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Sample records for physical activityand dietary

  1. Physical activity and dietary habits among Moroccan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamrani, Abdeslam; Mehdad, Slimane; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Menchawy, Imane; Belghiti, Hakim; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Hills, Andrew P; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to detail the lifestyle (physical activity and dietary habits) of Moroccan adolescents. Cross-sectional study undertaken in the framework of the ATLS (Arab Teens Lifestyle Study). Physical activity and dietary habits were determined using a validated questionnaire in public secondary schools. A total of 669 adolescents aged 15.0-19.9 years were randomly recruited from Kenitra, Morocco. Physical activity patterns and intensity differed between genders. As anticipated, male adolescents were more active than female adolescents across a typical week and engaged in more vigorous-intensity physical activity than female adolescents, who spent more time than male adolescents in moderate-intensity physical activity. Of particular concern was that one in five of the adolescents surveyed was inactive, with almost 45% of the sample reporting television viewing for more than 2 h/d and 38% engaged in computer use for a similar period. From a dietary perspective, most adolescents reported that they do not take breakfast or consume milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables on a daily basis. In contrast, most reported consumption of doughnuts, cakes, candy and chocolate more than three times per week and approximately 50% consumed sugary drinks more than three times per week. Based on a continuation of the self-reported lifestyle behaviours, adolescents in the present study are at risk of developing chronic diseases. Education programmes are urgently needed to assist in the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and reduce the likelihood of overweight and obesity and related health risks among young people.

  2. Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Impaired Physical Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Ellen A; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; López-García, Esther

    2016-10-19

    Information about nutritional risk factors of functional limitation is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Mediterranean diet and risk of physical function impairment in older adults. We used data from 1,630 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥60 years. In 2008-2010, adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was measured with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Study participants were followed up through 2012 to assess incident impairment in agility and mobility as well as impairment in overall physical functioning, defined as a ≥5-point decrease from baseline to follow-up in the physical component summary of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we identified 343 individuals with agility limitation, 212 with mobility limitation, and 457 with decreased overall physical functioning. No association was found between the MDS score and the likelihood of impaired agility or mobility, although a 2-point increment in the MDS score was marginally associated with lower likelihood for decreased overall physical function. Compared to individuals in the lowest tertile of the MEDAS score, those in the highest tertile showed a lower odds of agility limitation (odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.48; 0.94, p trend = .02), mobility limitation (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.88, p trend = .01), and decreased overall physical functioning (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.45; 0.79, p trend < .001). In this prospective cohort study, a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, especially when measured with the MEDAS, was associated with a lower likelihood of physical function impairment in older adults.

  3. Physical Inactivity Differentially Alters Dietary Oleate and Palmitate Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Trudel, Guy; Simon, Chantal; Chopard, Angèle; Schoeller, Dale A.; Momken, Iman; Votruba, Susanne B.; Desage, Michel; Burdge, Graham C.; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Normand, Sylvie; Blanc, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Obesity and diabetes are characterized by the incapacity to use fat as fuel. We hypothesized that this reduced fat oxidation is secondary to a sedentary lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We investigated the effect of a 2-month bed rest on the dietary oleate and palmitate trafficking in lean women (control group, n = 8) and the effect of concomitant resistance/aerobic exercise training as a countermeasure (exercise group, n = 8). Trafficking of stable isotope–labeled dietary fats was combined with muscle gene expression and magnetic resonance imaging–derived muscle fat content analyses. RESULTS— In the control group, bed rest increased the cumulative [1-13C]oleate and [d31]palmitate appearance in triglycerides (37%, P = 0.009, and 34%, P = 0.016, respectively) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (37%, P = 0.038, and 38%, P = 0.002) and decreased muscle lipoprotein lipase (P = 0.043) and fatty acid translocase CD36 (P = 0.043) mRNA expressions. Plasma NEFA-to-triglyceride ratios for [1-13C]oleate and [d31]palmitate remained unchanged, suggesting that the same proportion of tracers enters the peripheral tissues after bed rest. Bed rest did not affect [1-13C]oleate oxidation but decreased [d31]palmitate oxidation by −8.2 ± 4.9% (P < 0.0001). Despite a decreased spontaneous energy intake and a reduction of 1.9 ± 0.3 kg (P = 0.001) in fat mass, exercise training did not mitigate these alterations but partially maintained fat-free mass, insulin sensitivity, and total lipid oxidation in fasting and fed states. In both groups, muscle fat content increased by 2.7% after bed rest and negatively correlated with the reduction in [d31]palmitate oxidation (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS— While saturated and monounsaturated fats have similar plasma trafficking and clearance, physical inactivity affects the partitioning of saturated fats toward storage, likely leading to an accumulation of palmitate in muscle fat. PMID:19017764

  4. "Monkey see, monkey do": Peers' behaviors predict preschoolers' physical activity and dietary intake in childcare centers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stéphanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Boudreau, Jonathan; Vatanparast, Hassan; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Leis, Anne; Humbert, M Louise; Carrier, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Preschoolers observe and imitate the behaviors of those who are similar to them. Therefore, peers may be role models for preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers. This study examined whether peers' behaviors predict change in preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers over 9months. A total of 238 preschoolers (3 to 5years old) from 23 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces provided data at the beginning (October 2013 and 2014) and the end (June 2014 and 2015) of a 9-month period for this longitudinal study. Dietary intake was collected at lunch using weighed plate waste and digital photography on two consecutive weekdays. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers over five days. Multilevel linear regressions were used to estimate the influence of peers' behaviors on preschoolers' change in dietary intake and physical activity over 9months. Results showed that preschoolers whose dietary intake or physical activity level deviated the most from those of their peers at the beginning of the year demonstrated greater change in their intakes and activity levels over 9months, which enabled them to become more similar to their peers (all β 95% CI ranged from -0.835 to -0.074). This study suggests that preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity may be influenced by the behaviors of their peers in childcare centers. Since peers could play an important role in promoting healthy eating behaviors and physical activity in childcare centers, future studies should test interventions based on positive role modeling by children.

  5. Predicting change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and physique anxiety in adolescent girls: examining covariance in physical self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Peter; Sabiston, Catherine; Forrestor, Shannon; Kowalski, Nanette; Kowalski, Kent; McDonough, Meghan

    2003-01-01

    To examine: i) the mean changes in adolescent females' body mass index (BMI), global self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, social physique anxiety, physical activity, and dietary restraint; ii) the stability of measuring self-perceptions, BMI, self-esteem, physique anxiety, activity, and dietary restraint; and iii) the relationships among changes in these variables over 12 months. 631 female adolescents (15-16 years old) involved in a two-year study of self-report measures completed validated questionnaires in high school classroom settings. There were small but significant group increases in BMI and social physique anxiety and significant decreases in sport, conditioning, and strength physical self-perceptions and physical activity. Stability analysis indicates moderate to strong stability for all variables. Change analyses indicated that BMI, due to its high stability, is a poor predictor of change in all variables. Stronger significant correlations were noted between change in body appearance self-perceptions and change in social physique anxiety (r=-0.54) and dietary restraint (r=-0.27). There was also a significant relationship between change in physical activity and the physical self-perceptions, although conditioning was the only significant (p<0.05) predictor of change in physical activity (beta=0.340). Physical self-perceptions are a stronger predictor of change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and social physique anxiety compared to BMI. This demonstrates the importance of physical self-perceptions when investigating health-related behaviours associated with dieting and physical activity. The decline in physical activity and increase in BMI is an ongoing concern, as is the link between body appearance self-perceptions and dietary restraint and social physique anxiety.

  6. The association between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat in American adults.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E J; Byers, T; Coates, R J; Serdula, M K; Mokdad, A H; Heath, G W

    1995-01-01

    Relations between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat were examined in a population-based probability sample of 29,672 adults in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Consumption of 13 high-fat food items and participation in physical activities were measured, and fat and activity scores were calculated. Dietary fat and physical activity were strongly and inversely associated. This association was independent of nine other demographic and behavioral risk factors. Etiologic researchers should consider that diet and physical activity can potentially confound each other, and creators of public health messages that target one behavior should consider including the other. PMID:7856785

  7. Guided goal setting: effectiveness in a dietary and physical activity intervention with low-income adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of the guided goal setting strategy on changing adolescents' dietary and physical activity self-efficacy and behaviors. Adolescents were individually assigned to treatment (intervention with guided goal setting) or control conditions (intervention without guided goal setting) with data collected before and after the education intervention. Urban middle school in a low-income community in Central California. Ethnically diverse middle school students (n = 94, 55% male) who were participants of a USDA nutrition education program. Driven by the Social Cognitive Theory, the intervention targeted dietary and physical activity behaviors of adolescents. Dietary self-efficacy and behavior; physical activity self-efficacy and behavior; goal effort and spontaneous goal setting. ANCOVA and path analysis were performed using the full sample and a sub-sample informed by Locke's recommendations (accounting for goal effort and spontaneous goal setting). No significant differences were found between groups using the full sample. Using the sub-sample, greater gains in dietary behavior (p < .05), physical activity behavior (p < .05), and physical activity self-efficacy (p < .05) were made by treatment participants compared to control participants. Change in physical activity behaviors was mediated by self-efficacy. Accounting for goal effort and spontaneous goal setting, this study provides some evidence that the use of guided goal setting with adolescents may be a viable strategy to promote dietary and physical activity behavior change.

  8. Physical activity, nutritional status, and dietary habits of students of a medical university.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Tomczak, Andrzej; Krulikowska, Natalia; Przysławski, Juliusz; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta

    Nutritional habits and physical activity influence the health status of young adults. In this study, we engaged a group of 151 students from a medical university (90 female and 61 male subjects). Anthropometric parameters, dietary habits (a 7-day dietary recall), and level of physical activity were measured. It was found that the daily food rations of female (F) and male (M) students were improperly balanced and characterized by high amount of total and animal protein, phosphorus, vitamin A, cholesterol, and insufficient intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and vitamin C. Female subjects consumed low amounts of total fat and calcium. The intake of protein (total and animal), fat, phosphorus, and cholesterol correlated with higher body mass. The physical activity of the students was found to be higher than the average physical activity of the European Union populations, and a general tendency of lowering level of physical activity with age was observed. Students with the highest level of physical activity (MET > 1500) consumed lower amounts of simple carbohydrates (galactose and saccharose) when compared to students with lower physical activity (MET < 600, p < 0.05). Therefore, this study concluded that the dietary habits should be modified to prevent the development of diet-dependent diseases. Various forms of physical activity should be proposed to students and they should be encouraged to participate in high level of physical activity so as to promote good health status.

  9. Assessment of weight status, dietary habits and beliefs, physical activity, and nutritional knowledge among university students.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  10. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qian-fen; Tu, Ling; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-12-18

    Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers' HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  11. Impact of dietary intake, education, and physical activity on bone mineral density among North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Soniya; Orito, Seiya; Ishitani, Ken; Ohta, Hiroaki

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of dietary nutrients and bone mineral density (BMD) in North Indian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to March 2008. Subjects included 255 healthy women, aged 20-69 years, who were relatives of patients being admitted in the hospital. Various demographic characteristics including socioeconomic status and serum parameters in relationship to BMD were evaluated. In addition, the daily dietary intake of energy, protein, fat, and calcium and the amount of physical activity were assessed. BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and educational level were positively correlated with BMD. The daily intakes of energy (1563.4 +/- 267.2 kcal) and protein (48.7 +/- 8.7 g) were below the recommended dietary allowance. Daily dietary energy, protein, and calcium intakes were correlated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, BMI, and physical activity were significant predictors for BMD at all sites. In addition, energy intake was also a predictor for BMD at the lumbar spine. The protein intake was associated with BMD at the spine (P = 0.02 and beta = 0.163) even after making adjustments for energy intake. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health.

  12. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  13. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  14. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  15. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  16. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  17. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  18. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    PubMed

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  19. Obesigenic families: parents’ physical activity and dietary intake patterns predict girls’ risk of overweight

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K Krahnstoever; Birch, L Lipps

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether obesigenic families can be identified based on mothers’ and fathers’ dietary and activity patterns. METHODS A total of 197 girls and their parents were assessed when girls were 5 y old; 192 families were reassessed when girls were 7 y old. Measures of parents’ physical activity and dietary intake were obtained and entered into a cluster analysis to assess whether distinct family clusters could be identified. Girls’ skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed and were used to examine the predictive validity of the clusters. RESULTS Obesigenic and a non-obesigenic family clusters were identified. Mothers and fathers in the obesigenic cluster reported high levels of dietary intake and low levels of physical activity, while mothers and fathers in the non-obesigenic cluster reported low levels of dietary intake and high levels of activity. Girls from families in the obesigenic cluster had significantly higher BMI and skinfold thickness values at age 7 and showed significantly greater increases in BMI and skinfold thickness from ages 5 to 7 y than girls from non-obesigenic families; differences were reduced but not eliminated after controlling for parents’ BMI. CONCLUSIONS Obesigenic families, defined in terms of parents’ activity and dietary patterns, can be used predict children’s risk of obesity. PMID:12187395

  20. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. PMID:26101666

  1. Dietary and Supplemental Vitamin C and D on Symptom Severity and Physical Function in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren W; Gu, Yushan; Crum, Anthony B; Tang, Philip

    2017-05-30

    Vitamins C and D have been associated with decreasing pain and increasing function but these associations are not definitive. This cross-sectional study explores what relationships supplemental and dietary intake of vitamins C and D have on pain severity and physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, we performed regression analyses to examine relationships between vitamins C and D, pain, and function. Dietary vitamin D and dietary vitamin C were divided into >90th, 50th-90th, and <50th percentile. The high percentile group for supplemental vitamin D was divided into >85th percentile, whereas the high percentile group for supplemental vitamin C was divided into >90th percentile. We found the 90th/85th percentile levels of dietary and supplemental vitamin D to be positively associated with pain (β = 0.180; p = 0.028) and inversely related to physical function (β = -0.150, p = 0.028), respectively. Daily intake of vitamin C showed no statistical significance. We found that supplementary vitamin D was strongly associated with lessened disability for knee OA patients. The unexpected finding that associated dietary vitamin D with greater knee pain merits further study.

  2. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Richard; Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.

  3. Dietary intake, body composition, and physical activity among young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mosso, Constanza; Halabi, Victoria; Ortiz, Tamara; Hodgson, Maria Isabel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dietary intake, nutritional status, body composition, and physical activity level in a group of Chilean children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), compare these parameters with the recommendations of the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD), and determine the relationships between dietary intake, body composition, and diabetes control. A total of 30 patients with T1DM (aged 15.2±4.0 years) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a 92-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Physical activity was assessed by means of a survey. The energy intake of these patients was derived from 21.4% protein, 48% carbohydrates, and 31.2% fat. The glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly correlated with fat as grams per day (r: 0.363, p<0.05) and calories per day (r: 0.364, p<0.05). The mean body fat percentage in females was 31.2% and 20.2% in males (p < 0.01) and the mean amount of physical activity was 4.5±2.7 h per week. The study patients had a higher protein intake than recommended by ISPAD. Dietary carbohydrate intake was rather low, and dietary fat intake was the same as the limits recommended by ISPAD. Diabetic control was significantly correlated with protein, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium intake. The girls in the study had a higher percentage of body fat than the standard recommendations for their age. The level of physical activity was adequate.

  4. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Verweij, L M; Coffeng, J; van Mechelen, W; Proper, K I

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to determine the level of evidence for each pooled outcome measure. Results show moderate quality of evidence that workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions significantly reduce body weight (nine studies; mean difference [MD]-1.19 kg [95% CI -1.64 to -0.74]), body mass index (BMI) (11 studies; MD -0.34 kg m⁻² [95% CI -0.46 to -0.22]) and body fat percentage calculated from sum of skin-folds (three studies; MD -1.12% [95% CI -1.86 to -0.38]). There is low quality of evidence that workplace physical activity interventions significantly reduce body weight and BMI. Effects on percentage body fat calculated from bioelectrical impedance or hydrostatic weighing, waist circumference, sum of skin-folds and waist-hip ratio could not be investigated properly because of a lack of studies. Subgroup analyses showed a greater reduction in body weight of physical activity and diet interventions containing an environmental component. As the clinical relevance of the pooled effects may be substantial on a population level, we recommend workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions, including an environment component, in order to prevent weight gain.

  5. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended.

  6. The effect of iron and zinc dietary restriction of pregnant rats on physical growth of litters.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, M; Naghdi, N; Tahmasebi, S; Sheikh, M; Namvar Asl, N; Kazemnejad, A

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that micronutrient deficiencies may be associated with problems in early growth. Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) deficiency (D) are prevalent during gestation in low-income countries. For pregnant dams, adequate amount of these micronutrients are needed in the diet to ensure the capacity for increased physical growth. In this study, the role of Fe and Zn dietary restriction of pregnant rats on physical growth of litters was investigated. Pregnant rats after to mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a FeD group fed a diet deficient in Fe and a ZnD group fed a diet deficient in Zn. All the diets were exposed during the last third of pregnancy. The results showed serum Fe and Zn concentration after to exert dietary compared to before to exert dietary in FeD and ZnD groups was significant. There was a significant difference in the physical growth indexes (body weight, body length, tail length, and head length) between FeD and ZnD groups compared to the Control group, but a significant difference in head width and brain weight between FeD and ZnD groups compared to the Control group was not seen. The results of this study suggest that adequate Fe and Zn affect the physical growth of litters.

  7. Correlates among Perceived Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Physical Activity, And Dietary Intake in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the number of new cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among U.S. adolescents has increased (Fagot-Campagna et al., 2000; SEARCH Study Group, 2006), which may be related to the lack of health-promoting behaviors, such as a balanced diet and adequate physical exercise. This descriptive correlational study examined the relationship between perceived risk for T2DM, dietary intake, and physical activity in adolescents (N = 80) 13 to 18 years of age. The Children's Health Belief Model (Bush & lannotti, 1990) was the conceptual framework used for testing the theoretical relationships. Participants completed the following instruments: 1) Knowledge of Risk Factors for T2DM, 2) Health Beliefs for T2DM, 3) Godin-Shepard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin & Shepard, 1997), and 4) the Demographic/Medical Questionnaire. Significant relationships were found between perceived risk, a subset of the Health Beliefs for T2DM scale, and the health promoting behaviors of dietary intake and physical activity. Implications for health-promoting nursing practice related to adolescent perception of risk and health-promoting behaviors of dietary intake and physical activity are addressed.

  8. Effects of providing a nutrition education program for teenagers: dietary and physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Yuen, Dorothy T W

    2009-06-01

    This study enhanced nutritional knowledge in an education program and encouraged healthy dietary habits and regular physical activity among teenagers. A total of 203 adolescents from a secondary school in Hong Kong took part in the study. Their Body Mass Index, dietary habits, and physical exercise pattern were recorded and examined before and after the health education program. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with the fat composition, were high among the participants before the nutrition education program. There was a marked gain in knowledge upon its completion. A follow-up action conducted 3 months later revealed positive outcomes in relation to the diet and physical activity level. The teenagers were able to take control of their health and requested the tuck shop to sell more healthy food and reduce the supply of unhealthy items. The educational initiatives in dietary habits and physical activities proved to be effective in encouraging the teenagers to eat more healthily and to adopt an active lifestyle.

  9. Association between dietary fiber intake and physical performance in older adults: a nationwide study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chien; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Yu, Shu-Han; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Shen, Shi-Chen; Kuo, Ken N; Chen, Ching-Yu; Liu, Kiang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2013-01-01

    Physical performance is a major determinant of health in older adults, and is related to lifestyle factors. Dietary fiber has multiple health benefits. It remains unclear whether fiber intake is independently linked to superior physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between dietary fiber and physical performance in older adults. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older (n=2680) from the ongoing Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study (HALST) in Taiwan 2008-2010. Daily dietary fiber intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical performance was determined objectively by measuring gait speed, 6-minute walk distance, timed "up and go" (TUG), summary performance score, hand grip strength. Adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with higher fiber intake had significantly faster gait speed, longer 6-minute walk distance, faster TUG, higher summary performance score, and higher hand grip strength (all P <.05). Comparing with the highest quartile of fiber intake, the lowest quartile of fiber intake was significantly associated with the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed (adjusted OR, 2.18 in men [95% CI, 1.33-3.55] and 3.65 in women [95% CI, 2.20-6.05]), 6-minute walk distance (OR, 2.40 in men [95% CI, 1.38-4.17] and 4.32 in women [95% CI, 2.37-7.89]), TUG (OR, 2.42 in men [95% CI, 1.43-4.12] and 3.27 in women [95% CI, 1.94-5.52]), summary performance score (OR, 2.12 in men [95% CI, 1.19-3.78] and 5.47 in women [95% CI, 3.20-9.35]), and hand grip strength (OR, 2.64 in men [95% CI, 1.61-4.32] and 4.43 in women [95% CI, 2.62-7.50]). Dietary fiber intake was independently associated with better physical performance.

  10. Dietary intake based on physical activity level in Korean elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire and was categorized as active, moderately active, and sedentary. Dietary intakes were obtained using a 24-hour food recall method. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test for global significant differences of nutrient intakes by physical activity level. Boys were more active than girls. Daily intakes of energy in moderately active boys were significantly higher than in the sedentary group, but intakes of calcium and iron in moderately active boys were lower than active boys. For girls, physical activity level did not affect nutrient density at all. Intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and folate for both boys and girls were below 50% of recommended intake. Physical activity did not affect nutrient density and our participants were exposed to nutritional imbalance. Therefore, the results suggest that nutrition education regarding balanced diet and optimum physical activity is required for children's health and growth. PMID:20827348

  11. A review of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change.

    PubMed

    Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Adams, Marc A; Rosenberg, Dori E; Yaroch, Amy L; Atienza, Audie A

    2007-10-01

    To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss, used randomized or quasi-experimental designs, measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period, and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21 of 41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change.

  12. A Review of eHealth Interventions for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Adams, Marc A.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Data Sources Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss; used randomized or quasi-experimental designs; measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period; and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Results Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21/41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Conclusions Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change. PMID:17888860

  13. Dietary habits and physical activity in students from the Medical University of Silesia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Likus, Wirginia; Milka, Daniela; Bajor, Grzegorz; Jachacz-Łopata, Małgorzata; Dorzak, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Some of the major human health problems being confronted in the 21st century are cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. It is recognised that having proper dietary habits (nutritional behaviour) and taking moderate physical exercise seem to be the best methods for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. To assess whether the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in first year medical students (freshers) are suitable for preventing cardiovascular disease. Subjects surveyed were Polish freshers studying medicine, physiotherapy, nursing and midwifery at the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice situated in South Western Poland (n = 239, mean age 19.82 +/- 1.2 years). Assessments, by questionnaire, included daily food intake, frequency of consuming foodstuffs with an adequate nutritional value and evaluating adverse dietary habits. Also considered were students' health, types of physical activity undertaken, or if not, then awareness of the consequences so arising. Statistical analysis was performed by the Chi2 test. These showed that 25% of students did not eat breakfast, 45.6% snacked in between main meals and 25% ate just before bedtime. Only 29% ate fruit and vegetables daily and 12% never had fish. Energy drinks were consumed by 39% of students daily and also 40% daily drank sweetened beverages. Furthermore, 40% of all subjects rated themselves as physically active, among which the highest were physiotherapy students at 70%. Regular physical activity was not considered essential to health by 5% subjects and 22% of nursing students believed that a lack of exercise, despite eating a healthy diet, did not affect health. The main reasons cited for not performing physical exercise were a lack of time (60%) and energy (26%). Despite being aware of the importance that a proper diet and adequate levels of physical activity confers on health, the students of medicine and related disciplines, nevertheless, did not implement theory into practice.

  14. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  15. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morton, Katie L; Wilson, Alexandra H; Perlmutter, Lisa S; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-04-30

    Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents' transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. 857 adolescents (aged 13-15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further 'extreme group analysis' was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results revealed that adolescents' perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational parenting behaviors (HIGH-LOW TP group

  16. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  17. Physical activity and dietary habits related to cardiovascular risk in independent community-living older women.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Irazusta, A; Fernandez-Atutxa, A; Ruiz-Litago, F; Yanguas, J J; Gil, J; Irazusta, J

    2017-06-01

    A side effect of increased life expectancy is a surge in sequelae of diseases and injuries, which in turn increase the duration of life with disability among the elderly. The aim of this study was to ascertain the physical activity and nutritional parameters that better predict cardiovascular risk in a cohort of older women. A cross-sectional study was designed including 65 women able to independently perform basic activities of daily life. Data collection included anthropometric measurement, blood pressure measurement, blood analytics, objectively measurement of physical activity, and dietary assessment. We were able to generate models that explain the relationship between physical activity, diet, and these health measurement parameters. We observed that the combination of moderate physical activity and a diet including protein-rich foods as nuts, dairy, and eggs were better predictors associated with favorable changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease than age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the effect of acculturation on dietary and physical activity behaviors of Arab mothers in Lubbock, Texas.

