self-efficacy, symptoms and physical activity in patients with an anterior cruciate ligament injury: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Thomeé, P; Währborg, P; Börjesson, M; Thomeé, R; Eriksson, B I; Karlsson, J

    2007-06-01

    Self-efficacy belief may be of major importance for the outcome of rehabilitation after sports-related injuries. A new instrument, the Knee Self-Efficacy Scale (K-SES), was used to evaluate the role of perceived self-efficacy in patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this prospective exploratory study was to describe the patients' perceived self-efficacy at various times post-injury and surgery, respectively, for responsiveness of the K-SES and to correlate the K-SES score with the patients' subjective symptoms. The purpose was also to describe the influence of gender, age and physical activity on the patients' perceived self-efficacy. Thirty recently injured patients with an ACL-deficient knee and 33 patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction reported their physical activity level and their perceived self-efficacy on four test occasions during a 1-year period. The patients' subjective knee symptoms were documented on two of the test occasions. A significant increase in the K-SES score was seen after injury as well as after surgery, during the course of rehabilitation. Pre-operatively, men's perceived self-efficacy was significantly (P=0.013) higher compared with women's self-efficacy. Patients with a high baseline (pre-injury) physical activity level (Tegner 7-10) perceived their self-efficacy as being significantly (P=0.005) higher pre-operatively compared with patients with a low baseline activity level (Tegner 3-6). "Younger" (age 17-29), recently injured patients, perceived their self-efficacy as being significantly (P=0.034) higher compared with "older" patients (age 30-54). At the 12-month test, 15 of 30 patients with an ACL-deficient knee and 15 of 33 patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction reported that they had returned or nearly returned to their baseline physical activity level. The subjective knee outcome score, as measured by the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly (P<0

  20. Preventing ACL Injuries in Females: What Physical Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Lisa; Carroll, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries happen at a frequent rate, especially in girls and women. While there are many factors that contribute to ACL tears, teaching proper landing techniques and strengthening certain muscles can decrease the incidence of ACL tears, especially in women. This article reviews some of the high-risk factors that…

  1. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  2. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Physical Exercise on Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Freire Royes, Luiz Fernando; Cassol, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disease frequently followed by significant behavioral disabilities and long-term medical complications that include a wide range of behavioral and emotional problems. TBI is characterized by a combination of immediate mechanical dysfunction of brain tissue and secondary damage developed over a longer period of time following the injury. The early inflammatory response after tissue injury can be triggered by several factors such as extravasated blood products and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is important to note that energy generation and mitochondrial function are closely related to and interconnected with delayed secondary manifestations of brain injury, including early neuromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Given the extent of post-traumatic changes in neuronal function and the possibility of amplifying secondary cascades, different therapies designed to minimize damage and retain/restore cellular function after TBI are currently being studied. In this context, the present review covers the preclinical and clinical literature investigating the role of inflammation and free radicals in secondary damage generated by several models of TBI. Furthermore, the present review aims to discuss the role of creatine, a guanidine compound popularly used as a performance-enhancing supplement for high-intensity athletic performance, in secondary damage induced by TBI. In this narrative review, we also discuss the beneficial effect of exercise performed in animal models of TBI and how the results from animal studies can be applied to clinical settings.

  3. Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.

    2013-01-01

    Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer’s disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

  4. Sensitivity of physical examination versus arthroscopy in diagnosing subscapularis tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Faruqui, Sami; Wijdicks, Coen; Foad, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of physical examination in the detection of subscapularis tendon tears and compare it with the gold standard of arthroscopy to determine whether clinical examination can reliably predict the presence of subscapularis tendon tears. This was a retrospective analysis of 52 patients (52 shoulders) who underwent arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repairs between September 2008 and April 2012. Positive findings on any combination of the belly press, lift-off, and bear hug tests constituted a positive physical examination result. There was a positive finding on physical examination in 42 of 52 patients. The sensitivity of the physical examination as a whole was 81%. The literature has shown that the belly press, bear hug, and lift-off tests are specific to the subscapularis tendon. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the sensitivity of these 3 separate clinical tests as a composite. Knowledge regarding the sensitivity of the subscapularis-specific physical examination as a composite can lead practitioners to implement all 3 components, even when 1 test has a negative finding, thus promoting a more thorough physical examination. Because unrepaired subscapularis tendon tears can result in poor outcomes in the repair of other rotator cuff tendons, a complete physical examination would be beneficial to patients with shoulder pathology. The authors conclude that physical examination, when performed consistently by an experienced practitioner, can reliably predict the presence of subscapularis tendon tears.

  5. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Corey C.; Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  6. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players.

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, K L; Handcock, P; Waller, A E; Chalmers, D J; Toomey, M J; Wilson, B D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before the competitive rugby season. A battery of six physical performance assessments was completed after the anthropometry. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in these variables between field positions and grades. RESULTS: Significant differences between forwards and backs on anthropometric and physical performance variables were apparent at all grades assessed. In terms of anthropometric characteristics, forwards of a given grade were generally taller, possessed greater body mass, and were more endomorphic and less ectomorphic than backs of the same grade. The backs tended to perform better on physical performance measures than forwards, being more aerobically fit, faster, more agile, and possessing a higher degree of muscular endurance. Differences in anthropometry and physical performance attributes were also apparent between players from the various grades. The players at higher levels were generally larger, and performed better on tests of physical performance than the players at lower levels. These differences were found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The greater body mass of the forwards allows them to obtain greater momentum than the backs when sprinting. The ability to obtain greater momentum is important in the body contact phases of the game. Forwards may compromise their aerobic fitness and speed to some extent in order to maintain a high body mass. The anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players appear to reflect the demands placed on them by the sport. PMID:8808542

  7. Pedagogies of Censorship, Injury, and Masochism: Teacher Responses to Homophobic Speech in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Heather

    2004-01-01

    I examine how physical education teachers respond to homophobic name-calling, as revealed in life history interviews with 'lesbian', 'gay', and 'heterosexual' teachers in Canada and the USA. Censoring homophobic name-calling in schools is discussed as an important, but insufficient, response. Several 'lesbian' and 'gay' teachers responded with…

  8. Social Cognitive and Planned Behavior Variables Associated with Stages of Change for Physical Activity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, John; Ditchman, Nicole; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Muller, Veronica; Chan, Fong; Kundu, Madan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To apply the constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the stages of change (SOC) for physical activities among individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Ex post facto design using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The participants were 144 individuals with SCI…

  9. Predictive Ability of Pender's Health Promotion Model for Physical Activity and Exercise in People with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, John P.; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) as a motivational model for exercise/physical activity self-management for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Quantitative descriptive research design using hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) was used. A total of 126 individuals with SCI were recruited…

  10. Outcomes of a skiing program on level and stability of self-esteem and physical self in adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Barbin, Jean-Marc; Ninot, Grégory

    2008-03-01

    This study explored the intraindividual level and variability of global self-esteem and physical self-worth in adults with spinal cord injury over three consecutive periods, 4 weeks at home, 1 week in an adapted skiing program, and 4 weeks at home. Ten participants responded twice a day over a period of 9 weeks with the Physical Self Inventory, a six-item questionnaire with a visual analogue scale. The results showed that the program significantly increased the level of global self-esteem, physical self-worth, and three subdomains. The variability of the physical condition, sport competence, and physical strength subdomains was diminished after the program. The changes are discussed in terms of impact of a specific adapted physical activities program on physical self conceived as a complex system.

  11. The risk of PTSD and depression after an airplane crash and its potential association with physical injury: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gouweloos, Juul; Postma, Ingri L E; te Brake, Hans; Sijbrandij, Marit; Kleber, Rolf J; Goslings, J Carel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by trauma characteristics. Identifying these trauma characteristics is crucial for early detection and treatment. Of the 121 adult survivors, 82 participated in this study 2 months after the crash and 76 participated 9 months after the crash. Risk for PTSD and depression was measured with the self-report instruments Trauma Screening Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Trauma characteristics assessed were Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospitalisation, length of hospital stay, and seating position in the plane. Two months after the crash, 32 participants (of N=70, 46%) were at risk for PTSD and 28 (of N=80, 32%) were at risk for depression. Nine months after the crash, 35 participants (of N=75, 47%) were at risk for PTSD and 24 (of N=76, 35%) were at risk for depression. There was a moderate correlation between length of hospital stay and symptoms of PTSD and depression 9 months after the crash (r=.33 and r=.45, respectively). There were no differences in seating position between participants at high risk vs. participants at low risk for PTSD or depression. Mixed design ANOVAs showed also no association between the course of symptoms of PTSD and depression 2 and 9 months after the crash and ISS or hospitalisation. This suggests that health care providers need to be aware that survivors may be at risk for PTSD or depression, regardless of the objective severity of their physical injuries.

  12. The risk of PTSD and depression after an airplane crash and its potential association with physical injury: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gouweloos, Juul; Postma, Ingri L E; te Brake, Hans; Sijbrandij, Marit; Kleber, Rolf J; Goslings, J Carel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by trauma characteristics. Identifying these trauma characteristics is crucial for early detection and treatment. Of the 121 adult survivors, 82 participated in this study 2 months after the crash and 76 participated 9 months after the crash. Risk for PTSD and depression was measured with the self-report instruments Trauma Screening Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Trauma characteristics assessed were Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospitalisation, length of hospital stay, and seating position in the plane. Two months after the crash, 32 participants (of N=70, 46%) were at risk for PTSD and 28 (of N=80, 32%) were at risk for depression. Nine months after the crash, 35 participants (of N=75, 47%) were at risk for PTSD and 24 (of N=76, 35%) were at risk for depression. There was a moderate correlation between length of hospital stay and symptoms of PTSD and depression 9 months after the crash (r=.33 and r=.45, respectively). There were no differences in seating position between participants at high risk vs. participants at low risk for PTSD or depression. Mixed design ANOVAs showed also no association between the course of symptoms of PTSD and depression 2 and 9 months after the crash and ISS or hospitalisation. This suggests that health care providers need to be aware that survivors may be at risk for PTSD or depression, regardless of the objective severity of their physical injuries. PMID:26210753

  13. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Analgesia during Physical Therapy for Pediatric Burn Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Yuko S.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Blough, David K.; Patterson, David R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Soltani, Maryam; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Nakamura, Dana; Sharar, Sam R.

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, within-subjects (crossover design) study examined the effects of immersive virtual reality as an adjunctive analgesic technique for hospitalized pediatric burn inpatients undergoing painful physical therapy. Fifty-four subjects (6–19 years old) performed range-of-motion exercises under a therapist’s direction for one to five days. During each session, subjects spent equivalent time in both the virtual reality and the control conditions (treatment order randomized and counterbalanced). Graphic rating scale scores assessing the sensory, affective, and cognitive components of pain were obtained for each treatment condition. Secondary outcomes assessed subjects’ perception of the virtual reality experience and maximum range-of-motion. Results showed that on study day one, subjects reported significant decreases (27–44%) in pain ratings during virtual reality. They also reported improved affect (“fun”) during virtual reality. The analgesia and affect improvements were maintained with repeated virtual reality use over multiple therapy sessions. Maximum range-of-motion was not different between treatment conditions, but was significantly greater after the second treatment condition (regardless of treatment order). These results suggest that immersive virtual reality is an effective nonpharmacologic, adjunctive pain reduction technique in the pediatric burn population undergoing painful rehabilitation therapy. The magnitude of the analgesic effect is clinically meaningful and is maintained with repeated use. PMID:20692769

  14. Wrestling injuries.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  15. Physical exam and occult post-traumatic vascular lesions: implications for the evaluation and management of arterial injuries in modern warfare in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Johnson, O N; Fox, C J; White, P; Adams, E; Cox, M; Rich, N; Gillespie, D L

    2007-10-01

    Based on complexity of extremity wounds sustained in recent combat, arteriography had been used routinely in evaluations for delayed or occult arterial injuries. This report aims to quantitatively analyze the sensitivity and specificity of physical exam (PE) in predicting the presence of these injuries. United States service members sustaining extremity trauma in the Global War on Terrorism were evacuated to our medical center and evaluated by a senior vascular surgeon. Those with an abnormal PE, at risk based on wounding patterns, or previously treated for vascular injury underwent arteriography. Data from each patient were prospectively entered into a Vascular Injury registry. Comprehensive information about the injuries, interventions, arteriogram results, and any periprocedural complications were analyzed. Twenty-five endovascular or open surgical interventions were performed in forty-six of 99 patients that had lesions on arteriography. Seventy-three patients had a normal PE, of which 36 had lesions that prompted 6 subsequent interventions. Twenty-two of 26 patients with an abnormal PE had lesions that prompted 19 interventions. For PE, sensitivity was 38%, specificity was 90%, and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 85% and 51%, respectively. In proximity injuries, PPV improved to 100%, but was only 15% sensitive with a NPV of 60%. In conclusion normal PE did not reliably predict post-traumatic arterial lesions in these military extremity injuries. These lesions are amenable to endovascular therapies, and should be considered in cases of complex trauma involving high amounts of energy, penetrating mechanisms, or wounding patterns in proximity to named vessels.

  16. Current NRC activities related to MQA

    SciTech Connect

    Trottier, C.A.; Nellis, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) interest in measurement quality assurance (MQA) goes back to before 1963, when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published a notice in the Federal Register concerning the need for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, and also provided a set of minimum performance criteria to be used by the laboratory in evaluating film dosimetry services used by licensees. The proposed laboratory was not established, but in 1967 the AEC contracted with Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate film dosimeter performance criteria and provide a basis for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory if the study showed that it was needed. Then, in 1973, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), concerned with the state of dosimetry processing and the lack of adequate standards, recommended that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) direct a performance testing program for personnel dosimetry processing services. Later, in 1976, NRC asked PNL to conduct a study to evaluate the four existing performance standards for personnel dosimetry processing. One result of this study was that the HPSSC standard, which later became ANSI N13.11, was recommended as the standard for use in a national dosimetry processing program. The rest is common knowledge. With the support of numerous other federal agencies and the CRCPD, NRC published a regulation, effective in 1988, that required all processors of personnel dosimeters be accredited under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), operated by the NBS, which is now called the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At present, there are 75 dosimetry processing laboratories accredited under NVLAP. NRC has also been involved in extremity dosimeters, health physics survey instruments, bioassay measurements, electronic personnel dosimeters, and environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants.

  17. Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of serious fall injuries in adults aged 70-89: randomized clinical trial (LIFE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Pahor, Marco; Guralnik, Jack M; McDermott, Mary M; King, Abby C; Buford, Thomas W; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Nelson, Miriam E; Sink, Kaycee M; Demons, Jamehl L; Kashaf, Susan S; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether a long term, structured physical activity program compared with a health education program reduces the risk of serious fall injuries among sedentary older people with functional limitations. Design Multicenter, single blinded randomized trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study). Setting Eight centers across the United States, February 2010 to December 2011. Participants 1635 sedentary adults aged 70-89 years with functional limitations, defined as a short physical performance battery score ≤9, but who were able to walk 400 m. Interventions A permuted block algorithm stratified by field center and sex was used to allocate interventions. Participants were randomized to a structured, moderate intensity physical activity program (n=818) conducted in a center (twice a week) and at home (3-4 times a week) that included aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance training activities, or to a health education program (n=817) consisting of workshops on topics relevant to older people and upper extremity stretching exercises. Main outcome measures Serious fall injuries, defined as a fall that resulted in a clinical, non-vertebral fracture or that led to a hospital admission for another serious injury, was a prespecified secondary outcome in the LIFE Study. Outcomes were assessed every six months for up to 42 months by staff masked to intervention assignment. All participants were included in the analysis. Results Over a median follow-up of 2.6 years, a serious fall injury was experienced by 75 (9.2%) participants in the physical activity group and 84 (10.3%) in the health education group (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.23; P=0.52). These results were consistent across several subgroups, including sex. However, in analyses that were not prespecified, sex specific differences were observed for rates of all serious fall injuries (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.95 in men

  18. Facial injuries in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Guyette, R F

    1993-04-01

    As the popularity of basketball increases and the style of the game becomes more physical, there is an increasing number of basketball-related injuries. Although most facial injuries sustained while playing basketball are relatively minor, severe and permanent injuries do occur. This article reviews the most common facial injuries incurred by basketball players with emphasis on diagnosis, early treatment, and prevention.

  19. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  20. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  1. The barriers, benefits and facilitators of leisure time physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a meta-synthesis of qualitative findings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Toni Louise; Smith, Brett; Papathomas, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) can have a positive impact upon health and well-being for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite these benefits, people with SCI are within the most physically inactive segment of society that comprises disabled people. This original meta-synthesis of qualitative research was undertaken to explore the barriers, benefits and facilitators of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among people with SCI. Articles published since 2000 were identified through a rigorous search of electronic databases, supported with a hand search of relevant journals and papers. In total, 64 papers were read in full, and based on inclusion criteria, 18 were relevant for review. The key themes constructed from the data were summarised, compared and synthesised. Eight interrelated concepts were identified as barriers, benefits and/or facilitators of LTPA: (i) well-being (WB); (ii) environment; (iii) physical body; (iv) body-self relationship; (v) physically active identity; (vi) knowledge; (vii) restitution narrative; (viii) perceived absences. Based on the synthesised evidence, healthcare professionals need to appreciate the relationships between the barriers, benefits and facilitators of LTPA in order to successfully promote a physically active lifestyle. Equally, a more critical attitude to PA promotion is called for in terms of possible adverse consequences.

  2. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. PMID:26606864

  3. Effects of voluntary physical exercise, citicoline, and combined treatment on object recognition memory, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jacotte-Simancas, Alejandra; Costa-Miserachs, David; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Borlongan, Cesar V; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2015-05-15

    The biochemical and cellular events that lead to secondary neural damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to long-term disabilities, including memory deficits. There is a need to search for single and/or combined treatments aimed at reducing these TBI-related disfunctions. The effects of citicoline and of voluntary physical exercise in a running wheel (3 weeks), alone or in combination, on TBI-related short-term (3 h) and long-term (24 h) object recognition memory (ORM) deficits and on neurogenesis and neuroprotection were examined using a rodent model of TBI (controlled cortical impact injury). Citicoline improved memory deficits at the two times tested, while physical exercise only in the long-term test. Physical exercise had a clear neuroprotective effect as indicated by reduced interhemispheric differences in hippocampal formation and lateral ventricle volumes and in density of mature neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and the perirhinal cortex. Physical exercise also increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Some degree of neuroprotection of citicoline was suggested by reduced interhemispheric differences in the volume of the hippocampal formation. Contrary to what was expected, the effects of citicoline and physical exercise did not sum up. Further, a negative interference between both treatments was found in several behavioral and histological variables. The promising profiles of both treatments as therapeutic tools in TBI when applied singly underscore the need to perform further works looking for other combined treatment regimens that increase the benefit of each treatment alone.

  4. School Reentry for the Elementary School Child with an Altered Physical Appearance as a Result of Injury or Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a model that school social workers can use to prepare elementary school children for the return of classmates whose appearances have been significantly altered as a result of illness or injury (e.g., loss of limbs, severe scarring), for whom return to school is often difficult. School social workers can be instrumental in…

  5. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  6. 2015 JOSPT Awards: Back Pain and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Are a Continued Focus of Research and Clinical Attention in Physical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    During the American Physical Therapy Association's Combined Sections Meeting in Anaheim, California in February 2016, JOSPT recognized the authors of the most outstanding research and clinical practice manuscripts published in JOSPT during the 2015 calendar year. The 2015 JOSPT Excellence in Research Award was presented to Björn Aasa, Lars Berglund, Peter Michaelson, and Ulrika Aasa for their paper titled "Individualized Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and Education Versus a High-Load Lifting Exercise and Education to Improve Activity, Pain Intensity, and Physical Performance in Patients With Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial." The 2015 George J. Davies-James A. Gould Excellence in Clinical Inquiry Award was presented to Anne Benjaminse, Alli Gokeler, Bert Otten, Ariel V. Dowling, Avery Faigenbaum, Kevin R. Ford, Timothy E. Hewett, James A. Onate, and Gregory D. Myer for their work titled "Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm: Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk." PMID:27032528

  7. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice. PMID:27656663

  8. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  9. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  10. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; community composition; ecological processes and functions; physical and chemical habitat quality or... assessment. When selecting potential injuries to assess, trustees should consider factors such as: (1)...

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  12. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  13. Acute effects of muscle stretching on physical performance, range of motion, and injury incidence in healthy active individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Blazevich, Anthony J; Kay, Anthony D; McHugh, Malachy

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been a shift from static stretching (SS) or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching within a warm-up to a greater emphasis on dynamic stretching (DS). The objective of this review was to compare the effects of SS, DS, and PNF on performance, range of motion (ROM), and injury prevention. The data indicated that SS- (-3.7%), DS- (+1.3%), and PNF- (-4.4%) induced performance changes were small to moderate with testing performed immediately after stretching, possibly because of reduced muscle activation after SS and PNF. A dose-response relationship illustrated greater performance deficits with ≥60 s (-4.6%) than with <60 s (-1.1%) SS per muscle group. Conversely, SS demonstrated a moderate (2.2%) performance benefit at longer muscle lengths. Testing was performed on average 3-5 min after stretching, and most studies did not include poststretching dynamic activities; when these activities were included, no clear performance effect was observed. DS produced small-to-moderate performance improvements when completed within minutes of physical activity. SS and PNF stretching had no clear effect on all-cause or overuse injuries; no data are available for DS. All forms of training induced ROM improvements, typically lasting <30 min. Changes may result from acute reductions in muscle and tendon stiffness or from neural adaptations causing an improved stretch tolerance. Considering the small-to-moderate changes immediately after stretching and the study limitations, stretching within a warm-up that includes additional poststretching dynamic activity is recommended for reducing muscle injuries and increasing joint ROM with inconsequential effects on subsequent athletic performance. PMID:26642915

  14. Acute effects of muscle stretching on physical performance, range of motion, and injury incidence in healthy active individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Blazevich, Anthony J; Kay, Anthony D; McHugh, Malachy

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been a shift from static stretching (SS) or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching within a warm-up to a greater emphasis on dynamic stretching (DS). The objective of this review was to compare the effects of SS, DS, and PNF on performance, range of motion (ROM), and injury prevention. The data indicated that SS- (-3.7%), DS- (+1.3%), and PNF- (-4.4%) induced performance changes were small to moderate with testing performed immediately after stretching, possibly because of reduced muscle activation after SS and PNF. A dose-response relationship illustrated greater performance deficits with ≥60 s (-4.6%) than with <60 s (-1.1%) SS per muscle group. Conversely, SS demonstrated a moderate (2.2%) performance benefit at longer muscle lengths. Testing was performed on average 3-5 min after stretching, and most studies did not include poststretching dynamic activities; when these activities were included, no clear performance effect was observed. DS produced small-to-moderate performance improvements when completed within minutes of physical activity. SS and PNF stretching had no clear effect on all-cause or overuse injuries; no data are available for DS. All forms of training induced ROM improvements, typically lasting <30 min. Changes may result from acute reductions in muscle and tendon stiffness or from neural adaptations causing an improved stretch tolerance. Considering the small-to-moderate changes immediately after stretching and the study limitations, stretching within a warm-up that includes additional poststretching dynamic activity is recommended for reducing muscle injuries and increasing joint ROM with inconsequential effects on subsequent athletic performance.

  15. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required. PMID:25506583

  16. Acute genital injury in the prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, S F; Pokorny, W J; Kramer, W

    1992-05-01

    In an effort to develop guidelines for the management of acute genital injuries in prepubertal girls, we categorized 32 cases by the object that allegedly caused the injury: straddle injuries, nonpenetrating injuries, penetrating injuries, and torque injuries. Using these categories and the anatomic features of symmetry and/or hymenal transection, we determined that the most dangerous injuries were the penetrating injuries that were symmetric and transected the hymen; in this series these were all the result of sexual assault. Future studies are needed to determine if these unique injuries can be managed with less physical and psychosocial trauma to the young patient. PMID:1595800

  17. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  18. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  19. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  20. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  1. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period.

  2. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  3. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  4. The University of Queensland study of physical and psychological outcomes for claimants with minor and moderate injuries following a road traffic crash (UQ SuPPORT): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Kenardy, Justin; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Bellamy, Nicholas; Sterling, Michele; Connelly, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Background To date research investigating how mental health impacts physical recovery following a road traffic crash (RTC) has focused on cohorts with severe injuries. The UQ SuPPORT study aims to study the physical and psychological outcomes of claimants with minor injuries following an RTC under the Queensland common law compulsory insurance scheme. Objectives This paper outlines the protocols of this study as a platform for future publications. Methods The 2-year longitudinal cohort study collected interview and survey data from claimants at 6, 12, and 24 months post-RTC. Measures used in the telephone interview included the DSM-IV Composite International Diagnostic Interview for posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, panic attacks, agoraphobia; and self-reported disability (WHO-DAS-II). Quality of life (SF-36v2), alcohol use (AUDIT), social support (MSPSS), quality-adjusted life years (EQ-5D), and return to work outcomes were assessed via postal questionnaires. Results A total of 382 claimants consented to participate at the beginning of the study, and these participants were approached at each wave. Retention was high (65%). The average age of participants at Wave 1 was 48.6 years, with 65% of the sample sustaining minor injuries (Injury Severity Score=1–3). Conclusions This study has collected a unique sample of data to investigate recovery patterns of claimants with minor injuries. Future publications will more fully assess the effects of the collected measures on recovery rates 2 years post-RTC. PMID:24799996

  5. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  6. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  7. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  8. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  9. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  10. 76 FR 7217 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss...

  11. Hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.

  12. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  13. [Epidemiology of basketball injuries].

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Baharav, U; Modan, M

    1990-09-01

    The players of an elite basketball team were followed during the course of a season which included 71 games and 250 training sessions. All injuries were noted and were correlated with age, height and other physical parameters of the players, as well as with degree of fatigue during games and during training sessions. The lower extremity was the most common site of injury. Ligamentous injuries of the knee are more common in basketball than in soccer players, but they have fewer meniscal injuries than the latter. However, the upper extremity, especially the hand, is more frequently injured in basketball than in other sports. The age, height and personality of the player affect the injury pattern.

  14. [Analysis of the effect of physical group activities in patients with acquired brain injury in the subacute phase].

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Juan José; Mediavilla-Saldaña, Lázaro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Pérez-Rodríguez; Pérez-Tejero, Javier; González-Alted, Carlos

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. El daño cerebral adquirido (DCA) hace referencia a cualquier tipo de lesion no degenerativa que se produce en el cerebro. Las actividades fisicas grupales (AFG) se presentan como un tratamiento efectivo para la mejora de la capacidad funcional. Objetivo. Analizar la eficacia de un programa de AFG en personas con DCA en fase subaguda para su integracion fisica en la comunidad. Pacientes y metodos. Treinta y tres pacientes con DCA, con una edad de 33,18 ± 10,39 años, participaron en un programa de AFG (talleres de circuito, equilibrio simple, equilibrio dual, desplazamiento dual y actividades fisico-deportivas) de 10 semanas. Al comenzar y concluir el programa se evaluaron las variables de velocidad (prueba de velocidad de la marcha en 10 metros), resistencia (prueba de marcha de seis minutos), equilibrio dinamico (Step Test), capacidad funcional (Timed Up and Go), escala de percepcion de seguridad (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale) y Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS), el promedio por hora de la intensidad de la actividad y el numero de pasos fuera del centro de rehabilitacion (usando monitores de actividad fisica). La prueba t para muestras relacionadas se utilizo para evaluar las diferencias en las variables. Resultados. Se hallaron diferencias significativas (p <= 0,05) en las variables de velocidad, resistencia, equilibrio, capacidad funcional, percepcion de seguridad, percepcion de realizacion de actividad general (pregunta 3 del PADS) y numero de pasos. Conclusion. Los programas de AFG mejoran las capacidades fisicas, percepcion de seguridad, realizacion de actividad en general y numero de pasos, lo que puede conllevar una mayor participacion en la comunidad.

  15. A needle in a haystack: the use of routinely collected emergency department injury surveillance data to help identify physical child abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Walker, Sue; Fraser, Jennifer A; Valmuur, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective, descriptive analysis of a sample of children under 18 years presenting to a hospital emergency department (ED) for treatment of an injury was conducted. The aim was to explore characteristics and identify differences between children assigned abuse codes and children assigned unintentional injury codes using an injury surveillance database. Only 0.1% of children had been assigned the abuse code and 3.9% a code indicating possible abuse. Children between 2 and 5 years formed the largest proportion of those coded to abuse. Superficial injury and bruising were the most common types of injury seen in children in the abuse group and the possible abuse group (26.9% and 18.8%, respectively), whereas those with unintentional injury were most likely to present with open wounds (18.4%). This study demonstrates that routinely collected injury surveillance data can be a useful source of information for describing injury characteristics in children assigned abuse codes compared to those assigned no abuse codes. PMID:23768210

  16. Basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joel S; Newberg, Arthur H

    2010-11-01

    Basketball injuries are most prevalent in the lower extremity, especially at the ankle and knee. Most basketball injuries are orthopedic in nature and commonly include ligament sprains, musculotendinous strains, and overuse injuries including stress fractures. By virtue of its excellent contrast resolution and depiction of the soft tissues and trabecular bone, magnetic resonance imaging has become the principal modality for evaluating many basketball injuries. In this article, commonly encountered basketball injuries and their imaging appearances are described. The epidemiology of basketball injuries across various age groups and levels of competition and between genders are reviewed.

  17. Kolaviron, a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex, protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury: pertinent mechanistic insights from biochemical and physical evaluations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Akinrinola, Bolanle L; Olaleye, M Tolulope; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-04-01

    The pathophysiology of stroke is characterized by biochemical and physical alterations in the brain. Modulation of such aberrations by therapeutic agents affords insights into their mechanism of action. Incontrovertible evidences that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurologic disorders have brought antioxidative compounds, especially plant phytochemicals, under increasing focus as potential remedies for the prevention and management of neurodegenerative diseases. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was evaluated for neuroprotectivity in brains of male Wistar rats submitted to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Animals were divided into six groups: sham treated, vehicle (I/R), 50 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 100 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 200 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R and quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p.) + I/R. The common carotid arteries were occluded for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Relative brain weight and brain water content were determined and oxidative stress and neurochemical markers were also evaluated. I/R caused significant decreases in glutathione level and the activities of enzymic antioxidants, the sodium pump and acetylcholinesterase while significant increases were recorded in relative brain weight, brain water content, lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutamine synthetase and myeloperoxidase. There was a remarkable ablation of I/R induced oxidative stress, neurochemical aberrations and brain edema in animals pretreated with kolaviron. The results suggested that the protection afforded by kolaviron probably involved regulation of redox and electrolyte homeostasis as well as anti-inflammatory and antiexcitotoxic mechanisms. PMID:25638229

  18. Skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Cass, D T; Ross, F

    1990-08-01

    The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum.

  19. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  20. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  1. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. Alternative Names Spinal cord injury; SCI Images Skeletal spine Vertebra, cervical (neck) Vertebra, lumbar (low back) Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Vertebral column Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  2. School Environment and School Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Simo; Kurenniemi, Marja; Råback, Mirka; Markkula, Jaana; Lounamaa, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7%) of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to, or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusion: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard. PMID:24455667

  3. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  4. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Paula Simões; Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Ribas, Luiz Henrique Boraschi Vieira; de Almeida, Alexandre Simmonds; Naves, Vinicius; Duarte Júnior, Aires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury), which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10). According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury.

  5. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  6. Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Rehabilitation; Physical rehab; Physiatry ... or developmental disorders Speech disorders and language problems Physical medicine and rehabilitation services also include sports medicine and injury prevention. WHERE REHABILITATION IS DONE People can have ...

  7. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  8. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  9. Activity-Related Outcomes of Articular Cartilage Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter N.; Vigneswaran, Hari; Harris, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to compare activity-based outcomes after microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and osteochondral autograft (OAT). Design: Multiple databases were searched with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria for level III and higher studies with activity outcomes after microfracture, OAT, osteochondral allograft, and ACI. Activity-based outcomes included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Tegner Score, the Cincinnati Knee scores, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee score, the Marx activity score, and/or the rate of return-to-sport. Results: Twenty studies were included (1,375 patients). Although results were heterogeneous, significant advantages were seen for ACI and OAT as compared with microfracture in Tegner scores at 1 year (ACI vs. microfracture, P = 0.0016), IKDC scores at 2 years (ACI vs microfracture, P = 0.046), Lysholm scores at 1 year (OAT vs microfracture, P = 0.032), and Marx scores at 2 years (OAT vs microfracture, P < 0.001). The only score or time point to favor microfracture was Lysholm score at 1 year (ACI vs microfracture, P = 0.037). No other standardized outcome measures or time points were significantly different. Several studies demonstrated significantly earlier return to competition with microfracture. Overall reoperation rates were similar, but of reoperations, a higher proportion of those following ACI were unplanned with the majority of performed for graft delamination or hypertrophy. Conclusions: ACI and OAT may have some benefits over microfracture, although return-to-sport is fastest following microfracture. Heterogeneity in technique, outcome measures, and patient populations hampers systematic comparison within the current literature. PMID:26069665

  10. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms.

  11. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  12. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  13. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  14. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  15. Diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Dickey, L S

    1984-01-01

    This is a collective review about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of SCUBA and diving injuries by the emergency physician. These injuries can be classified into those resulting from the toxic effects of the inhaled gas, from the pressure changes in the water and gas mixture while diving, and from decompression sickness. With the increasing popularity of SCUBA diving, it is hoped that this discussion will enable a recognition of these injuries and therefore minimize the morbidity and mortality from them.

  16. Neurologic injury in snowmobiling

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days

  17. Injury Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Injuries are now the cause of more deaths to children than the next six most frequent causes combined. Reviews the research evidence on the effectiveness of approaches to injury control such as legislation, health education, and behavioral strategies. Suggests avenues of further research. (Author/BJV)

  18. Child injury: Does home matter?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jodie M; Davey, Tamzyn M; Spinks, Anneliese B; McClure, Roderick J; Sipe, Neil; Cameron, Cate M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between home risk and hospital treated injury in Australian children up to five years old. Women with children between two and four years of age enrolled in the Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL): Griffith Birth Cohort Study were invited to complete a Home Injury Prevention Survey from March 2013 to June 2014. A total home risk score (HRS) was calculated and linked to the child's injury related state-wide hospital emergency and admissions data and EFHL baseline demographic surveys. Data from 562 households relating to 566 child participants were included. We found an inverse relationship between home risk and child injury, with children living in homes with the least injury risk (based on the absence of hazardous structural features of the home and safe practices reported) having 1.90 times the injury rate of children living in high risk homes (95% CI 1.15-3.14). Whilst this appears counter-intuitive, families in the lowest risk homes were more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged than families in the highest risk homes (more sole parents, lower maternal education levels, younger maternal age and lower income). After adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors, the relationship between home risk and injury was no longer significant (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that children in socio-economically deprived families have higher rates of injury, despite living in a physical environment that contains substantially fewer injury risks than their less deprived counterparts. Although measures to reduce child injury risk through the modification of the physical environment remain an important part of the injury prevention approach, our study findings support continued efforts to implement societal-wide, long term policy and practice changes to address the socioeconomic differentials in child health outcomes. PMID:26928586

  19. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  20. Overuse injuries in ultraendurance triathletes.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, M L; Hiller, W D; Smith, R A; Sisk, T D

    1989-01-01

    Overuse injuries represent the largest percentage of sports-related injuries requiring medical treatment. These injuries represent a substantial health issue for the millions of adults who have made physical activity an integral part of their lifestyle, but may be even more important to those pursuing ultraendurance exercise. The purposes of this study were to report the type and incidence of overuse injuries in ultraendurance triathletes and to relate training practices to injury occurrence. Data was gathered from the responses of 95 competitors (75 men, 20 women) in the 1986 Hawaii Ironman Triathlon who completed a training and medical history questionnaire. In this sample, virtually all (91%) sustained at least one soft tissue, overuse injury during the previous year's training. The area of the body most frequently involved was the back, but the most common pattern was to have multiple areas involved. Because of the consistent combinations of injuries, mechanical abnormalities, such as diminished shock absorption, may have contributed to injury. Training habits were extremely variable and not directly related to either the incidence or type of injury.