    PubMed

    Tami, Suzan H; Reed, Debra B; Boylan, Mallory; Zvonkovic, Anisa

    2012-01-01

    Our study was conducted to collect exploratory data on Arab mothers in the United States regarding their dietary and physical activity behaviors and to assess the relationship of acculturation to these behaviors. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to collect data on dietary and physical activity behaviors of Arab mothers in Lubbock, Texas. The Social Cognitive Theory guided the development of questions related to the role of acculturation on the dietary and physical activity behaviors. The Male Arab-American Acculturation Scale was used to measure acculturation. A bicultural dietary pattern of Arab mothers emerged. Negative behaviors included skipping meals, increased intake of high-fat fast foods and meat consumption, and lack of traditional physical activity. Some reported reasons for the negative behaviors included children's preferences, lack of access to traditional foods, preference for convenience, the low cost of some foods, and lack of time. Positive changes for some Arab mothers included healthier cooking techniques, reading nutritional labels, and making new healthy food choices due to increased awareness of healthy foods, availability and affordability of many healthy choices in the United States, and Arab mothers' attempts to enrich their families' meals with vegetables in order to keep the Arabic dietary pattern. Positive dietary and physical activity changes should be supported. Nutrition interventions are needed that address the major barriers to diet and physical activity changes reported by these Arab mothers.

  19. The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and

  20. Parent readiness to change differs for overweight child dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyung E; McEachern, Rebecca; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the Action/Maintenance stage of change in each domain. From November 2008 to August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Providence, RI, answered questions assessing their stage of change, beliefs about child health and weight, and provider behaviors. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine which factors were associated with parent readiness to make changes for child dietary and PA behaviors. Almost 62% of parents were in the Action stage of change for child dietary behaviors, but only 41% were in the Action stage of change for PA behaviors. Parents who believed their own weight was a health problem were less likely to be ready to make changes to their child's dietary behaviors. Physician discussion of strategies was related to readiness to make changes for child dietary behaviors, but not PA behaviors. In the PA domain, parents of younger children were more likely to be ready to make changes. Training health care providers to address PA readiness and be aware of factors influencing dietary and PA readiness may result in more effective conversations with parents and improve behavior change efforts for pediatric weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effects of Dietary Program based on Self-efficacy Theory on Dietary Adherence, Physical Indices and Quality of Life for Hemodialysis Patients].

    PubMed

    Yun, Kyung Soon; Choi, Ja Yun

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a dietary program based on self-efficacy theory on dietary adherence, physical status and quality of life (QoL) in hemodialysis patients. A non-equivalent control group pre-post test design was used. The intervention group received the dietary program for 8 weeks from August 4 to September 26, 2014. The control group received only usual care. ANCOVA showed that dietary adherence (F=64.75, p<.001) was significantly different between the two groups. Serum albumin (F=12.13, p =.001), interdialytic weight gain (F=56.97, p<.001), calories (F=15.80, p<.001) as physical status indices were significantly different, but serum potassium (F=2.69, p=.106) and serum phosphorus (F=1.08, p=.303) showed no significant difference between the two groups. In terms of health-related QoL, the physical component scale (F=10.05, p=.002) and the mental component scale (F=16.66, p<.001) were significantly different between the two groups. In addition, in terms of diet related QoL, diet level (F=35.33, p<.001) and satisfaction level (F=15.57, p<.001) were significantly different between the two groups, but dietary impact level (F=1.23, p =.271) was not significantly different. Findings show that the dietary program based on self-efficacy theory is an effective nursing intervention program to improve adherence to diet, and to maintain physical status and QoL for hemodialysis patients.

  2. Dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian secondary students in 2005.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Dixon, Helen; White, Victoria; Beckmann, Kerri

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a current assessment of Australian secondary students' self-reported dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. This study also examined the relationship between television viewing and students' dietary behaviour. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 18 486 secondary students in 2005 from all Australian states except Western Australia. Participants reported their usual daily consumption (number of serves) of vegetables and fruit; their weekly consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods including fast food meals, snack foods and high-energy drinks; their engagement in moderate-vigorous physical activity over the previous week; and hours spent using electronic media for entertainment and doing homework on school days. The study found that 20% of students were meeting the daily requirement of four serves of vegetables, whereas 39% were eating the recommended three daily serves of fruit. Consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods was high, with 46% of students having fast food meals at least twice a week, 51% eating snack foods four or more times per week and 44% having high-energy drinks four or more times per week. Fourteen per cent of students engaged in recommended levels of physical activity and 29% engaged in recommended levels of sedentary behaviour. Age and gender differences occurred for most measures, and there were some socio-economic status differences. Heavier television use was associated with lower consumption of fruit and higher consumption of unhealthy/non-core foods. On the basis of the results of this study, it appears that a significant proportion of Australian secondary students fall short of current, national dietary and physical activity recommendations for teenagers. Continual monitoring of these behaviours is essential to help inform research and policy and identify where future efforts should be directed.

  3. Associations of dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views with gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Xiong, Ribo; Wang, Liang; Cui, Junying; Shi, Linna; Liu, Yungang; Luo, Bingde

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women. A cross-sectional study to explore the potential risk factors of GMD through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, an FFQ and a self-designed structured questionnaire, respectively. Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Chinese pregnant women (n 571) who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at their 24th to 28th gestational week. Thirteen per cent of the investigated women were identified as having GDM, and an increased intake of local featured foods and lower physical activity were observed in the GDM-positive group v. the GDM-negative group. Women who regarded early-pregnancy morning sickness as relevant to fetal abnormalities and those with unlimited dietary intake after the ending of morning sickness both had an increased risk for GDM (P = 0·018 and P = 0·038, respectively). After multiple logistic regression analysis, cognitive views for unlimited food intake subsequent to morning sickness, increased consumption of energy-dense snack foods and high-glycaemic-index fruits were strongly associated with the risk of GDM (OR = 1·911, P = 0·032; OR = 1·050, P = 0·001; and OR = 1·002, P = 0·017, respectively). Local featured foods and incorrect cognitive views on pregnancy-related health were closely related to the risk of GDM in Chinese women. Intensive health education about pregnancy physiology and reasonable dietary and physical exercise behaviours should be strengthened for the control of GDM.

  4. Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Physical Performance in Older Adults: A Nationwide Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Chien; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Yu, Shu-Han; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Shen, Shi-Chen; Kuo, Ken N.; Chen, Ching-Yu; Liu, Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical performance is a major determinant of health in older adults, and is related to lifestyle factors. Dietary fiber has multiple health benefits. It remains unclear whether fiber intake is independently linked to superior physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between dietary fiber and physical performance in older adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted with community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older (n=2680) from the ongoing Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study (HALST) in Taiwan 2008-2010. Daily dietary fiber intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical performance was determined objectively by measuring gait speed, 6-minute walk distance, timed “up and go” (TUG), summary performance score, hand grip strength. Results Adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with higher fiber intake had significantly faster gait speed, longer 6-minute walk distance, faster TUG, higher summary performance score, and higher hand grip strength (all P <.05). Comparing with the highest quartile of fiber intake, the lowest quartile of fiber intake was significantly associated with the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed (adjusted OR, 2.18 in men [95% CI, 1.33-3.55] and 3.65 in women [95% CI, 2.20-6.05]), 6-minute walk distance (OR, 2.40 in men [95% CI, 1.38-4.17] and 4.32 in women [95% CI, 2.37-7.89]), TUG (OR, 2.42 in men [95% CI, 1.43-4.12] and 3.27 in women [95% CI, 1.94-5.52]), summary performance score (OR, 2.12 in men [95% CI, 1.19-3.78] and 5.47 in women [95% CI, 3.20-9.35]), and hand grip strength (OR, 2.64 in men [95% CI, 1.61-4.32] and 4.43 in women [95% CI, 2.62-7.50]). Conclusions Dietary fiber intake was independently associated with better physical performance. PMID:24244650

  5. Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7), 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253). Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016), home food availability and girls' soft drink (p < .001) and FV (p < .001) intake, and family meal frequency and girls' FV intake (p = .023). Across the individual and mutually-adjusted models, parental modeling of PA, TV, and soft drink and FV intake was consistently associated with girls' behavior. Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls. PMID:21453516

  6. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss.

    PubMed

    Klempel, Monica C; Bhutani, Surabhi; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Freels, Sally; Varady, Krista A

    2010-09-03

    Alternate day modified fasting (ADMF) is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese adults. The objective of this study was to examine the dietary and physical activity adaptations that occur during short-term ADMF, and to determine how these modulations affect rate of weight loss. Sixteen obese subjects (12 women/4 men) completed a 10-week trial consisting of 3 phases: 1) 2-week control phase, 2) 4-week ADMF controlled feeding phase, and 3) 4-week ADMF self-selected feeding phase. Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 5.6 ± 1.0 kg post-treatment. Energy intake on the fast day was 26 ± 3% of baseline needs (501 ± 28 kcal/d). No hyperphagic response occurred on the feed day (95 ± 6% of baseline needs consumed, 1801 ± 226 kcal/d). Daily energy restriction (37 ± 7%) was correlated to rate of weight loss (r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Dietary fat intake decreased (36% to 33% of kcal, P < 0.05) with dietary counseling, and was related to rate of weight loss (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Hunger on the fast day decreased (P < 0.05) by week 2, and remained low. Habitual physical activity was maintained throughout the study (fast day: 6416 ± 851 steps/d; feed day: 6569 ± 910 steps/d). These findings indicate that obese subjects quickly adapt to ADMF, and that changes in energy/macronutrient intake, hunger, and maintenance of physical activity play a role in influencing rate of weight loss by ADMF.

  7. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    PubMed

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  8. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alternate day modified fasting (ADMF) is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dietary and physical activity adaptations that occur during short-term ADMF, and to determine how these modulations affect rate of weight loss. Methods Sixteen obese subjects (12 women/4 men) completed a 10-week trial consisting of 3 phases: 1) 2-week control phase, 2) 4-week ADMF controlled feeding phase, and 3) 4-week ADMF self-selected feeding phase. Results Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 5.6 ± 1.0 kg post-treatment. Energy intake on the fast day was 26 ± 3% of baseline needs (501 ± 28 kcal/d). No hyperphagic response occurred on the feed day (95 ± 6% of baseline needs consumed, 1801 ± 226 kcal/d). Daily energy restriction (37 ± 7%) was correlated to rate of weight loss (r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Dietary fat intake decreased (36% to 33% of kcal, P < 0.05) with dietary counseling, and was related to rate of weight loss (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Hunger on the fast day decreased (P < 0.05) by week 2, and remained low. Habitual physical activity was maintained throughout the study (fast day: 6416 ± 851 steps/d; feed day: 6569 ± 910 steps/d). Conclusion These findings indicate that obese subjects quickly adapt to ADMF, and that changes in energy/macronutrient intake, hunger, and maintenance of physical activity play a role in influencing rate of weight loss by ADMF. PMID:20815899

  9. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  10. The Integration of a Family Systems Approach for Understanding Youth Obesity, Physical Activity, and Dietary Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this review provides a family systems theory framework for evaluating family-level variables in weight loss, physical activity, and dietary approaches in youth. Studies were reviewed and effect sizes were calculated for interventions that manipulated the family system, including components that targeted parenting styles, parenting skills, or family functioning, or which had novel approaches for including the family. Twenty-one weight loss interventions were identified, and 25 interventions related to physical activity and/or diet were identified. Overall, family-based treatment programs that incorporated training for authoritative parenting styles, parenting skills, or child management, and family functioning had positive effects on youth weight loss. Programs to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors that targeted the family system also demonstrated improvements in youth health behaviors; however, direct effects of parent-targeted programming is not clear. Both treatment and prevention programs would benefit from evaluating family functioning and parenting styles as possible mediators of intervention outcomes. Recommendations are provided to guide the development of future family-based obesity prevention and treatment programs for youth. PMID:20689989

  11. The integration of a family systems approach for understanding youth obesity, physical activity, and dietary programs.

    PubMed

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K; St George, Sara M; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2010-09-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this review provides a family systems theory framework for evaluating family-level variables in weight loss, physical activity, and dietary approaches in youth. Studies were reviewed and effect sizes were calculated for interventions that manipulated the family system, including components that targeted parenting styles, parenting skills, or family functioning, or which had novel approaches for including the family. Twenty-one weight loss interventions were identified, and 25 interventions related to physical activity and/or diet were identified. Overall, family-based treatment programs that incorporated training for authoritative parenting styles, parenting skills, or child management, and family functioning had positive effects on youth weight loss. Programs to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors that targeted the family system also demonstrated improvements in youth health behaviors; however, direct effects of parent-targeted programming is not clear. Both treatment and prevention programs would benefit from evaluating family functioning and parenting styles as possible mediators of intervention outcomes. Recommendations are provided to guide the development of future family-based obesity prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  12. Self-control constructs related to measures of dietary intake and physical activity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Isasi, Carmen R; Mendoza, Don; Ainette, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    To test self-regulation concepts in relation to dietary intake and physical activity patterns in adolescence, which we predicted to be influenced by components of a self-control model. A survey was conducted with a multiethnic sample of 9th grade public school students in a metropolitan area (N = 539). Confirmatory analysis tested the measurement structure of self-control. Structural equation modeling tested the association of self-control constructs with measures of fruit and vegetable intake, saturated fat intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Confirmatory analysis of 14 indicators of self-control showed best fit for a two-factor structure, with latent constructs of good self-control (planfulness) and poor self-control (impulsiveness). Good self-control was related to more fruit and vegetable intake, more participation in sports, and less sedentary behavior. Poor self-control was related to more saturated fat intake and less vigorous exercise. These effects were independent of gender, ethnicity, and parental education, which themselves had relations to diet and exercise measures. Multiple-group modeling indicated that effects of self-control were comparable across gender and ethnicity subgroups. Self-control concepts are relevant for patterns of dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents. Attention to self-control processes may be warranted for prevention programs to improve health behaviors in childhood and adolescence.

  13. Lifestyle counseling in overweight truck and bus drivers - Effects on dietary patterns and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Puhkala, Jatta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Aittasalo, Minna; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Kärmeniemi, Paula; Sallinen, Mikael; Olkkonen, Seppo; Tokola, Kari; Ojala, Anna; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    We studied dietary patterns, physical activity (PA), and monthly goal setting in a weight reduction intervention in long-distance professional drivers. The study was conducted in Finland in 2009-2012. Male drivers with waist circumference > 100 cm were randomized to a lifestyle counseling (LIFE, N = 55) and a reference (REF, N = 58) group. During 12 months, LIFE participated in 6 face-to-face and 7 telephone counseling sessions on diet and PA. Dietary patterns were assessed using an index combining food diary and counselor interview, and PA with the number of daily steps using a pedometer. Monthly lifestyle goals, perceived facilitators and barriers, and adverse effects of PA in the LIFE participants were monitored using counselors' log books. Forty-seven (85%) LIFE participants completed the 12-month program. After 12 months, the mean dietary index score improved by 12% (p = 0.002, N = 24), and the number of daily steps increased by 1811 steps (median; p = 0.01, N = 22). The most frequent dietary goals dealt with meal frequency, plate model, and intake of vegetables, fruits, and berries. The most common PA mode was walking. Typical facilitators to reach monthly lifestyle goals were support from family and friends and ailment prevention; typical barriers were working schedules and ailments. Adverse effects, most commonly musculoskeletal pain, occurred among 83% of the LIFE participants. Positive changes in lifestyle habits were observed during counseling. Monthly lifestyle counseling combining face-to-face and phone contacts seemed appropriate to long-distance drivers. Barriers for reaching lifestyle changes, and adverse effects of PA were common and need to be addressed when planning counseling. Clinical Trials NCT00893646.

  14. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  15. [Association of physical activity and dietary habits with overweight in fertile Chilean women].

    PubMed

    Guerra M, Ximena; Bedregal, Paula; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Caro M, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Women in Chile are mainly responsible in the formation of eating habits in the population, particularly at their homes. To explore the association of physical activity and alimentary habits with overweight among adult Chilean women in fertile age. Cross sectional study using the data from de National Health Survey 2009-2010. Socio-demographic variables, dietary issues, multidimensional physical activity, sedentary free time and their link with nutritional status were studied in a sample of 1,195 women aged between 20 and 44 years. Sixty three percent of women were overweight. The factors positively associated overweight were having an age between 31 and 44 years (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.4), having a lower education level (PR = 1.23), living in rural areas (PR = 2.21) and being exposed to work environment (PR = 1.29). The factors negatively associated with overweight were the consumption of whole grains at least once daily (PR = 0.59), being physically active according to a self-assessment scale (PR = 0.22) and being physically inactive during leisure time (PR = 0.61). The promotion whole grain cereal consumption and physical activity in women is advisable to prevent overweight, mostly in vulnerable groups such as those older than 31 years, with a low educational level and living rural areas.

  16. Dietary intakes, physical activity, and predictors of child obesity among 4-6th graders in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Humeníkova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of child obesity in the Czech Republic has increased in the last several years, especially among school-aged children. While obesity trends are closely monitored in the Czech Republic, very little is known about the dietary habits and exercise behaviors of Czech children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and physical activity, as well as identify predictors of BMI-for-age in a sample of Czech school-aged children. Ninety-seven fourth, fifth and sixth graders and their parents from two large Czech cities participated in the study. Two 24-hour recalls provided total amount of energy, fat, percentage of energy derived from fat, dietary fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables. Physical activity was measured by the Self-administered Physical Activity Checklist (SAPAC). Children consumed less energy and dietary fiber than suggested by Czech dietary recommendations. The proportion of energy that children consumed from fat was 28.5%. Children consumed 1.4 cups of fruit and 1.2 cups of vegetables. Children's physical activity levels fell within the current recommendations. Age was the only significant predictor of higher BMI-for-age. Poor dietary quality may be responsible for increasing rates of child obesity in the Czech Republic. Nutritional professionals in the Czech Republic should focus on increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other high-fiber foods in order to reduce the risk for overweight among Czech children.

  17. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in healthy adult cats.

    PubMed

    Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S

    2014-03-01

    Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P < 0.001) than for the multiple-meal-fed cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P < 0.05) than for cats fed the dry diet

  18. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an inventory of currently existing surveillance systems assessing diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Europe as a tool to assist in the identification of gaps and needs and to contribute to the roadmap for an integrated pan-European surveillance system. An inventory questionnaire was completed by representatives of eleven European countries. Eligible surveillance systems were required to meet specific inclusion criteria. First, pre-screening of available surveillance systems in each country was conducted. Second, an in-depth appraisal of the retained surveillance systems complying with the pre-defined requirements was performed. Fifty surveillance systems met the inclusion criteria: six multinational European surveys and forty-four national surveys. Dietary intake and physical activity are the domains predominantly assessed and adults are the most frequently studied age group. Many on-going activities were identified at the national level focussing on adults, but fewer surveillance systems involving vulnerable groups such as infants and pre-school children. Assessment of sedentary and dietary behaviours should be more frequently considered. There is a need for harmonization of surveillance methodologies, indicators and target populations for between-country and over time comparisons. This inventory will serve to feed future discussions within the DEDIPAC-JPI major framework on how to optimize design and identify priorities within surveillance.

  19. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used.

  20. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  1. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. Methods The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff’s alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Results Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were “provide instruction” (83% of the apps), “set graded tasks” (70%), and “prompt self-monitoring” (60%). Techniques such as “teach to use prompts/cues”, “agree on behavioural contract”, “relapse prevention” and “time management” were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Conclusions Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps. PMID:24965805

  2. The effects of dietary fasting on physical balance among healthy young women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study examined the effects of dietary fasting on physical balance among young healthy women. Methods This study undertaken involving 22 young healthy women (age = 22 ± 1.5) using a within subject counterbalanced 2-week crossover study design. Participants were asked to refrain from consuming any food or beverage for 12 hours prior to the fasting trial and to maintain their regular diet for the non-fasting trial. Measures included: a background questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, and functional reach and timed single-limb stances. Results Fasting resulted in significant declines in functional reach (p < 0.01), and ability to balance in a single limb stance with eyes open, on both the dominant and non-dominant legs (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively), and with eyes closed on the dominant leg (p < 0.01). Conclusions The findings have implications for athletic performance in younger individuals as well as emphasizing the need for health education for young women to avoid skipping meals. PMID:20388217

  3. The effects of dietary fasting on physical balance among healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shanthi; Leck, Krista

    2010-04-13

    The study examined the effects of dietary fasting on physical balance among young healthy women. This study undertaken involving 22 young healthy women (age = 22 +/- 1.5) using a within subject counterbalanced 2-week crossover study design. Participants were asked to refrain from consuming any food or beverage for 12 hours prior to the fasting trial and to maintain their regular diet for the non-fasting trial. Measures included: a background questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, and functional reach and timed single-limb stances. Fasting resulted in significant declines in functional reach (p < 0.01), and ability to balance in a single limb stance with eyes open, on both the dominant and non-dominant legs (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively), and with eyes closed on the dominant leg (p < 0.01). The findings have implications for athletic performance in younger individuals as well as emphasizing the need for health education for young women to avoid skipping meals.

  4. The association between time spent in vigorous physical activity and dietary patterns in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Durksen, Anita; Downs, Shauna; Mollard, Rebecca; Forbes, Laura; Ball, Geoff D C; McGavock, Jon

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity interventions targeting weight status have yielded mixed results. This variability may be attributed to compensatory changes in dietary patterns after increasing physical activity (PA) levels. Therefore, we sought to determine whether dietary patterns varied with time spent in vigorous-intensity PA in youth. Cross-sectional analysis of 330 youth enrolled in a school-based prospective cohort in central Alberta. Physical activity was assessed with waist mounted accelerometers (Actical) worn for 7 days. Main outcomes included consumption of unhealthy foods and the unhealthy food index obtained from a validated web-based 24-hour dietary recall instrument. Secondary outcomes included macronutrient intake, food group (Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating) intake, and diet quality. Compared with youth participating in < 7 min/ day of vigorous physical activity, those achieving ≥ 7 min/day displayed no change in healthy or unhealthy food consumption. However, linear regression suggests a modest association between diet quality and vigorous-intensity PA. These data demonstrate that in this cohort of Canadian youth, time spent being physically active is associated with healthier dietary patterns and not with increased consumption of unhealthy foods.

  5. Dietary carbohydrates, physical inactivity, obesity, and the 'metabolic syndrome' as predictors of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Manson, J E

    2001-08-01

    Several decades of epidemiological and clinical research have identified physical inactivity, excessive calorie consumption, and excess weight as common risk factors for both type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. This trio forms the environmental substrate for a now well-recognized metabolic phenotype called the insulin resistance syndrome. Recent data suggest that a high intake of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates, which is characterized by a high glycemic load (a measure of carbohydrate quality and quantity), may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by aggravating glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. These data also suggest that individuals who are obese and insulin resistant are particularly prone to the adverse effects of a high dietary glycemic load. In addition, data continue to accumulate suggesting the important beneficial effects of physical activity, even at moderate levels, and weight reduction on improving insulin sensitivity and reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. Future metabolic studies should continue to quantify the physiological impact of different foods on serum glucose and insulin, and such information should routinely be incorporated into large-scale and long-term prospective studies, in which the possible interaction effects between diet and other metabolic determinants such as physical activity and obesity can be examined. Until more definitive data are available, replacing refined grain products and potatoes with minimally processed plant-based foods such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and reducing the intake of high glycemic load beverages may offer a simple strategy for reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease.

  6. [Association between dietary intake, physical activity, socioeconomic factors and body fat percentage among schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    D'Avila, Gisele Liliam; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article was to assess the association between dietary intake, physical activity and socioeconomic factors associated with body fat percentage in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. It is a cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 2,481 students from public and private schools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body fat percentage was investigated by measuring triceps and subscapular skin folds. Poisson regression was performed to test the association between excess body fat and independent variables, estimating prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of excess body fat was 23.9%, though there was no significant difference between sex (p = 0.359) and age (p = 0.202). Excess body fat was associated with different factors in 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, namely eating less than three meals a day (OR = 1.62, CI: 1.38 to 1.91) and consumption of high-risk food more than 3 times a day (OR = 0.61 CI: 0.47 to 0.79). No significant difference was observed with physical activity. The high prevalence of excess body fat detected reveals the need for fostering the adoption of healthier behavioral practices (in relation to nutrition and physical activity) by schoolchildren.

  7. Shift work and metabolic syndrome: respective impacts of job strain, physical activity, and dietary rhythms.

    PubMed

    Esquirol, Yolande; Bongard, Vanina; Mabile, Laurence; Jonnier, Bernard; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Perret, Bertrand

    2009-04-01

    analyses were performed to test for the influence of dietary rhythms on the development of an NCEP-ATPIII metabolic syndrome. Dietary intakes at breakfast and during intermediate light meals appear to be "protective" against metabolic syndrome, while a high load at dinner favors its occurrence. A high intake at lunch is particularly deleterious to shift workers. However, in all tested models, shift work remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, after taking into account potential covariates like job strain, physical activity, quantitative dietary parameters, and meal distribution. A specific follow-up of shift workers should be recommended to occupational physicians.