  1. Acute finger injuries: part II. Fractures, dislocations, and thumb injuries.

    PubMed

    Leggit, Jeffrey C; Meko, Christian J

    2006-03-01

    Family physicians can treat most finger fractures and dislocations, but when necessary, prompt referral to an orthopedic or hand surgeon is important to maximize future function. Examination includes radiography (oblique, anteroposterior, and true lateral views) and physical examination to detect fractures. Dislocation reduction is accomplished with careful traction. If successful, further treatment focuses on the concomitant soft tissue injury. Referral is needed for irreducible dislocations. Distal phalanx fractures are treated conservatively, and middle phalanx fractures can be treated if reduction is stable. Physicians usually can reduce metacarpal bone fractures, even if there is a large degree of angulation. An orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat finger injuries that are unstable or that have rotation. Collateral ligament injuries of the thumb should be examine with radiography before physical examination. Stable joint injuries can be treated with splinting or casting, although an orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat unstable joints.

  2. Badminton injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  3. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  4. If Not You, Who? Responding to Emergencies in Physical Education and Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Matthew A.; Brewer, Joan D.; Shane, Shawna D.

    2013-01-01

    Injuries can occur anywhere and anytime in physical education. Physical educators should do all they can to prevent injuries from occurring and must be prepared for such an occurrence. Many physical educators have limited knowledge about how to respond to injury and emergency situations. The purpose of this article is to provide information for…

  5. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  6. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart, to help decrease swelling. The Body’s Healing Process From the moment a bone breaks or a ... what happens at each stage of the healing process: At the moment of injury: Chemicals are released ...

  7. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  8. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  9. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  10. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  11. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  12. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  13. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  14. [Mechanisms and prevention of windsurfing injuries].

    PubMed

    Petersen, W; Rau, J; Hansen, U; Zantop, T; Stein, V

    2003-09-01

    Aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms of windsurfing injuries. For this purpose we performed a internet based survey among 327 windsurfers in Germany. Overall 630 accidents have been registered among all 327 athletes during the 2000 season. The majority of injuries were classified as minor injury. The most common injury was the bruise. 70 participants reported fractures, 26 participants ruptured a ligament. 280 injuries required medical treatment; in 67 cases even surgical treatment was necessary. The majority of accidents happened at wind power of 5-6 Beaufort after 2 hour exercise. A technical mistake was the most frequent cause for the accident. The most dangerous manoeuvres were difficult jumps (e. g. front loop, backward loop, 70 injuries). In 46 cases the weather conditions were underestimated. Only 10 windsurfers reported about broken material as cause for the injury. One half of the injuries happened in wave conditions. The analysis of injury mechanisms allows conclusions regarding injury prevention. A longer break after 60 minutes windsurfing might help to prevent injuries due to poor physical fitness. After one hour windsurfing without a break training of difficult manoeuvres should not be performed. The use of a helmet might prevent head injuries during training of difficult jumps. "Overpower situations" should be prevented by choosing the right board and sail size.

  15. Muscle Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments. PMID:24459552

  16. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    El-Gohary, Y; Roarty, A; O'Rourke, P

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  17. Hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guanche, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828

  18. Fingertip injuries

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Sanjay; Tiwari, VK

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fingertip injuries are extremely common. Out of the various available reconstructive options, one needs to select an option which achieves a painless fingertip with durable and sensate skin cover. The present analysis was conducted to evaluate the management and outcome of fingertip injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 150 cases of fingertip Injuries of patients aged six to 65 years managed over a period of two years. Various reconstructive options were considered for the fingertip lesions greater than or equal to 1 cm2. The total duration of treatment varied from two to six weeks with follow-up from two months to one year. Results: The results showed preservation of finger length and contour, retention of sensation and healing without significant complication. Conclusion: The treatment needs to be individualized and all possible techniques of reconstruction must be known to achieve optimal recovery. PMID:21139772

  19. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the severity of the injury. Tap this spinal column to see how the level of injury affects loss of function and control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the ...

  1. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters

  2. Football injuries of the ankle: A review of injury mechanisms, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature. PMID:26807351

  3. Football injuries of the ankle: A review of injury mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-18

    Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature. PMID:26807351

  4. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP. A pragmatic, randomised trial with a one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients. Methods The study was a pragmatic, single-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial. Patients with chronic/recurrent LBP were randomised to one of the following treatments: 1. Educational programme : the emphasis was on creating confidence that the back is strong, that loads normally do not cause any damage despite occasional temporary pain, that reducing the focus on the pain might facilitate more natural and less painful movements, and that it is beneficial to stay physically active. 2. Individual symptom-based physical training programme : directional-preference exercises for those centralising their pain with repetitive movements; 'stabilising exercises' for those deemed 'unstable' based on specific tests; or intensive dynamic exercises for the remaining patients. Follow-up questionnaires (examiner-blinded) were completed at 2, 6 and 12 months. The main statistical test was an ANCOVA adjusted for baseline values. Results A total of 207 patients participated with the median age of 39 years (IQR 33-47); 52% were female, 105 were randomised to the educational programme and 102 to the physical training programme. The two groups were comparable at baseline. For the primary outcome measures, there was a non-significant trend towards activity limitation being reduced mostly in the educational programme group, although of doubtful clinical relevance. Regarding secondary outcomes, improvement in fear-avoidance beliefs was

  5. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  6. Patient Injuries?

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    An injured patient may be the last thing dentists want to think about. However, in reality, patients can be injured during dental treatment or as the result of an incident such as a slip and fall in the office. Treatment-related injuries can run the gamut and include burns, lacerations, swallowed objects and allergic reactions, according to The Dentists Insurance Company.

  7. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  8. Activity-related sexual dimorphism in Alaskan foragers from Point Hope: Evidences from the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Gimeno, Pere; Galtés, Ignasi; Jordana, Xavier; Manyosa, Joan; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2015-01-01

    Ipiutak (100BCE-500CE) and Tigara (1200 - 1700CE) are two populations from Point Hope, Alaska. As commonly observed in forager communities, it may be expected males and females to have been involved in markedly different daily activities. Nevertheless, activity-related sexual dimorphism in these populations has been scarcely studied. Using humeral diaphyseal cross-sectional properties and forearm rotational efficiency, which are activity-dependent characteristics, we aim to assess differences between sexes and discuss what activities could have triggered them. Our results suggest that in Ipiutak males and females did not differ meaningfully in their cross-sectional properties. Conversely, in Tigara males had a greater rigidity of the entire humeral diaphysis than females, which suggests the existence of greater relative activity levels and more physically demanding tasks, possibly related to hunting activities. Concerning the differences between sexes in the forearm rotational efficiency, in Tigara females rotational efficiency in elbow flexion is maximal in a more supinated position than in males, which leads to an improvement of efficiency in those stages related to manipulation, and so improves the manipulative capacities of the upper limb. These differences in efficiency are caused by a more proximally oriented humeral medial epicondyle in females, which is thus confirmed to be a good feature to assess differences in labor. Therefore females in Tigara probably performed in a daily basis household activities, such as hide processing and other manipulative labors. In Ipiutak, the analysis of forearm rotational efficiency did not reveal differences between sexes. Overall, the results suggest that division of labor in Ipiutak was not as marked as in Tigara, where upper limb skeletal structure supports the idea that both sexes were involved in different daily activities. Nevertheless, the generalized lack of results in Ipiutak could be due to the small sample

  9. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  10. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

  11. High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1° and 2° grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Maria; Fachinetti, Giorgio Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: whiplash is a frequent post traumatic pathology caused by muscle, tendon and capsular elements over stretching. The authors conducted a short term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of a multi wave High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT) versus conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT) included in Italian tariff nomenclature performance physiotherapy Study Design: prospective randomised study (Level II). Material and methods: the authors identified 135 homogeneous patients with whiplash grade 1 – 2 of the Quebec Task Force classification (QTFC). INAIL, the Italian National Workers Insurance, based in Milan, was reliable source for identifying patients. All patients with whiplash injuries grade 1 or 2 QTFC, were eligible for the study, starting from April 28 2010 to September 30 2010. Patients referred to a Coordinator (C.M.) who applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Dates for initial treatment session were arranged, including cervical spine X-ray, and assessment. Each patient gave informed consent for participation and agreed to adopt only the study treatment for 6 weeks. Group A (84 patients) was treated with High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT), Group B (51 patients) received conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT). During the treatment period, no other electro-medical therapy, analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at the end of the treatment period (T1) using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), (T2) the date of return to work was registered afterwards. Results: there was a reduction in VAS pain scores at T1. Group A (VAS = 20) Group B (VAS = 34,8) (p =0.0048). Laser treatment allowed quick recovery and return to work (T2). Group A after 48 days against 66 days of Group B (p=0.0005). Conclusions: results suggest that High Power Laser

  12. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Army 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita T; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Nagai, Takashi; Keenan, Karen; Beals, Kim; Lephart, Scott M; Wirt, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries among Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division. A total of 451 subjects (age: 27.6 ± 6.2 years, gender: males 395/451 = 87.6%) volunteered. Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Injury frequency, injury anatomic location and sublocation, injury cause, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. Injury frequency was 29.5 injuries per 100 subjects per year. Most injures affected the lower extremity (60.2% of injuries) and common anatomic sublocations for injuries were the ankle (17.3%) and knee (15.0%). Frequent causes of injuries were running (13.5%) and direct trauma (9.0%). Physical training was associated with 29.3% of the injuries. A majority of injuries were classified as pain/spasm/ache (29.3%), without further elucidation of pathology. Other frequent injury types were sprain (21.8%) and strain (14.3%). The descriptive epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in this population underscores the need to explore the modifiable risk factors of potentially preventable lower extremity injuries associated with physical training and running. There is scope for the development of an optimized and targeted physical training program for injury prevention in this population.

  13. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Special Topic Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaland, Pamela K.; Cockrell, Janice L.

    This brief report summarizes what is known about pediatric traumatic brain injury, including the following: risk factors (e.g., males especially those ages 5 to 25, youth with preexisting problems including previous head injury victims, and children receiving inadequate supervision); life after injury; physical and neurological consequences (e.g.,…

  14. Self-Scratching Injuries on the Newborn's Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Yasushi; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Incidence of self-scratching injuries were examined in 300 newborns divided into subject groups based on birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, mode of delivery, and the presence or absence of delivery complications. Injuries were attributed to normal neonatal movements; degree of injuries may reflect the maturity and physical activity of the…

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  16. Injury epidemiology of U.S. Army Special Operations forces.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Lovalekar, Mita T; Keenan, Karen A; Bozich, Anthony J; Morgan, Jeffrey S; Kane, Shawn F; Benson, Peter J; Lephart, Scott M

    2014-10-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries have long been a problem in general purpose forces, yet anecdotal evidence provided by medical, human performance, and training leadership suggests musculoskeletal injuries are also a readiness impediment to Special Operations Forces (SOF). The purpose of this study was to describe the injury epidemiology of SOF utilizing self-reported injury histories. Data were collected on 106 SOF (age: 31.7 ± 5.3 years, height: 179.0 ± 5.5 cm, mass: 85.9 ± 10.9 kg) for 1 year before the date of laboratory testing and filtered for total injuries and those with the potential to be preventable based on injury type, activity, and mechanism. The frequency of musculoskeletal injuries was 24.5 injuries per 100 subjects per year for total injuries and 18.9 injuries per 100 subjects per year for preventable injuries. The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries was 20.8 injured subjects per 100 subjects per year for total injuries and 16.0 injured subjects per 100 subjects per year for preventable injuries. Preventable musculoskeletal injuries comprised 76.9% of total injuries. Physical training (PT) was the most reported activity for total/preventable injuries (PT Command Organized: 46.2%/60.0%, PT Noncommand Organized: 7.7%/10.0%, PT Unknown: 3.8%/5.0%). Musculoskeletal injuries impede optimal physical readiness/tactical training in the SOF community. The data suggest a significant proportion of injuries are classified as preventable and may be mitigated with human performance programs. PMID:25269128

  17. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the... to the BSC. There will be 15 minutes allotted for public comments at the end of the open...

  18. Care recipients' perceptions of activity-related life space and life satisfaction during and after geriatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2008-05-01

    The debate concerning older people's life spaces should be based on subjective priorities of the elderly themselves. The purpose of this study was therefore to improve the understanding of preferences of elderly care recipients regarding activity-related life space (ARLS) and life satisfaction. A mainly qualitative design was used. Fifteen persons aged 80-94 years, undergoing geriatric rehabilitation, were interviewed during hospital stay and on two follow-up occasions after discharge. Transcribed interviews were analyzed in line with the thematic framework approach. The results point to three approaches related to preferences of ARLS: hierarchical limitations, changing continuity, and boundary breaking. Adaptive approaches were employed when physical incapacity was considered a hindrance to activity, adaptations which as a rule resulted in limitations of ARLS preferences. Activity related to the area 'close to one's own body' emerged as one of three identified key activities with importance for life satisfaction, the others being socializing and going out of doors. Continuity of activity in a familiar life space was expressed as a common ideal. If the aim of geriatric rehabilitation is to improve care recipients' life satisfaction, attention needs to be paid to the subjective dimensions of the ARLS in the goal setting.

  19. Preventing injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Angert, David; Schaff, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Wilderness trips have become increasingly popular, especially in the adolescent population. The wilderness can be a source of rejuvenation while being mentally and physically challenging; however, it is also fraught with the potential for injury, illness, and even death. Epidemiologic studies of injuries and illnesses from hikers are not extensive, but there are sufficient data to identify the most common risk factors to offer some strategies for prevention. Many youth will have a medical visit or preparticipation physical assessment before an organized wilderness experience. This article highlights commonly seen wilderness injuries and illnesses and provides guidance for proper planning and problem solving.

  20. [Medical and legal considerations in whiplash injury].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Chávez, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Whiplash injury usually occurs in people who suffered an automobile accident, but also occurs as a result of physical assault and other mechanisms. Diagnosis and initial management of the patient by the emergency physician or orthopedist, and prescribing indications, are taken into account by two forensic intervention specialists. One of these is the medical officer, who, through analysis of the injury mechanism, establishes a cause-effect relationship and concludes whether the accident suffered by a worker it is related to work or not, determines how long the worker will remain disabled and if the injury caused permanent disability under Federal Labor Law. The medical examiner by injury classification assists the Public Ministry so that it can frame the crime of injury to the Criminal Code of Federal District. For these reasons a review of medical information about the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and healing time was performed to help both specialists to standardize their approach in their daily activities.

  1. [Medical and legal considerations in whiplash injury].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Chávez, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Whiplash injury usually occurs in people who suffered an automobile accident, but also occurs as a result of physical assault and other mechanisms. Diagnosis and initial management of the patient by the emergency physician or orthopedist, and prescribing indications, are taken into account by two forensic intervention specialists. One of these is the medical officer, who, through analysis of the injury mechanism, establishes a cause-effect relationship and concludes whether the accident suffered by a worker it is related to work or not, determines how long the worker will remain disabled and if the injury caused permanent disability under Federal Labor Law. The medical examiner by injury classification assists the Public Ministry so that it can frame the crime of injury to the Criminal Code of Federal District. For these reasons a review of medical information about the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and healing time was performed to help both specialists to standardize their approach in their daily activities. PMID:23883460

  2. Popliteal vasculature injuries in paediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, S A; Roberts, D C; Clarke, N M P

    2012-10-01

    Popliteal-artery injuries in the paediatric-trauma patient are uncommon, difficult to diagnose and with prolonged ischaemia lead to substantial complications. We report three cases of popliteal-vasculature injury in paediatric-trauma patients with diverse mechanisms of injury: blunt trauma, penetrating injury and a Salter-Harris I fracture. We present a range of the significant sequelae that can result from paediatric popliteal-artery injury, both physically and psychologically. It is imperative that clinicians have a high index of suspicion when confronted with paediatric patients with trauma around the knee and that popliteal-vasculature injuries are diagnosed early. If insufficiencies are detected, further imaging should be considered, but surgical exploration should not be delayed in the presence of ischaemia.

  3. Emergency Action Plans in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanis, Cindy J.; Hebel, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Action Plans (EAP) are essential to properly manage injuries and illnesses in physical education and sport. However, most literature discusses EAP's in the athletic arena instead of physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine physical education instructors' experiences of student illness and injury, discuss the steps of…

  4. Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic.

    PubMed

    Chard, M D; Lachmann, S M

    1987-12-01

    In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in persons over 25 years (59%) i.e. the reverse for sport in general. Acute traumatic injuries were seen especially in squash players, a majority affecting the knee, lumbar region, muscles and ankle. Tennis injuries differed most with lateral epicondylitis, patello-femoral pain and lumbar disc prolapse being relatively common. The badminton injury pattern overlapped the others. Lower limb injuries predominated in all three. Detailed assessment of 106 cases showed many to be new, infrequent, social players. Poor warm-up was a common factor in new and established players. The importance of these findings is discussed.

  5. [Effects of exogenous NO3- on cherry root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-guo; Sheng, Li-xi; Shu, Huai-rui

    2010-12-01

    A water culture experiment with controlled dissolved oxygen concentration was conducted to explore the effects of exogenous NO3- on the root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism of cherry (Prunun cerasus x P. canescens) seedlings under hypoxia stress. Comparing with the control (7.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), treatments 15 and 22.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1) made the materials for plant metabolism abundant, ensured the synthesis of enzyme proteins, increased root activity, maintained root respiration, improved the activities of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthethase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) in roots, and thereby, supplied enough energy for root respiration and NAD+ to glycolytic pathway, ensured electron transfer, and avoid ammonium toxicity under hypoxia stress. As a result, the injury of hypoxia stress to cherry plant was alleviated. Applying NO3- at the concentration of 22.5 mmol x L(-1) was more advisable. However, NO3- deficiency (0 mmol x L(-1)) showed opposite results. The above results suggested that applying exogenous NO3- to growth medium could regulate cherry root function and nitrogen metabolism, and antagonize the damage of hypoxia stress on cherry roots. PMID:21443020

  6. An evidence-based approach to electrical injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Suzanne; Meltzer, James A

    2013-09-01

    Electrical injuries, while uncommon, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In children, the injuries tend to occur in the household; in adolescents, they are most often associated with misguided youthful exploration outside the home. Injuries in adults are primarily occupational and due to workplace accidents. Electrical injuries are categorized by their electrical source and can result from low-voltage, high-voltage, lightning strike, or electrical arc exposure. The injury can range from minor to life threatening, and they can cause multisystem complications. High-voltage electrical exposures usually cause severe burns, whereas victims of lightning strikes may have no obvious physical injury but may present in cardiopulmonary arrest. Strategies to prevent electrical injuries have been developed and should be discussed with families and healthcare providers to reduce the incidence of these injuries in children. This review highlights the current literature related to the evaluation and management of children with electrical injuries presenting to the emergency department. PMID:24191428

  7. An evidence-based approach to electrical injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Suzanne; Meltzer, James A

    2013-09-01

    Electrical injuries, while uncommon, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In children, the injuries tend to occur in the household; in adolescents, they are most often associated with misguided youthful exploration outside the home. Injuries in adults are primarily occupational and due to workplace accidents. Electrical injuries are categorized by their electrical source and can result from low-voltage, high-voltage, lightning strike, or electrical arc exposure. The injury can range from minor to life threatening, and they can cause multisystem complications. High-voltage electrical exposures usually cause severe burns, whereas victims of lightning strikes may have no obvious physical injury but may present in cardiopulmonary arrest. Strategies to prevent electrical injuries have been developed and should be discussed with families and healthcare providers to reduce the incidence of these injuries in children. This review highlights the current literature related to the evaluation and management of children with electrical injuries presenting to the emergency department.

  8. Disability and risk of school related injury

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, M; Peek-Asa, C; Kraus, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Approximately six million children with disabilities attend school in the United States. Cognitive and physical limitations may compromise their ability to handle environmental hazards and hence increase their risk for injury. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of school related injury among children enrolled in 17 special education schools in one large, urban school district. Design: Altogether 6769 schoolchildren with disabilities were followed up from 1994–98. Injury and population data were collected from pupil accident reports and existing school records. Associations were estimated through generalized estimating equations. Results: A total of 697 injuries were reported for a rate of 4.7/100 students per year. Children with multiple disabilities had a 70% increased odds of injury compared with the developmentally disabled (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.3). The physically disabled (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) had a modest increased odds of injury. Cuts, bruises, and abrasions composed almost three fourths of all injuries; almost half of these injuries were to the face. Falls (34%) and insults by other students (31%) were the most common external causes. More than a fourth of injuries were sports related, and 21% occurred on the playground/athletic field. Injury patterns differed across disabilities. Conclusions: Although limited to one school district, the population studied is the largest cohort thus far of schoolchildren with disabilities. With this large study base, potentially high risk groups were identified and circumstances of injury described. This information is imperative for developing and improving school based injury prevention measures. PMID:14760022

  9. Injury in rugby league: a four year prospective survey.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, S; Gissane, C; Jennings, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of injury in English professional rugby league over a period of four playing seasons. METHODS: All injuries that were received by players during match play were recorded. Each injury was classified according to site, type, player position, team playing for, activity at the time of injury, and time off as a result of injury. RESULTS: The overall injury rate was 114 (95% confidence interval 105 to 124) per 1000 playing hours, the most frequent type of injury were muscular injuries [34 (29 to 40) per 1000 playing hours], while the most frequently injured site was the head and neck region [38 (16 to 25) per 1000 playing hours]. Players received the largest percentage of injuries when being tackled [46.3% (41.9 to 50.7)], most injuries required less than one week away from playing and training [70.1% (66.1 to 74.2)], and forwards had a higher injury rate than backs (139 v 93 injuries per 1000 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of injury in rugby league are undoubtedly due to the high amount of bodily contact in the game. Being tackled has the highest risk of injury, because of being hit forcibly by other players. Forwards suffer higher injury rates than backs, probably because they are involved in a larger number of physical collisions. PMID:9015597

  10. Influence of an injury reduction program on injury and fitness outcomes among soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, J; Bullock, S; Canada, S; Toney, E; Wells, J; Hoedebecke, E; Jones, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the influence of a multiple injury control intervention on injury and physical fitness outcomes among soldiers attending United States Army Ordnance School Advanced Individual Training. Methods: The study design was quasiexperimental involving a historical control group (n = 2559) that was compared to a multiple intervention group (n = 1283). Interventions in the multiple intervention group included modified physical training, injury education, and a unit based injury surveillance system (UBISS). The management responsible for training independently formed an Injury Control Advisory Committee that examined surveillance reports from the UBISS and recommended changes to training. On arrival at school, individual soldiers completed a demographics and lifestyle questionnaire and took an army physical fitness test (APFT: push-ups, sit-ups, and two mile run). Injuries among soldiers were tracked by a clinic based injury surveillance system that was separate from the UBISS. Soldiers completed a final APFT eight weeks after arrival at school. Results: Cox regression (survival analysis) was used to examine differences in time to the first injury while controlling for group differences in demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and physical fitness. The adjusted relative risk of a time loss injury was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.8) times higher in the historical control men and 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.8) times higher in the historical control women compared with the multiple intervention men and women, respectively. After correcting for the lower initial fitness of the multiple intervention group, there were no significant differences between the multiple intervention and historical control groups in terms of improvements in push-ups, sit-ups, or two mile run performance. Conclusions: This multiple intervention program contributed to a reduction in injuries while improvements in physical fitness were similar to a

  11. Peripheral nerve injuries in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H; Nadler, S F; Krivickas, L S

    1997-12-01

    Peripheral nerves are susceptible to injury in the athlete because of the excessive physiological demands that are made on both the neurological structures and the soft tissues that protect them. The common mechanisms of injury are compression, traction, ischaemia and laceration. Seddon's original classification system for nerve injuries based on neurophysiological changes is the most widely used. Grade 1 nerve injury is a neuropraxic condition, grade 2 is axonal degeneration and grade 3 is nerve transection. Peripheral nerve injuries are more common in the upper extremities than the lower extremities, tend to be sport specific, and often have a biomechanical component. While the more acute and catastrophic neurological injuries are usually obvious, many remain subclinical and are not recognised before neurological damage is permanent. Early detection allows initiation of a proper rehabilitation programme and modification of biomechanics before the nerve injury becomes irreversible. Recognition of nerve injuries requires an understanding of peripheral neuroanatomy, knowledge of common sites of nerve injury and an awareness of the types of peripheral nerve injuries that are common and unique to each sport. The electrodiagnostic exam, usually referred to as the 'EMG', consists of nerve conduction studies and the needle electrode examination. It is used to determine the site and degree of neurological injury and to predict outcome. It should be performed by a neurologist or physiatrist (physician specialising in physical medicine and rehabilitation), trained and skilled in this procedure. Timing is essential if the study is to provide maximal information. Findings such as decreased recruitment after injury and conduction block at the site of injury may be apparent immediately after injury but other findings such as abnormal spontaneous activity may take several weeks to develop. The electrodiagnostic test assists with both diagnosis of the injury and in predicting

  12. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  13. Bone Stress Injuries in Runners.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Kraus, Emily; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common running injuries and may occur at a rate of 20% annually. Both biological and biomechanical risk factors contribute to BSI. Evaluation of a runner with suspected BSI includes completing an appropriate history and physical examination. MRI grading classification for BSI has been proposed and may guide return to play. Management includes activity modification, optimizing nutrition, and addressing risk factors, including the female athlete triad. BSI prevention strategies include screening for risk factors during preparticipation evaluations, optimizing nutrition (including adequate caloric intake, calcium, and vitamin D), and promoting ball sports during childhood and adolescence.

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  16. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  17. Wounds and Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  18. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  19. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  20. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  1. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Jr., David F.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

  2. Baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  3. Back injuries in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Herskowitz, A; Selesnick, H

    1993-04-01

    The basketball player with lower back or lower extremity radicular pain needs to be carefully evaluated. A complete history of any previous symptomatology and a specific history of the new injury are absolutely essential. A careful physical examination with an understanding of the anatomy as well as possible causes of the lower back pain is crucial. An accurate diagnosis is essential in treating every athlete. Most basketball-related lower back injuries will respond to conservative nonsurgical treatment. Rehabilitation is a cornerstone in not only treating the initial symptoms, but decreasing the risks of reinjury. The goal of returning the basketball player to previous performance level as quickly as possible, with a minimal risk of re-injury, is the goal of the team physicians.

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  5. Federal monitoring activities related to food and nutritian: How do they compare?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several monitoring activities related to food are carried out by the Federal Government in the United States. These include the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES), conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Depart...

  6. Sports injuries of the ear.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  7. Predicting pain outcomes after traumatic musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Katz, Joel; Chin, Kelly Y W; Haslam, Lynn; Canzian, Sonya; Kreder, Hans J; McCartney, Colin J L

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic musculoskeletal injury results in a high incidence of chronic pain; however, there is little evidence about the nature, quality, and severity of the pain. This study uses a prospective, observational, longitudinal design to (1) examine neuropathic pain symptoms, pain severity, pain interference, and pain management at hospital admission and 4 months after traumatic musculoskeletal injury (n = 205), and (2) to identify predictors of group membership for patients with differing moderate-to-severe putative neuropathic pain trajectories. Data were collected on mechanism of injury, injury severity, pain (intensity, interference, neuropathic quality), anxiety (anxiety sensitivity, general anxiety, pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety), depression, and posttraumatic stress while patients were in-hospital and 4 months after injury. A third of patients had chronic moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain 4 months after injury. Specifically, 11% of patients developed moderate-to-severe pain by 4 months and 21% had symptoms immediately after injury that persisted over time. Significant predictors of the development and maintenance of moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain included high levels of general anxiety while in-hospital immediately after injury (P < 0.001) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress 4 months after injury (P < 0.001). Few patients had adequate pharmacological, physical, or psychological pain management in-hospital and at 4 months. Future research is needed among trauma patients to better understand the development of chronic pain and to determine the best treatment approaches. PMID:27058677

  8. Meniscal injuries in basketball players

    PubMed Central

    ZEDDE, PIETRO; MELA, FEDERICO; DEL PRETE, FABIO; MASIA, FRANCESCO; MANUNTA, ANDREA F.

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a highly competitive sport in which the knee joint is constantly subject to physical stresses. Basketball-related traumatic injuries are the result of specific technical movements. Even though basketball is not considered a contact sport, injuries in basketball players are due both to athletes’ handling of the ball and to their intense physical interaction during games. Nowadays, traumatic meniscal injuries are constantly on the increase, especially in young athletes, and they are generally the result of compressive forces together with knee flexion rotation. Recognition of the great importance of meniscal biomechanics and of the functional role of the meniscus has resulted in the adoption of an increasingly preserving approach, also in the light of the effects, in terms of articular degeneration, of removing meniscal tissue. Even though recent decades have seen considerable developments in arthroscopic meniscectomy techniques, geared at preserving as much meniscal tissue as possible, basketball players undergoing this treatment often present, in the long run, clinical symptomatology severe enough to compromise their participation in competitive sport. Hence the treatment of meniscal injuries in athletes has become more and more preserving in recent years, through recourse to surgical techniques such as meniscal repair, biological replacement implantation and donor meniscus implantation, which allow pain relief, return to competitive activities and stable long-term results, slowing down arthritic progression. Therefore, considering the increasing number of meniscal injuries in basketball players, which can jeopardize their sporting careers, great importance is now attached to early diagnosis and to the correct choice of meniscal injury treatment in these athletes. PMID:25750909

  9. Meniscal injuries in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zedde, Pietro; Mela, Federico; Del Prete, Fabio; Masia, Francesco; Manunta, Andrea F

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a highly competitive sport in which the knee joint is constantly subject to physical stresses. Basketball-related traumatic injuries are the result of specific technical movements. Even though basketball is not considered a contact sport, injuries in basketball players are due both to athletes' handling of the ball and to their intense physical interaction during games. Nowadays, traumatic meniscal injuries are constantly on the increase, especially in young athletes, and they are generally the result of compressive forces together with knee flexion rotation. Recognition of the great importance of meniscal biomechanics and of the functional role of the meniscus has resulted in the adoption of an increasingly preserving approach, also in the light of the effects, in terms of articular degeneration, of removing meniscal tissue. Even though recent decades have seen considerable developments in arthroscopic meniscectomy techniques, geared at preserving as much meniscal tissue as possible, basketball players undergoing this treatment often present, in the long run, clinical symptomatology severe enough to compromise their participation in competitive sport. Hence the treatment of meniscal injuries in athletes has become more and more preserving in recent years, through recourse to surgical techniques such as meniscal repair, biological replacement implantation and donor meniscus implantation, which allow pain relief, return to competitive activities and stable long-term results, slowing down arthritic progression. Therefore, considering the increasing number of meniscal injuries in basketball players, which can jeopardize their sporting careers, great importance is now attached to early diagnosis and to the correct choice of meniscal injury treatment in these athletes.

  10. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment.

  11. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment. PMID:23198672

  12. Working with Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The participation of a student with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in general physical education can often be challenging and rewarding for the student and physical education teacher. This article addresses common characteristics of students with TBI and presents basic solutions to improve the education of students with TBI in the general physical…

  13. Preventing injuries in workers: the role of management practices in decreasing injuries reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found that management safety practices may predict occupational injuries and psychological distresses in the workplace. The present study examined the perception of management safety practices related to injuries reporting and its dimensions among workers of Isfahan Steel Company (ESCO). Methods: A self-administered anonymous survey was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, management safety perception, injuries reporting and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and injuries). The data were analyzed by Multivariate and correlation techniques. Results: The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations between management safety perception with injuries reporting and its two dimensions namely physical and psychological symptoms; 2) there was no significant relationship between management safety perception and injury; 3) in Multivariate analysis, management safety perception significantly predicted about 26%, 19%, and 28% of the variances of variables of injuries reporting, physical symptoms, and psychological symptoms respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Improving employees’ perception of management safety practices can be important to prevent the development of job injuries and to promote workers’ safety and well-being. PMID:25279379

  14. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Bedi, Asheesh; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are among the most common shoulder girdle injuries in athletes and most commonly result from a direct force to the acromion with the arm in an adducted position. Acromioclavicular joint injuries often present with associated injuries to the glenohumeral joint, including an increased incidence of superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears that may warrant further evaluation and treatment. Anteroposterior stability of the acromioclavicular joint is conferred by the capsule and acromioclavicular ligaments, of which the posterior and superior ligaments are the strongest. Superior-inferior stability is maintained by the coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid) ligaments. Type-I or type-II acromioclavicular joint injuries have been treated with sling immobilization, early shoulder motion, and physical therapy, with favorable outcomes. Return to activity can occur when normal shoulder motion and strength are obtained and the shoulder is asymptomatic as compared with the contralateral normal extremity. The management of type-III injuries remains controversial and is individualized. While a return to the previous level of functional activity with nonsurgical treatment has been documented in a number of case series, surgical reduction and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction has been associated with a favorable outcome and can be considered in patients who place high functional demands on their shoulders or in athletes who participate in overhead sports. Surgical management is indicated for high-grade (≥type IV) acromioclavicular joint injuries to achieve anatomic reduction of the acromioclavicular joint, reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and repair of the deltotrapezial fascia. Outcomes after surgical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments have been satisfactory with regard to achieving pain relief and return to functional activities, but further improvements in the biomechanical strength of these

  15. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management. PMID:11228032

  16. Pancreatic injuries in under-age Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Burton, Paul; Fenton, Edmond

    2007-04-01

    Blunt injury to the pancreas is rare in children. It has significant physiological effects and can result in death. The most common injury mechanism is a high-velocity motor vehicle accident. Bicycle accidents, non-accidental injuries and falls can also cause pancreatic injury.(1) Given the protected retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, it is not surprising that low-velocity injuries are an uncommon cause of pancreatic injury. Over a 12-month period we have observed three cases of blunt pancreatic injury, occurring during under-age Australian rules football (AFL) matches. These represented a spectrum of injuries from 'traumatic pancreatitis' to a devascularized distal pancreas requiring initial percutaneous drainage complicated by pseudocyst development requiring cyst gastrostomy. AFL is a free flowing game that combines certain attributes of soccer and rugby. There is an emphasis on physical contact and high-velocity interpersonal collisions are frequent.

  17. Investigation of nerve injury through microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Rezina; Thakor, Nitish

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), can potentially lead to irreversible damage resulting in permanent loss of function. Investigating the complex dynamics involved in these processes may elucidate the biological mechanisms of both nerve degeneration and regeneration, and may potentially lead to the development of new therapies for recovery. A scientific overview on the biological foundations of nerve injury is presented. Differences between nerve regeneration in the central and PNS are discussed. Advances in microtechnology over the past several years have led to the development of invaluable tools that now facilitate investigation of neurobiology at the cellular scale. Microfluidic devices are explored as a means to study nerve injury at the necessary simplification of the cellular level, including those devices aimed at both chemical and physical injury, as well as those that recreate the post-injury environment. PMID:24227311

  18. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  19. Injuries in a modern dance company effect of comprehensive management on injury incidence and cost.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Bronner, Shaw

    2011-09-01

    Injury costs strain the finances of many dance companies. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of comprehensive management on injury patterns, incidence, and time loss and examine its financial impact on workers compensation premiums in a modern dance company. In this retrospective-prospective cohort study, injury was defined as any physical insult that required financial outlay (workers compensation or self insurance) or caused a dancer to cease dancing beyond the day of injury (time-loss injury). Injury data and insurance premiums were analyzed over an eight-year period. Injuries were compared using a mixed linear model with phase and gender as fixed effects. It was found that comprehensive management resulted in 34% decline in total injury incidence, 66% decrease in workers compensation claims, and 56% decrease in lost days. These outcomes achieved substantial savings in workers compensation premiums. Thus, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of an injury prevention program in reducing injury-related costs and promoting dancers' health and wellness in a modern dance company. PMID:22040757

  20. Effect of an injury prevention program on muscle injuries in elite professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Paul, Darren J; Orhant, Emmanuel; Collie, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    Due to the continual physical, physiological, and psychological demands of elite level soccer increasing the incidence and risk of injuries, preventative training programs have become a common feature of soccer players training schedule. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a structured injury prevention program on the number of muscle injuries and the total number of injuries within elite professional soccer. The present study was conducted over 2 consecutive seasons, of which the first (2008-2009) being the intervention season and the second the control season (2009-2010). In total, 26 and 23 elite male professional soccer players competing within the Scottish Premier League and European competition participated. The training program was performed twice weekly for the entirety of the season (58 prevention sessions). The results revealed an increase in the total number of injuries within the intervention season (88 vs. 72); however, this was largely due to the greater number of contusion injuries sustained within the intervention season (n = 44) when compared with control season (n = 23). Significantly less muscle injuries were observed during the intervention season (moderate effect), and this occurred concomitant with a bigger squad size (large effect, p < 0.001). The findings from this study identify that a multicomponent injury prevention-training program may be appropriate for reducing the number of muscle injuries during a season but may not be adequate to reduce all other injuries.