  8. Dietary Behaviour and Socioeconomic Position: The Role of Physical Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Jonas D.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive association between education level and health outcomes can be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between education and several indices of food intake and potential influencing factors, placing special emphasis on physical-activity patterns, using a representative sample of the German adult population. Methods The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) involved 7,124 participants aged between 18 and 79. Complete information on the exposure (education) and outcome (nutrition) variables was available for 6,767 persons. The associations between ‘education’ and indices of ‘sugar-rich food’, ‘fat-rich food’, ‘fruit-and-vegetable’ and ‘alcohol’ intake were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of education level on nutrition outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region (former East/West Germany), occupation, income and other influencing factors such as physical activity indicators. Results Men and women with only a primary education had a more frequent intake of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods and a less frequent intake of fruit and vegetables and alcohol than people with a tertiary education. ‘Physical work activity’ partly explained the associations between education and sugar-rich food intake. The interference with physical work activity was stronger among men than women. No significant associations between education and energy-dense food intake were observed in the retirement-age group of persons aged 65+ and among persons with low energy expenditure. Conclusions In Germany, adults with a low level of education report that they consume energy-dense foods more frequently – and fruit and vegetables and alcohol less frequently – than adults with a high education level. High levels of physical work activity among adults with a low education level may partly explain why they

  9. Covariation of Adolescent Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over 12-Months

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.; Calfas, Karen J.; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study examined covariation among changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors over 12 months among adolescents participating in a health behavior intervention. Evidence of covariation among behaviors would suggest multi-behavior interventions could have synergistic effects. Methods Prospective analyses were conducted with baseline and 12 month assessments from a randomized controlled trial to promote improved diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (experimental condition) or SUN protection behaviors (comparison condition). Participants were adolescent girls and boys (N = 878) aged 11 to 15 years on entry. The main outcomes were: diet, based on multiple 24-hour recalls (total fat, grams of fiber, servings of fruit and vegetables, total calories); average daily energy expenditure (kcals/kg) based on 7-Day physical activity recall interviews; daily minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes from accelerometery; and self-reported daily hours of sedentary behavior. Results Covariation was found between fat and calories (r = .16), fiber and calories (r = .53), fiber and fruit/vegetables (r = .53), calories and fruit/vegetables (r = .34), and fruit and vegetables and sedentary behavior (r = -.12) for the total sample (all p < .01). The pattern of findings was similar for most subgroups defined by sex and study condition. Conclusions The strongest covariation was observed for diet variables that are inherently related (calories and fat, fiber, and fruit/vegetables). Little covariation was detected within or between other diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior domains suggesting that interventions to improve these behaviors in adolescents need to include specific program components for each target behavior of interest. PMID:17950167

  10. The effect of dietary and physical activity pattern on metabolic profile in individuals with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Palmese, Laura B; Reutenauer, Erin L; Liskov, Ellen; Grilo, Carlos M; Tek, Cenk

    2012-10-01

    With the rate of obesity on the rise worldwide, individuals with schizophrenia represent a particularly vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of individuals with schizophrenia in relation to dietary and physical activity habits compared with healthy controls. Dietary and physical activity habits of 130 individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were compared with 250 body mass index-, age-, and sex-matched and racially matched controls from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using a 24-hour diet recall and a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Individuals with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin compared with matched controls. In addition, these individuals had an increased waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure than did the comparison group. Daily energy intake was not different between groups; however, individuals with schizophrenia consumed significantly greater amounts of sugar and fat. Individuals with schizophrenia reported engaging in moderate physical activity less frequently compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys group, but there was no difference in reported vigorous physical activity. These findings suggest that the dietary and physical activity habits of individuals with schizophrenia contribute to an adverse metabolic profile. Increased opportunities for physical activity and access to healthy foods for individuals with schizophrenia may ease the burden of disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  12. Participation in School Physical Education and Selected Dietary Patterns among High School Students--United States, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of self-reported enrollment, attendance, and participation in school physical education, noting dietary patterns among students in grades 9-12 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Percentages of students participating varied significantly. Males participated and exercised more than females. Very few students…

  13. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  14. Participation in School Physical Education and Selected Dietary Patterns among High School Students--United States, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of self-reported enrollment, attendance, and participation in school physical education, noting dietary patterns among students in grades 9-12 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Percentages of students participating varied significantly. Males participated and exercised more than females. Very few students…

  15. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  16. Physical fitness, dietary intake, and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Michaliszyn, Sara Fleet; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Quinn, Lauretta; Fritschi, Cynthia; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia

    2009-09-01

    We examined whether physical fitness and dietary intake predicted better glycemic control and lipid profile in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The sample consisted of 109 adolescents with T1DM [age, 15.3 +/- 1.9 yr; diabetes duration, 6.2 +/- 3.7 yr; body mass index (BMI), 23.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2); and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 8.7 +/- 1.6%]. Stepwise regression analyses were performed with the following independent variables: age, sex, duration of diabetes, BMI, Tanner stage, physical fitness, and average carbohydrate and total and saturated fat intake, and the following dependent variables: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, and HbA1c. Physical fitness was measured by peak oxygen consumption (VO(2(peak))) during progressive cycle ergometry, and 3-day food intake was analyzed using Nutritionist Pro software. Sex and VO(2(peak)) explained 19% of the variance for HbA1c. Age, VO(2(peak)), and saturated fat intake predicted 23% of the variance for total cholesterol, although only diabetes duration and saturated fat intake predicted LDL-c (11%). Duration of diabetes explained 5% of the variance in triglyceride levels, and there were no significant independent predictors for HDL-c. Greater fitness levels predicted both better glycemic control and total cholesterol in adolescents with T1DM, whereas lower saturated fat affected total cholesterol but not glycemic control. These findings support the importance of physical fitness and diets of lower saturated fat for overall metabolic health in adolescents with T1DM.

  17. Physical Activity and Dietary Determinants of Weight Loss Success in the US General Population.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    I studied lifestyle behaviors of long-term weight losers in a nationally representative sample. I categorized the dietary and physical activity data of 8012 adults from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys into (1) long-term weight losers (≥ 10% loss for ≥ 1 year), (2) recent weight losers (≥ 10% loss within past year), and (3) overweight or obese individuals who never lost 10% or more of their weight. Long-term weight losers consumed fewer calories (2072; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2011, 2134 kcal vs 2211; 95% CI = 2173, 2249 kcal; P < .001) and were more likely to report any vigorous leisure activity (24.5% vs 20.3%; P = .027) than did overweight or obese individuals. Among those engaging in vigorous leisure activity, long-term weight losers reported a greater quantity (188; 95% CI = 159, 223 min × wk(-1) vs 156; 95% CI = 142, 172 min × wk(-1); P = .047). Recent weight losers did not differ from overweight or obese individuals on absolute calorie intake but reported less fat (79; 95% CI = 75, 83 g vs 84; 95% CI = 82, 86 g; P = .016) and more activity. Balanced calorie restriction from all macronutrients and physical activity are important behaviors for successful long-term weight loss in the general population.

  18. What is the effect of physical activity level on food consumption, energy deficiency, and dietary diversity?

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Astrid; Hollema, Siemon

    2014-09-01

    Energy deficiency is observed to be at odds with other food security indicators. In wealthier urban areas, the prevalence of energy deficiency is often higher than in poorer rural areas, whereas other food security indicators, such as food diversity, perform much better in urban than in rural areas. To investigate to what extent differences in physical activity levels influence dietary quantity and quality. Central to this analysis is the construction of a household activity index, a single measure that aims to capture the collective workload of the household. This paper uses data from Nepal and Uganda expenditure surveys that contain information on food consumption, as well as detailed information on how individual household members spend their time. Energy deficiency numbers are adjusted by the activity index, and the results are compared with the standard approach for calculating energy deficiency assuming light activity levels. Regressions are estimated to discuss demand for calories and diversity given the activity level. Accounting for differences in activity level has a large effect on energy deficiency figures, particularly in rural areas. The analysis shows that a higher household activity level significantly increases the calories consumed but lessens food diversity, suggesting that households with high activity levels sacrifice diversity for quantity in order to meet their energy requirements. Physical activity levels should be taken into account when interpreting empirical differences in food consumption levels for determining the prevalence of food insecurity and making allocation decisions for food security assistance.

  19. Consumption of dietary caffeine and coffee in physically active populations: physiological interactions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A; Lun, Victor; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements.

  20. Behavior change and the freshman 15: tracking physical activity and dietary patterns in 1st-year university women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Martin Ginis, Kathleen Anne

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained physical activity and dietary logs 4 times throughout the year. Caloric intake decreased over 12 months in all participants (p = .01). There was little change in physical activity in participants who lost weight (p = .73, d = .18). Those who gained weight experienced a trend toward decreased physical activity (p = .13, d = .38). A significant Time X Group interaction on physical activity (p = .04) suggests that physical activity patterns differed substantially between individuals who gained weight and those who lost weight. Reduction in physical activity appears to be the defining characteristic in freshman weight gain.

  1. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development.

  2. The Longitudinal Effects of Physical Activity and Dietary Calcium on Bone Mass Accrual Across Stages of Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lappe, Joan M.; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K.; Zemel, Babette

    2014-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by DXA, physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination, for up to seven years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and non-black). In non-black males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high and low activity boys was largest in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in non-black girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. PMID:25130421

  3. Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

    2010-02-01

    The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  4. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season.

  5. Self-reported low vitality, poor mental health, and low dietary restraint are associated with overperception of physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Brock, David W; Gower, Barbara A; Alvarez, Jessica A; Bush, Nikki C; Hunter, Gary R

    2010-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether perceived exertion, in comparison to the physiological response to exercise, was associated with self-reported vitality, mental health, and physical function during daily activities, or weight control behaviors. Design. Weight-reduced, formerly overweight women (n = 126, aged 22-46 years), completed health and dietary control questionnaires, and underwent a treadmill-walking task while heart rate, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded. Results. Overperception of exertion (perceived exertion physiological exertion) was inversely associated with vitality (r = -0.190, P < .05), mental health (r = -0.188, P < .05), and dietary control (r values range -0.231 to -0.317, P < .05). In linear regression modeling, vitality or mental health, and cognitive dietary restraint were independently associated with accuracy of perceived exertion, independent of age, ethnicity, and engagement in exercise during weight loss. Each model explained 7%-8% of the variance in accuracy of perceived exertion. Conclusion. Women with low vitality or poor mental health, and poor dietary control may overperceive exertion. Such overperception may be a barrier to engage in physical activity and thus increase susceptibility to weight gain.

  6. Adoption and Implementation of Physical Activity and Dietary Counseling by Community Health Center Providers and Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Felton, Gwen M.; Poston, Mary Elizabeth; McClain, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary care providers are expected to provide lifestyle counseling, yet many barriers exist. Few studies report on adoption and implementation in routine practice. This study reports training, adoption, and implementation of an intervention to promote physical activity (PA) and dietary counseling in community health centers. Methods Providers (n = 30) and nurses (n = 28) from 9 clinics were invited to participate. Adopters completed CD-ROM training in stage-matched, patient-centered counseling and goal setting. Encounters were audio recorded. A subsample was coded for fidelity. Results Fifty-seven percent of providers and nurses adopted the program. Provider counseling was seen in 66% and nurse goal setting in 58% of participant (N = 266) encounters, although audio recordings were lower. Duration of provider counseling and nurse goal setting was 4.9 ± 4.5 and 7.3 ± 3.8 minutes, respectively. Most PA (80%) and diet (94%) goals were stage-appropriate. Although most providers discussed at least 1 behavioral topic, some topics (eg, self-efficacy, social support) were rarely covered. Conclusions A sizeable percentage of providers and nurses completed training, rated it favorably, and delivered lifestyle counseling, although with variable fidelity. With low implementation cost and limited office time required, this model has the potential to be disseminated to improve counseling rates in primary care. PMID:20864755

  7. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of New York City Children from Different Ethnic Minority Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, N; Mervish, N; Galvez, MP; Brenner, B; Wolff, MS

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Methods Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6–8 year old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using caregiver report of child’s race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using Chi Square and ANOVA tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Results Participants (n=486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%) or non-Hispanic Black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic Blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity prevalence among Hispanic subgroups (25%) and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models including home language did not show significant differences in the estimates. Conclusion Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. PMID:22985985

  8. Dietary protein intake is associated with better physical function and muscle strength among elderly women.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2016-04-14

    Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Sarcopaenia was defined using European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. At the baseline, women with higher protein intake (≥ 1·2 g/kg BW) had better performance in hand-grip strength/body mass (GS/BM) (P=0·001), knee extension/BM (P=0·003), one-leg stance (P=0·047), chair rise (P=0·043), squat (P=0·019), squat to the ground (P=0·001), faster walking speed for 10 m (P=0·005) and higher short physical performance battery score (P=0·004) compared with those with moderate and lower intakes (0·81-1·19 and ≤ 0·8 g/kg BW, respectively). In follow-up results, higher protein intake was associated with less decline in GS/BM, one-leg stance and tandem walk for 6 m over 3 years. Overall, results were no longer significant after controlling for FM. Associations were detected between protein intake and PF in non-sarcopaenic women but not in sarcopaenic women, except for change of GS (P=0·037). Further, FM but not LM was negatively associated with PF measures (P<0·050). This study suggests that higher protein intake and lower FM might be positively associated with PF in elderly women.

  9. Stuck in a vicious circle of stress. Parental concerns and barriers to changing children's dietary and physical activity habits.

    PubMed

    Norman, Åsa; Berlin, Anita; Sundblom, Elinor; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Nyberg, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    Dietary habits and physical activity are often the focus of obesity prevention programmes and involving parents in such programmes has proven to be effective. The aims of this study were to describe parents' concerns about their children's diet and physical activity habits and to describe barriers to change. The study used archival data gathered unobtrusively in the form of memos taken after sessions of Motivational Interviewing as part of the parental support programme, A Healthy School Start. The 74 MI-sessions were conducted from October 2010 to April 2011 with either a mother or father or both, all with children in pre-school class. Thematic analysis was applied. Three themes were identified regarding children's dietary habits: amount of food consumed influenced by behaviour in the family, eating situations influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay, and food choices influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. One theme appeared regarding physical activity: physical activity influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. Family interplay appears to be an important link between the work-life stress perceived by parents and less healthy food and physical activity habits in the home. Both lack of parental cooperation and negative parent-child interactions may act as barriers to healthy eating and physical activity and should be addressed in future intervention studies on health-related behaviours of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Weight status, dietary habits and physical activity among 6-12 year-old children in Castile-La Mancha].

    PubMed

    Santiago, S; Cuervo, M; Zazpe, I; Ortega, A; García-Perea, A; Martínez, J A

    2014-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a multifactorial disease, in which unhealthy dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles play a decisive role. The aim of this study was to assess the weight status, dietary habits and physical activity in Castile-La Mancha children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3061 children 6-12 years-old who were participating in the programme, "Alimenta su salud". Anthropometric measurements, food consumption frequency, dietary habits and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire, including gender, age and geographical influences. The prevalence of subjects with excess weight-for-height was 24.0% and obesity was 14.3%, with geographical differences. Girls more often have mid-morning snacks, consume more supplements, and reported to be less active than boys. Special diets and sports activities were lower in children aged 6-9 years as compared to the 10-12 years old group. The intake of vegetables and fruit is low, while there is overconsumption of sausages, pastries, salted snacks, sweets and fast food, with some differences by age group. One out of four children is overweight or obese in this population. Children do not meet recommendations for fruit and vegetables and there is a high consumption of foods associated with obesity risk. Physical inactivity was more prevalent during the weekends, and among girls. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of dietary intake and physical activity between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Annie W; Lujan, Marla E

    2014-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. In addition to deleterious effects on fertility imparted by PCOS, women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and certain cancers. Hormonal and metabolic aberrations in PCOS have the potential to influence dietary intake and physical activity levels. There are emerging global data that women with PCOS have different baseline dietary energy intakes compared with women without PCOS. These alterations in diet may exacerbate clinical symptoms and compound risk of chronic disease in patients. Few studies have compared baseline physical activity levels between women with and without PCOS. Although comparisons between studies are confounded by several factors, the data point to no differences in activity levels among PCOS and non-PCOS groups. This review provides an assessment of the current literature on baseline dietary intake and physical activity levels in women with PCOS. Future recommendations to strengthen research in this area are provided, given the implications to aid in the development of effective nutrition-focused interventions for PCOS.

  12. Household factors, family behavior patterns, and adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines among children at risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Crain, A Lauren; Jaka, Meghan M; Langer, Shelby L; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the proportion of children adhering to recommended physical activity and dietary guidelines, and examine demographic and household correlates of guideline adherence. Cross-sectional (pre-randomization) data from a behavioral intervention trial designed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children. A total of 421 children (aged 5-10 years) at risk for obesity (body mass index percentile, 70-95). Physical activity (accelerometry), screen time (parent survey), and fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (24-hour dietary recall). Proportions meeting guidelines were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between demographic and household factors and whether children met recommended guidelines for (1) physical activity (≥ 60 min/d), (2) screen time (≤ 2 h/d), (3) fruit and vegetable intake (≥ 5 servings/d), and (4) sugar-sweetened beverage avoidance. Few children met more than 1 guideline. Only 2% met all 4 recommended guidelines and 19% met none. Each guideline had unique sociodemographic and domain-specific household predictors (ie, availability of certain foods and beverages, media, and active play and exercise equipment). Families equipped to promote healthy child behavior patterns in 1 activity or dietary domain may not be in others. Results have implications for the development of interventions to affect children's weight-related behaviors and growth trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  14. Comparison of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity between Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Review12

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Annie W.; Lujan, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. In addition to deleterious effects on fertility imparted by PCOS, women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and certain cancers. Hormonal and metabolic aberrations in PCOS have the potential to influence dietary intake and physical activity levels. There are emerging global data that women with PCOS have different baseline dietary energy intakes compared with women without PCOS. These alterations in diet may exacerbate clinical symptoms and compound risk of chronic disease in patients. Few studies have compared baseline physical activity levels between women with and without PCOS. Although comparisons between studies are confounded by several factors, the data point to no differences in activity levels among PCOS and non-PCOS groups. This review provides an assessment of the current literature on baseline dietary intake and physical activity levels in women with PCOS. Future recommendations to strengthen research in this area are provided, given the implications to aid in the development of effective nutrition-focused interventions for PCOS. PMID:25469380

  15. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Nicola J; Magarey, Anthea A; Golley, Rebecca; Curnow, Fiona; Sawyer, Michael G

    2008-05-30

    To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Parental physical activity (p = 0.03-0.008), size of backyard (p = 0.001) and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003) were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p < 0.001) and presence of playstation (p = 0.02) were associated with more indoor sedentary time. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.02) and restricting high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.009). Lower intake of non-core foods was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.007), cordial/carbonated drinks (p < 0.001) and high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.003). Lower fruit and vegetable intake was associated with reminding child to 'eat up' (p = 0.007) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). Higher intake of non-core foods was associated with giving food 'treats' (p = 0.03) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). The availability of food groups in the home was associated with children's intake of these foods (fruit and vegetables, p < 0.001; fat in dairy, p = <0.001; sweetened beverages, p = 0.004-<0.001; non-core foods, p = 0.01-<0.001). Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  16. Dietary-related and physical activity-related predictors of obesity in children: a 2-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jordan A; Crespo, Noe C; Sallis, James F; Patterson, Ruth E; Elder, John P

    2012-04-01

    This observational study examined cross-sectional and 24-month longitudinal associations of physical activity and dietary behaviors with change in BMI and percent body fat among children aged 6–9 years old. Data were from the control group (n = 271; 48% Latino) of a community-based childhood obesity prevention program. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 24 months and included height and weight, bioelectrical impedance–derived percent body fat, and 10 physical activity and dietary behaviors measured via parent report of their child. Cross-sectional analysis of variances (ANOVA) (normal weight, overweight, obese) and longitudinal mixed-effects linear regression models were used to investigate the relation of each physical activity and dietary behavior with BMI and percent body fat. At baseline, obese children engaged in less physical activity and more sedentary behavior than normal-weight children (p < 0.05). Increased physical activity (p < 0.01) and number of breakfasts eaten with family (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased BMI z-score and percent body fat. Decreased sedentary behavior and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption were associated with decreased percent body fat (p < 0.05) but not BMI. In this cohort of 271 children, increased physical activity and eating breakfast with family and reduced screen-based sedentary behaviors and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption were associated with more favorable trends in adiposity. Therefore, attention to these behaviors may be of particular importance. Results also suggest that future studies should include percent body fat as an outcome for a more precise assessment of the association of behavior with adiposity.

  17. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  18. The effect of the home environment on physical activity and dietary intake in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Østbye, T; Malhotra, R; Stroo, M; Lovelady, C; Brouwer, R; Zucker, N; Fuemmeler, B

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time derived from accelerometer data and two dietary factors ('junk' and healthy food intake scores) based on factor analysis of mother-reported food intake. Linear regression models assessed the net effect (controlling for child demographics, study arm, supplemental time point, maternal education/work status, child body mass index and accelerometer wear time (for PA outcomes)) of the home environment on the outcomes and moderation by maternal education/work status. Data were collected in North Carolina from 2007 to 2011. Parental policies supporting PA increased MVPA time, and limiting access to unhealthy foods increased the healthy food intake score. Role modeling of healthy eating behaviors increased the healthy food intake score among children of mothers with no college education. Among children of mothers with no college education and not working, limiting access to unhealthy foods and role modeling reduced 'junk' food intake scores whereas parental policies supporting family meals increased 'junk' food intake scores. To promote MVPA, parental policies supporting child PA are warranted. Limited access to unhealthy foods and role modeling of healthy eating may improve the quality of the child's food intake.

  19. Dietary and Physical Activity Counseling Trends in U.S. Children, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Odulana, Adebowale; Basco, William T; Bishu, Kinfe G; Egede, Leonard E

    2017-07-01

    In 2007 and 2010, Expert Committee and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines were released, respectively, urging U.S. practitioners to deliver preventive obesity counseling for children. This study determined the frequency and evaluated predictors of receiving counseling for diet and physical activity among a national sample of children from 2002 to 2011. Children aged 6-17 years were used from the 2002-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys and analyzed in 2016. Parental report of two questions assessed whether children received both dietary and exercise counseling from the provider. Children were grouped by weight category. Bivariate analyses compared the frequency of receiving counseling; logistic regression evaluated predictors of receiving counseling. The sample included 36,114 children; <50% of children received counseling. Across all time periods, children were more likely to receive counseling with increasing weight. Logistic regression models showed that obese children had greater odds of receiving counseling versus normal-weight children, even after adjusting for covariates. Additional significant positive correlates of receiving counseling were Hispanic ethnicity, living in an urban setting, and being in the highest income stratum. Being uninsured was associated with lower odds of counseling. Years 2007-2009 and 2010-2011 were associated with increased counseling versus the benchmark year category in the multivariable model. Counseling appears more likely with greater weight and increased after both guidelines in 2007 and 2010. Overall counseling rates for children remain low. Future work should focus on marginalized groups, such as racial and ethnic minorities and rural populations. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of the Home Environment on Physical Activity and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Østbye, Truls; Malhotra, Rahul; Stroo, Marissa; Lovelady, Cheryl; Brouwer, Rebecca; Zucker, Nancy; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. Purpose To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Methods Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time derived from accelerometer data and two dietary factors (“junk” and healthy food intake scores) based on factor analysis of mother-reported food intake. Linear regression models assessed the net effect (controlling for child demographics, study arm, supplemental timepoint, maternal education/work status, child body mass index and accelerometer wear-time (for PA outcomes)) of the home environment on the outcomes and moderation by maternal education/work status. Data was collected in North Carolina from 2007–2011. Results Parental policies supporting PA increased MVPA time, and limiting access to unhealthy foods increased the healthy food intake score. Role modeling of healthy eating behaviors increased the healthy food intake score among children of mothers with no college education. Among children of mothers with no college education and not working, limiting access to unhealthy foods and role modeling reduced “junk” food intake scores while parental policies supporting family meals increased “junk” food intake scores. Conclusions To promote MVPA, parental policies supporting child PA are warranted. Limited access to unhealthy foods and role modeling of healthy eating may improve the quality of the child’s food intake. PMID:23736357

  1. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  2. Food-related behavior, physical activity, and dietary intake in First Nations - a population at high risk for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lara; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita; Cao, Xia; Treuth, Margarita; Rimal, Rajiv; Ford, Elizabeth; Harris, Stewart

    2008-09-01

    To describe determinants of diet-related behavior and physical activity in First Nations for development of culturally appropriate diabetes prevention programs. DESIGN. Cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recalls (n=129), random household risk factor surveys of primary food preparers/shoppers (n=133), and accelerometry (n=81) were assessed in First Nations adults. Nine Anishinaabe (Ojibwe and Oji-Cree) First Nations in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Descriptive statistics (mean, SD, range) were calculated for all outcomes (dietary intake, psychosocial determinants of diabetes risk factors, dietary behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index, BMI) and t-tests were performed to examine differences in means between remote and semi-remote communities. Regression models adjusting for sociodemographic factors were also fit for the outcome measures. Respondents reported high-energy intake (2676 and 2060 kcal/day for men and women, respectively) and acquired higher fat/higher sugar/lower fiber foods up to 30 times more often than healthier alternatives. Over 80% of respondents were overweight or obese (BMI >25 kg/m(2)) with no significant difference between remote and semi-remote communities. Employment and having diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance were positively associated with BMI. Food intention scores were positively associated with healthy food acquisition scores. Younger respondents in semi-remote communities were more likely to have higher knowledge scores. Food intention scores were predicted by outcome expectations; outcome expectations by self-efficacy. Diabetes prevention programs for First Nations should focus on improving physical activity and dietary intake by targeting specific risk group needs. Food knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and intention are important factors in understanding those needs.

  3. A systematic review of randomized trials on the effectiveness of computer-tailored education on physical activity and dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Werkman, Andrea; Brug, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    Although computer-tailored promotion of dietary change and physical activity has been identified as a promising intervention strategy, there is a need for a more systematic evaluation of the evidence. This study systematically reviews the scientific literature on computer-tailored physical activity and nutrition education. Intervention studies published from 1965 up to September 2004 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science and an examination of reference lists of relevant publications. Studies were included that applied a pretest-posttest randomized-controlled trial design, were aimed at primary prevention among adults, used computer-tailored interventions to change physical activity and dietary behaviors, and were published in English. The search resulted in 30 publications-11 on physical activity behaviors and 26 on nutrition behaviors, some studies investigated multiple behaviors. Three of 11 of the physical activity studies and 20 of 26 of the nutrition studies found significant effects of the tailored interventions. The evidence was most consistent for tailored interventions on fat reduction. Overall, there seems to be potential for the application of computer tailoring for promoting healthy diets, but more research is needed to test computer-tailored interventions against other state-of-the-art intervention techniques and to identify the mechanisms underlying successful computer tailoring.

  4. The Seated Inactivity Trial (SIT): Physical Activity and Dietary Outcomes Associated With 8 Weeks of Imposed Sedentary Time.

    PubMed

    Cull, Brooke J; Haub, Mark D; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Lawler, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Sara K

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary time is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases and mortality. It is unknown whether active adults alter their dietary and/or physical activity behaviors in response to imposed sedentary time, possibly modifying risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether imposed sedentary time would alter typical behaviors of active adults. Sixteen physically active, young adults were randomized to the no-intervention control (CON, n = 8) group or the sedentary-intervention (SIT, n = 8) group. SIT participants attended monitored sedentary sessions (8 wk, 10 h/wk). Assessments including diet and physical activity occurred at baseline, week 4, and week 9. There were no differences (P > .05) between CON and SIT groups for step counts or time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity when comparing a week during imposed sedentary time (week 4) to baseline and week 9. At week 4, caloric intake was not different from baseline (P > .05) in either group. Caloric intake decreased significantly (P > .05) in SIT from baseline to week 9. Active adults did not alter physical activity or dietary behaviors during the imposed sedentary intervention. However, SIT reduced caloric intake from baseline to week 9, indicating a possible compensatory response to imposed sitting in active adults.

  5. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

  6. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

  7. Electronic dietary recording system improves nutrition knowledge, eating attitudes and habitual physical activity: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Law, Queenie Pui Sze; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2014-08-01

    This study's objective was to investigate whether use of an electronic dietary recording system improves nutrition knowledge, eating attitudes and habitual physical activity levels compared to use of a food diary and no self-monitoring. Sixty adults aged 20-60 with a body mass index ≥25 were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group using an electronic system (EG), a group using a food diary (FD) and a control group using nothing (CG) to record food intake. All participants took part in three 60-90 nutrition seminars and completed three questionnaires on general nutrition knowledge, habitual physical activity levels and eating attitudes at the beginning and end of the 12-week study. The pre- and post-test scores for each questionnaire were analysed using a paired sample t-test. Significant improvements in the domain of 'dietary recommendations' were found in the EG (p=0.009) and FD groups (p=0.046). Great improvements were found in 'sources of nutrients', 'choosing everyday foods' and 'diet-disease relationships' in EG and FD groups. EG group showed greater improvement in the work index and sport index. An electronic dietary recording system may improve eating and exercise behaviour in a self-monitoring process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary intake, physical activity, body mass index, and childhood asthma in the Third National Health And Nutrition Survey (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Mannino, David M; Redd, Stephen C; McGeehin, Michael A

    2004-07-01

    Childhood asthma may be affected by dietary changes and increased body mass related to a sedentary lifestyle, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. To test this hypothesis, we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) from 1988-1994, including 7,904 children. We analyzed cross-sectional information on body mass index (BMI = weight/height2), physical activity (hr/day viewing television), dietary intake (24-hr recall), and vitamin C intake (60 mg/day). The probability of self-reported asthma or wheezing relating to risk factors was calculated by logistic regression. After controlling for dietary intake, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables, asthma risk was three times higher for children aged 6-16 years in the highest percentiles of BMI (>95th percentile) when compared to children in percentiles 25-49 (OR = 3.44; 95% CI, 1.49-7.96). No increase was observed in children aged 2-5 years. Low vitamin C intake was marginally related to self-reported current wheezing in children aged 6-16 years. Our results show that increased BMI may influence asthma prevalence in children, but further investigation is needed.

  9. Effect of dietary physically effective fiber on ruminal fermentation and the fatty acid profile of milk in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Li, Zongjun; Li, Shengxiang; Ferguson, James D; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize the relationship among rumen fermentation variables, milk fatty acid profile, and dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content in a study that controlled for the potential confounding effects of dissimilar dry matter intake among treatments. Ten multiparous Xinong Saanen dairy goats were divided into 2 groups with 2 ruminally cannulated goats per group. Goats in each group were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments (high and low peNDF) according to a 2×2 crossover design with 2 periods. The peNDF content of alfalfa hay (proportion of neutral detergent fiber retained on an 8.0-mm screen) was 42.1% for the high-peNDF and 14.5% for the low-peNDF group. To ensure similar dry matter intake, each morning the amount of alfalfa hay consumed on the prior day by the high-peNDF group was determined (amount offered minus morning refusals), and this was the amount of hay offered to the low-peNDF group that day. Each adaptation period consisted of 21d, followed by a 9-d sampling period. Dry matter intake and milk production and composition were similar between treatments. Milk energy efficiency increased with low dietary peNDF. Duration of pH below 5.60 was longer for goats fed the low-peNDF ration compared with the high-peNDF ration (4.08 vs. 0.41h/d); however, mean rumen pH (6.05 vs. 6.13) was not different between treatments. Reducing dietary peNDF increased rumen total volatile fatty acids (114.6 vs. 95.1mM) and decreased chewing time (404 vs. 673min/d), but did not affect the ratios of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens increased with reduced dietary peNDF, but Ruminococcus albus proportions were not influenced by treatment. Reducing dietary peNDF decreased the proportion of iso C14:0, iso C15:0, and trans-11 C18:1 in milk fat, whereas the iso C17:0 and trans-10 C18:1 increased. This study demonstrated that low

  10. Effects of dietary soy protein on skeletal muscle volume and strength in humans with various physical activities.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Rie; Sakai, Atsuko; Murayama, Masumi; Ochi, Arisa; Abe, Tomoki; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Yasui, Natsuo; Inatsugi, Mikiko; Doi, Daisuke; Takeda, Masanori; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of bedridden people is rapidly increasing due to aging or lack of exercise in Japan. This problem is becoming more serious, since there is no countermeasure against it. In the present study, we designed to investigate whether dietary proteins, especially soy, had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle in 59 volunteers with various physical activities. We subjected 59 volunteers with various physical activities to meal intervention examination. Persons with low and high physical activities were divided into two dietary groups, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They ate daily meals supplemented with 7.8 g of powdered casein or soy protein isolate every day for 30 days. Bedridden patients in hospitals were further divided into three dietary groups: the no supplementation diet group, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They were also subjected to a blood test, a urinalysis, magnetic resonance imaging analysis and muscle strength test of the knee before and after the meal intervention study. Thirty-day soy protein supplementation significantly increased skeletal muscle volume in participants with low physical activity, compared with 30-day casein protein supplementation. Both casein and soy protein supplementation increased the volume of quadriceps femoris muscle in bedridden patients. Consistently, soy protein significantly increased their extension power of the knee, compared with casein protein. Although casein protein increased skeletal muscle volume more than soy protein in bedridden patients, their muscle strength changes by soy protein supplementation were bigger than those by casein protein supplementation. The supplementation of soy protein would be one of the effective foods which prevent the skeletal muscle atrophy caused by immobilization or unloading.

  11. [Associations among physical condition, life hour, and dietary intake male Japanese shift workers: physical condition and lifestyle survey of male Japanese shift workers].

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Tomoe; Yoshita, Katsushi; Tabata, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the actual state of life hours (working time, sleep time, and time of meal intake) and dietary habits of male shift work employees, and to elucidate the impact of working arrangements and dietary habits on their physical condition and health problems. The subjects were 187 male employees (aged 18-64 years) working for an industrial company in Toyama prefecture. We used a self-administered questionnaire to assess dietary habit, lifestyle habits, and life hours at the time of a periodic health examination in April 2013. The subjects were grouped based on their working condition (i.e., day shift, late shift, and late-night shift) into two groups of day shift (n = 107) and shiftwork (n = 80). The proportion of time spent sleeping and feeding was determined in half hour increments, and the incidences of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and midnight snack intake were calculated for each working condition. We also examined the association between the frequency of eating and physical condition for each working condition. The state of life hours of the shiftwork group during the day was similar to that of the day shift group. However, the workers' state of life hours, incidences of skipping meals, and midnight snack intake varied considerably when working at the other shift times. In the shiftwork group, regardless of the working patterns, the BMI and % body fat of the group that ate more than three times a day were significantly lower than those of the group that ate less than twice a day. The results of the present study suggest that it is difficult to ensure the time and opportunity for meals for shift workers. We consider that it is necessary to prevent them skipping of meals, and to support a proper dietary intake during the night.

  12. Associations between sleep duration and physical activity and dietary behaviors in Chinese adolescents: results from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys of 2015.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qing Hai; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao Hong; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Jun; Xu, Guo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    To assess the association between sleep duration and physical activity and dietary behaviors among adolescents in a representative sample. The analysis was performed using data from the 2015 Ningbo Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associations between physical activity and dietary behaviors and sleep duration were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Of the 10726 students, roughly 40% reported sleep duration <8 h. Longer sleep duration was associated with higher likelihood of milk intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, water consumption, moderate physical activity, and muscle-strengthening physical activity, and with a lower likelihood of cigarette use, alcohol use, sweets intake, Western fast food intake, and breakfast skipping. Insufficient sleep may be common among Chinese adolescents. Sleep duration was associated with dietary behaviors, physical activity, and other health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that sleep duration could be a potential target for many health-risk behaviors in young adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The role of obesity, physical activity and dietary factors on the risk for breast cancer: Mexican experience.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Lajous, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the role of adiposity, physical activity and diet in the risk for breast cancer in Mexican women. Lack of physical activity, diets high in carbohydrates and in glycemic load and low intake of folate and vitamin B12 have been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer in Mexican women, in particular postmenopausal breast cancer. Other dietary factors that may begin to play a more relevant role in breast cancer incidence in Mexico are alcohol intake and vitamin D status. Recommendations to maintain a healthy weight, practice moderate physical activity, decrease intake of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and increase consumption of fruits and vegetables could have an important impact on the epidemic of breast cancer in Mexico.

  14. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  15. Physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake in at risk of overweight and normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; Marshall, J Dru; McCargar, Linda J

    2005-01-01

    Differences in physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake were examined in a sample of six- to ten-year-olds at risk of overweight, and in normal weight boys and girls. Participants (n=20 at risk of overweight [BMI > or =85th percentile]; n=115 normal weight [BMI <85th percentile]; n=68 boys; n=67 girls) had anthropometric, physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake measurements at zero, three, six, and 12 months. Over the 12-month period, normal weight children were more physically active (F=4.1, p<0.05) and aerobically fit (F=14.3, p<0.001), and possessed higher self-perceptions of social acceptance (F=7.3, p<0.01) than their at risk of overweight peers. Fitness differences between the sexes were not apparent at baseline, but emerged over the long term (F=7.9, p<0.01). Overall, boys consumed more total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein than did girls, while the entire sample consumed diets low in vegetables and fruits and meat and alternatives, and high in "other" foods. These observations highlight key disparities in lifestyle-related behaviours and perceptions between groups of children according to overweight status and sex. The findings underscore the importance of longitudinal studies in youth because cross-sectional studies may reflect transient differences.

  16. Dietary and physical activity strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes in South Asian adults: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muilwijk, Mirthe; Stronks, Karien; Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Beune, Erik; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Gill, Jason; Sheikh, Aziz; Jenum, Anne Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene Gm

    2017-07-02

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health concern among populations of South Asian ethnicity. Although dietary and physical activity interventions may reduce the risk of T2D, the effectiveness has been moderate among South Asians. This might (in part) be because this subgroup follows strategies that were originally developed for interventions among other populations. Therefore, this review aims to assess the evidence for the current dietary and physical activity strategies recommended in T2D prevention intervention studies and guidelines for South Asians. Included will be all studies and guidelines on dietary and/or physical activity strategies to prevent T2D in adult South Asians. Two reviewers will search online databases from their start until the present date for published and unpublished experimental/quasiexperimental studies, with at least an abstract in English. References of identified articles and key reviews will be screened for additional studies. Guidelines will be identified by searches in online databases and websites of public organisations. Finally, expert consultations will be held to supplement any missing information. Trial quality will be assessed with the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies Data, and guidelines with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II. Data on the strategies recommended, targeting and evidence on effectiveness will be extracted by two reviewers and presented in tabular and narrative forms. Recommendations will be compared with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines [PH35]. Overall findings on dietary and physical activity recommendations, as well as findings for specific subgroups (eg, by sex), will be discussed. Ethics assessment is not required. Start date: 1 January 2016, finishing and reporting date 31 July 2016. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, the project report of EuroDHYAN (www.eurodhyan.eu) and in a PhD dissertation. The protocol

  17. Using remote sensing to define environmental characteristics related to physical activity and dietary behaviours: a systematic review (the SPOTLIGHT project).

    PubMed

    Charreire, H; Mackenbach, J D; Ouasti, M; Lakerveld, J; Compernolle, S; Ben-Rebah, M; McKee, M; Brug, J; Rutter, H; Oppert, J-M

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review on the use of free geospatial services as potential tools to assess built environmental characteristics related to dietary behaviour and physical activity. We included 13 studies, all published since 2010 and conducted in urban contexts, with Google Earth and Google Street View as the two main free geospatial services used. The agreement between virtual and field audit was higher for items related to objectively verifiable measures (e.g. presence of infrastructure and equipment) and lower for subjectively assessed items (e.g. aesthetics, street atmosphere, etc.). Free geospatial services appear as promising alternatives to field audit for assessment of objective dimensions of the built environment.

  18. Chemical and physical properties, safety and application of partially hydrolized guar gum as dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa.s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa.s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber(R) in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber(R) is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.

  19. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world. PMID:18231623

  20. Optimal dietary protein level improved growth, disease resistance, intestinal immune and physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary proteins on the growth, disease resistance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that optimal dietary protein levels: increased the production of antibacterial components, up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels, whereas down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, c-Rel, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ and eIF4E-binding proteins 2 mRNA levels in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05), suggesting that optimal dietary protein level could enhance fish intestinal immune barrier function; up-regulated the mRNA levels of tight junction complexes, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, and increased the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, whereas down-regulated myosin light chain kinase, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b mRNA levels, and decreased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that optimal dietary protein level could improve fish intestinal physical barrier function. Finally, the optimal dietary protein levels for the growth performance (PWG) and against enteritis

  1. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Spurrier, Nicola J; Magarey, Anthea A; Golley, Rebecca; Curnow, Fiona; Sawyer, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Methods Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Results Parental physical activity (p = 0.03–0.008), size of backyard (p = 0.001) and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003) were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p < 0.001) and presence of playstation (p = 0.02) were associated with more indoor sedentary time. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.02) and restricting high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.009). Lower intake of non-core foods was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.007), cordial/carbonated drinks (p < 0.001) and high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.003). Lower fruit and vegetable intake was associated with reminding child to 'eat up' (p = 0.007) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). Higher intake of non-core foods was associated with giving food 'treats' (p = 0.03) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). The availability of food groups in the home was associated with children's intake of these foods (fruit and vegetables, p < 0.001; fat in dairy, p = <0.001; sweetened beverages, p = 0.004–<0.001; non-core foods, p = 0.01–<0.001). Conclusion Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity

  2. Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2012-03-01

    Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is <5.8 should be avoided to minimize health disturbances due to SARA. The knowledge generated from these modeling approaches recommends that average amounts of 31.2% peNDF inclusive particles >1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8

  3. Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2013-12-01

    L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats.

  4. Ethnic differences in dietary intakes, physical activity, and energy expenditure in middle-aged, premenopausal women: the Healthy Transitions Study.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, J C; Champagne, C M; Smith, S R; de Jonge, L; Xie, H

    2001-07-01

    Menopause is a time of increased risk of obesity in women. The effect of menopause in African American women, in whom obesity is already highly prevalent, is unknown. We compared dietary intakes and energy expenditure (EE) between middle-aged, premenopausal African American and white women participating in a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Dietary intakes by food record, EE by triaxial accelerometer, physical activity by self-report, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were compared in 97 white and 52 African American women. Twenty-four-hour and sleeping EE were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry in 56 women. Sleeping EE (adjusted for lean and fat mass) was lower in African American than in white women (5749 +/- 155 compared with 6176 +/- 75 kJ/d; P = 0.02); however, there was no significant difference in 24-h EE between groups. Reported leisure activity over the course of a week was less in African American than in white women (556 +/- 155 compared with 1079 +/- 100 kJ/d; P = 0.02), as were the daily hours spent standing and climbing stairs. Dietary intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, and several fatty acids were significantly less in African Americans, whereas there were no observed ethnic differences in intakes of fat or carbohydrate. Body fat within the whole group was positively correlated with total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes and inversely associated with fiber and calcium intakes. Fiber was the strongest single predictor of fatness. Ethnic differences in EE and the intake of certain nutrients may influence the effect of menopausal transition on obesity in African American women.

  5. Effect of Physical Inactivity on the Oxidation of Saturated and Monounsaturated Dietary Fatty Acids: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Schoeller, Dale A; Normand, Sylvie; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Laville, Martine; Shriver, Timothy; Desage, Michel; Maho, Yvon Le; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Gharib, Claude; Blanc, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in the way dietary fat is metabolized can be considered causative in obesity. The role of sedentary behavior in this defect has not been determined. We hypothesized that physical inactivity partitions dietary fats toward storage and that a resistance exercise training program mitigates storage. Design: We used bed rest, with randomization to resistance training, as a model of physical inactivity. Setting: The trial took place at the Space Clinic (Toulouse, France). Participants: A total of 18 healthy male volunteers, of mean age ± standard deviation 32.6 ± 4.0 y and body mass index 23.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, were enrolled. Interventions: An initial 15 d of baseline data collection were followed by 3 mo of strict bed-rest alone (control group, n = 9) or with the addition of supine resistance exercise training every 3 d (exercise group, n = 9). Outcome measures: Oxidation of labeled [d31]palmitate (the main saturated fatty acid of human diet) and [1-13C]oleate (the main monounsaturated fatty acid), body composition, net substrate use, and plasma hormones and metabolites were measured. Results: Between-group comparisons showed that exercise training did not affect oxidation of both oleate (mean difference 5.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −3.3% to 14.5%; p = 0.20) and palmitate (mean difference −0.2%; 95% CI, −4.1% to 3.6%; p = 0.89). Within-group comparisons, however, showed that inactivity changed oxidation of palmitate in the control group by −11.0% (95% CI, −19.0% to −2.9%; p = 0.01) and in the exercise group by −11.3% (95% CI, −18.4% to −4.2%; p = 0.008). In contrast, bed rest did not significantly affect oleate oxidation within groups. In the control group, the mean difference in oleate oxidation was 3.2% (95% CI, −4.2% to 10.5%; p = 0.34) and 6.8% (95% CI, −1.2% to 14.7%; p = 0.08) in the exercise group. Conclusions: Independent of changes in energy balance (intake and/or output), physical inactivity decreased the

  6. Evaluation of dietary pattern stability and physical activity in three consecutive generations of women.

    PubMed

    Noori, Marzie Asgari; Ghiasvand, Reza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize major dietary patterns (DPs) in three consecutive generations and to delineate DP changes. Usual dietary intakes of 547 women from three generations were assessed using a validated dish-based Food Frequency Questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to identify DPs, participants' scores for each DP were calculated and changes in DP scores and mean consumption of food groups were evaluated. Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), participants were ranked according to their scores receiving for each DP. Three major DPs, defined as Traditional (TDP), Healthy (HDP), and Western (WDP) and the comparison of DP adherence between generations showed that TDP remained stable over time. WDP and HDP scores increased from Generation1 to the recent. Based on LCA, the "multifarious class" was similar in three generations. The "traditional class", "transitional class", and "health conscious class" were defined within the oldest, middle-aged, and younger generation, respectively. The younger women tended to have higher score for both WDP and HDP. This paradox may be as a result of health conscious behaviors parallel the unfavorable inevitable lifestyle changes.

  7. Effects of Dietary Bacillus licheniformis on Gut Physical Barrier, Immunity, and Reproductive Hormones of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Du, Wei; Lei, Kai; Wang, Baikui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Weifen

    2017-01-13

    Previous study showed that dietary Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) administration contributes to the improvement of laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In this study, we aimed to further evaluate its underlying mechanisms. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (28 weeks of age) were randomized into four groups, each group with six replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet and the treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, and 0.06% B. licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-week trial. The results demonstrate that B. licheniformis significantly enhance the intestinal barrier functions via decreasing gut permeability, promoting mucin-2 transcription, and regulating inflammatory cytokines. The systemic immunity of layers in B. licheniformis treatment groups is improved through modulating the specific and non-specific immunity. In addition, gene expressions of hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, are also regulated by B. licheniformis. Meanwhile, compared with the control, B. licheniformis significantly increase gonadotropin-releasing hormone level, but markedly reduce ghrelin and inhibin secretions. Overall, our data suggest that dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis can improve the intestinal barrier function and systemic immunity and regulate reproductive hormone secretions, which contribute to better laying performance and egg quality of hens.

  8. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki Deok; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2015-04-01

    Aminotransferase activity is a surrogate marker of liver injury showing strong correlations with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, elevated aminotransferase activity is not uncommon in non-obese and non-alcoholic patients in clinical practice. To examine the relationship between sarcopenia and aminotransferase activity in a large population-based cohort. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations were used. A total of 13,431 subjects were included. A whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed on each patient to measure total and regional muscle mass. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass indices were also obtained. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the normal liver enzyme group (males: 26.5% vs. 16.9%; females: 38.3% vs. 22.1%, p<0.05). The skeletal muscle index was negatively correlated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including fasting glucose and cholesterol levels. The frequency of elevated aminotransferase increased in male patients with sarcopenia after adjusting for potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, fasting glucose level, dietary, and exercise habits. However, the correlation was no longer observed in women after adjusting for body mass index. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men, independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiongran; Yang, Yanfei; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hajinezhad, Daryoush; Kontulainen, Saija; Honaramooz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Elk velvet antler (EVA) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model. PMID:26366186

  10. Rats fed the dietary supplement vitamix® (ceregumil® with vitamins) show greater physical resistance and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; López-Ávalos, María Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pedraza, Carmen; de Andrés, Amelia Victoria; Jiménez-Palomo, Pedro; Casares-Mira, Jose Esteban; López-Arillo, Isabel

    2008-10-01

    Vitamix® is a dietary product composed of a hydro-alcoholic extract of cereals and pulses with honey, calcium glycerophosphate, vitamins B and D, selenium and fluoride. The basic product, Ceregumil®, patented in 1912, was highly popular as tonic and consumers reported a feeling of health, resistance to illness, and increased predisposition to work and exercise. In the present study we analysed the effect of Vitamix® used as dietary supplement, on several physiological parameters in laboratory rats. We periodically performed hemograms and measured intake and weight, as well as blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, transaminases and malondialdehyde, a lipoperoxidation product. Physical probes were performed and a histochemical study was done in the liver. Rats fed with Vitamix® displayed lower intake and body weight in adult ages, showed and increased antioxidant activity, higher resistance in the wire hang test and lower fatigue in the Morris pool, specially those specimens considered as bad performers supplemented with Vitamix®. The rest of the measured parameters remained similar to control and no hepatic alterations were found. This study supports a scientific basis to know the effect of these complements over physiological parameters. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiongran; Yang, Yanfei; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hajinezhad, Daryoush; Kontulainen, Saija; Honaramooz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Elk velvet antler (EVA) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4-8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  12. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Borer, Katarina T

    2005-01-01

    characteristic of longitudinal training studies. After 9-12 months of regular exercise, young adult women often show very small benefits to bone health, possibly because of large subject attrition rates, inadequate exercise intensity, duration or frequency, or because at this stage of life accumulation of bone mass may be at its natural peak. The important influence of hormones as well as dietary and specific nutrient abundance on bone growth and health are emphasised, and premature bone loss associated with dietary restriction and estradiol withdrawal in exercise-induced amenorrhoea is described. In section 3, the same assessment is applied to the effects of physical activity in postmenopausal women. Studies of postmenopausal women are presented from the perspective of limitations of the capacity of the skeleton to adapt to mechanical stress of exercise due to altered hormonal status and inadequate intake of specific nutrients. After menopause, effectiveness of exercise to increase bone mineral depends heavily on adequate availability of dietary calcium. Relatively infrequent evidence that physical activity prevents bone loss or increases bone mineral after menopause may be a consequence of inadequate calcium availability or low intensity of exercise in training studies. Several studies with postmenopausal women show modest increases in bone mineral toward the norm seen in a healthy population in response to high-intensity training. Physical activities continue to stimulate increases in bone diameter throughout the lifespan. These exercise-stimulated increases in bone diameter diminish the risk of fractures by mechanically counteracting the thinning of bones and increases in bone porosity. Seven principles of bone adaptation to mechanical stress are reviewed in section 4 to suggest how exercise by human subjects could be made more effective. They posit that exercise should: (i) be dynamic, not static; (ii) exceed a threshold intensity; (iii) exceed a threshold strain frequency

  13. Multi-profile hidden Markov model for mood, dietary intake, and physical activity in an intervention study of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ip, E H; Zhang, Q; Schwartz, R; Tooze, J; Leng, X; Han, H; Williamson, D A

    2013-08-30

    Motivated by an application to childhood obesity data in a clinical trial, this paper describes a multi-profile hidden Markov model (HMM) that uses several temporal chains of measures respectively related to psychosocial attributes, dietary intake, and energy expenditure behaviors of adolescents in a school setting. Using these psychological and behavioral profiles, the model delineates health states from the longitudinal data set. Furthermore, a two-level regression model that takes into account the clustering effects of students within school is used to assess the effects of school-based and community-based interventions and other risk factors on the transition between health states over time. The results from our study suggest that female students tend to decrease their physical activities despite a high level of anxiety about weight. The finding is consistent across intervention and control arms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. ADHD Medication, Dietary Patterns, Physical Activity, and BMI in Children: A Longitudinal Analysis of the ECLS-K Study.