  1. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  2. Sports-specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  3. Rates and Risks for Running and Exercise Injuries: Studies in Three Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the results of three epidemiologic studies of orthopedic running and exercise injuries in exercisers present information regarding relationships between type of injury and participant age, gender, exercise level, exercise surface, and physical fitness. (Author/CB)

  4. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Paula; E Sullivent, Ernest; M Sasser, Scott; M Wald, Marlena; Ossmann, Eric; Kapil, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined. PMID:20606794

  5. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  6. Ankle injuries and the family physician.

    PubMed

    Birrer, R B

    1988-01-01

    In transmitting the body's weight, the ankle is subject to frequent static and dynamic injury due to concentrated stresses during standing and movement. The frequency of athletic ankle injuries ranges from 10 to 90 percent, with the highest rate occurring in basketball players. There is prolonged disability and recurrent instability for months to years for 25 to 40 per cent of these patients. Because most of this trauma is handled by primary care physicians, this review presents the mechanism of injury, relevant anatomy, physical examination, and appropriate therapeutic intervention in the acute and rehabilitative phases.

  7. Eye injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grin, T R; Nelson, L B; Jeffers, J B

    1987-07-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted of all children with eye injuries admitted to Wills Eye Hospital to determine demographic, etiologic, and prophylactic factors. There were 278 cases, representing 22% of all ocular injuries in children requiring admission. The frequency of childhood ocular injuries is high, often resulting in serious visual impairment. Many of these injuries are preventable. The causes of pediatric eye injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  8. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  9. Sports-related overuse injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Launay, F

    2015-02-01

    Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued.

  10. Health Physics Technician (HPT) Injury Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    BUMP, S.L.

    2001-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Cleanup project one of the largest of its type in the United States of America. Due to age of the facilities and their operating history, this cleanup has presented interesting challenges to the Radiological Control Organization.

  11. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

  12. Functional properties of monkey caudate neurons. III. Activities related to expectation of target and reward.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, O; Sakamoto, M; Usui, S

    1989-04-01

    1. The present paper reports complex neural activities in the monkey caudate nucleus that precede and anticipate visual stimuli and reward in learned visuomotor paradigms. These activities were revealed typically in the delayed saccade task in which memory and anticipation were required. We classified these activities according to their relationships to the task. 2. Activity related to expectation of a cue (n = 46) preceded the presentation of a spot of light (target cue) that signified the future location of saccade target. When the target cue was delayed, the activity was prolonged accordingly. The same spot of light was preceded by no activity if it acted as a distracting stimulus. 3. The sustained activity (n = 80) was a tonic discharge starting after the target cue as if holding the spatial information. 4. The activity related to expectation of target (n = 109) preceded the appearance of the target whose location was cued previously. It started with or after a saccade to the cued target location and ended with the appearance of the target. The activity was greater when the target was expected to appear in the contralateral visual field. 5. The activity related to expectation of reward (n = 57) preceded a task-specific reward. It started with the appearance of the final target and ended with the reward. In most cases, the activity was nonselective for how the monkey obtained the reward, i.e., by visual fixation only, by a saccade, or by a hand movement. The activity was dependent partly on visual fixation. 6. A few neurons showed tonic activity selectively before lever release and are thus considered to be related to the preparation of hand movements. 7. The activity related to breaking fixation (n = 33) occurred phasically if the monkey broke fixation, aborting the trial. 8. Activity related to reward (n = 104) was a phasic discharge that occurred before or after a reward of water was delivered. The activity was not simply related to a specific movement

  13. Active living and injury risk.

    PubMed

    Parkkari, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Lapinleimu, I; Palvanen, M; Heiskanen, M; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to get reliable insight into injury risk in various commuting and lifestyle activities, as well as recreational and competitive sports. A cohort of 3 657 persons was randomly selected from the 15- to 74-year-old Finnish population. Ninety-two percent (n = 3 363) of the subjects accepted to participate the one-year follow-up, record all their physical activities that lasted 15 min or more, and register all acute and overuse injuries that occurred during these activities. To collect the information, the study subjects were interviewed by phone by the trained personnel of the Statistics Finland three times in four-month intervals. The individual injury risk per exposure time was relatively low, ranging from 0.19 to 1.5 per 1 000 hours of participation, in commuting and lifestyle activities including walking and cycling to work, gardening, home repair, hunting and fishing, and, in sports such as golf, dancing, swimming, walking, and rowing. The risk was clearly higher in squash, orienteering, and contact and team sports, such as judo, wrestling, karate, rinkball, floorball, basketball, soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, and Finnish baseball ranging from 6.6 to 18.3 per 1 000 hours of participation. However, the highest absolute number of injuries occurred in low-risk activities, such as gardening, walking, home-repair, and cycling, because they are performed so often. In conclusion, individual injury risk per exposure hours is relatively low in commuting and lifestyle activities compared to many recreational and competitive sports. However, at a population level, these low-to-moderate intensity activities are widely practised producing a rather high absolute number of injuries, and thus, preventive efforts are needed in these activities, too.

  14. Epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League, seasons 1997–2000

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, J; Seward, H

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League (AFL) over four seasons. Methods: An injury was defined as "any physical or medical condition that caused a player to miss a match in the regular season." The rationale for this definition was to eliminate a previously noted tendency of team recorders to interpret injury definitions subjectively. Administrative records of injury payments to players who did not play matches determined the occurrence of an injury. Results: The seasonal incidence of new injuries was 39 per club (of 40 players) per season (of 22 matches). The match injury incidence for AFL games was 25.7 injuries per 1000 player hours. The injury prevalence (percentage of players missing through injury in an average week) was 16%. The recurrence rate of injuries was 17%. The most common and prevalent injury was hamstring strain (six injuries per club per season, resulting in 21 missed matches per club per season), followed in prevalence by anterior cruciate ligament and groin injuries. Conclusions: The injury definition of this study does not produce incidence rates that are complete for all minor injuries. However, the determination of an injury is made by a single entity in exactly the same manner for all teams, which overcomes a significant methodological flaw present in other multiteam injury surveillance systems. PMID:11867491

  15. Injuries associated with the 580 km university student grand voluntary road march: focus on foot injuries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-12-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries.

  16. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  17. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  18. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  19. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  20. Unfavourable outcomes in maxillofacial injuries: How to avoid and manage

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Atul; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Faciomaxillary injuries remain one of the common injuries managed by plastic surgeons. The goal of treatment in these injuries is the three-dimensional restoration of the disturbed anatomy so as to achieve pre-injury form and function. In this article, the authors review the anatomic, diagnostic and management considerations to optimise results and minimise the late post-traumatic deformities. Most of the adverse outcomes are usually a result of poorly addressed underlying structural injury during the primary management. An accurate physical examination combined with detailed computed tomographic scanning of the craniofacial skeleton is required to generate an appropriate treatment plan. This organised approach has proven effective in restoring the injured structures to pre-injury status. Multiple clinical cases are used to illustrate the different fracture patterns along with various surgical techniques to achieve an acceptable outcome. Early diagnosis and timely management of complications in these complex injuries is also discussed. PMID:24501458

  1. Modelling molecular structures for computer-assisted studies of drug structure-activity relations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerman-Blazic, B.; Randic, M.

    1983-01-01

    The characterizations of structure by selected graph invariant is used as an element for model building in the study of quantitative structure activity relations. The path numbers Pi were adopted as the basic graph invariants. Euclidian distance between two sequences of path numbers, which are considered as position vectors in an n-dimensional space, was the measure of similarity between the two structures. The results, which proceeded from the application of the method on a set of 38 substituted barbituratic acids show that path enumeration model offer suitable basis for QSAR analysis and deserve further attention.

  2. Healthy eating at school to compensate for the activity-related obesigenic lifestyle in children and adolescents: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Arguin, Hélène

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we describe the Quebec experience about the determinants of childhood obesity and the search for solutions, which are well adapted to the constraints of the current lifestyle. As expected, it is likely that a decrease in physical fitness and its related sedentariness as well as suboptimal food habits have contributed to the increase in overweight prevalence that was observed between 1980 and 2000. Our research experience suggests that other less suspected activity related factors have also played an important role in the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. This is particularly the case for short sleeping and demanding mental work, which are features of our modern lifestyle. Because there is no foreseeable prospect for a change in sleep and mental work habits, we argue that compensations in other factors may be necessary to prevent weight gain in this new context. We thus developed a concept of food design aiming at the maximization of the satiating properties of a food or a meal course. In this context, we were successful in the design of healthy lunch bags for students of a school located in a low socioeconomic area. Indeed, for a majority of menus, an optimal compromise seemed to be reached between nutrient composition, satiating potential, palatability, and financial accessibility. In summary, the Quebec experience reveals that childhood obesity is a complex problem that partly results from unsuspected environmental factors that deserve creative solutions to at least partly compensate for their effect. PMID:22332048

  3. Healthy eating at school to compensate for the activity-related obesigenic lifestyle in children and adolescents: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Arguin, Hélène

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we describe the Quebec experience about the determinants of childhood obesity and the search for solutions, which are well adapted to the constraints of the current lifestyle. As expected, it is likely that a decrease in physical fitness and its related sedentariness as well as suboptimal food habits have contributed to the increase in overweight prevalence that was observed between 1980 and 2000. Our research experience suggests that other less suspected activity related factors have also played an important role in the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. This is particularly the case for short sleeping and demanding mental work, which are features of our modern lifestyle. Because there is no foreseeable prospect for a change in sleep and mental work habits, we argue that compensations in other factors may be necessary to prevent weight gain in this new context. We thus developed a concept of food design aiming at the maximization of the satiating properties of a food or a meal course. In this context, we were successful in the design of healthy lunch bags for students of a school located in a low socioeconomic area. Indeed, for a majority of menus, an optimal compromise seemed to be reached between nutrient composition, satiating potential, palatability, and financial accessibility. In summary, the Quebec experience reveals that childhood obesity is a complex problem that partly results from unsuspected environmental factors that deserve creative solutions to at least partly compensate for their effect.

  4. Adjusting the chemical and physical properties of hydrogels leads to improved stem cell survival and tissue ingrowth in spinal cord injury reconstruction: a comparative study of four methacrylate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hejčl, Aleš; Růžička, Jiří; Kapcalová, Miroslava; Turnovcová, Karolina; Krumbholcová, Eva; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Cihlář, Jiří; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2013-10-15

    Currently, there is no effective strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). A suitable combination of modern hydrogel materials, modified to effectively bridge the lesion cavity, combined with appropriate stem cell therapy seems to be a promising approach to repair spinal cord damage. We demonstrate the synergic effect of porosity and surface modification of hydrogels on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesiveness in vitro and their in vivo survival in an experimental model of SCI. MSCs were seeded on four different hydrogels: hydroxypropylmethacrylate-RGD prepared by heterophase separation (HPMA-HS-RGD) and three other hydrogels polymerized in the presence of a solid porogen: HPMA-SP, HPMA-SP-RGD, and hydroxy ethyl methacrylate [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (HEMA-MOETACl). Their adhesion capability and cell survival were evaluated at 1, 7, and 14 days after the seeding of MSCs on the hydrogel scaffolds. The cell-polymer scaffolds were then implanted into hemisected rat spinal cord, and MSC survival in vivo and the ingrowth of endogenous tissue elements were evaluated 1 month after implantation. In vitro data demonstrated that HEMA-MOETACl and HPMA-SP-RGD hydrogels were superior in the number of cells attached. In vivo, the highest cell survival was found in the HEMA-MOETACl hydrogels; however, only a small ingrowth of blood vessels and axons was observed. Both HPMA-SP and HPMA-SP-RGD hydrogels showed better survival of MSCs compared with the HPMA-HS-RGD hydrogel. The RGD sequence attached to both types of HPMA hydrogels significantly influenced the number of blood vessels inside the implanted hydrogels. Further, the porous structure of HPMA-SP hydrogels promoted a statistically significant greater ingrowth of axons and less connective tissue elements into the implant. Our results demonstrate that the physical and chemical properties of the HPMA-SP-RGD hydrogel show the best combination for bridging a spinal cord lesion, while the

  5. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents ( ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves ...

  6. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  7. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  8. What Are Sports Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  9. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  10. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  11. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

  12. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  13. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  14. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  15. Recreational softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Shesser, R; Smith, M; Ellis, P; Brett, S; Ott, J E

    1985-05-01

    Every patient who presented to an urban teaching hospital's emergency department during one season complaining of an injury sustained while playing softball was interviewed to determine the parameters of play associated with the injury. Trends were noticed toward increased frequency of injury to experienced players late in the season. A fall was the most common mechanism of injury, and player location at the time of injury was equally divided between the basepath and defense. Very few players were injured at bat. No conclusion could be drawn about the protection afforded a player from the use of a mitt or cleats. The relative rate of injury was estimated to be 2.26 injuries per 1,000 players per day, making the risk of injury for softball participants about 50% of that for recreational skiers.

  16. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  18. EEG frequency tagging to explore the cortical activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures

    PubMed Central

    Moungou, Athanasia; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Mouraux, André

    2016-01-01

    When sliding our fingertip against a textured surface, complex vibrations are produced in the skin. It is increasingly recognised that the neural transduction and processing of these vibrations plays an important role in the dynamic tactile perception of textures. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel means to tag the cortical activity related to the processing of these vibrations, by periodically modulating the amplitude of texture exploration-induced vibrations such as to record a steady-state evoked potential (SS-EP). The EEG was recorded while the right index fingertip was scanned against four different textures using a constant exploration velocity. Amplitude modulation of the elicited vibrations was achieved by periodically modulating the force applied against the finger. Frequency analysis of the recorded EEG signals showed that modulation of the vibrations induced by the fingertip-texture interactions elicited an SS-EP at the frequency of modulation (3 Hz) as well as its second harmonic (6 Hz), maximal over parietal regions contralateral to the stimulated side. Textures generating stronger vibrations also generated SS-EPs of greater magnitude. Our results suggest that frequency tagging using SS-EPs can be used to isolate and explore the brain activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures. PMID:26853820

  19. Using Activity-Related Behavioural Features towards More Effective Automatic Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumis, Dimitris; Drosou, Anastasios; Cipresso, Pietro; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Hassapis, George; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response) recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images) that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing. PMID:23028461

  20. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  1. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  2. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  3. 31 CFR 560.505 - Importation of certain Iranian-origin services authorized; activities related to certain visa...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services authorized; activities related to certain visa categories authorized. 560.505 Section 560.505...; activities related to certain visa categories authorized. (a) The importation of Iranian-origin services into... with that purpose. (b) Persons otherwise qualified for a non-immigrant visa under categories A-3 and...

  4. 48 CFR 52.225-25 - Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification. 52.225-25 Section 52.225-25 Federal Acquisition... Relating to Iran—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(e), insert the following provision: PROHIBITION ON ENGAGING IN SANCTIONED ACTIVITIES RELATING TO IRAN—CERTIFICATION (SEP 2010) (a) Definition. Person—...

  5. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  6. Baseball/lacrosse injuries.

    PubMed

    Casazza, B A; Rossner, K

    1999-02-01

    With the expansion of baseball into all age groups, the game is becoming as much a recreational sport as a youth sport. Throwing arm injuries eventually limit the participation of most players. Analysis is made of these injuries with the goal of complete rehabilitation for the baseball player. Lacrosse has also seen an increase in popularity as a recreational sport. Analysis of lacrosse injuries and rehabilitation of the most common injuries is reviewed.

  7. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries. PMID:27618243

  8. Nonelite exercise-related injuries: Participant reported frequency, management and perceptions of their consequences

    PubMed Central

    Grice, A; Kingsbury, S R; Conaghan, P G

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored the frequency of sport/exercise-related injuries in nonelite sport, participant-reported management and perceptions of potential injury consequences. Focus group participants, who trained two to four times a week and had previously sustained musculoskeletal sports-related injuries, reported seeking medical advice secondary to advice from teammates or online research. General practitioners were viewed as gatekeepers to specialist secondary care and less able to effectively treat sport-related injuries. Participants displayed limited awareness of potential future implications of injury, and considered physical and psychological benefits of exercise more valuable than potential injury-associated risks. In the survey of physically active people, over half reported sustaining an exercise-related injury (562/1002, 56%). Previously injured respondents were less likely to consider consulting a health professional for injury-related advice than those with no injury history (45% vs 64%; P < 0.001) and more likely to continue exercising despite injury (51% vs 37%; P < 0.001). Concerns about injuries largely related to short-term issues; only 32% were concerned about possible long-term joint problems including osteoarthritis. Exercise-related injury was common in nonelite exercise participants. There was some dissatisfaction with care pathways for sports-related injuries and a lack of awareness about appropriate injury management and potential consequences of injury, particularly in the long-term. PMID:24000831

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: An Educator's Manual. [Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegenbaum, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This manual for the Portland (Oregon) Public Schools presents basic information on providing educational services to children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Individual sections cover the following topics: the brain, central nervous system and behavior; physical, psychological and emotional implication; traumatic brain injury in children versus…

  10. Treatment for Common Running/Walking Foot Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Haar, Calin; Ihlers, Matt; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Whether you are a weekend warrior or a serious athlete, most runners fear the possibility of being injured. For those who are physically active or stand on their feet all day, healthy feet are important Highly conditioned runners spend many hours performing foot maintenance to prevent unnecessary injuries. Some of the common foot injuries are:…

  11. Teens' Knowledge of Risk Factors for Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cynthia W.

    2004-01-01

    Youth participation in sports has increased greatly over the past 20 years. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of sports injuries. A study was conducted to determine teen's level of physical activity, knowledge about risk factors for sports injuries, use of protective equipment, and parental involvement. Two groups of teens, one of…

  12. Social and Emotional Impacts of Farmwork Injuries: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, S. M.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Davis, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The physical hazards of farming have been extensively studied and reported upon. Far less studied are the social and emotional impacts of farmwork injuries and deaths. Purpose: To investigate and document broad but targeted issues regarding the impact on individuals, families, and communities of farmwork injuries and fatalities of farmer…

  13. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  14. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  15. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  16. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  17. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that happen when too much stress is placed on a part of the body, resulting in inflammation (pain and swelling), muscle strain, or tissue damage. This stress generally occurs from ...

  18. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  19. Immediate care of school sport injury

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, L; MacAuley, D; McNally, O; McCann, S

    2003-01-01

    A random sample of 450 schools in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland was studied using a postal questionnaire. Current management of sport injury, with particular interest in the expertise and training of teachers and coaches, was explored. Replies were received from 333 (74%) schools. There was no physical education teacher with up to date first aid training in 37% schools. Immediate care in terms of mechanisms and equipment to deal with injury was available in 35%–81% of schools responding. Correct response ranged from 65%–90% to four scenarios: commonly presenting yet potentially serious management problems. This study demonstrated deficiencies in sport injury care. In addition to concern about current training, a need for basic life support training is highlighted. These findings have implications for the prevention of school sports injuries. PMID:12966020

  20. Traumatic brain injury: family response and outcome.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, J S; Marwitz, J H; Kepler, K

    1992-08-01

    Family outcome following traumatic brain injury has been the subject of investigation for nearly two decades. Researchers have reported on samples from Israel, Scotland, Denmark, England, and the United States. Cultural diversity as well as differences in design, assessment methods, injury characteristics, and definitions have contributed to difficulties establishing definitive conclusions. Findings indicate that patients' levels of emotional and personality disturbances are associated with levels of family disturbance, and are relatively more significant than physical disability. Undeniably, the long-term sequelae of injury have a long-term negative impact on families. Unfortunately, little has been done to establish the nature of family outcomes for patients younger than age 17, siblings, and less than severe injuries. Recent advances including development of valid measurement tools, definitions established through consensus, and multi-center collaborative research networks are promising and contribute to the likelihood of imminent progress.

  1. Candidate Species Selection and Controlled Environment Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Research was undertaken to attempt to identify the causal agents for intumescences that develop on many different species of plants in controlled environments. Concentration and filtration procedures were not successful in identifying any particular compounds. The injury was found to develop, even though the atmosphere for the plants is filtered through activated charcoal, potassium permanganate, or is subjected to catalytic combustion at 450 C. Thus, the causal agent is apparently either an oxidized compound or specific element, or the result of some unrecognized variation in physical conditions around the plants. The research has demonstrated that the injury is controlled to a significant extent by temperature. Growing temperatures of 20 degrees and 25 degrees C resulted in serious injury on plants, but temperatures of 30 C resulted in very little injury.

  2. The Voluntary Use of Physical Education Safety Guidelines in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    2009-01-01

    About 25 percent of child injuries occur in schools, most of them during physical education activities. Physical education safety guidelines are one strategy to reduce the number of student injuries. However, based on the findings of a recent evaluation of provincial safety guidelines, only two-thirds of physical education teachers use the safety…

  3. Throwing injuries of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Jobe, F W; Nuber, G

    1986-10-01

    With the burgeoning popularity of racquet and throwing sports in our society, an increasing awareness of the elbow injuries sustained with repetitive upper extremity activity is important. Particular attention should be paid to proper technique, equipment, and duration of activity, and preventive measures should be taken. In the adolescent or adult individual who sustains elbow injury, it is imperative that the treating physician recognize the pathologic stage early in order to minimize the consequences of these activities. Only with a thorough history and physical examination of this complex joint and a firm understanding of the forces generated during activity will the sports medicine physician entertain the proper diagnosis and initiate a treatment protocol that is likely to be successful.

  4. Optimal management of ankle syndesmosis injuries

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David A; Jaggers, Ryan R; Barnes, Adam Fitzgerald; Rund, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Syndesmosis injuries occur when there is a disruption of the distal attachment of the tibia and fibula. These injuries occur commonly (up to 18% of ankle sprains), and the incidence increases in the setting of athletic activity. Recognition of these injuries is key to preventing long-term morbidity. Diagnosis and treatment of these injuries requires a thorough understanding of the normal anatomy and the role it plays in the stability of the ankle. A complete history and physical examination is of paramount importance. Patients usually experience an external rotation mechanism of injury. Key physical exam features include detailed documentation about areas of focal tenderness (syndesmosis and deltoid) and provocative maneuvers such as the external rotation stress test. Imaging workup in all cases should consist of radiographs with the physiologic stress of weight bearing. If these images are inconclusive, then further imaging with external rotation stress testing or magnetic resonance imaging are warranted. Nonoperative treatment is appropriate for stable injuries. Unstable injuries should be treated operatively. This consists of stabilizing the syndesmosis with either trans-syndesmotic screw or tightrope fixation. In the setting of a concomitant Weber B or C fracture, the fibula is anatomically reduced and stabilized with a standard plate and screw construct. Proximal fibular fractures, as seen in the Maisonneuve fracture pattern, are not repaired operatively. Recent interest is moving toward repair of the deltoid ligament, which may provide increased stability, especially in rehabilitation protocols that involve early weight bearing. Rehabilitation is focused on allowing patients to return to their pre-injury activities as quickly and safely as possible. Protocols initially focus on controlling swelling and recovery from surgery. The protocols then progress to restoration of motion, early protected weight bearing, restoration of strength, and eventually a

  5. Physical Assault of School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…

  6. Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

    This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

  7. Indoor racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Silko, G J; Cullen, P T

    1994-08-01

    Family physicians can care for most patients injured while participating in indoor racquet sports. However, patients with injuries to the eye usually require ophthalmologic referral. The most common injuries that occur in persons participating in indoor racquet sports include contusions, sprains and strains, lacerations, eye injuries, bursitis and tendinitis. Musculoskeletal injuries that merit special consideration include lateral epicondylitis, DeQuervain's tenosynovitis, wrist intersection syndrome, patellar pain syndrome, meniscal injuries, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis. The family physician plays a critical role in providing patients with information about preventive measures.

  8. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  9. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    PubMed

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-03-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  10. Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy Caused by Nanomedicines and its Testing In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebeni, Janos; Urbanics, Rudolf

    Nanotechnology has has been giving birth to a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic products, referred to as nanomedicines (NM), whose successes are based on improved efficacy and/or diminished toxicity. However, these benefits are not without a price. The introduction into the clinics of many NM revealed the presence of an acute immune response to the particles, manifested in hypersensitivity reactions (HSR). The phenomenon is often due to the structural similarity of reactogenic NM to viruses, which may trigger the nonspecific arm of humoral immunity, the complement (C) system to an immediate eliminatory response. The clinical manifestations of this reaction, called C activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), include cardiopulmonary distress, which is a safety risk for NM, particularly in the case of cardiac patients with atopic constitution. Thus, understanding CARPA and ways of its prediction and prevention represents an important challenge in NM R&D.

  11. Current environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale: draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This document was prepared for DOE Resource Applications. It provides a compilation of information on current environmental, health, safety and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale. The information is the most recent available through August 29, 1980. Included are the following: (1) project title; (2) adminstering agency; (3) contractor; (4) project status; (5) funding level; (6) project schedule; (7) deliverable; and (8) key personnel. The data contained in these reports can be used in environmental impact analyses relating oil shale to various incentives given in the Alternative Fuels Bill. The information provided was obtained from computer search printouts, review of respective agency documents and communication with agency personnel. A complete list of references is provided. The sponsoring organizations include the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Interior.

  12. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non‐fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non‐fatal injury events was 48 per 100 000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student‐training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  13. Spinal injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Babcock, J L

    1975-05-01

    Spinal injuries with neurologic sequelae are a rare but catastrophic injury. Many of these injuries might be preventable through proper parent and child education, particularly in water sports and vehicles accidents. A significant number of neurologic injuries are incomplete at the time of injury and proper rescue and initial care may make the difference between life as a quadriplegic and life as a normal individual. Because of the complexity of the management of the child with spinal injuries and their relative rarity, the definitive care is best undertaken at hospitals which specialize in the care of spinal injuries. Progressive deformity of the spine, a problem unique to childhood and adolescent paralysis, is often preventable with prolonged immobilization and protection of the spine. Progressive deformities which interfere with function or result in neurologic deterioration require an aggressive surgical approach. PMID:1124228

  14. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  15. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  16. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Kevin D

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition is one method to counter the negative impact of an exercise-induced injury. Deficiencies of energy, protein and other nutrients should be avoided. Claims for the effectiveness of many other nutrients following injuries are rampant, but the evidence is equivocal. The results of an exercise-induced injury may vary widely depending on the nature of the injury and severity. Injuries typically result in cessation, or at least a reduction, in participation in sport and decreased physical activity. Limb immobility may be necessary with some injuries, contributing to reduced activity and training. Following an injury, an inflammatory response is initiated and while excess inflammation may be harmful, given the importance of the inflammatory process for wound healing, attempting to drastically reduce inflammation may not be ideal for optimal recovery. Injuries severe enough for immobilization of a limb result in loss of muscle mass and reduced muscle strength and function. Loss of muscle results from reductions in basal muscle protein synthesis and the resistance of muscle to anabolic stimulation. Energy balance is critical. Higher protein intakes (2-2.5 g/kg/day) seem to be warranted during immobilization. At the very least, care should be taken not to reduce the absolute amount of protein intake when energy intake is reduced. There is promising, albeit preliminary, evidence for the use of omega-3 fatty acids and creatine to counter muscle loss and enhance hypertrophy, respectively. The overriding nutritional recommendation for injured exercisers should be to consume a well-balanced diet based on whole, minimally processed foods or ingredients made from whole foods. The diet composition should be carefully assessed and changes considered as the injury heals and activity patterns change. PMID:26553492

  17. Evaluation and treatment of sternoclavicular, clavicular, and acromioclavicular injuries.

    PubMed

    Balcik, Brenden J; Monseau, Aaron J; Krantz, William

    2013-12-01

    Injuries to the clavicle and associated structures may involve fractures of the clavicle or injuries to the surrounding joints, usually from a blow to the shoulder. They present with variable signs and symptoms, requiring a thorough history and physical examination. Diagnosis typically involves plain radiographs but more advanced imaging may be required, especially in the case of sternoclavicular joint dislocations. Often, nonoperative management is indicated but, occasionally, surgical intervention is required. Due to the high incidence of clavicle injuries, it is paramount that the primary care physician be able to recognize, diagnose, and manage these injuries.

  18. School Reentry Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deidrick, Kathleen K. M.; Farmer, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    Successful school reentry following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to recovery. Physical, cognitive, behavioral, academic, and social problems can affect a child's school performance after a TBI. However, early intervention has the potential to improve child academic outcomes and promote effective coping with any persistent changes in…

  19. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Professional Soccer Players: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Expectations.

    PubMed

    Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Baumfeld, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. It has undergone many changes in recent years, mainly because of increased physical demands, and this has led to an increased injury risk. Direct contact accounts for half of all injuries in both indoor and outdoor soccer and ankle sprains are the most common foot and ankle injury. There is a spectrum of foot and ankle injuries and their treatment should be individualized in these high-demand patients. An injury prevention program is also important and should the players, the trainer, responsible physician, and physical therapists. PMID:27261812

  20. Acute disposition of neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leslie

    2005-02-01

    Neck injuries can be some of the most serious and anxiety-producing injuries that occur during sporting events. It is important for the team physician to be prepared for the care of these injuries and be able to identify some of the more serious injuries. Proper care of these injuries can be life saving and prevent further injury and permanent disability. This article reviews the principles of management and latest evidence for acute neck injuries.

  1. Physical examination of the athlete's elbow.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephanie H; Moen, Todd C; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Elbow injury is encountered less frequently than are other joint conditions. The bony architecture, muscle, ligament, and nerve anatomy are complex, and the forces leading to injury in the athlete's elbow are unique. Appreciating the pathomechanics leading to injury and a detailed knowledge of elbow anatomy are the foundation for conducting a directed history and physical examination that achieves an accurate diagnosis. Recent advances in physical examination have improved our ability to accurately diagnose and treat athletic elbow disorders. This article reviews general and focused physical examination maneuvers of the elbow in a systematic anatomic fashion.

  2. [Dance, art and top performance sport with specific injuries].

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Boni; van de Wiel, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Professional theatre dance has high and specific physical demands, comparable to top sport. Dance injuries are often caused by faulty technique due to compensation for physical limitations. Knowledge of these limitations and professional teaching can prevent many problems. Dance injuries mostly involve the lower limbs, especially the ankles and knees. Dance injuries require that the medical professional has knowledge of dance technique and respects the passion of the dancer. The advice to stop dancing has hardly ever to be given. Scientific, prospective dance medical research is recommended.

  3. Risk of injury in African American hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C L; Severson, R K

    2000-10-01

    Very few data exist that describe the risk of injury in African American health care workers, who are highly represented in health care occupations. The present study examined the risk for work-related injury in African American hospital workers. Hospital Occupational Health Service medical records and a hospital human resource database were used to compare risk of injury between African American and white workers after adjusting for gender, age, physical demand of the job, and total hours worked. Risk of work-related injury was 2.3 times higher in African Americans. This difference was not explained by the other independent variables. Differences in injury reporting, intra-job workload, psychosocial factors, and organizational factors are all potential explanations for racial disparity in occupational injury. More research is needed to clarify these findings. PMID:11039167

  4. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  5. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  6. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  7. [Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Sports].

    PubMed

    Tettenborn, B; Mehnert, S; Reuter, I

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves. Depending on etiology, the treatment is primarily conservative and includes physiotherapy, modification of movements and sports equipment, shoe inserts, splinting, antiphlogistic drugs, sometimes local administration of glucocorticoids or, lately, the use of extracorporeal shock waves. Most often, cessation of the offending physical activity is necessary. Surgery is only indicated in the rare cases of direct traumatic nerve injury or when symptoms are refractory to conservative therapy. Prognosis mainly depends on the etiology and the available options of modifying measures.This article is based on the publications "Reuter I, Mehnert S. Engpasssyndrome peripherer Nerven bei Sportlern". Akt Neurol 2012;39:292-308 and Sportverl Sportschad 2013;27:130-146. PMID:27607069

  8. Return to sport after muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephanie; Ning, Anne; Lee, Carlin; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related injuries that result in time lost from practice and competition. The cellular response to muscle injury can often result in changes made to the muscle fibers as well as the surrounding extracellular matrix during repair. This can negatively affect the force and range of the injured muscle even after the patient's return to play. Diagnosis of skeletal muscle injury involves both history and physical examinations; imaging modalities including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used to assess the extent of injury. Current research is investigating potential methods, including clinical factors and MRI, by which to predict a patient's return to sports. Overall, function of acutely injured muscles seems to improve with time. Current treatment methods for skeletal muscle injuries include injections of steroids, anesthetics, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Other proposed methods involve inhibitors of key players in fibrotic pathways, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and angiotensin II, as well as muscle-derived stem cells.

  9. The epidemiology and aetiology of injuries in sailing.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    /person/race (professional) have been reported, with the majority being impact injuries (e.g. contusions, lacerations, fractures and sprains). Helmsmen experience mostly upper-limb overuse injuries as a result of 'steering', while mastmen and bowmen are at greater risk of acute injuries. Illnesses and non-injury-related complaints account for a large proportion of medical conditions in these events. Sailors of all classes and abilities seem to be at risk of injury, particularly from acute impacts with equipment that might be reduced by wearing protective clothing and more ergonomic boat design. High repetition activities, such as hiking, pumping, grinding and steering, are major causes of overuse injury in experienced sailors. Informed coaching of correct technique and appropriate progression of physical and technical developments are required. Competitive sailors should undergo regular health screening with specific strengthening of high-risk muscle groups, synergists and stabilizers. The scarcity of analytical studies of sailing injuries is a major concern, and there is a need for thorough prospective studies.

  10. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  11. Perioperative Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Karsten; Karhausen, Jörn; Clambey, Eric T.; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that a surgical procedure may have been performed for the appropriate indication and in a technically perfect manner, patients are threatened by perioperative organ injury. For example, stroke, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or acute gut injury are among the most common causes for morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the present review, we discuss the pathogenesis of perioperative organ injury, and provide select examples for novel treatment concepts that have emerged over the past decade. Indeed, we believe that research to provide mechanistic insight into acute organ injury and to identify novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention or treatment of perioperative organ injury represents the most important opportunity to improve outcomes of anesthesia and surgery. PMID:24126264

  12. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  13. Soccer injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  14. Injuries in women's basketball.

    PubMed

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  15. Injuries in Swedish elite basketball.

    PubMed

    Colliander, E; Eriksson, E; Herkel, M; Sköld, P

    1986-02-01

    All Swedish male and female elite basketball players were interviewed concerning their injuries during 1981/1982. Fifty-eight percent of the male and 62% of the female players reported injuries. The injury frequency was 2.5 injuries/1,000 activity-hours in male and 2.85 injuries/1,000 hours of activity in female players. This corresponds to 8.6 injuries/male team/season and 7.5 injuries/female team/season. An ankle twist was the most common injury (52%) while a knee injury was involved in 18%. Prophylactic orthoses for knee and ankle are suggested.

  16. Low-frequency wave activity related to dipolarization fronts detected by MMS in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Breuillard, H.; Mirioni, L.; Roux, A.; Chust, T.; Chasapis, A.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Vaivads, A.; Fu, H.; Marklund, G. T.; Nakamura, R.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Fischer, D.; Leinweber, H. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Argall, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Pollock, C. J.; Mauk, B.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts are often associated to reconnection jets in the magnetotail current sheet and are sites of important energy dissipation and particle energization. Since the launch on March 12th and until the 9th of July 2015, the MMS constellation has been moving from dawn to dusk in a string of pearls formation. Although particle instruments were rarely operating and only FIELDS instrument suite was often gathering data, the MMS spacecraft have detected numerous dipolarization fronts, in particular on May 15th. Since 9th of July, the MMS evolved into a tetrahedral configuration with an average inter-satellite distance of 160 km and was still able to detect dipolarization fronts in the dusk magnetotail. As the Larmor radius of thermal protons is about 500 km in this region and dipolarization fronts have a typical thickness of the order of the Larmor radius, such a separation allows us to investigate in detail the microphysics of dipolarization fronts. In this study, we focus in particular on low-frequency electromagnetic wave activity related to the fronts and discuss possible mechanisms of particle heating and acceleration both at large scales (string of pearls configuration) and at kinetic scales (tetrahedral configuration).