    PubMed

    Bowling, April; Davison, Kirsten; Haneuse, Sebastien; Beardslee, William; Miller, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    This study examined relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stimulant use, and BMI change in a nationally representative cohort of children as well as differences in diet and physical activity that may mediate associations between stimulant use and BMI change. By using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999 (N = 8,250), we modeled BMI and z score change by ADHD and stimulant start time, examined the odds of unhealthy diet and physical activity predicted by ADHD and stimulant use, and performed mediation analysis assessing indirect effects of health behaviors. Early stimulant use predicted short-term BMI reductions, but any stimulant use predicted increased BMI growth between fifth grade (mean age = 11.2 years) and eighth grade (mean age = 14.3 years). Children with ADHD had higher odds of poor diet regardless of medication. Health behaviors were not associated with BMI change after controlling for medication use. Stimulant use predicted higher BMI trajectory between fifth and eighth grade but did not affect dietary or physical activity patterns. Future research should explore potential mechanisms by which early and long-term stimulant use may affect metabolism, while clinicians should initiate nutrition counseling with families of children with ADHD, regardless of medication prescription, at or shortly after diagnosis. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  15. The Association between Dietary Intake of Folate and Physical Activity with Psychological Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms among Students from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yary, Teymoor

    2013-01-01

    Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B6, B9, and B12 and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores) and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints. PMID:24324965

  16. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  17. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  18. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  19. Psychosocial Predictors of Changes in Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over the Course of the "Go Girls!" Group-Based Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, A. Justine; Chen, Michelle Y.; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models…

  20. Psychosocial Predictors of Changes in Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over the Course of the "Go Girls!" Group-Based Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, A. Justine; Chen, Michelle Y.; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models…

  1. Differences in Overweight and Obesity among Children from Migrant and Native Origin: The Role of Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Sleep Duration

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8–9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child’s behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed. PMID:26030064

  2. Differences in Overweight and Obesity among Children from Migrant and Native Origin: The Role of Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Sleep Duration.

    PubMed

    Labree, Wim; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child's behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed.

  3. Dietary fat-induced hyperphagia in rats as a function of fat type and physical form.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Ackroff, K; Sclafani, A

    1989-05-01

    The influence of dietary fat on food intake and weight gain was assessed by feeding adult female rats diets that differed in the type and form of fat, as well as in the availability of other macro- and micronutrients. Compared to chow-fed controls, the various fat diets increased total food intake by 4% to 27%. Specifically, rats fed chow and a separate source of fat (fat option diet) consumed more fat and total calories, and gained more weight when the fat source was emulsified corn oil rather than pure corn oil or was vegetable shortening rather than corn oil. However, corn oil and shortening had similar effects on caloric intake and weight gain when presented as emulsified gels. Also, pure and emulsified-gel forms of shortening did not differ in their effects on caloric intake and weight gain. Supplementing the vegetable shortening with micronutrients, however, enhanced its hyperphagia-promoting effect. The results of two-choice tests revealed that the rats' preferences for the orosensory properties of the various fat sources did not account for the differential hyperphagias obtained. Rather, it appears that long-term fat selection and caloric intake are influenced primarily by postingestive factors. Fat selection and total intake were determined not only by the fat source itself, but also by the other diet options. That is, rats selected more fat and consumed more calories when chow was the alternative food than when separate sources of carbohydrate and protein were available.

  4. [Aerobic physical activity and dietary advice advocated in obesity and overweight].

    PubMed

    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2015-11-17

    Physical activity is a key to health and plays an important role in achieving weight maintenance. The purpose of this literature review was to establish how much physical activity is needed for weight stability, to prevent weight regain in previously overweight individuals and for weight loss. The PubMed database was searched for studies of physical activity and overweight or obesity up to June 2015.To be weight stable, the scientific evidence indicates that walking at least 150 minutes/week or jogging 75 minutes/week is needed. To be weight stable after major weight loss the recommendation is at least 300 minutes/week, with the possibility to decrease the time with higher intensity. To lose weight, at least 300 minutes/week complemented with a change in diet is needed. Aerobic activity is recommended; many studies indicate that »more is better«, while the magnitude of alteration in body fat by resistance training is less clear.

  5. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeeshan Nasir; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Shafiq, Mudassar; Chaudhary, Aghosh-E-Gul; Jabeen, Atika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females) of the median age of 20 years (range: 18-25) were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio) were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7%) students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30-420). Only 70 (28.7%) students had regular walk or jogging. A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students.

  6. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.

  7. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  8. Investigating within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's physical activity, dietary intake, and body composition: Protocol for the MATCH study.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk.

  9. Dietary Variety and Decline in Lean Mass and Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A 4-year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Y; Nishi, M; Murayama, H; Amano, H; Taniguchi, Y; Nofuji, Y; Narita, M; Matsuo, E; Seino, S; Kawano, Y; Shinkai, S

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations of dietary variety with changes in lean mass and physical performance during a 4-year period in an elderly Japanese population. Four-year prospective study. The Hatoyama Cohort Study and Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Japan. 935 community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 years or older. Dietary variety was assessed using a 10-item food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was determined by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and physical performance (grip strength and usual gait speed) was measured in surveys at baseline and 4 years later. Longitudinal analysis included only participants who were originally in the upper three quartiles of lean body mass, appendicular lean mass, grip strength, and usual gait speed. The outcome measures were decline in lean body mass, appendicular lean mass, grip strength, and usual gait speed, defined as a decrease to the lowest baseline quartile level at the 4-year follow-up survey. Associations of dietary variety with the outcome measures were examined by logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. In the fully adjusted model, the odds ratios for decline in grip strength and usual gait speed were 0.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.99) and 0.43 (confidence interval, 0.19-0.99), respectively, for participants in the highest category of dietary variety score as compared with those in the lowest category. Dietary variety was not significantly associated with changes in lean body mass or appendicular lean mass. Among older adults, greater dietary variety may help maintain physical performance, such as grip strength and usual gait speed, but not lean mass.

  10. Prevalence of overweight in adolescents with intellectual deficiency. Differences in socio-educative context, physical activity and dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Mikulovic, Jacques; Marcellini, Anne; Compte, Roy; Duchateau, Guillaume; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuan, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    The study investigates the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a population of intellectually disabled (ID) adolescents. An observational study was conducted on a group of 410 ID children, living in France. Overweight and obesity, defined according to international standards, were analyzed and related to demographic and sociological parameters, educational care, physical activity and dietary habits. The study highlighted a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (19.0%) in ID adolescents and 22.5% in oldest teenagers, age 15-20 y. This observation was more likely in medico-educative institutes (25.1%) than in general schools (12.3%). Average time spent in physical activity was 4.5 h/week, compared with 3.5 h/week in obese subjects. Time spent in sedentary behavior was 26.6 h/week for the whole population, compared with 18.6 h/week in obese adolescents. Meals were ingested regularly, and adherence to eating breakfast was good. However, snacks and soft drinks were consumed between and during meals by 66.5% of subjects. Overweight in young ID appeared to be related to parental overweight. Even though ID adolescents receive a balanced diet and practice sport regularly, they exhibit a high prevalence for overweight and obesity. In subjects more than 15 years of age, enrollment in medico-educative institutes and parental overweight were contributory factors to poor weight status. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations of home food availability, dietary intake, screen time and physical activity with BMI in young American-Indian children.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Himes, John H; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate associations between home environmental factors and BMI of young American-Indian children. Cross-sectional and prospective study. School-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on a Northern Plains Indian reservation in South Dakota. Mixed model multivariable analysis was used to examine associations between child BMI categories (normal, overweight and obese) and home food availability, children's dietary intake and physical activity. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, parent BMI and school; prospective analyses also adjusted for study condition and baseline predictor and outcome variables. Kindergarten children (n = 424, 51 % male; mean age = 5.8 years, 30 % overweight/obese) and parents/caregivers (89 % female; 86 % overweight/obese) had their height and weight measured and parents/caregivers completed surveys on home environmental factors (baseline and 2 years later). Higher fast-food intake and parent-perceived barriers to physical activity were marginally associated with higher probabilities of a child being overweight and obese. Vegetable availability was marginally associated with lower probabilities of being overweight and obese. The associations between home environmental factors and child weight status at follow-up were not significant. Findings indicate that selected aspects of the home environment are associated with weight status of American-Indian children. Obesity interventions with this population should consider helping parents to engage and model healthful behaviours and to increase availability of healthful foods at home.

  12. Effects of goal setting on dietary and physical activity changes in the Boy Scout badge projects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was...

  13. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  14. Dietary Habits and Physical Self-Concept of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To identify main differences in nutrient patterns, food preferences and physical self-concept between the world's elite rhythmic gymnasts and untrained controls. Material and methods: A group of elite rhythmic gymnasts (n = 103) aged 15-21 years volunteered to participate in the study during the 2003 World Championships in Rhythmic…

  15. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  16. Child goal setting of dietary and physical activity in a serious videogame

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious video game for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX...

  17. Dietary prescription adherence and non-structured physical activity following weight loss with and without aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Serra, M C; Treuth, M S; Ryan, A S

    2014-12-01

    To compare the effects of weight loss with and without exercise on 1) dietary prescription adherence and 2) non-structured activity in postmenopausal women. Longitudinal study. Clinical research setting with facility based exercise and nutrition education. Overweight and obese women, 45-76 years old. 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; N=38) or with aerobic exercise (AEX+WL; N=41). Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), resting metabolic rate (RMR), seven day food intake, and physical activity (by Actical accelerometers worn in a subset subgroup: WL: N=10; AEX+WL: N=15) were assessed before and after the interventions. Both interventions resulted in similar weight loss (~9%) and no significant changes in RMR, while only the AEX+WL group improved VO2max (~10%). At baseline, the AEX+WL group consumed slightly more protein than the WL group (P<0.01). Macronutrient intake did not change following AEX+WL, but the WL group decreased their fat intake and increased their carbohydrates and protein intakes (Ps<0.05), which resulted in similar macronutrient intakes between groups post-intervention. Weekday total activity counts decreased 22% (P<0.05) following WL. This change tended (P=0.07) to be different than the lack of change in non-structured activity observed following AEX+WL. Although similar dietary adherence was observed, these data suggest that postmenopausal women undergoing weight loss may benefit from the addition of exercise to prevent the decline in non-structured activity observed following weight loss alone.

  18. Dietary intake and different types of physical activity: full-day energy expenditure, occupational and leisure-time.

    PubMed

    Camões, Miguel; Lopes, Carla

    2008-08-01

    To describe the relationship between dietary intake and different levels and types of physical activity (PA). Cross-sectional evaluation of the EPIPorto study. Energy expenditure (metabolic energy equivalent tasks) and dietary intake during the past year were assessed using a PA questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, respectively. Representative sample of adults in Porto, Portugal. Data were analysed for 2404 Portuguese Caucasian adults, aged between 18 and 92 years. For total PA, males who were active had significantly higher mean intake of energy (10.76 (2570.7) vs. 9.78 (2336.9) MJ/d (kcal/d), P < 0.001) and lower level of protein consumption (16.9 vs. 17.6 % of energy, P < 0.001) compared with sedentary males. In males, the association between total PA and energy intake remained after adjustment for age, education and body mass index. Similar results were observed when occupational activity was analysed. Concerning the energy expended in leisure time, in both genders, after adjustment for the previously described variables, a significant positive association was found between PA and intake of vitamin C (g/d): beta = 0.12, 99 % confidence interval (CI) 0.02, 0.21 for females and beta = 0.13, 99 % CI 0.03, 0.22 for males. Leisure-time activity in females was also positively associated with intakes of fibre, vitamin E, folate, calcium and magnesium, and negatively associated with saturated fat. Higher levels of PA in leisure time were associated with higher intakes of micronutrients and lower intakes of saturated fat, particularly in females. For total and occupational PA, similar nutrient intake was observed between active and sedentary individuals.

  19. DIETARY PRESCRIPTION ADHERENCE AND NON-STRUCTURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOLLOWING WEIGHT LOSS WITH AND WITHOUT AEROBIC EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    SERRA, M.C.; TREUTH, M.S.; RYAN, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of weight loss with and without exercise on 1) dietary prescription adherence and 2) non-structured activity in postmenopausal women. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Clinical research setting with facility based exercise and nutrition education. Participants Overweight and obese women, 45-76 years old. Intervention 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; N=38) or with aerobic exercise (AEX+WL; N=41). Measurements Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), resting metabolic rate (RMR), seven day food intake, and physical activity (by Actical accelerometers worn in a subset subgroup: WL: N=10; AEX+WL: N=15) were assessed before and after the interventions. Results Both interventions resulted in similar weight loss (~9%) and no signficant changes in RMR, while only the AEX+WL group improved VO2max (~10%). At baseline, the AEX+WL group consumed slightly more protein than the WL group (P<0.01). Macronutrient intake did not change following AEX+WL, but the WL group decreased their fat intake and increased their carbohydrates and protein intakes (Ps<0.05), which resulted in similar macronutrient intakes between groups post-intervention. Weekday total activity counts decreased 22% (P<0.05) following WL. This change tended (P=0.07) to be different than the lack of change in non-structured activity observed following AEX+WL. Conclusion Although similar dietary adherence was observed, these data suggest that postmenopausal women undergoing weight loss may benefit from the addition of exercise to prevent the decline in non-structured activity observed following weight loss alone. PMID:25470804

  20. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical activity, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555

  1. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p < 0.001). There was a trend for lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  2. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    PubMed Central

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (≥ 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (≥ 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy

  3. Physical activity, dietary vitamin C, and metabolic syndrome in the Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoon; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a global public health problem, and regular physical activity is a well-known critical factor in its management. A recent study suggests that the effect of exercise on metabolic syndrome may be enhanced by sufficient plasma vitamin C concentrations. We therefore examined the combined effect of physical activity and dietary vitamin C on the risk of metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. Cross-sectional study. We analyzed data from 22,671 adults aged 20 years or older from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. Physical activity was computed as the total metabolic equivalent (METs-hr/week) summed from MET scores of walking, moderate activity, and vigorous activity. Vitamin C intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Participants were classified into four combined groups based on median values of physical activity and vitamin C intake. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for metabolic syndrome in individuals with both high physical activity and vitamin C intake (vs. both low physical activity and vitamin C intake) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-0.87). The estimated combined effect was more than either high physical activity alone (OR, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73-0.90)) or high vitamin C intake alone (OR, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99)), although each of those was beneficial. Physical activity and dietary intake of vitamin C are both associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest further that a combination of physical activity and a diet rich in vitamin C may help in preventing metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial predictors of changes in adolescent girls’ physical activity and dietary behaviors over the course of the Go Girls! group-based mentoring program

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, A. Justine; Chen, Michelle Y.; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models were used to assess changes in psychosocial variables predicting changes in behavioral outcomes from pre- to post-program. Analyses revealed that 24.4 and 12.3% of the variance in increases in PA and dietary behavior, respectively, was explained by increases in affective and instrumental attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), and intentions. Increases in intentions partially mediated the effects of increases in SRE and affective attitudes on increases in PA behavior. In relation to improvements in dietary behavior, increases in intentions and SRE directly predicted improvements in dietary behavior. These findings suggest potential psychological mechanisms through which a group-based mentoring program may lead to changes in adolescent girls’ health-enhancing PA and dietary behaviors. PMID:27325620

  5. Physical activity increases the bioavailability of flavanones after dietary aronia-citrus juice intake in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Medina, S; Domínguez-Perles, R; García-Viguera, C; Cejuela-Anta, R; Martínez-Sanz, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2012-12-15

    Control and triathlete volunteers (n=8 and n=15, respectively) were given 400 mL and 200 mL of aronia-citrus juice (AC-juice), respectively. The 24h urine samples were hydrolysed to determine the flavanones concentration by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. The flavanones metabolites in both groups of volunteers were glucuronides, sulfates, and sulfo-glucuronides, and the total excretion of flavanones increased fivefold in the triathletes compared with the control volunteers. The increase of ninefold in the homoeriodictyol of triathletes compared to control volunteers may suggest the overactivation of the microbiota metabolism caused by physical exercise. No differences concerning the bioavailability were detected between men and women in controlboth groups. The AC-juice could provide synergistic effects on health due to the increase in the bioavailability of flavanones, avoiding the deleterious effects caused by the overdosage of nutritional supplements.

  6. Randomized comparison of the influence of dietary management and/or physical exercise on ovarian function and metabolic parameters in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nybacka, Åsa; Carlström, Kjell; Ståhle, Agneta; Nyrén, Sven; Hellström, Per Martin; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2011-12-01

    To compare the influence of dietary management and/or physical exercise on ovarian function and metabolic variables in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized 4-month trial with three interventions and a long-term follow-up. Women's health clinical research unit at a university hospital. Fifty-seven overweight/obese women with PCOS. Dietary management, physical exercise, or both, using programs individually adapted and supervised by a dietician and/or a physical therapist. Ovarian function, endocrinologic, and metabolic status and body composition. On average, body mass index was reduced 6% by the dietary management, 3% by the exercise, and 5% by the combined interventions. Lower body fat and lean body mass were significantly decreased in the dietary groups, whereas upper body fat was lowered and lean body mass maintained by exercise alone. The menstrual pattern was significantly improved in 69% and ovulation confirmed in 34% of the patients, with no differences among the groups. The strongest predictor of resumed ovulation was a high serum level of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 after the intervention. Follow-up of one-half of the patients for a median of 2.8 years revealed sustained weight reduction and improvement in menstrual pattern. Dietary management and exercise, alone or in combination, are equally effective in improving reproductive function in overweight/obese women with PCOS. The underlying mechanisms appear to involve enhanced insulin sensitivity. Supportive individualized programs for lifestyle change could exert long-term beneficial effects. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relative importance of socioeconomic indicators in explaining differences in BMI and waist:hip ratio, and the mediating effect of work control, dietary patterns and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kjøllesdal, Marte Råberg; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Mosdøl, Annhild; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Socioeconomic differences in overweight are well documented, but most studies have only used one or two indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of the present study was to explore the relative importance of indicators of SEP (occupation, education and income) in explaining variation in BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR), and the mediating effect of work control and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, smoking and physical activity). The Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study, was carried out in 2000-1, Oslo, Norway. Our sample included 9235 adult working Oslo citizens, who attended a health examination and filled in two complementary FFQ with < 20% missing responses to food items. Four dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis, and were named 'modern', 'Western', 'traditional' and 'sweet'. In multivariate models, BMI and WHR were inversely associated with education (P < 0.001/P < 0.001) and occupation (P = 0.002/P < 0.001), whereas there were no significant associations with income or the work control. The 'modern' (P < 0.001) and the 'sweet' (P < 0.001) dietary patterns and physical activity level (P < 0.001) were inversely associated, while the 'Western' dietary pattern (P < 0.001) was positively associated with both BMI and WHR. These lifestyle factors could not fully explain the socioeconomic differences in BMI or WHR. However, together with socioeconomic factors, they explained more of the variation in WHR among men (21%) than among women (7%).

  8. Dietary practices, physical activity, and body-mass index in a selected population of Down syndrome children and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Sharav, T; Bowman, T

    1992-06-01

    Thirty sibling pairs, each with one Down syndrome child between the ages of 2 and 14, were selected from families who had participated in an infant-stimulation program. The maternal and paternal educational levels were 14.9 and 16.9 years, respectively. The Down syndrome patients and their siblings were compared in terms of body-mass index, that is, weight/stature2 (w/s2); activity as measured on a questionnaire; and weekly caloric intake. There were no significant differences between the Down syndrome children and their siblings in terms of w/s2. The Down syndrome patients were less active than their siblings and spent significantly more time indoors, showing a preference for indoor activities. Caloric intake calculated as percentage of recommended allowance for height was somewhat less in the Down syndrome children--88.7%, compared with 95% in the siblings--but not significantly so. It is postulated that even though Down syndrome patients have been shown to be at risk for obesity, familial and other environmental factors, such as dietary control and involvement in physical activity, have an influence.

  9. Effect of Dietary Patterns on Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in the Very Old: Findings from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Granic, Antoneta; Jagger, Carol; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R.; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C.; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy diet has been associated with better muscle strength and physical performance in cross-sectional studies of older adults but the effect of dietary patterns (DP) on subsequent decline, particularly in the very old (aged 85+), has not been determined. Objective We investigated the association between previously established DP and decline in muscle strength and physical performance in the very old. Design 791 participants (61.8% women) from the Newcastle 85+ Study were followed-up for change in hand grip strength (HGS) and Timed Up-and Go (TUG) test over 5 years (four waves 1.5 years apart). Mixed models were used to determine the effects of DP on muscle strength and physical performance in the entire cohort and separately by sex. Results Previously we have established three DP that varied in intake of red meats, potato, gravy and butter and differed with key health and social factors. HGS declined linearly by 1.59 kgF in men and 1.08 kgF in women (both p<0.001), and TUG slowed by 0.13 log10-transformed seconds (log10-s) in men and 0.11 log10-s in women per wave after adjusting for important covariates (both p<0.001), and also showed a nonlinear change (p<0.001). Men in DP1 (‘High Red Meat’) had worse overall HGS (β = -1.70, p = 0.05), but men in DP3 (‘High Butter’) had a steeper decline (β = -0.63, p = 0.05) than men in DP2 (‘Low Meat’). Men in DP1 and women in DP3 also had overall slower TUG than those in DP2 (β = 0.08, p = 0.001 and β = 0.06, p = 0.01, respectively), but similar rate of decline after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and functioning factors. The results for HGS and TUG were not affected by participants’ cognitive status. Conclusions DP high in red meats, potato and gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) may adversely affect muscle strength and physical performance in later life, independently of important covariates and cognitive status. PMID:26934360

  10. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescents undergoing an Intervention Targeting Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Background Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Objective To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Methods Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a one-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. Results 657 adolescents completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, sex and weight status at baseline, while self-esteem differences were demonstrated for sex, ethnicity and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12-months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p=0.02) over time compared to subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Conclusions Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self

  11. Effect of Dietary Patterns on Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in the Very Old: Findings from the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Granic, Antoneta; Jagger, Carol; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2016-01-01

    Healthy diet has been associated with better muscle strength and physical performance in cross-sectional studies of older adults but the effect of dietary patterns (DP) on subsequent decline, particularly in the very old (aged 85+), has not been determined. We investigated the association between previously established DP and decline in muscle strength and physical performance in the very old. 791 participants (61.8% women) from the Newcastle 85+ Study were followed-up for change in hand grip strength (HGS) and Timed Up-and Go (TUG) test over 5 years (four waves 1.5 years apart). Mixed models were used to determine the effects of DP on muscle strength and physical performance in the entire cohort and separately by sex. Previously we have established three DP that varied in intake of red meats, potato, gravy and butter and differed with key health and social factors. HGS declined linearly by 1.59 kgF in men and 1.08 kgF in women (both p<0.001), and TUG slowed by 0.13 log10-transformed seconds (log10-s) in men and 0.11 log10-s in women per wave after adjusting for important covariates (both p<0.001), and also showed a nonlinear change (p<0.001). Men in DP1 ('High Red Meat') had worse overall HGS (β = -1.70, p = 0.05), but men in DP3 ('High Butter') had a steeper decline (β = -0.63, p = 0.05) than men in DP2 ('Low Meat'). Men in DP1 and women in DP3 also had overall slower TUG than those in DP2 (β = 0.08, p = 0.001 and β = 0.06, p = 0.01, respectively), but similar rate of decline after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and functioning factors. The results for HGS and TUG were not affected by participants' cognitive status. DP high in red meats, potato and gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) may adversely affect muscle strength and physical performance in later life, independently of important covariates and cognitive status.