  17. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    PubMed

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities. PMID:21380485

  18. Gyrochronology of Low-mass Stars - Age-Rotation-Activity Relations for Young M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Benjamin; Shkolnik, E.; Skiff, B.

    2014-01-01

    New rotation periods for 34 young <300 Myr), early-M dwarfs within 25 parsecs were measured using photometric data collected with telescopes at Lowell Observatory during 2012 and 2013. An additional 25 rotation periods for members of the same sample were found in the literature. Ages were derived from Hα and X-ray emission, lithium absorption, surface gravity, and kinematic association of members of known young moving groups (YMGs). We compared rotation periods with the estimated ages as well as indicators of magnetic activity, with the intention of strengthening age-rotation-activity relations and assessing the possible use of gyrochronology in young, low-mass stars. We compared ages and rotation periods of our target stars to cluster members spanning 1-600 Myr. Rotation periods at every age exhibit a large scatter, with values typically ranging from 0.2 to 15 days. This suggests that gyrochronology for individual field stars will not be possible without a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern angular momentum evolution. Yet, on average, the data still support the predicted trends for spin-up during contraction and spin-down on the main sequence, with the turnover occurring at around 150 Myr for early Ms. This suggests that rotation period distributions can be helpful in evaluating the ages of coeval groups of stars. Many thanks to the National Science Foundation for their support through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant AST- 1004107.

  19. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  20. Lap seat belt injuries.

    PubMed

    Hingston, G R

    1996-08-01

    Over a 4 month period, three patients presented acutely to Whangarei Area Hospital after receiving severe abdominal injuries caused directly by lap seat belts. They were involved in road traffic crashes and were all seated in the middle rear seat of the car. The aim of this paper is to alert people to the injuries that can occur from two point lap belts. To this end, the patients and injuries sustained are described and a review of the literature is presented.

  1. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Apple, D F

    1988-12-01

    In brief: Why have basketball injuries escalated? The author points out that before 1960 basketball was largely a no-contact sport. Since then the amount of body contact allowed has increased, players are larger, and more athletes are playing basketball. In addition to these and other possible reasons for the increase in injuries, the author describes common basketball injuries-contusions, sprains, strains, inflammatory conditions, and stress fractures. He also outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment and makes recommendations.

  2. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  3. Penetrating Cardiac Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lateef Wani, Mohd; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Irshad, Ifat; Ul-Hassan, Nayeem

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent death. Sometimes serious cardiac injury may manifest only subtle or occult symptoms or signs. As there is an epidemic of cardiac injuries in Kashmir valley due to problems of law and order, we herein present a review on management of such injuries. PMID:24829887

  4. Core stability: implications for dance injuries.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Ashley M; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Cortes, Nelson

    2012-09-01

    Dancers experience a high incidence of injury due to the extreme physical demands of dancing. The majority of dance injuries are chronic in nature and occur in the lower extremities and low back. Researchers have indicated decreased core stability (CS) as a risk factor for these injuries. Although decreased CS is suggested to negatively affect lower extremity joint motion and lumbar control during activity, this relationship has not been extensively discussed in previous dance literature. Understanding the relationship between CS and injury risk is important to help reduce dance injury incidence and improve performance. The purposes of this review were to discuss: 1. the core and components of CS, 2. the relationship between CS and injury, 3. CS assessment techniques, and 4. future dance CS research areas. CS is the integration of passive (non-contractile), active (contractile), and neural structures to minimize the effects of external forces and maintain stability. CS is maintained by a combination of muscle power, strength, endurance, and sensory-motor control of the lumbopelvic-hip complex. CS assessments include measuring muscle strength and power using maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic contractions and measuring endurance using the Biering-Sorensen, plank, and lateral plank tests. Measuring sensory-motor control requires specialized equipment (e.g., balance platforms). Overall, limited research has comprehensively examined all components of CS together and their relationships to injury. Rather, previous researchers have separately examined core power, strength, endurance, or sensory-motor control. Future researchers should explore the multifactorial role of CS in reducing injury risk and enhancing performance in dancers.

  5. Imaging of Physeal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jawetz, Shari T.; Shah, Parina H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: As the intensity of youth participation in athletic activities continues to rise, the number of overuse injuries has also increased. A subset of overuse injuries involves the physis, which is extremely susceptible to injury. This paper aims to review the utility of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of physeal injuries in the skeletally immature population. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords pediatric, physis, growth plate, x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and overuse injury was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set for the years of publication. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis on the imaging of growth plate injuries. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Three major imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) complement each other in the evaluation of pediatric patients with overuse injuries. However, magnetic resonance imaging is the only modality that offers direct visualization of the physis, and it also offers the best soft tissue contrast for evaluating the other periarticular structures for concomitant injury. Conclusion: Imaging has an important role in the diagnosis of physeal injuries, and the information it provides has a tremendous impact on the subsequent management of these patients. PMID:25984260

  6. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  7. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  8. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  9. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  10. A prospective investigation of injury incidence and injury risk factors among army recruits in military police training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. Methods At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Results Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. Conclusion The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training. PMID:23327563

  11. Core Injuries Remote from the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Belair, Jeffrey A; Hegazi, Tarek M; Roedl, Johannes B; Zoga, Adam C; Omar, Imran M

    2016-09-01

    The core, or central musculoskeletal system of the torso, is essential for participating in sports and other physical activities. Core injuries are commonly encountered in athletes and active individuals. The importance of the midline pubic plate and rectus abdominis-adductor aponeurosis for core stability and function is discussed in the literature. This review article examines other important core injuries remote from the pubic symphysis, relevant clinical features, and preferred approaches to imaging. Several specific syndromes encountered in the core are reviewed. By protocoling imaging studies and identifying pathology, radiologists can add value to the clinical decision-making process and help guide therapeutic options. PMID:27545427

  12. Physical Education Through Movement in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munz, Lorraine

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents concepts and activities relative to physical education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on adapting physical education to an urban environment, utilizing city resources and instilling skills necessary to cope with…

  13. Cognitive activity relates to cognitive performance but not to Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gidicsin, Christopher M.; Maye, Jacqueline E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Pepin, Lesley C.; Philiossaint, Marlie; Becker, J. Alex; Younger, Alayna P.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Hedden, Trey; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between lifestyle factors and Alzheimer disease biomarkers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated self-reported histories of recent and past cognitive activity, self-reported history of recent physical activity, and objective recent walking activity in 186 clinically normal individuals with mean age of 74 ± 6 years. Using backward elimination general linear models, we tested the hypotheses that greater cognitive or physical activity would be associated with lower Pittsburgh compound B–PET retention, greater 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET metabolism, and larger hippocampal volume, as well as better cognitive performance on neuropsychological testing. Results: Linear regression demonstrated that history of greater cognitive activity was correlated with greater estimated IQ and education, as well as better neuropsychological testing performance. Self-reported recent physical activity was related to objective exercise monitoring. However, contrary to hypotheses, we did not find evidence of an association of Pittsburgh compound B retention, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or hippocampal volume with past or current levels of cognitive activity, or with current physical activity. Conclusions: We conclude that a history of lifelong cognitive activity may support better cognitive performance by a mechanism that is independent of brain β-amyloid burden, brain glucose metabolism, or hippocampal volume. PMID:26062627

  14. Injuries in professional modern dancers: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Shah, Selina; Weiss, David S; Burchette, Raoul J

    2012-03-01

    Modern (or contemporary) dance has become increasingly popular, yet little has been reported with respect to modern dance injuries and their consequences. The purpose of this study is to define the incidence, risk factors, and management of musculoskeletal injuries in professional modern dancers. A total of 184 dancers in the United States completed an anonymous 17-page questionnaire on their injuries, including extensive details regarding the two most severe injuries that had occurred in the prior 12 months. According to their self-reports, a total of 82% of the dancers had suffered between one and seven injuries. The foot and ankle (40%) was the most common site of injury, followed by the lower back (17%) and the knee (16%). The rate of injuries was 0.59 per 1,000 hours of class and rehearsal. Injured male dancers returned to full dancing after a median of 21 days, while females returned after a median of 18 days. Most dancers missed no performances due to injury. Of the medical consultations sought by dancers for their injuries, 47% were made to physicians, 41% to physical therapists, and 34% to chiropractors. The majority of dancers adhered to the advice given them by consultants (87% of males and 78% of females for the most severe injury). While the majority of injuries were considered work-related (61% of the most severe injury and 69% of the second most severe), few were covered by Workers' Compensation insurance (12% and 5% respectively). These professional modern dancers suffer from a rate of injury similar to other groups of professional dancers. Most dancers return to a partial level of dancing several weeks before attempting full-capacity dancing.

  15. Injuries in professional modern dancers: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Shah, Selina; Weiss, David S; Burchette, Raoul J

    2012-03-01

    Modern (or contemporary) dance has become increasingly popular, yet little has been reported with respect to modern dance injuries and their consequences. The purpose of this study is to define the incidence, risk factors, and management of musculoskeletal injuries in professional modern dancers. A total of 184 dancers in the United States completed an anonymous 17-page questionnaire on their injuries, including extensive details regarding the two most severe injuries that had occurred in the prior 12 months. According to their self-reports, a total of 82% of the dancers had suffered between one and seven injuries. The foot and ankle (40%) was the most common site of injury, followed by the lower back (17%) and the knee (16%). The rate of injuries was 0.59 per 1,000 hours of class and rehearsal. Injured male dancers returned to full dancing after a median of 21 days, while females returned after a median of 18 days. Most dancers missed no performances due to injury. Of the medical consultations sought by dancers for their injuries, 47% were made to physicians, 41% to physical therapists, and 34% to chiropractors. The majority of dancers adhered to the advice given them by consultants (87% of males and 78% of females for the most severe injury). While the majority of injuries were considered work-related (61% of the most severe injury and 69% of the second most severe), few were covered by Workers' Compensation insurance (12% and 5% respectively). These professional modern dancers suffer from a rate of injury similar to other groups of professional dancers. Most dancers return to a partial level of dancing several weeks before attempting full-capacity dancing. PMID:22390950

  16. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  17. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    PubMed

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  18. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Awards Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News The Great Trade-In Event Returns to ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  19. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite)  Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  20. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: Child abuse Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite) Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  1. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  2. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Toxopeus, Carolien M; Maurits, Natasha M; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A; Leenders, Klaus L; de Jong, Bauke M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  3. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  4. Severe chainsaw injuries.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, I; Harry, N

    1977-04-01

    A survey of 47 patients who sustained severe chainsaw injuries has been carried out. It shows that this machine, while an extremely useful one, is hazardous. Most of the patients were young, and over half of the injuries involved a hand. One fatality was recorded.

  5. Epidemiology of waterskiing injuries.

    PubMed

    Banta, J V

    1979-06-01

    Coast Guard statistics indicate a national boating fatality rate of 9.6 deaths per 100,000 crafts. In 1977 in California, five fatalities and 70 serious injuries were directly attributable to waterskiing. The four cases reported here include three patients with propeller injuries, including one nearly fatal amputation. In each case basic measures for boating safety were overlooked.

  6. Management of Tracheobronchial Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Altinok, Tamer; Can, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Tracheobronchial injury is one of cases which are relatively uncommon, but must be suspected to make the diagnosis and managed immediately. In such a case, primary initial goals are to stabilize the airway and localize the injury and then determine its extend. These can be possible mostly with flexible bronchoscopy conducted by a surgeon who can repair the injury. Most of the penetrating injuries occur in the cervical region. On the other hand, most of the blunt injuries occur in the distal trachea and right main bronchus and they can be best approached by right posterolateral thoracotomy. The selection of the manner and time of approaching depends on the existence and severity of additional injuries. Most of the injuries can be restored by deploying simple techniques such as individual sutures, while some of them requires complex reconstruction techniques. Apart from paying attention to the pulmonary toilet, follow-up is crucial for determination of anastomotic technique or stenosis. Conservative treatment may be considered an option with a high probability of success in patients meeting the criteria, especially in patients with iatrogenic tracheobronchial injury. PMID:25610327

  7. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  8. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  9. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  10. Sports injuries and society.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Injuries are classified and examples of the ways in which they can arise are given. Treatment, rehabilitation and the value of exercise are considered. A review of the effects of increasing leisure time and sports have been given, the value of legislation, education, protective clothing and close supervision in preventing the occurrence of injuries in sport is discussed. Images p80-a PMID:7248691

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... a concussion may feel dazed and may lose vision or balance for a while after the injury A brain contusion is a bruise of the brain. This ... consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ... or severe traumatic brain injury include all of the symptoms listed above ...

  12. Wrist injuries in sport.

    PubMed

    Howse, C

    1994-03-01

    The wrist is a complex joint that biomechanically transmits forces generated at the hand through to the forearm. The radial side of the wrist carries 80% of the axial load and the ulnar side the remaining 20% of the load. The incidence of wrist (and hand) injuries in the sporting population is approximately 25%. This tends to be higher in those sports using the hand and wrist, and when the potential for trauma is present. The injuries are divided into 4 categories: overuse, nerve (and vascular), traumatic, and weight-bearing injuries. Overuse injuries are common in sports involving the hand and wrist, such as racquet sports, netball, basketball and volleyball. Nerve injuries are more commonly compressive neuropathies, and are seen with cyclists who may compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. Vascular injuries are uncommon and usually result from a high velocity impact from balls. Traumatic injuries are the most common and are due to either a fall on to the wrist, a direct blow, or combination of a rotatory and torsional force. The weight-bearing injuries are more specific to gymnastics, and result from repetitive excessive compressive and rotational forces across the wrist. The pommel horse event is associated with a high incidence of wrist pain in male competitors. Arthroscopy of the wrist provides direct inspection of intra-articular structures and diagnosis of conditions that may be unclear with other investigations. As techniques advance, more conditions may be treated arthroscopically and potentially facilitate an earlier return to sport.

  13. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey.

  14. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  15. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  16. Spinal cord injury and outdoor experiences.

    PubMed

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence from spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation clients suggests that nature experiences and outdoor pursuits are valued ingredients in a SCI rehabilitation program, in particular for those individuals who were outdoor enthusiasts pre-injury and/or who sustained their injury during outdoor pursuits. Model SCI centres in North America offer outdoor activities as components of SCI rehabilitation. A literature review on the effects and dynamics of nature experiences and outdoor pursuits in SCI rehabilitation and adjustment reveals a lacuna of empirical research in this area. Studies on leisure and recreation following SCI offer insights into how non-vocational rehabilitation activities assist functional independence, quality of life, and community re-integration. Systematic research is needed to ascertain the value and contribution of outdoor experiences in SCI rehabilitation; further, research is needed to document how contact with 'blue-green nature' may assist in the identity reconstruction process and in adjustment to life with a physical disability.

  17. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression and elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25098362

  18. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  19. COX-2 inhibitors are contraindicated for treatment of combined injury.

    PubMed

    Jiao, W; Kiang, J G; Cary, L; Elliott, T B; Pellmar, T C; Ledney, G D

    2009-12-01

    Casualties of radiation dispersal devices, nuclear detonation or major ionizing radiation accidents, in addition to radiation exposure, may sustain physical and/or thermal trauma. Radiation exposure plus additional tissue trauma is known as combined injury. There are no definitive therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme expressed in pathological disorders and radiation injury, plays an important role in inflammation and the production of cytokines and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and could therefore affect the outcome for victims of combined injury. The COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and meloxicam were evaluated for their therapeutic value against combined injury in mice. In survival studies, the COX-2 inhibitors had no beneficial effect on 30-day survival, wound healing or body weight gain after radiation injury alone or after combined injury. Meloxicam accelerated death in both wounded and combined injury mice. These drugs also induced severe hepatic toxicity, exaggerated inflammatory processes, and did not enhance hematopoietic cell regeneration. This study points to potential contraindications for use of COX-2 inhibitors in patients undergoing therapy for radiation injury and combined injury. PMID:19929415

  20. Functional properties of monkey caudate neurons. I. Activities related to saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, O; Sakamoto, M; Usui, S

    1989-04-01

    1. We recorded single cell activities in the caudate nucleus of the monkeys trained to perform a series of visuomotor tasks. In the first part of this paper, we summarize the types and locations of neurons in the monkey caudate nucleus. In the second part, we report the characteristics of neurons related to saccadic eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified into two types in terms of spontaneous discharge pattern. A majority of the neurons (2,287/2,559, 89%) had very low-frequency discharges (mostly less than 1 Hz). The rest (n = 272) showed irregular-tonic discharges (3-8 Hz) with broad spikes. 3. Of 2,559 neurons tested, 867 showed spike activity related to some aspects of the tasks; 502 neurons showed discharges in response to environmental changes outside, not in relation to, the tasks. None of the neurons responsive in or outside the tasks belonged to the irregular-tonic type. 4. The task-related activities were classified as: Saccade-related, Visual, Auditory, Cognitive, Fixation-related, and Reward-related. The activities detected outside the tasks were classified into: Visual, Auditory, Movement-related, Reward-related, and Other. Few neurons had both task-related and task-unrelated activities. 5. The locations of recorded neurons were determined using a coordinate system based on the anterior and posterior commissures. Task-related neurons were clustered longitudinally in the central part of the caudate. Neurons responsive outside the tasks were more widely distributed; specifically, auditory neurons were in the medial part, whereas movement-related neurons were in the lateral part. The irregular-tonic neurons were dispersed all over the caudate. 6. The monkey was trained to fixate on a spot of light on the screen and, when the spot moved, to follow it by making a saccade. A visually guided saccade occurred when the spot moved to another location without a time gap (saccade task). A memory-guided saccade occurred when the spot first disappeared and after a

  1. Social Support, Stress, and Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B; And Others

    Social support has been considered an important coping resource moderating the stress associated with physical illness and disability. The role of social support as a buffering agent for stressful life events inherent in physical illness and disability was examined in 78 individuals with spinal cord injury, residing in community settings in…

  2. Exercise and sport for persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Jörgensen, Sophie; Stapleton, Jessica

    2012-11-01

    This review article provides an overview of the evidence that links exercise and sports participation to physical and psychological well-being among people with spinal cord injury. Two aspects of physical well-being are examined, including the prevention of chronic disease and the promotion of physical fitness. Multiple aspects of psychosocial well-being are discussed, including mental health, social participation, and life satisfaction. The review concludes with future research recommendations and a discussion of challenges and opportunities for using exercise and sports to promote health and well-being among people living with spinal cord injury.

  3. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  4. Factors Influencing Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Among U.S. Military Recruits.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Joseph M

    2016-06-01

    Running-related musculoskeletal injuries among U.S. military recruits negatively impact military readiness. Low aerobic fitness, prior injury, and weekly running distance are known risk factors. Physical fitness screening and remedial physical training (or discharging the most poorly fit recruits) before entry-level military training have tended to reduce injury rates while decreasing attrition, training, and medical costs. Incorporating anaerobic running sessions into training programs can offset decreased weekly running distance and decrease injury risk. Varying lower extremity loading patterns, stride length or cadence manipulation, and hip stability/strengthening programming may further decrease injury risk. No footstrike pattern is ideal for all runners; transitioning to forefoot striking may reduce risk for hip, knee, or tibial injuries, but increase risk for calf, Achilles, foot or ankle injuries. Minimal evidence associates running surfaces with injury risk. Footwear interventions should focus on proper fit and comfort; the evidence does not support running shoe prescription per foot type to reduce injury risk among recruits. Primary injury mitigation efforts should focus on physical fitness screening, remedial physical training (or discharge for unfit recruits), and continued inclusion of anaerobic running sessions to offset decreased weekly running distance. PMID:27244060

  5. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  6. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery.

  7. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  8. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence. PMID:26630104

  9. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence.

  10. Findings from the preparticipation athletic examination and athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Pendergrast, R A; Seymore, C; Gaillard, G; Donner, J

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the findings from a standardized preparticipation athletic examination, the sport played, and athletic injuries requiring treatment by a physician and/or requiring the athlete to miss one or more games. Of public high school students receiving a preparticipation athletic examination during the 1989-1990 academic year, 674 (56%) either completed a telephone interview or returned a mailed questionnaire at the end of the academic year. The sample consisted of 408 (60.5%) blacks and 243 (36.1%) whites; 470 (69.7%) of the subjects were males. The subjects ranged in age from 13 to 20 years (mean +/- SD, 16.1 +/- 1.2 years), and participated in at least 10 school sports. Injuries were reported by 29.5% of the athletes. The highest proportion of athletes injured occurred among male football (36.3%), female basketball (33.3%), male baseball (19.4%), male soccer (17.2%), and female track and field (15.8%) participants. Responses by the athletes and their parents on the standardized health history were significantly associated with injuries in several specific areas. Knee injuries were associated with previous knee injuries, knee surgery, and history of injuries requiring medical treatment. Ankle injuries were associated with previous ankle injuries and previous injuries requiring medical treatment. Both arm and other leg injuries were associated with previous fractures. Male athletes with either abnormal knee or ankle findings from the physical examination were more likely to injure the knee or ankle, respectively. However, the sensitivities and positive predictive values of these relationships are weak. These data suggest that the preparticipation athletic examination may not predict certain athletic injuries and that additional prevention efforts for specific body areas of injury are needed in certain sports.

  11. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  12. Power lawnmower injuries.

    PubMed

    Robertson, William W

    2003-04-01

    Power lawnmowers are among the most ubiquitous household tools, yet they pose significant danger to operator and bystanders. Despite of the United States Consumer Products Safety Commission's push to have safety standards established for walk-behind mowers in 1982 and for ride-on mowers in 1986, by 2000 approximately 80,000 injuries nationwide were estimated to be associated with power mowers. Large numbers of these injuries are thought to be preventable, especially those to individuals younger than 14 years. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a significant number of the injuries associated with mower use including lacerations, amputations, fractures, infections, and skin defects. Therefore, the orthopaedic community has a stake in the prevention and outcome of these injuries. To date, changes in mower design have seemed to be more successful than user education programs in decreasing the numbers of these injuries. Involving orthopaedists in safety education programs to help prevent injuries associated with power mower use may be one method of increasing user knowledge and preventing injury. PMID:12671483

  13. The prehospital management of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Scott A; Rojanasarntikul, Dhanadol; Jagoda, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability, particularly in younger populations. The prehospital evaluation and management of TBI is a vital link between insult and definitive care and can have dramatic implications for subsequent morbidity. Following a TBI the brain is at high risk for further ischemic injury, with prehospital interventions targeted at reducing this secondary injury while optimizing cerebral physiology. In the following chapter we discuss the prehospital assessment and management of the brain-injured patient. The initial evaluation and physical examination are discussed with a focus on interpretation of specific physical examination findings and interpretation of vital signs. We evaluate patient management strategies including indications for advanced airway management, oxygenation, ventilation, and fluid resuscitation, as well as prehospital strategies for the management of suspected or impending cerebral herniation including hyperventilation and brain-directed hyperosmolar therapy. Transport decisions including the role of triage models and trauma centers are discussed. Finally, future directions in the prehospital management of traumatic brain injury are explored.

  14. Measuring sports injuries on the pitch: a guide to use in practice

    PubMed Central

    Hespanhol, Luiz C.; Barboza, Saulo D.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended. PMID:26537807

  15. Epidemiology of injuries: current trends and future challenges.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, E J

    2000-01-01

    For the above challenges to be met, it will be important for the field of injury epidemiology to move from the largely descriptive studies that have predominated in the literature to the application of more rigorous analytical methods for defining the underlying casual patterns of injury. Studies focusing on the descriptive epidemiology of injury have and will continue to serve the field well, perhaps even more so than in other fields, since the proximal etiology of injuries (i.e., acute exposure to physical agents such as mechanical energy) is well known. However, major new advances in the prevention of injuries will continue to require a more analytical approach to understanding the complex array of factors that influence the incidence, severity, and outcomes of injury. At the same time, it will be important for investigators in this field to conduct rigorous evaluations of new interventions to better inform the establishment of programs and policies. These evaluations must include assessments of both the effectiveness and the costs of the intervention. For example, in a recently published systematic review of 10 different strategies for preventing motor vehicle injuries, 54,708 papers and reports were identified in the literature but only 161 met the initial screening criteria for inclusion in the published review (44). Of these, a much smaller number were randomized controlled trials or well executed controlled time series trials. Major advancements in the prevention and control of injuries will continue to rely on effective collaborations between epidemiologists and scientists from other disciplines, including the behavioral sciences, sociology, criminology, law, engineering, and biomechanics. Only through truly collaborative efforts across these disciplines will we be able to establish a foundation for cost-effective interventions. For example, understanding the principles of injury mechanics and the physical and physiologic responses of the human body to the

  16. Diagnosis and management of lisfranc injuries and metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Gotha, Heather E; Lareau, Craig R; Fellars, Todd A

    2013-05-01

    Forefoot and midfoot injuries are relatively common and can lead to chronic disability, especially if they are not promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated. A focused history and physical examination must be coupled with a thorough review of imaging studies to identify the correct diagnosis. Subtle radiographic changes can represent significant ligamentous Lisfranc injury. Midfoot swelling in the presence of plantar ecchymosis should be considered to be a Lisfranc injury until proven otherwise. While most metatarsal fractures can be treated with some form of immobilization and protected weight-bearing, this article will distinguish these more common injuries from those requiring surgical intervention. We will review relevant anatomy and biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, imaging studies, and diagnostic techniques and treatment.

  17. Sport injuries: relations to sex, sport, injured body region.

    PubMed

    Dane, Senol; Can, Süleyman; Gürsoy, Recep; Ezirmik, Naci

    2004-04-01

    The present study evaluated the association among sex, sport, and injured body region of sport injuries. The subjects were 329 men and 127 women, ranging in age from 17 to 28 years, attending classes in the departments of Physical Training and Sport of Atatürk University (Erzurum, Erzincan, and Ağri in Turkey). There were no differences between men and women in percentages of injuries. The difference among various sports in the percentages of injured athletes was statistically significant. Running had the lowest percentage of injuries and basketball had the highest percentage. The most frequently injured body regions were the foot and the ankle in basketball, volleyball, soccer, and running, but in wrestling, the knee. These findings suggest that injury rates are associated with the sport rather than sex of player, and the most frequently injured body regions are the lower extremities. Therefore, the muscles of lower extremity should be strengthened to avoid injuries.

  18. Skateboard and scooter injuries.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Skateboard-related injuries account for an estimated 50 000 emergency department visits and 1500 hospitalizations among children and adolescents in the United States each year. Nonpowered scooter-related injuries accounted for an estimated 9400 emergency department visits between January and August 2000, and 90% of these patients were children younger than 15 years. Many such injuries can be avoided if children and youth do not ride in traffic, if proper protective gear is worn, and if, in the absence of close adult supervision, skateboards and scooters are not used by children younger than 10 and 8 years, respectively.

  19. [Skateboard injuries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stürz, H; Rosemeyer, B

    1979-04-01

    Following the introduction of skateboards into Germany in 1976 an increasing number of accidents and injuries have been noted, affecting mainly children 10 to 14 years of age. The causes were lack of experience and the careless use of the boards on public streets. More than 30% of injuries were fractures mainly affecting the upper limb. Because of the frequent involvement of the epiphyseal plates the post-accidental growth may be seriously disturbed. Severe and sometimes fatal head or abdominal injuries have been reported, mainly after collision with cars.

  20. Closed kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Viola, Tracey A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the prevalence of blunt renal trauma and the nature of the problem, including the risk of renal injury with sports participation and epidemiology. Patient history of mechanism of injury, as well as examination findings, will risk-stratify patients to determine who needs immediate surgical intervention, who requires imaging, and what patients do not need further imaging. Computed tomography is readily available, fast, and accurate in the diagnosis of renal injury. Discussion of the athlete with congenital renal disease and the solitary kidney concludes this article.

  1. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  2. Recreational scuba diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Clenney, T L; Lassen, L F

    1996-04-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of recreational scuba diving, primary care physicians should be familiar with common diving injuries. One form of barotrauma, middle ear squeeze, is the most common diving injury. Other important diving injuries include inner ear barotrauma and pulmonary barotrauma. Arterial gas embolism, a potentially life-threatening form of pulmonary barotrauma, requires hyperbaric treatment. Decompression sickness is the result of bubble formation in body tissue. Symptoms of decompression sickness range from joint pain to neurologic or pulmonary problems. Recompression is the mainstay of treatment.

  3. Epidemiology of paediatric injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, A J

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of young lives are lost every year as a result of accidents, and trauma remains the number one cause of paediatric death. There is a pattern and regularity to children's injury: boys are more often victims than the girls, most injuries occur during the summer months, the pedestrian child has usually been the victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and, in 75% of these cases, has suffered head injury. The research into paediatric trauma is still very young. For instance, socio-economic and ethnic factors play a significant role in the statistics of accidental death. In order to take effective preventative measures more factors must be determined. PMID:7921561

  4. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels!

  5. Psychological Distress following Injury in a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injury and psychological distress are public health priorities because of their high occurrence in the population. This study examines the longitudinal effects of injury characteristics on psychological distress. Methods Study participants were enrolled distance learning Thai adults (N = 42,785 at 2013 follow-up) residing nationwide. We analysed 2009 and 2013 data. Injury questions included injury prevalence, causes and levels of severity. Distress was measured using the standard Kessler-6. To assess the risk for post-injury distress, we used multinomial logistic regression investigating psychological distress in 2013 as an outcome including injury categories in both 2009 and 2013 as predictors, adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Results Overall injury was predictive of psychological distress. Both types of injury (traffic and non- traffic) associated with increasing psychological distress. Those that had experienced both types of injuries in the previous year had higher odds of developing psychological distress compared to those who experienced just one type. In 2013, adjusted psychological distress odds ratios were 1.46 [95% Confidence Interval 1.14–1.87] for traffic injury only; 1.26 [1.13–1.40] for non-traffic injury only; and 2.71 [2.19–3.35] for both traffic and non-traffic injuries. Increasing frequency of injury and increasing injury severity were also linked to elevated psychological distress among our Thai cohort members. Conclusions Our results revealed a significantly high risk of psychological distress following injury. With increasing occurrence of injury, especially traffic injuries in low and middle income countries such as Thailand, future policies should not only focus on physical care but also address psychological distress as an important consequence of injury. PMID:27776133

  6. Injuries in Elite Figure Skaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Robert M.; Striowski, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to examine the number, nature, and etiology of injuries to 60 Canadian nationally ranked figure skaters over a one-year period. Twenty-eight of the respondents reported having a significant injury during the year. Forty-three percent of the injuries were overuse injuries. (MT)

  7. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  8. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of injury are alive and easily get educational information on the Internet. Web happy. sites such as the National Spinal Cord Injury Association (www.spinalcord.org) and SPINAL CORD Injury ♦ “Because of my injury, it is now impossible for me Information Network (www.spinalcord.uab.edu) have to ever ...

  9. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  10. 76 FR 81508 - Communications and Activities Related to Off-Label Uses of Marketed Products and Use of Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... investigational products. For example, in the Federal Register of May 22, 1987 (52 FR 19466), the Agency published....'' (52 FR 19466 at 19475). II. FDA Is Seeking Comments on Communications and Activities Related to Off... ``commercialization'' of the drug (see 74 FR 40872 at 40890, August 13, 2009; 52 FR 19466 at 19467). What...

  11. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  12. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  13. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., having the same relationship to a Partner State as described in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A) through (b)(2)(i... outer space, or in transit between Earth and outer space in implementation of the IGA, MOUs concluded... activities related to evolution of the ISS, as provided for in Article 14 of the IGA. “Protected...

  14. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER OF LIABILITY § 1266.102 Cross-waiver...

  15. 48 CFR 52.225-25 - Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... development of the petroleum resources of Iran, production of refined petroleum products in Iran, sale and... Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification. 52.225-25 Section 52.225-25 Federal Acquisition... Relating to Iran—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(e), insert the following provision: PROHIBITION...

  16. Neuroepidemiology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A J; Zafonte, R

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old). It is estimated that approximately 1.5-2 million Americans suffer from TBI annually. TBIs account for around 1.4 million emergency room visits, 275 000 hospital admissions, and 52 000 deaths in the USA each year. TBI contributes to approximately 30% of all deaths in the USA annually. In Australia, it is estimated that approximately 338 700 individuals (1.9% of the population) suffer from a disability related to TBI. Of these, 160 200 were severely or profoundly affected by acquired brain injury, requiring daily support. In the UK, TBI accounted for 3.4% of all emergency department attendances annually. An overall rate of 453 per 100 000 was found for all TBI severities, of which 40 per 100 000 (10.9%) were moderate to severe. TBI often results in residual symptoms that affect an individual's cognition, movement, sensation, and/or emotional functioning. Recovery and rehabilitation from TBI may require considerable resources and may take years. Some individuals never fully recover, and some require lifetime ongoing care and support. TBI has an enormous social and financial cost, with estimates of the annual financial burden associated with TBI ranging between 9 and 10 billion US dollars. PMID:27637960

  17. Conservative management of abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Okuş, Ahmet; Sevinç, Barış; Ay, Serden; Arslan, Kemal; Karahan, Ömer; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-operative management of abdominal injuries has recently become more common. Especially non-operative treatment of blunt abdominal trauma is gaining wide acceptance. In this study, the efficacy of non-operative treatment in abdominal trauma (blunt penetrating) is discussed. Material and Methods: All patients who received treatment due to abdominal trauma from November 2008 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, injured organ, type of treatment (operative vs. nonoperative) and mortality data were evaluated. Results: The study includes 115 patients treated for abdominal trauma in our department. The mechanism of trauma was stab wounds in 60%, blunt abdominal trauma in 23.5% and gunshot wounds in 16.5%. Forty-two patients (36.5%) were operated for hemodynamic instability and/or peritonitis on admission. The remaining 63.5% of patients (n=73) were treated nonoperatively, 10 of whom required laparotomy during follow-up. The remaining 63 patients were treated with non-operative management. The success rate for non-operative treatment was 86.3% and there was no difference in terms of the types of injuries. The mortality rate was 4.3% (n= 5) in the whole series, but there were no deaths among the patients who had received non-operative treatment. In the whole patient group 54.2% (n=63) were treated nonoperatively. Conclusion: Nonoperative treatment in abdominal trauma is safe and effective. Patients with clinical stability and normal physical examination findings can be treated nonoperatively with close monitoring. PMID:25931868

  18. Young Thinkers in Motion: Problem Solving and Physics in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Julia; Hamilton, Ashley; Oxley, Emilie; Eastman, Angela Mitroff; Brent, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Physics is the study of forces and motion--the science of matter and energy and the interaction between the two. The big idea the children explore, as well as the question they ask as they engage in physical knowledge activities related to physics, is "How does it move?" Many teachers translate naturally as they come to know the children they…

  19. Penetrating neck injury from a screwdriver: can the No Zone approach be applied to Zone I injuries?

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikita R; McMonagle, Morgan

    2015-11-27

    The newer approach to management of penetrating neck injuries (PNI) involves the No Zone approach: comprehensive physical examination combined with CT angiography for triage to effectively identify or exclude vascular and aerodigestive injury. This approach, however, has a low negative exploration rate; there is risk of missing occult injuries especially Zone I and III PNI. We report a case of a patient with PNI to Zone I of the neck who was haemodynamically stable at presentation; CT scan revealed complete occlusion of the common carotid artery. Immediate surgical exploration revealed an occult hypopharyngeal injury in addition to the arterial trauma, which was missed on the CT scan. Hence the No Zone approach needs cautious clinical application, especially in Zone I injuries.

  20. Partition, sorption and structure activity relation study of dialkoxybenzenes that modulate insect behavior.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Parisa; Spooner, Jacob; Weinberg, Noham; Plettner, Erika

    2013-09-01

    Some dialkoxybenzenes are promising new insect control agents. These compounds mimic naturally occurring odorants that modulate insect behavior. Before applying these compounds, however, their persistence and biodegradability at the application site and in the environment should be understood. The fate of organic compounds in the environment is a complex phenomenon which is influenced by many processes such as sorption to soil components, sedimentation, volatilization, and uptake by plants, as well as biotic and abiotic chemical degradation. In this study, the octanol-water partition coefficient, volatility and sorption on soil components (sand, clay and organic matter) of selected dialkoxybenzenes as well as structure activity relationships with regard to partition, volatility and sorption were investigated. Additionally, calculations of partition, molar volume and molecular surface areas were done, to understand structure-activity relationships of the physical properties.