  12. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a 1-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem, respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. There were 657 adolescents who completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, gender, and weight status at baseline, whereas self-esteem differences were demonstrated for gender, ethnicity, and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12 months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p = .02) over time compared with subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self-esteem were not

  13. Dietary patterns in obese pregnant women; influence of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity in the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Angela C; Seed, Paul T; Patel, Nashita; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robinson, Sian M; Sanders, Thomas A; Sattar, Naveed; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M

    2016-11-29

    Understanding dietary patterns in obese pregnant women will inform future intervention strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes and the health of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity advice on dietary patterns in obese pregnant woman participating in the UPBEAT study, and to explore associations of dietary patterns with pregnancy outcomes. In the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial, pregnant obese women from eight UK multi-ethnic, inner-city populations were randomly assigned to receive a diet/physical activity intervention or standard antenatal care. The dietary intervention aimed to reduce glycemic load and saturated fat intake. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (15(+0)-18(+6) weeks' gestation), post intervention (27(+0)-28(+6) weeks) and in late pregnancy (34(+0)-36(+0) weeks). Dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis of the baseline FFQ data, and changes compared in the control and intervention arms. Patterns were related to pregnancy outcomes in the combined control/intervention cohort (n = 1023). Four distinct baseline dietary patterns were defined; Fruit and vegetables, African/Caribbean, Processed, and Snacks, which were differently associated with social and demographic factors. The UPBEAT intervention significantly reduced the Processed (-0.14; 95% CI -0.19, -0.08, P <0.0001) and Snacks (-0.24; 95% CI -0.31, -0.17, P <0.0001) pattern scores. In the adjusted model, baseline scores for the African/Caribbean (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: OR = 2.46; 95% CI 1.41, 4.30) and Processed (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.23, 3.41) patterns in the entire cohort were associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes. In a diverse cohort of obese pregnant women an intensive dietary intervention improved Processed and Snack dietary pattern scores. African/Caribbean and Processed

  14. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  15. Child Goal Setting of Dietary and Physical Activity in a Serious Videogame.

    PubMed

    Simons, Monique; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Abdelsamad, Dina; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX). One hundred three children, 10-12 years of age, played "Escape from Diab." During game play the children were presented with a menu of goals, values, and barriers from which they selected the ones most important to them. The children's selections were transmitted to a central server and stored in a database. Frequencies were calculated and reported. The most important diet-related values and reasons for children were getting good grades and being healthy and fit. The most often reported barrier for fruit intake was that it does not fill you up, and for vegetable intake it was that availability at home was limited. Also, limited availability of bottled water at home was an often chosen barrier. PA-related important values and reasons were not missing school and having energy to do homework. Children preferred to limit sedentary activities for only 30 minutes rather than for 60 minutes. The most frequently mentioned barrier for reducing inactivity was "feeling too tired to do anything else." These findings provide important input for future obesity prevention videogames attempting to motivate children to set healthy diet and PA goals.

  16. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (p<.05); however, men reported a higher intake of unhealthy foods such as fast food and soft drinks. We conclude that the prevalence of obesity is significantly higher in urban middle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  17. Examination of value of the future and health beliefs to explain dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Garza, Kimberly Bosworth; Harris, Carole V; Bolding, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown a negative association between value of the future (preference for long-term vs. short-term rewards) and harmful addictive behaviors; however, research in the area of preventive behaviors is limited and has shown conflicting results. The primary objectives were: (1) to examine the association among value of the future and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors, and (2) to assess whether value of the future explained additional variance in behaviors after controlling for theory-based health beliefs related to coronary heart disease (CHD). An online survey was conducted in adults (N = 172) with no prior history of CHD. A delay discounting task was administered to measure value of the future. Questionnaire items were based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and included CHD knowledge, perceived risk, perceived severity, perceived benefits of and barriers to behavior change, self-efficacy, cues to action, diet and PA behaviors and demographic variables. High value of the future was associated with younger age, lower BMI, more healthful diet, and increased PA. After controlling for HBM components and demographics, value of the future did not explain any additional variance in diet or PA behaviors. Significant predictors of healthful diet included female gender (P = .013), increased age (P = .029), greater than high school education (P = .023), greater diet-related self-efficacy (P = .021), and not having received a healthcare provider recommendation to improve diet (P = .018). Significant predictors of PA level included income between $20,000 and $69,999 (P = .014), greater exercise-related self-efficacy (P < .001) and not having received a healthcare provider recommendation to increase levels of PA (P = .015). Behaviors to prevent CHD may be associated with a person's outlook on the future; however, self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of behavior. These findings support recommendations for enhancement of diet- and PA-related self-efficacy and

  18. Models of Individual Dietary Behavior Based on Smartphone Data: The Influence of Routine, Physical Activity, Emotion, and Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smartphone applications (apps) facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person’s eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models. Method Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject’s activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance), those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments. Results Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and

  19. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  20. Effects of level of dietary intake and physical form of protein supplement on the digestibilities of different dietary carbohydrates between mouth and abomasum of young steers.

    PubMed

    McAllan, A B; Smith, R H

    1983-09-01

    Steers fitted with simple rumen and abomasal cannulas were given isoenergetic diets of rolled barley and chopped straw, pelleted together with some tapioca alone (B) or with some tapioca replaced by coarse soyabean meal (M) or finely ground soyabean flour (F). The diets were given at two levels to support 0.5 (L) and 1.0 (H) kg/d live weight gain. Chromic oxide and PEG were given as digesta flow markers. Mouth to abomasum digestibilities of different dietary sugars at the low level of intake (LB) were 0.65, 0.68, 0.59, 0.56 and 0.94 for arabinose, galactose, xylose, cellulose-glucose and starch-glucose respectively. Corresponding values at the higher level of intake (HB) were 0.55, 0.66, 0.55, 0.44 and 0.93 respectively. Supplementation with either soya bean meal or flour had no significant effects on the mouth to abomasum of dietary carbohydrate digestibilities at either level of feeding.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic chromium (picolinate) on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen and carcass traits of male turkeys.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Avishek; Divya, Sharma; Mandal, A B; Majumdar, S; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-30

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary chromium (Cr as picolinate) on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen and carcass traits of adult male turkey. Seventy-two (72) male turkeys (16 weeks old) were randomly distributed into four dietary treatment groups (4×3×6) for a period of 24 weeks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 250, 500 and 750μg Cr/kg (T2, T3 and T4 respectively) in basal diet (T1 considered as control). Semen physical characteristics viz. sperm concentration, progressive motility, live and dead count of spermatozoa and fertility differed significantly (P<0.05). Sperm concentration, progressive motility and fertility were higher and dead count was lower in T4 (750μg) group than control (T1) or other dietary treatments (T2 or T3) group. Semen biochemical parameters like creatinine, acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration did not differ significantly among the dietary treatment groups, whereas, total protein, glucose, malondialdehyde (MAD) and cholesterol concentration differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the treatment groups. Protein and MAD were higher while glucose and cholesterol concentrations were lower in T3 and T4 group than control or T1 group. The shrinkage loss, eviscerated yield, relative weight (as percent of body weight) of breast, thigh and liver improved on supplementation of Cr leading to significantly higher in T4 group in comparison to control. From this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate, at 750μg/kg level in diet was beneficial for improving physical characteristics of semen, carcass yield and breast yield of adult male turkeys. However, Cr levels of 500 or 750μg/kg in diet were beneficial for semen biochemical parameters of adult male turkeys.

  2. Physical activity, but not dietary intake, attenuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on obesity and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population.

    PubMed

    Petkeviciene, J; Smalinskiene, A; Klumbiene, J; Petkevicius, V; Kriaucioniene, V; Lesauskaite, V

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 variant with obesity and metabolic syndrome and interactions between FTO alleles, dietary intake and physical activity in Lithuanian adult population. Cross-sectional study. A health survey was carried out in randomly selected municipalities of Lithuania. The random sample was obtained from the lists of 25-64 year-old inhabitants. The data from 1020 individuals were analyzed. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs9939609, in the FTO gene was assessed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Information on physical activity at work, traveling to and from work and at leisure time was gathered by a standard questionnaire. The carriers of the AA genotype had the highest mean values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). They had 1.72 time higher odds of obesity (P = 0.009) and 1.67 time higher odds of increased WC (P = 0.013) than those with the TT genotype. Carriers of the T allele had lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to carriers of the AA genotype (33.8% and 42.5% respectively; P = 0.018). No interaction between the rs9939609 variant and energy or dietary intakes on weight status was found. Significant effect of the interactions 'genotype×age' and 'genotype×physical activity' on BMI was demonstrated. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was associated with anthropometric parameters and metabolic syndrome in the younger age group (25-44 years) and in individuals having low level of physical activity. Age and physical activity modulated the effect of the FTO polymorphism on weight status and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary and physical activity of adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Zhejiang province of eastern China: Data from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaowen; Pan, Jie; Pan, Mingxia; Wang, Jiawei; Dong, Jingfen; Yuan, Hongdi; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Yunfen; Lu, Yiping; Gu, Huiqin; Chen, Yanshu; Wu, Liqin; Chen, Yajuan; Jin, Fubi; Li, Bijun; Gu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lifestyle management helps improve the clinical outcome of patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to obtain lifestyle data on the dietary and physical activity of adult type 2 diabetes patients in Zhejiang province of eastern China for better patient education and improvement of clinical management. A cross-sectional survey of 607 adult type 2 diabetes patients was carried out in 12 hospitals within eight cities of Zhejiang province. Data were collected for sex, age, basic physical measurement (blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), dietary favor and habit (vegetarian diets vs meat diets, preference of salty or light flavors), detailed dietary intake (24-h recall method), as well as the weekly physical activity. The mean age of the patients in the analysis was 56.39 ± 12.29 years, and 38.71% of the patients had higher levels of body mass index than recommended. The average daily total energy intake was 1887.71 ± 575.10 kcal. The percentage of calories from carbohydrate, protein and fat were 61.36 ± 11.59%, 13.29 ± 3.37% and 25.35 ± 11.16%, respectively. For physical activity, the patients generally spent most of their daily time sitting and sleeping, and the time for moderate vigorous activity was limited. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Zhejiang province have a relatively high carbohydrate and low protein diet, with very limited physical activity. Patient education to achieve a better lifestyle intervention needs to improve in this region. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Mothers' Perspectives on the Development of Their Preschoolers' Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors and Parent-Child Relationship: Implications for Pediatric Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Keeley J; Van Fossen, Catherine; Cotto-Maisonet, Jennifer; Palmer, Elizabeth N; Eneli, Ihuoma

    2017-07-01

    The study explores female caregivers' reflections on their relationship with their child (2-5 years old) and the development of their child's dietary and physical activity behaviors. Five, 90-minute semistructured focus groups were conducted to inquire about children's growth, eating behaviors and routines, physical activity, personality, and the parent-child relationship. Nineteen female caregivers diverse in race/ethnicity, age, and educational attainment participated. Participants reported that they maintained a schedule, but needed to be flexible to accommodate daily responsibilities. Family, social factors, and day care routines were influences on their children's behaviors. The main physical activity barriers were safety and time constraints. Guidance from pediatric primary care providers aimed at supporting female caregivers to build a positive foundation in their parent-child relationship, and to adopt and model healthy diet and physical activity behaviors that are respectful of schedules and barriers should be a priority for childhood obesity prevention.

  5. Adiposity, dietary and physical activity patterns in ethnic Chinese youths: a cross-country comparison of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z

    1994-06-01

    During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.

  6. Summary measure of dietary musculoskeletal nutrient (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus) intakes is associated with lower-extremity physical performance in homebound elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Giuliani, Carol; Haines, Pamela S; Branch, Laurence G; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Zohoori, Namvar

    2003-04-01

    Nutritional intake has been overlooked as a possible contributing factor to lower-extremity physical performance, especially in homebound elderly persons. Our objectives were to examine the association of a summary measure of calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus intakes with 1) the inability to perform lower-extremity physical performance tests and 2) declining levels of summary lower-extremity physical performance. Baseline data from the Nutrition and Function Study were used to calculate a summary musculoskeletal nutrient (SMN) score as a measure of nutrient intake (factor analysis) and to examine the association of SMN intake with physical performance (multivariable regression models) among recipients of home-delivered meals who completed an in-home assessment (anthropometric measures and performance-based physical tests) and three 24-h dietary recalls. Among the 321 participants, elderly age, black race, body mass index (in kg/m2) > or = 35, arthritis, frequent fear of falling, and lowest SMN intake were independently associated with being unable to perform functional tests. The lowest SMN intake and the highest BMI were both significantly associated with increasingly worse levels of lower-extremity physical performance, after adjustment for health and demographic characteristics. Considering the importance of identifying short- and long-term outcomes that help elderly persons maintain adequate nutritional status and remain functionally independent at home, the results of this study suggest the need to identify intervention strategies that target the improvement of dietary intake and physical performance. Further investigation is indicated to identify the manner in which nutritional status contributes to the preservation or deterioration of physical performance in homebound elderly persons.

  7. Dietary and lifestyle quality indices with/without physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Sesé, Maria A; Huybrechts, Inge; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Palacios, Gonzalo; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Breidenassel, Christina; Leclercq, Catherine; Beghin, Laurent; Plada, Maria; Manios, Yannis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A

    2013-11-01

    Emerging data indicate that higher levels of insulin resistance (IR) are common among children and adolescents and are related to cardiometabolic risk; therefore, IR requires consideration early in life. In addition, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the role of dietary nutrients on IR. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in European adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years. A total of 637 participants with valid homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index data and who completed at least a 2 d 24 h dietary recall were included in the study (60% of the total HELENA-CSS sample). There were two dietary indices calculated, with the only difference between them being the inclusion or not of physical activity (PA). Markers of IR such as HOMA and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Pubertal status, BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were measured as potential confounders. The dietary index including PA was inversely associated with HOMA and directly with the QUICKI in females, but not in males, after adjusting for pubertal status, centre, BMI and CRF. In conclusion, the present study indicates that considering PA as part of the dietary index is of relevance as the resulted index is inversely related to IR independently of potential confounders including CRF. Overall, these findings suggest that intervention studies aimed at preventing IR in young people should focus on increasing the quality of the diet and also on including an optimal PA level in healthy adolescents.

  8. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.

  9. Dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A.A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C.Y.; Patrick, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. This study investigated how dietary behaviors, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) relate to weight-specific QoL and work productivity. The study was conducted in 31 small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33.5% non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and vegetables, dietary behaviors such as fast food consumption, Godin free-time physical activity scores, measured height and weight, Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) scores, and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) scores. Baseline data were analyzed using linear mixed models separately for men (n=348) and women (n=399), since gender modified the effects. BMI was negatively associated with OWLQOL in both women (p<0.001) and men (p<0.001). The linear effect estimate for OWLQOL score associated with one-category increase in BMI was 30% (95% CI: 25%, 44%) for women and 14% (95% CI: 10%, 17%) for men. BMI was positively associated with productivity loss only in women (exp(slope)=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.11, p=0.04). Eating while doing another activity was negatively associated with OWLQOL scores in men (p=0.0006, independent of BMI) and with productivity in women (p=0.04, effect diminished when adjusting for BMI). Fast food meals were associated with decreased productivity for men (p=0.038, independent of BMI). Results suggest the obesogenic dietary behaviors and higher BMI are associated with decreased QoL and productivity variously in women and men. PMID:22142517

  10. Pro-opiomelanocortin modulates the thermogenic and physical activity responses to high-fat feeding and markedly influences dietary fat preference.

    PubMed

    Tung, Y C Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P

    2007-11-01

    Complete proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency causes a human syndrome of hypoadrenalism, altered skin and hair pigmentation, and severe hyperphagic obesity. Heterozygote carriers of nonsense mutations are strongly predisposed to obesity. Pomc(+/-) mice have normal body weight on a chow diet but increase food intake and become more obese than wild-type littermates when placed on a high-fat diet. To further explore the mechanisms whereby dietary fat interacts with Pomc genotype to produce obesity, we examined Pomc-null, Pomc(+/-), and wild-type mice for changes in the components of energy balance in response to provision of a high-fat diet and macronutrient preference when presented with a selection of dietary choices. In contrast to wild-type mice, Pomc null mice did not increase their resting energy expenditure or their spontaneous physical activity when given a high-fat diet. Pomc(+/-) mice increased resting energy expenditure similarly to wild types, but their increase in physical activity was significantly less than that seen in wild-type mice. In two independent experimental tests of macronutrient preference, Pomc genotype was a strong predictor of dietary fat preference with Pomc null animals choosing to eat approximately twice as much fat, but similar amounts of carbohydrate and protein, as wild-type animals. Pomc(+/-) mice showed an intermediate response. In summary, POMC-derived peptides have influences on multiple aspects of the organism's response to the presentation of high-fat diet. This includes a major influence, readily discernible even in heterozygote animals, on the dietary preference for fat.

  11. Automated personalized feedback for physical activity and dietary behavior change with mobile phones: a randomized controlled trial on adults.

    PubMed

    Rabbi, Mashfiqui; Pfammatter, Angela; Zhang, Mi; Spring, Bonnie; Choudhury, Tanzeem

    2015-05-14

    A dramatic rise in health-tracking apps for mobile phones has occurred recently. Rich user interfaces make manual logging of users' behaviors easier and more pleasant, and sensors make tracking effortless. To date, however, feedback technologies have been limited to providing overall statistics, attractive visualization of tracked data, or simple tailoring based on age, gender, and overall calorie or activity information. There are a lack of systems that can perform automated translation of behavioral data into specific actionable suggestions that promote healthier lifestyle without any human involvement. MyBehavior, a mobile phone app, was designed to process tracked physical activity and eating behavior data in order to provide personalized, actionable, low-effort suggestions that are contextualized to the user's environment and previous behavior. This study investigated the technical feasibility of implementing an automated feedback system, the impact of the suggestions on user physical activity and eating behavior, and user perceptions of the automatically generated suggestions. MyBehavior was designed to (1) use a combination of automatic and manual logging to track physical activity (eg, walking, running, gym), user location, and food, (2) automatically analyze activity and food logs to identify frequent and nonfrequent behaviors, and (3) use a standard machine-learning, decision-making algorithm, called multi-armed bandit (MAB), to generate personalized suggestions that ask users to either continue, avoid, or make small changes to existing behaviors to help users reach behavioral goals. We enrolled 17 participants, all motivated to self-monitor and improve their fitness, in a pilot study of MyBehavior. In a randomized two-group trial, investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either MyBehavior's personalized suggestions (n=9) or nonpersonalized suggestions (n=8), created by professionals, from a mobile phone app over 3 weeks. Daily activity

  12. Changes in weight, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary intake during the transition to higher education: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deliens, Tom; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-02-15

    The transition to higher education involves a significant life change and might be accompanied with less healthy behaviours. However, the only longitudinal study that spanned the period from high school to college/university was limited to self-reported weight. Other studies assessed objective weight, but only at the start of the first semester at college/university and used retrospective questionnaires to asses health behaviours in high school. This study investigated changes in objectively assessed weight and prospective health behaviours during the transition from high school to college/university in Belgian students and examined which health behaviour changes were related to weight change. A sample of 291 students was followed from the final year of high school until the second year of college/university. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured objectively. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary intake were estimated using validated questionnaires. In order to study changes in BMI and health behaviours, 2 × 2 (time × gender) Repeated Measures ANOVA analyses were conducted. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was executed to investigate the association between changes in health behaviours and BMI changes, and the moderating effect of gender. On average students gained 2.7 kg with a greater increase in boys (boys: 4.2 kg, girls: 1.9 kg). Active transportation and sport participation decreased. Some sedentary behaviours (watching TV/DVD, playing computer games) decreased, while others (internet use, studying) increased. Consumption of different foods decreased, while alcohol consumption increased. A higher decrease in sport participation, a higher increase in internet use and a lower increase in studying were related to a greater increase in BMI. An increase in alcohol consumption only contributed to weight gain in boys, whereas a decrease in fruit/vegetable intake only contributed to weight gain in girls. We can conclude

  13. The effect of reducing dietary energy density via the addition of water to a dry diet, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly domestic cats live in an overfeeding and underexercising environment where obesity is a major health concern. One strategy to aid healthy body weight maintenance is dietary energy dilution. Published data indicate that increasing dietary moisture content leads to a reduction in energy intake and increased activity. However, a number of different methodologies were employed in these studies and associated changes in physical activity have only been measured once. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of diets of three different moisture contents offered in excess of energy requirements, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats. Sixty-nine adult cats randomised into three groups, received 100 % of their daily individual maintenance energy requirements (IMER) of dry diet or dry diet hydrated to 40 or 80 % total moisture content (tmc). Baseline activity, intake, body weight and body composition were measured. Following this baseline phase, the cats received the same diets at 200 % of daily IMER and the measurements repeated over the next 28 d. When offered the diets at 200 % IMER, cats fed the dry diet significantly increased body weight and percentage of body fat (P < 0·01), while those offered the hydrated diets did not (P > 0·01). The levels of physical activity in cats offered the hydrated 80 % tmc diet were significantly (P < 0·01) higher than those offered the dry or 40 % tmc diet. We suggest that dietary energy dilution by addition of water may be a useful strategy for healthy body weight maintenance in overfed cats.

  14. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  15. Chronic disease risks and use of a smartphone application during a physical activity and dietary intervention in Australian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Nicholas D; Pavey, Toby G; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Trost, Stewart G; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined chronic disease risks and the use of a smartphone activity tracking application during an intervention in Australian truck drivers (April-October 2014). Forty-four men (mean age=47.5 [SD 9.8] years) completed baseline health measures, and were subsequently offered access to a free wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application (Jawbone UP) to monitor step counts and dietary choices during a 20-week intervention. Chronic disease risks were evaluated against guidelines; weekly step count and dietary logs registered by drivers in the application were analysed to evaluate use of the Jawbone UP. Chronic disease risks were high (e.g. 97% high waist circumference [≥ 94 cm]). Eighteen drivers (41%) did not start the intervention; smartphone technical barriers were the main reason for drop out. Across 20-weeks, drivers who used the Jawbone UP logged step counts for an average of 6 [SD 1] days/week; mean step counts remained consistent across the intervention (weeks 1-4=8,743[SD 2,867] steps/day; weeks 17-20=8,994[SD 3,478] steps/day). The median number of dietary logs significantly decreased from start (17 [IQR 38] logs/weeks) to end of the intervention (0 [IQR 23] logs/week; p<0.01); the median proportion of healthy diet choices relative to total diet choices logged increased across the intervention (weeks 1-4=38[IQR 21]%; weeks 17-20=58[IQR 18]%). Step counts were more successfully monitored than dietary choices in those drivers who used the Jawbone UP. Smartphone technology facilitated active living and healthy dietary choices, but also prohibited intervention engagement in a number of these high-risk Australian truck drivers. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Effects of dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on the feeding behavior, digestibility, and growth of 8- to 10-month-old Holstein replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Wang, H R; Chen, Q; Chen, L M; Ge, R F; Wang, M Z; Yu, L H; Zhang, J

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content on the feeding behavior, digestion, ruminal fermentation parameters, and growth of 8- to 10-mo-old dairy heifers and to predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in growing dairy heifers. Twenty-four Holstein dairy heifers (245 ± 10.8 d of age, 305.6 ± 8.5 kg initial live weight) were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates as a completely randomized design. During the 60-d period with a 10-d adaptation, heifers were offered 1 of 4 diets, which were chemically identical but included different peNDF8.0 (particle size is >8 mm and <19 mm) content (% DM): 10.8, 13.5, 18.0, or 19.8%, which was achieved by chopping forage into different lengths (fine = 1 cm, short = 3 cm, medium = 5 cm, and long = 7 cm). The concentrate and silage were mixed and fed restrictedly and exclusive of forage (Chinese ryegrass hay) were offered ad libitum. The body weight and frame size of the heifers were measured every 15 d during the experimental period. Samples of the rumen content (2 h after the morning feeding) were taken for pH, ammonia, and volatile fatty acid determination. The dry matter intake and average daily gain of the heifers were not significantly affected by peNDF8.0 content. The body frame size (including withers height, body length, and heart girth) of the heifers was not increased significantly by enhanced peNDF8.0 content. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were both increased with increasing dietary peNDF8.0 content. The ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and percentage of acetate and butyrate profiles were not significantly affected by dietary peNDF8.0 content. However, the enhanced peNDF8.0 content led to a decrease in the propionate percentage. The ratio of acetate to propionate in the 13.5% treatment was highest among the treatments. Increasing the particle size and dietary peNDF8.0 content resulted in increased

  17. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image

  18. Health behavior and academic achievement among adolescents: the relative contribution of dietary habits, physical activity, body mass index, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfúsdóttir, Inga Dóra; Allegrante, John P

    2010-02-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of Youth in Iceland , a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model demonstrated good fit with chi-square of 2685 (n = 5,810, df = 180), p < .001, Comparative Fit Index value of .94, and a root mean square error of approximation of .049. Lower BMI, physical activity, and good dietary habits were all associated with higher academic achievement; however, health behavior was positively and robustly associated with greater self-esteem. Self-esteem was positively influenced both through physical activity (beta = .16) and the consumption of fruits and vegetables (beta = .14). In contrast, poor dietary habits negatively influenced self-esteem and academic achievement, and self-esteem was negatively influenced by increasing levels of BMI (beta = -.05).

  19. Efficacy of herbomineral compounds and pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise) in the management of Yakṛt Roga (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pragya; Nesari, Tanuja; Gupta, Girja Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) also called as hepatic steatosis is a manifestation of excessive triglyceride accumulation in the liver. NAFLD has been described by histological features ranging from simple fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, progressive fibrosis, and liver failure. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of herbomineral drugs and pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise) in the management of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized, retrospective, open-ended study. A total of 32 patients presenting with raised alanine transaminase (>1.5 times normal levels) combined with sonological evidence of fatty liver in the absence of any other detectable cause of liver disease were included in the study. The recruited patients were randomly divided into two groups - The patients in Group-A (n = 21) were given a combination of herbomineral drugs Ārogyavardhinī vaṭi and Triphalā Guggulu along with prescription of pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise); the patients in Group-B (n = 11) were advised only pathya. Results: Group-A (combined therapy group) showed statistically significant improvement in clinical symptoms, biochemical parameters-liver function test, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, and body mass index (P < 0.001) in comparison to Group-B (pathya group). Conclusion: Combination of herbomineral drugs along with pathya has shown promising results toward the effective management of this metabolic disorder. PMID:26283807

  20. Impact of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity on Bone Health among 40 to 60 Year Old Females at Risk of Osteoporosis in India.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Rafiya; Kochhar, Anita; Garg, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bones with increasing risk among women. However, a number of modifiable factors can help in combating this disorder. Present study examined the relationship of diet and physical activity and risk of osteoporosis through biochemical tests, bone mass density (BMD) scores, and standard questionnaires. Genetic risk for osteoporosis, presence of osteoarthritis, and thyroid problems were found among 8%, 7%, and 3% of participants, respectively; and 78% had onset of menopause between 47 to 55 years of age. Results revealed that less intake of proteins, minerals, and diverse fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly (p≤0.05; 0.01) correlated with decreased BMD score and serum calcium. It was concluded that adequate intake of varied fruits and vegetables, good protein, habit of daily physical activity, adequate sun exposure, and dietary calcium, may play a promising role in decreasing the risk of osteoporosis among women of this age group.

  1. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  2. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  3. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  4. Sustainability of a Curriculum-based Intervention on Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, SDS; Francis, MP; Dalrymple, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood obesity and poor lifestyle practices are emerging as major public health challenges in the Caribbean. Given the fact that a significant part of childhood is spent at school, curriculum-based interventions aimed at improving good dietary and physical activity patterns may provide a useful vehicle for mass inculcation of long-term healthy lifestyle practices. In this study, we evaluated the long-term impact of a brief curriculum based intervention on dietary behaviour, physical activity and knowledge level of primary schoolchildren. Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention. One hundred students each were then randomly assigned to the intervention (IVG) and non-intervention (NIVG) groups and followed-up for 18 months. Participants in the IVG group were exposed to a curriculum consisting of six one-hour modules followed by school-based activities geared at fostering healthy behaviours. Students in the non-intervention group did not receive any modules and were subject to the information available at school on a regular basis. Results: In multivariate regression equations controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and baseline values, intervention was associated with lower intake of fried foods and sodas (p < 0.05) and higher knowledge scores (p < 0.01) 18 months later but not significantly associated with improved physical activity or lower BMI. Conclusions: In this study, participants in the intervention group reported significantly lower intakes of fried foods and sodas and higher knowledge scores than participants in the control group some 18 months post-intervention independent of age, gender, BMI, ethnicity and the intakes at baseline. PMID:25303198

  5. Sustainability of a Curriculum-based Intervention on Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Nichols, S Ds; Francis, M P; Dalrymple, N

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity and poor lifestyle practices are emerging as major public health challenges in the Caribbean. Given the fact that a significant part of childhood is spent at school, curriculum-based interventions aimed at improving good dietary and physical activity patterns may provide a useful vehicle for mass inculcation of long-term healthy lifestyle practices. In this study, we evaluated the long-term impact of a brief curriculum based intervention on dietary behaviour, physical activity and knowledge level of primary schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, controlled, school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention. One hundred students each were then randomly assigned to the intervention (IVG) and non-intervention (NIVG) groups and followed-up for 18 months. Participants in the IVG group were exposed to a curriculum consisting of six one-hour modules followed by school-based activities geared at fostering healthy behaviours. Students in the non-intervention group did not receive any modules and were subject to the information available at school on a regular basis. In multivariate regression equations controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and baseline values, intervention was associated with lower intake of fried foods and sodas (p < 0.05) and higher knowledge scores (p < 0.01) 18 months later but not significantly associated with improved physical activity or lower BMI. In this study, participants in the intervention group reported significantly lower intakes of fried foods and sodas and higher knowledge scores than participants in the control group some 18 months post-intervention independent of age, gender, BMI, ethnicity and the intakes at baseline.

  6. Paternal Lifestyle-Related Parenting Practices Mediate Changes in Children's Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: Findings From the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids Community Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined potential parenting-related mediators of children's physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) community program. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 45 overweight/obese (mean [SD] age = 39.8 [5.4] years; BMI = 32.4 [3.8]) fathers and their children (n = 77; 58% boys; mean [SD] age = 7.7 [2.5] years). Families were randomized to either the HDHK program or wait-list control group. The program involved 7 sessions. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline and at 14 weeks for physical activity (pedometery) and core food intake (Questionnaire). Fathers' lifestyle-related parenting practices included; self-efficacy, beliefs, modeling, logistic support, rules, cophysical activity, shared mealtime frequency and intentions. Significant intervention effects were found for cophysical activity and modeling physical activity. Cophysical activity mediated children's physical activity in the intervention ('mediated effect,' AB = 653, 95% CI = 4-2050) and was responsible for 59.5% of the intervention effect. Fathers' beliefs mediated children's percent energy from core foods (AB = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.05-5.55) and accounted for 72.9% of the intervention effect. Participation in the HDHK program positively impacted on fathers' cophysical activity with their child and beliefs about healthy eating which mediated changes in children's diet and physical activity behaviors.

  7. A field test of a web-based workplace health promotion program to improve dietary practices, reduce stress, and increase physical activity: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cook, Royer F; Billings, Douglas W; Hersch, Rebekah K; Back, Anita S; Hendrickson, April

    2007-06-19

    Most work sites engage in some form of health promotion programming designed to improve worker health and reduce health care costs. Although these programs have typically been delivered through combinations of seminars and print materials, workplace health promotion programs are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based multimedia health promotion program for the workplace, designed to improve dietary practices, reduce stress, and increase physical activity. Using a randomized controlled trial design with pretest-posttest comparisons within each group, 419 employees of a human resources company were randomly assigned to the Web-based condition or to a condition that provided print materials on the same topics. All subjects were assessed at pretest and posttest through an online questionnaire containing multiple measures of health behavior and attitudes. The test period was 3 months. Questionnaire data were analyzed mainly by analysis of covariance and t tests. Retention rates were good for both groups-85% for the Web-based group and 87% for the print group. Subjects using the Web-based program performed significantly better than the print group on Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet (F(1,415) = 7.104, P = .008) and Dietary Stage of Change (F(1,408) = 6.487, P = .01), but there were no significant group differences on the five other dietary measures. Both groups also showed improvement from pretest to posttest on most dietary measures, as indicated by significant t tests. Within the Web-based group, dosage analyses showed significant effects of the number of times the subject accessed the program on measures of Dietary Self-Efficacy (F(2,203) = 5.270, P = .003), Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet (F(2,204) = 2.585, P = .045), and Dietary Stage of Change (F(2,200) = 4.627, P = .005). No significant differences were found between the two groups on measures of stress or physical

  8. A Field Test of a Web-Based Workplace Health Promotion Program to Improve Dietary Practices, Reduce Stress, and Increase Physical Activity: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Douglas W; Hersch, Rebekah K; Back, Anita S; Hendrickson, April

    2007-01-01

    Background Most work sites engage in some form of health promotion programming designed to improve worker health and reduce health care costs. Although these programs have typically been delivered through combinations of seminars and print materials, workplace health promotion programs are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Objective The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based multimedia health promotion program for the workplace, designed to improve dietary practices, reduce stress, and increase physical activity. Methods Using a randomized controlled trial design with pretest-posttest comparisons within each group, 419 employees of a human resources company were randomly assigned to the Web-based condition or to a condition that provided print materials on the same topics. All subjects were assessed at pretest and posttest through an online questionnaire containing multiple measures of health behavior and attitudes. The test period was 3 months. Questionnaire data were analyzed mainly by analysis of covariance and t tests. Results Retention rates were good for both groups—85% for the Web-based group and 87% for the print group. Subjects using the Web-based program performed significantly better than the print group on Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet (F1,415 = 7.104, P = .008) and Dietary Stage of Change (F1,408 = 6.487, P = .01), but there were no significant group differences on the five other dietary measures. Both groups also showed improvement from pretest to posttest on most dietary measures, as indicated by significant t tests. Within the Web-based group, dosage analyses showed significant effects of the number of times the subject accessed the program on measures of Dietary Self-Efficacy (F2,203 = 5.270, P = .003), Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet (F2,204 = 2.585, P = .045), and Dietary Stage of Change (F2,200 = 4.627, P = .005). No significant differences were found between the two groups on measures

  9. Associations of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity with Sleep Disordered Breathing in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES)

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Monica M.; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary habits and physical activity patterns were independently associated with severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Data collected from 320 adults participating in an ancillary study of The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study were analyzed as a cross-sectional assessment at study baseline. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was used as a measure of the severity of sleep disordered breathing. Separate linear regression models were fitted using RDI as the independent variable and various preselected components of dietary intake and physical activity as the dependent variables. The results indicated that even after adjusting for BMI, age, and daytime sleepiness, subjects with very severe and extremely severe SDB (RDI ≥ 50) consumed a diet that was higher in cholesterol, protein, total fat, and total saturated fatty acids. These findings were most evident among women. For all participants, those with RDI ≥ 50 in comparison to those < 50, on average consumed 88.16 more mg of cholesterol per day (95% CI: 44.45 to 131.86, p < 0.001). Among the women participants only, those with RDI ≥ 50 in comparison to those < 50, on average consumed 21.96 more grams of protein (95% CI: 2.64 to 41.29, p = 0.026), 27.75 more grams of total fat (95% CI: 3.38 to 52.11, p = 0.026), and 9.24 more grams of saturated fatty acids (95% CI: 0.67 to 17.80, p = 0.035). Furthermore, those with an RDI ≥ 50 had a 224.58 greater caloric expenditure than those with RDI < 50 from all activities including work and sleep (95% CI: 40.98 to 408.18, p = 0.017). Although significant results were seen in a reduction of physical activity from recreational activities, this finding was explained by the increase in BMI associated with higher levels of RDI. Citation: Vasquez MM; Goodwin JL; Drescher AA; Smith TW; Quan SF. Associations of dietary intake and physical activity with

  10. Dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity in relation to adiposity, dyslipidemia, and incident dysglycemia in the pathobiology of prediabetes in a biracial cohort study.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Andrew B; Adesanya, E A Omoluyi; Owei, Ibiye; Gilles, Ashley K; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Wan, Jim; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    Dietary and exercise data are frequently recorded in clinical research, but their correlation with metabolic measures needs further evaluation. We examined the association of food and exercise habits with body size, lipid profile, and glycemia in a prospective biracial cohort. The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study followed initially normoglycemic offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for the occurrence of incident prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). At enrollment, participants underwent a 75-gram OGTT, anthropometry, measurement of fasting lipids, insulin, and body fat (DEXA), and completed the Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ), and Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). We assessed the relationship between FHQ and MAQ scores and adiposity, cardiometabolic measures, and incident dysglycemia. Among our cohort of 338 subjects (188 black, 150 white; mean age {±SD} 45.2±10.2 years, BMI 30.3±7.2 kg/m(2)), FHQ and MAQ scores were individually correlated with BMI (r=0.14, -0.12; P=0.01, 0.03) and waist circumference (r=0.19, -0.11; P=0.004, 0.05). Diet-adjusted leisure activity (MAQ/FHQ) was significantly correlated with total body fat (r=-0.20, P=0.0007), trunk fat (r=-0.20, P=0.0006), and serum triglycerides (r=-0.17, P=0.003) and HDL cholesterol (r=0.11, P=0.04) levels. During 5.5 years of follow-up, 111 subjects (Progressors) developed prediabetes (n=101) or diabetes (n=10) and 227 remained normoglycemic (Non-progressors). Age, BMI, MAQ and MAQ/FHQ values were significant predictors of incident prediabetes/diabetes. Progressors reported similar dietary habits (FHQ score 2.57±0.49 vs. 2.57±0.53) but 30% lower physical activity (MAQ score 15.2±20.5 vs. 22.3±30.5 MET-hr/wk, P=0.015) compared with non-progressors. Among African-American and Caucasian offspring of parents with T2DM, self-reported dietary and exercise habits correlated with measures of adiposity and

  11. Dietary Habits and Leisure-time Physical Activity in Relation to Adiposity, Dyslipidemia, and Incident Dysglycemia in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Andrew B.; Adesanya, E.A. Omoluyi; Owei, Ibiye; Gilles, Ashley K.; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Wan, Jim; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary and exercise data are frequently recorded in clinical research, but their correlation with metabolic measures needs further evaluation. Objective We examined the association of food and exercise habits with body size, lipid profile, and glycemia in a prospective biracial cohort. Methods The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study followed initially normoglycemic offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for the occurrence of incident prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). At enrollment, participants underwent a 75-g OGTT, anthropometry, measurement of fasting lipids, insulin, and body fat (DEXA), and completed the Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ), and Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). We assessed the relationship between FHQ and MAQ scores and adiposity, cardiometabolic measures, and incident dysglycemia. Results Among our cohort of 338 subjects (188 black, 150 white; mean age {± SD} 45.2 ± 10.2 y, BMI 30.3 ± 7.2 kg/m2), FHQ and MAQ scores were individually correlated with BMI (r= 0.14, −0.12; P=0.01, 0.03) and waist circumference (r= 0.19, −0.11; P=0.004, 0.05). Diet-adjusted leisure activity (MAQ/FHQ) was significantly correlated with total body fat (r= −0.20, P=0.0007), trunk fat (r= −0.20, P=0.0006), and serum triglycerides (r= −0.17, P=0.003) and HDL cholesterol (r= 0.11, P=0.04) levels. During 5.5yrs of follow-up, 111 subjects (Progressors) developed prediabetes (n=101) or diabetes (n=10) and 227 remained normoglycemic (Non-progressors). Age, BMI, MAQ and MAQ/FHQ values were significant predictors of incident prediabetes/diabetes. Progressors reported similar dietary habits (FHQ score 2.57±0.49 vs. 2.57±0.53) but 30% lower physical activity (MAQ score 15.2±20.5 vs. 22.3±30.5 MET-hr/wk, P=0.015) compared with non-progressors. Conclusions Among African-American and Caucasian offspring of parents with T2DM, self-reported dietary and exercise

  12. Effects of the Quest to Lava Mountain Computer Game on Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Elementary School Children: A Pilot Group-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela V; Shegog, Ross; Chow, Joanne; Finley, Carrie; Pomeroy, Mike; Smith, Carolyn; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-08-01

    Computer-based educational games present an opportunity for health education in school; however, their feasibility in school settings and effectiveness in changing behavior are poorly understood. To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of the Quest to Lava Mountain (QTLM) computer game on dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and psychosocial factors among ethnically diverse children in Texas. Quasi-experimental group-randomized controlled trial conducted during the 2012-2013 school year. A total of 107 children in fourth and fifth grade consented. There was an attrition rate of 8.8% with a final sample size of 44 children in three intervention schools, and a sample of 50 children in three comparison schools. Dietary intake was measured using two random 24-hour recalls, whereas child self-report surveys measured diet, physical activity, and psychosocial factors before and after the intervention. Process data on QTLM usability and back-end server data on QTLM exposure and progress achieved were collected. QTLM was implemented as part of the in-school or afterschool program. Recommended game exposure duration was 90 min/wk for 6 weeks. Analysis of covariance or logistic regression models evaluated effects of QTLM on diet, physical activity, and psychosocial factors. Post hoc exploratory analysis examined the changes before and after the intervention in outcome variables among children in the intervention group. Significance was set at P<0.05. Children played an average of 274±110 minutes (approximately 4.6 hours) of QTLM during the 6 weeks (51% of recommended dosage). Compared with the comparison group, children in the intervention group reported decreased sugar consumption (P=0.021) and higher nutrition/physical activity attitudes (P=0.041) pre- to postintervention. There were no significant effects of QTLM on physical activity. However, post hoc analysis showed that higher QTLM exposure and gaming progress was associated with increased

  13. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  14. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  15. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs.

  16. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  17. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-20

    Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention.

  18. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Smith, Tosha W; McGuirt, Jared T; Evenson, Kelly R; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-04-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health

  19. The association between sport participation and dietary behaviors among fourth graders in the school physical activity and nutrition survey, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Dortch, Katherine Skala; Gay, Jennifer; Springer, Andrew; Kohl, Harold W; Sharma, Shreela; Saxton, Debra; Wilson, Kim; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between youth sport team participation and dietary behaviors among elementary school-aged children. Cross-sectional survey. Public schools in Texas during 2009-2010. A total of 5035 ethnically diverse fourth graders. Participation in organized sports teams, consumption of select food items (fruits, vegetables, beverages, sweets/snacks). Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between each food item (eaten at least once on the previous day) and number of sports teams as the independent class variable (0, 1 ,2, ≥3), adjusting for body mass index physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Significant dose-response associations were observed between number of sports teams and consumption of fruits and vegetables. For boys, the likelihood of eating fruit and fruit-flavored drinks was significantly higher and the odds of drinking soda were lower with the number of teams. For girls, the likelihood of consuming green vegetables increased as sports teams participation increased, and participation was positively associated with diet soda consumption. A positive association was observed between the number of sports teams and scores on the Healthy Food Index for boys and girls. The findings that sports participation is associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of soda suggest that efforts should be focused on supporting youth team sports to promote healthier food choices. Since sports are available to all ages, sports may be an important venue for promoting healthier dietary behaviors.

  20. A systematic review: is there an app for that? Translational science of pediatric behavior change for physical activity and dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Erin E; Cushing, Christopher C

    2015-05-01

    Systematically review and meta-analyze the pediatric literature on behavior-change techniques (BCT) as defined by Abraham & Michie (Health Psychology, 27, 379-387, 2008), and describe whether the most effective BCTs are incorporated in physical activity (PA) and dietary mobile apps. Randomized controlled trials (n = 74) targeting diet or PA were meta-analyzed. Metaregressions were used to determine which BCTs predict aggregate effect size (ES). iTunes™ apps were coded for presence/absence of BCTs that produce larger ES. Modeling was the only predictor of PA ES in children (aged 6-13 years). Consequences for behavior, other's approval, self-monitoring, intention formation, and behavioral contracting significantly predicted PA for adolescents. Modeling and social support predicted dietary ES in adolescents and children, respectively. Practice was also a significant predictor for children. A majority of effective strategies for children were not widely incorporated in apps; however, the picture is more optimistic for adolescents. More collaboration is needed between pediatric psychologists and technologists to incorporate evidence-based BCTs into developmentally appropriate mobile apps. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Higher Dental Caries Prevalence and Its Association with Dietary Habits and Physical Limitation in Epidermolysis Bullosa Patients: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Leal, Soraya Coelho; Lia, Erica Negrini; Amorim, Rivadavio; Dos Santos, Mateus Veppo; de Araújo, Mayara Cundari; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antônio; da Fonseca, Camila Abdanur

    2016-03-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) represents a highly rare subgroup of skin diseases that affects skin and mucous membrane. The aim of the present study was to assess caries prevalence and its associated factors in EB subjects. Salivary status was also assessed. Ten subjects with EB who were under supervision were selected (cases) and matched by age and gender with unaffected individuals (controls). Dental caries were recorded using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Oral hygiene and dietary habits were investigated by clinical examination and questionnaires. Both nonstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and salivary pH, buffering capacity and mouth opening were evaluated. The results showed that the median decay-missing-filled teeth was significantly higher (p = 0.0094) in EB cases 5 (3.9-20.3) than in controls 3 (2-3.25). The groups also differed when food consistency was analyzed. Individuals with EB have a higher intake of soft food. In addition, the median mouth-opening values from cases (0.84-2.84 cm) and controls (4.3-4.9 cm) have shown to be statistically different (p = 0.007). Considering the salivary parameters, none of them showed significant differences among groups. Epidermolysis bullosa subjects present higher caries scores and might be related to their physical condition and dietary habits. There is a lack of information about oral status in EB subjects. Hence, our findings add useful information regarding the relationship between caries prevalence and associated risk factors in EB subjects.

  2. White grape pomace as a source of dietary fibre and polyphenols and its effect on physical and nutraceutical characteristics of wheat biscuits.

    PubMed

    Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Bajerska, Joanna; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Górecka, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Grapes are one of the world's staple fruit crops, with about 80% of the yield being utilised for winemaking. Since grape by-products still contain large amounts of secondary metabolites, uses other than as fertilisers might be appropriate. In this study, white grape pomace (WGP) was incorporated in wheat flour at levels of 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) to investigate its influence on rheological, nutraceutical, physical and sensory properties. Farinograph characteristics of dough with different levels of WGP showed a decrease in water absorption from 56.4% (0% WGP) to 45.9% (30% WGP). Addition of WGP reduced hardness and caused a deterioration in brightness and yellowness of all enriched samples. The smallest addition of WGP (10%) caused an approximately 88% increase in total dietary fibre content as compared with the control. The content of phenolic compounds increased from 0.11 mg g⁻¹ with 0% WGP to 1.07 mg g⁻¹ with 30% WGP. The most stable phenols were as follows: γ-resorcylic acid < gallic acid < tyrosol < catechin < isovanilic acid. An assay of radical-scavenging activity showed that WGP addition greatly enhanced the antioxidant properties of biscuits. Acceptable biscuits were obtained when incorporating 10% WGP. WGP might be utilised for the novel formulation of biscuits as an alternative source of dietary fibre and phenols. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Worsening Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors Do Not Readily Explain Why Smokers Gain Weight After Cessation: A Cohort Study in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Gall, Seana L; Smith, Kylie J; Dwyer, Terry; Venn, Alison J

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain is well established but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether postcessation weight gain was mediated by changing health behaviors. A total of 281 smokers self-reported their demographic, smoking, and lifestyle characteristics in 2004-2006 (aged 26-36) and 2009-2011 (aged 31-41). Behaviors considered as potential mediators of weight gain were changes in consumption of breakfast, discretionary foods (servings/d), fruit and vegetables (servings/d), alcohol (g/d), takeaway food (times/wk), Diet Guideline Index score, leisure time physical activity (PA, min/wk), total PA (min/wk), time spent sitting (min/d), and TV viewing (h/d). In total, 124 smokers quit smoking during 5 years follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, baseline body mass index, education, and follow-up length, smoking cessation was associated with average excess weight gain of 2.09kg (95% CI = 0.35-3.83). Compared with continuing smokers, quitters reported a higher Diet Guideline Index score and less consumption of alcohol at baseline and follow-up (all p < .05). In addition, there was a tendency towards healthier dietary and PA behaviors over 5 years among quitters than continuing smokers except for time spent sitting, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for changes in these behaviors made little difference to the magnitude of postcessation weight gain (β: 2.32kg, 95% CI = 0.54-4.10). The weight gain associated with smoking cessation was not explained by worsening dietary and PA behaviors. Future research is needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms and particularly ways it may be prevented. Fear of weight gain often discourages smokers from trying to quit but guidance on ways to most effectively avoid weight gain is lacking. It is important to identify what causes postcessation weight gain and the ways it may be prevented. The current study explored the

  4. Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Overall Health in Overweight and Obese Children and Youth with Intellectual Disability or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica A.; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New…

  5. Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Overall Health in Overweight and Obese Children and Youth with Intellectual Disability or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica A.; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New…

  6. Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood123

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Janice Y; Tompkins, Connie L; Dumas, Julie A; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Western diet increases risk of metabolic disease. Objective: We determined whether lowering the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the Western diet would affect physical activity and energy expenditure. Design: With the use of a balanced design, 2 cohorts of 18 and 14 young adults were enrolled in separate randomized, double-masked, crossover trials that compared a 3-wk high–palmitic acid diet (HPA; similar to the Western diet fat composition) to a low–palmitic acid and high–oleic acid diet (HOA; similar to the Mediterranean diet fat composition). All foods were provided by the investigators, and the palmitic acid (PA):oleic acid (OA) ratio was manipulated by adding different oil blends to the same foods. In both cohorts, we assessed physical activity (monitored continuously by using accelerometry) and resting energy expenditure (REE). To gain insight into a possible mood disturbance that might explain changes in physical activity, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered in cohort 2. Results: Physical activity was higher during the HOA than during the HPA in 15 of 17 subjects in cohort 1 (P = 0.008) (mean: 12% higher; P = 0.003) and in 12 of 12 subjects in the second, confirmatory cohort (P = 0.005) (mean: 15% higher; P = 0.003). When the HOA was compared with the HPA, REE measured during the fed state was 3% higher for cohort 1 (P < 0.01), and REE was 4.5% higher in the fasted state for cohort 2 (P = 0.04). POMS testing showed that the anger-hostility score was significantly higher during the HPA (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The replacement of dietary PA with OA was associated with increased physical activity and REE and less anger. Besides presumed effects on mitochondrial function (increased REE), the dietary PA:OA ratio appears to affect behavior. The second cohort was derived from a study that was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as R01DK082803. PMID:23446891

  7. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Barbara; Razurel, Chantal; Jeannot, Emilien

    2013-06-21

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on women who have had GDM.

  8. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on

  9. Effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, immune function and physical barrier function in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after challenged with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-10-01

    The effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, gill immune function and physical barrier function of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were investigated in this study. A total of 540 grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Flavobacterium columnare for 3 days. The results indicated that optimal levels of dietary protein had the following effects: (1) the production of antibacterial components increased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, IκB kinase (IKK) α, IKKβ, IKKγ, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 4E-BP2 were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that fish gill immune function was enhanced at an optimal level of dietary protein; (2) the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content increased, the contents of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased, and NF-E2-related factor 2, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and tight junction complexes mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein (Keap) 1a, Keap1b, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 3, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mRNA levels were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that the fish gill physical barrier function improved at an optimal level of dietary protein. Finally, based on the gill rot morbidity, ACP activity and PC

  10. Serum Zinc and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Adjusted for Anthropometric, Biochemical, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Measures.

    PubMed

    Mazloomi, Sahar; Alizadeh, Narges; Aminzare, Majid; Niroomand, Soudabeh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies have shown that serum zinc and adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. But there is no study to evaluate serum zinc and adiponectin levels as predictor markers of PCOS, adjusted for anthropometric, biochemical, dietary intake, and physical activity measures. Ninety-one new PCOS cases (based on the Rotterdam criteria) and 85 healthy control women participated and individually matched based on age. Food intake of all participants obtained by the food frequency and physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaires. Serum glucose, lipid profile, androgens, insulin, adiponectin, and zinc concentrations were measured at the fasting state. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat, as well as serum levels of DHEAS, insulin, TG, LDL cholesterol (LDL.C), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and LH/FSH ratio, were significantly higher in the PCOS compared with those of the healthy control women. Serum levels of zinc and adiponectin were significantly lower in the PCOS than those of the healthy control women. Results of the logistic regression model showed significant effects of adiponectin, zinc, and LH/FSH ratio on the PCOS, adjusted for anthropometric and biochemical measures (p < 0.05). In the present study, serum level of zinc had significant correlation with adiponectin in the PCOS patients, and serum levels of zinc, adiponectin, and LH/FSH ratio had significant effects on the PCOS occurrence.

  11. Effect of a 2-y dietary and physical activity intervention on plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase and elongase activities in children: the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Taisa M; Viitasalo, Anna M; Schwab, Ursula S; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Jalkanen, Henna P; de Mello, Vanessa Df; Laaksonen, David E; Lindi, Virpi I; Ågren, Jyrki J; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-10-01

    Evidence on the effects of lifestyle interventions on plasma fatty acid composition in children is limited. We investigated the effects of a dietary and physical activity intervention on plasma fatty acid composition of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids and estimated desaturase and elongase activities in children. We conducted a 2-y controlled dietary and physical activity intervention based on Finnish nutrition and physical activity recommendations in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8 y. We assessed plasma fatty acid composition by gas chromatography and estimated desaturase and elongase activities as the ratio of product fatty acids to precursor fatty acids. We analyzed data by using linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex. The proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in CEs tended to increase in the intervention group compared with the control group (P = 0.007 for group × time interaction). The proportion of total PUFAs in phospholipids (P = 0.019 for group × time interaction) and the proportion of linoleic acid in CEs (P = 0.038 for group × time interaction) decreased in the control group. The proportion of α-linolenic acid in CEs (P < 0.001 for group × time interaction) increased and in phospholipids (P = 0.015 for group × time interaction) tended to increase in the intervention group. The proportion of stearic acid in CEs decreased in the intervention group (P = 0.001 for group × time interaction). The proportion of oleic acid in CEs (P = 0.002 for group × time interaction) increased and in phospholipids (P = 0.023 for group × time interaction) tended to increase in the control group. Estimated elongase activity in CEs decreased in the control group (P = 0.050 for group × time interaction). Intervention had no effect on estimated desaturase activities. Dietary and physical activity intervention had a beneficial effect on plasma fatty acid composition in children by preventing the decrease in the proportion of

  12. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol.

    PubMed

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Cabrejas-Sánchez, Alfredo; Gómez-Arranz, Amparo; González-Viejo, Natividad; Iturregui-San Nicolás, Eguskiñe; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2010-05-06

    Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro), central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse) and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis), pulse wave velocity (PWV) with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity), nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X), physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170), carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax), and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin). Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical exercise and diet. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01083082.

  13. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro), central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse) and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis), pulse wave velocity (PWV) with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity), nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X), physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170), carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax), and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin). Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical exercise and diet

  14. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality. Methods This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named ‘BeweegKuur’. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen’s d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change. Results For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The

  15. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Geert M; Meis, Jessie J M; Hendriks, Marike R C; Hamers, Femke J M; Veenhof, Cindy; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-07-16

    Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality. This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named 'BeweegKuur'. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen's d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change. For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The relation between coaching and

  16. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in dietary, physical activity, and clinical outcomes in church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention: Delta Body and Soul III

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...

  17. Dietary selenomethionine exposure induces physical malformations and decreases growth and survival to metamorphosis in an amphibian (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    PubMed

    Lockard, Laura; Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient with a narrow therapeutic concentration range. The relative toxicity of Se increases as it is biotransformed into organic compounds, primarily selenomethionine (SeMet), within the aquatic food chain. Effects of aquatic Se contamination are well quantified for many freshwater fish and aquatic bird species, but impacts on amphibians are not well known. This study investigated the responses of larval Cope's gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) fed a diet enriched with one of two concentrations of SeMet (50.1 and 489.9 μg Se g(-1) dw [low and high groups, respectively]) by way of a food-limited (ration) or ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen. The high dose caused 100 % mortality during the larval period independent of resource provision levels. Regardless of feeding regimen, the low dose decreased larval survival and successful metamorphosis relative to control treatments. The low dose also induced rear limb deformities in ≤73 % of individuals initiating metamorphosis. Providing low-dose food by way of a rationed feeding regimen decreased observed toxicity, likely because of decreased dietary exposure to SeMet relative to the low ad lib treatment. Individuals from the low ration treatment had decreased wet mass at initiation and completion of metamorphic climax (Gosner stages 42 through 46) compared with those from the control ad lib treatment, indicating that resource limitation combined with Se exposure might negatively affect energy stores after metamorphosis. However, lipid content analyses of recently metamorphosed individuals did not reveal any influence of treatment or resource provision on energy stored as lipids. The mean tissue Se concentration of individuals that received the low dose and completed metamorphosis was significantly greater than that of control ad lib or ration individuals at the same developmental stage. This study demonstrates that larval exposure to dietary SeMet can decrease growth and survival

  18. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2011-11-25

    There is no data on diet- and activity-related behaviors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani school-aged children. The study aimed to explore dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (>+1 SD) and obesity (>+2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Children skipping breakfast (8%), eating fast food and snacks≥once a week (43%) and being involved in sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity>twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all P<0.01). Skipping breakfast (P<0.001), eating fast food and snacks (P=0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (P<0.001) showed an independent positive association with BMI while physical activity showed an independent inverse association (P=0.001). Skipping breakfast (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.71), eating fast food and snacks≥once a week (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.86), physical activity>twice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) and eating fast food and snacks

  19. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no data on diet- and activity-related behaviors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani school-aged children. The study aimed to explore dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1 SD) and obesity (> +2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results Children skipping breakfast (8%), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (43%) and being involved in sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity > twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all P < 0.01). Skipping breakfast (P < 0.001), eating fast food and snacks (P = 0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (P < 0.001) showed an independent positive association with BMI while physical activity showed an independent inverse association (P = 0.001). Skipping breakfast (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.71), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.86), physical activity > twice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0

  20. Anthropometric traits, blood pressure, and dietary and physical exercise habits in health sciences students; the obesity observatory project.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Meaney, Alejandra; Ocharán, M Esther; Araujo, Juan M; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Castillo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Meaney, Eduardo; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome affect a considerable segment of the population worldwide, including health professionals. In fact, several studies have reported that physicians tend to have more cardiovascular risk factors than their patients. The present cross-sectional study assessed whether the Health Sciences students had a healthier lifestyle, thus could have a more preventive attitude towards chronic diseases than the general population. Students of the medical-biological areas were surveyed by answering a questionnaire about familiar cardiovascular risk factors, personal smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary and exercise habits. Blood pressure was also measured, along with weight, height, and abdominal circumference. 23.4% of the participants were overweight and 10% obese. Parental obesity was the most frequent risk factor, followed by social drinking and smoking. We found high consumption of animal derived foods, breakfast- like cereals, pastries, white bread and sweetened beverages; while low intake of fruit and vegetables were reported. More than half the sample reported to practice very little or no exercise at all. We found similar or even higher rates of risk factors than the average population, that may eventually lead to the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Thus we can infer that biomedical education is inefficient in inducing healthy lifestyles among biomedical students, which could have impact in their future practice as they will most probable become obese health-professionals, thus fail to effectively treat their own patients. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between physical activity patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls aged 13-21 years: a cross-sectional study (GEBaHealth Project).

    PubMed

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Lonnie, Marta; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-08-02

    Similar to other countries, trends of decreasing levels of physical activity (PA) and an increasing prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns are observed among girls in Poland. Better understanding of potentially inter-related behaviours within this population can help to design tailored interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Girls aged 13-21 years (n = 1107) were randomly selected for the study. PA was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long (IPAQ-L). Dietary data were collected with food frequency questionnaires. PA patterns and dietary patterns were drawn separately by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression was used to find the associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns. Four major PA patterns ('School/work activity', 'Active recreation', 'Yard activity' and 'Walking and domestic activity') and four dietary patterns ('Traditional Polish', 'Fruit & vegetables', 'Fast food & sweets' and 'Dairy & fats') were identified. Level of PA was the highest in the upper tertile of 'School/work activity' pattern (mean 1372.2 MET-minutes/week, 95 % Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1285.9-1458.5). Girls in upper tertiles of 'Yard activity', 'Active recreation' and 'School/work activity' patterns had significantly higher chances of being in the upper tertile of the 'Fruit and vegetables' dietary pattern (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95 % CI: 1.50-3.14, p < 0.0001; OR 2.02, 95 % CI: 1.41-2.91; p < 0.001 and OR 1.76, 95 % CI: 1.24-2.51, p < 0.01 respectively; all adjusted for confounders) in comparison to bottom tertiles. Weak, but significant inverse associations were found between upper tertiles of 'Active recreation' and 'Yard activity' patterns and unhealthy dietary patterns. We found associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. Girls with the highest

  2. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  3. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  4. Physical Activity, Dietary Practices, and Other Health Behaviors of At-Risk Youth Attending Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high…

  5. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  6. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  7. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  8. Physical Activity, Dietary Practices, and Other Health Behaviors of At-Risk Youth Attending Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high…

  9. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  10. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  11. Effects of lifestyle changes including specific dietary intervention and physical activity in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C--a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Emilia; Jinga, Mariana; Enache, Georgiana; Rusu, Florin; Dragomir, Andreea Diana; Ancuta, Ioan; Draguţ, Ramona; Parpala, Cristina; Nan, Raluca; Sima, Irina; Ateia, Simona; Stoica, Victor; Cheţa, Dan Mircea; Radulian, Gabriela

    2013-08-14

    cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides improved in both groups (all p < 0.05). The present study establishes the benefits of low-calorie diet and low-fat diet in management of patients with hepatitis C regarding improvement of insulin resistance, steatosis and also fibrosis.Overweight or obese patients with CHC undergoing a lifestyle intervention (specific dietary intervention and physical activity) for 1-year had significant improvements in body weight, lipid and hepatic profile. PNCI2-3343/41008/2007.

  12. Physical activity and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and perceived academic stress in students attending college in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Sonia Y; Fabián, Carla; Pagán, Ideliz; Ríos, Josué L; González, Anaisa M; Betancourt, Jesmari; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    The academic environment usually generates stress in students. Increasing physical activity (PA) is one of the stress-coping strategies for students; however, students usually reduce their PA while enrolled in college. To determine the association between PA, self-perceived academic load and stress, and dietary patterns in students attending college in Puerto Rico. A proportional stratified sample of 275 students from UPR-MSC completed a self-administered questionnaire on socioeconomic status, academic load and stress, body composition, dietary patterns, and PA. Chi2 was used to assess the association between variables. Most of the participants were female (68%), were aged 21 to 30 years (88%), and had low annual household incomes ($0-$24,999) (43%). Women reported higher levels of stress (p < 0.001) than did men. Overweight and obesity was found in 35.4%, while most students reported a light PA level (46.5%), which was higher among women (p < 0.001). During periods of greater stress, most students increased sedentary activities (68%), and -30% reported a decrease in moderate and vigorous activities; however, 60% reported that PA was an effective coping strategy and 66% would use it again. There was a negative association between PA and stress: those with higher levels of stress had lower PA levels (p = 0.06). No significant associations were found between PA and the others variables studied (p > 0.05). Most students reported sedentary lifestyles during periods of greater stress. High level of stress were positively associated with a light PA level.

  13. Physical activity, dietary habits and overall health in overweight and obese children and youth with intellectual disability or autism.

    PubMed

    Hinckson, Erica A; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-04-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New Zealand children and youth with intellectual disability or autism. Twenty-two children and youth 14±4 y (mean±SD) and their families participated in a 10-week school-based program. The program consisted of 18 sessions focusing on physical activity and nutrition. Changes were measured immediately after completion of the program (post 1) and at 24 weeks (follow up). Fitness was assessed with the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and body fatness via waist circumference and BMI. Physical activity and nutrition changes were measured by means of proxy reporting and interviews with parents. Individual interviews were conducted with school teachers and program leaders at 24 weeks to gain feedback regarding the program. Most quantitative outcomes were either unclear or trivial. The only possible change was observed in the six-minute walk-test where 24 weeks post program where participants walked 51 m further. There was however, a substantial reduction in the consumption of confectionery and chocolate at the two measurement points. Parents commented that during the program there were less hospital visits and absences from school related to illness. The program assisted in the development of a supportive community network and participants' abilities to partake in family and community activities. This the first study to report on the results of a physical activity and nutrition program targeted in children and youth with intellectual disability and autism. The results of this study may support and inform future developments of an integrated weight management and prevention program to enhance the health and well being in children and youth

  14. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  15. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people)

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Skidmore, Paula ML; Mwanza, Kim; Jones, Andrew P; Callaghan, Alison M; Ekelund, Ulf; Harrison, Flo; Harvey, Ian; Panter, Jenna; Wareham, Nicolas J; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls) in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000). Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days) was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD) activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p < 0.001). Boys spent an average of 84.1 ± 25.9 minutes in MVPA per day compared to 66.1 ± 20.8 among girls (p < 0.001), with an average of 69.1% of children accumulating 60 minutes each day. The proportion of children classified as overweight and obese was 15.0% and 4.1% for boys and 19.3% and 6.6% for girls, respectively (p = 0.001). Daily consumption of at least one portion of fruit and of vegetables was 56.8% and 49.9% respectively, with higher daily consumption in girls than boys and in children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is

  16. The effects of a school-based intervention programme on dietary intakes and physical activity among primary-school children in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Francis, Marlon; Nichols, Selby S D; Dalrymple, Nequesha

    2010-05-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly being recognized as a major public health problem in the Caribbean. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term, school-based, multi-component education intervention on improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of primary-school children towards better dietary and activity habits. The study was a randomized, controlled, school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention. Participating schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (IVG) and non-intervention (NIVG) groups. All primary schools in Sangre Grande, north-east Trinidad. Five hundred and seventy-nine pupils in their sixth year of primary-school education were enrolled from twelve schools in Sangre Grande, north-east Trinidad. Approximately 23 % of participants had BMI >or= 85th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age- and gender-specific cut-off values. In multivariate regression equations controlling for age, gender, BMI and baseline value, intervention was associated with lower intake levels of fried foods, snack foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) and sodas (P < 0.05). In similar analyses, intervention was associated with higher knowledge scores (P < 0.01). Intervention was not significantly associated with physical activity and Children's Eating Attitude Test-26 (ChEAT26) scores after controlling for age, gender, BMI and the relevant baseline values. The intervention was associated with lower intake levels of fried foods, HFSS foods, sodas and higher knowledge scores independent of age, gender, BMI, ethnicity and the appropriate baseline value. Finally, the intervention was not associated with changes in physical activity behaviours in multivariate analyses.

  17. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources.

  18. The HIKCUPS trial: a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a combined physical activity skill-development and dietary modification program in overweight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Steele, Julie R; Warren, Janet M; Baur, Louise A; Cliff, Dylan P; Burrows, Tracy; Cleary, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing health issues of our time. Key health organizations have recommended research be conducted on the effectiveness of well-designed interventions to combat childhood obesity that can be translated into a variety of settings. This paper describes the design and methods used in the Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support (HIKCUPS) trial, an ongoing multi-site randomized controlled trial, in overweight/obese children comparing the efficacy of three interventions: 1) a parent-centered dietary modification program; 2) a child-centered physical activity skill-development program; and 3) a program combining both 1 and 2 above. Methods/Design Each intervention consists of three components: i) 10-weekly face-to-face group sessions; ii) a weekly homework component, completed between each face-to-face session and iii) three telephone calls at monthly intervals following completion of the 10-week program. Details of the programs' methodological aspects of recruitment, randomization and statistical analyses are described here a priori. Discussion Importantly this paper describes how HIKCUPS addresses some of the short falls in the current literature pertaining to the efficacy of child obesity interventions. The HIKCUPS trial is funded by the National Medical Research Council, Australia. PMID:17263896

  19. The impact of religiosity on dietary habits and physical activity in minority women participating in the Health is Power (HIP) study.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Serene; Soltero, Erica G; Lorenzo, Elizabeth; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-03-01

    African American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (HL) women report lower rates of physical activity (PA) and poorer dietary habits compared to their white counterparts. Religiosity can act as a protective factor for health; however, the relationship between religiosity, PA, and diet is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of religiosity on PA and fruit and vegetable (FV) and fat consumption in minority women. Health is Power (HIP) was a 6-month intervention where participants (AA: 63%; HL: 37%) were randomized to a PA or FV group. Questionnaires assessed religiosity at baseline and PA, FV and fat consumption at baseline and post-intervention. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to investigate religiosity as a predictor of change in PA, FV and fat, while controlling for demographics. AA women had significantly higher religiosity scores (M = 44.15, SD = 10.66) compared to H/L women (M = 35.11, SD = 12.82; t(251) = 5.86, p < 0.001). Across both groups, PA increased by 15%, FV intake increased by 27%, and consumption of calories by fat decreased by 5%. Religiosity was not a significant predictor of PA or diet (p < 0.05). The results of this study found no association between religiosity and change in PA and diet. More longitudinal studies are needed to explore the role of religiosity in the health of minority women.

  20. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  1. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference) and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; E Duffy, Maresa; Bunting, Brendan; Parr, Heather; Vas de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Gibney, Mike

    2012-06-11

    It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES), Resilience (RS11), Mood (MS), Hopelessness (BDI) and Perceived Stress (PSS4). BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm) in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm). These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity.

  2. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters. Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback. Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. Discussion This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention

  3. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  4. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity of Surinamese Immigrants of Indian Descent in The Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, A.-M.; Gubbels, J. S.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Kremers, S. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health beliefs about eating habits and physical activity (PA) of Surinamese immigrants of Indian (Hindustani) descent to examine how health education messages to prevent obesity can be made more culturally sensitive. Indians are known for their increasing obesity incidence and are highly vulnerable for obesity-related consequences such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Therefore they might benefit from culturally sensitive health education messages that stimulate healthy eating habits and increase PA levels. In order to examine how health education messages aimed at preventing obesity could be adapted to Indian culture, we interviewed eight Hindustanis living in The Netherland, and conducted two focus groups (n = 19) with members from a Surinamese Hindustani community. Results showed cultural implications that might affect the effectiveness of health education messages: karma has a role in explaining the onset of illness, traditional eating habits are perceived as difficult to change, and PA was generally disliked. We conclude that health education messages aimed at Hindustani immigrants should recognize the role of karma in explaining the onset of illness, include more healthy alternatives for traditional foods, pay attention to the symbolic meaning of food, and suggest more enjoyable and culturally sensitive forms of PA for women. PMID:24533213

  5. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain.

  6. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Tate, Deborah F

    2013-05-01

    Self-monitoring of physical activity (PA) and diet are key components of behavioral weight loss programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diet (mobile app, website, or paper journal) and PA (mobile app vs no mobile app) self-monitoring and dietary and PA behaviors. This study is a post hoc analysis of a 6-month randomized weight loss trial among 96 overweight men and women (body mass index (BMI) 25-45 kg/m(2)) conducted from 2010 to 2011. Participants in both randomized groups were collapsed and categorized by their chosen self-monitoring method for diet and PA. All participants received a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered via podcast and were encouraged to self-monitor dietary intake and PA. Adjusting for randomized group and demographics, PA app users self-monitored exercise more frequently over the 6-month study (2.6±0.5 days/week) and reported greater intentional PA (196.4±45.9 kcal/day) than non-app users (1.2±0.5 days/week PA self-monitoring, p<0.01; 100.9±45.1 kcal/day intentional PA, p=0.02). PA app users also had a significantly lower BMI at 6 months (31.5±0.5 kg/m(2)) than non-users (32.5±0.5 kg/m(2); p=0.02). Frequency of self-monitoring did not differ by diet self-monitoring method (p=0.63); however, app users consumed less energy (1437±188 kcal/day) than paper journal users (2049±175 kcal/day; p=0.01) at 6 months. BMI did not differ among the three diet monitoring methods (p=0.20). These findings point to potential benefits of mobile monitoring methods during behavioral weight loss trials. Future studies should examine ways to predict which self-monitoring method works best for an individual to increase adherence.

  7. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Tate, Deborah F

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-monitoring of physical activity (PA) and diet are key components of behavioral weight loss programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diet (mobile app, website, or paper journal) and PA (mobile app vs no mobile app) self-monitoring and dietary and PA behaviors. Materials and methods This study is a post hoc analysis of a 6-month randomized weight loss trial among 96 overweight men and women (body mass index (BMI) 25–45 kg/m2) conducted from 2010 to 2011. Participants in both randomized groups were collapsed and categorized by their chosen self-monitoring method for diet and PA. All participants received a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered via podcast and were encouraged to self-monitor dietary intake and PA. Results Adjusting for randomized group and demographics, PA app users self-monitored exercise more frequently over the 6-month study (2.6±0.5 days/week) and reported greater intentional PA (196.4±45.9 kcal/day) than non-app users (1.2±0.5 days/week PA self-monitoring, p<0.01; 100.9±45.1 kcal/day intentional PA, p=0.02). PA app users also had a significantly lower BMI at 6 months (31.5±0.5 kg/m2) than non-users (32.5±0.5 kg/m2; p=0.02). Frequency of self-monitoring did not differ by diet self-monitoring method (p=0.63); however, app users consumed less energy (1437±188 kcal/day) than paper journal users (2049±175 kcal/day; p=0.01) at 6 months. BMI did not differ among the three diet monitoring methods (p=0.20). Conclusions These findings point to potential benefits of mobile monitoring methods during behavioral weight loss trials. Future studies should examine ways to predict which self-monitoring method works best for an individual to increase adherence. PMID:23429637

  8. Adipose tissue and vascular phenotypic modulation by voluntary physical activity and dietary restriction in obese insulin-resistant OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Jacqueline M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Lansford, Kasey A; Thorne, Pamela K; Bayless, David S; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-04-15

    Adipose tissue (AT)-derived cytokines are proposed to contribute to obesity-associated vascular insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary physical activity and diet restriction-induced maintenance of body weight would both result in decreased AT inflammation and concomitant improvements in insulin-stimulated vascular relaxation in the hyperphagic, obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat. Rats (aged 12 wk) were randomly assigned to sedentary (SED; n = 10), wheel running (WR; n = 10), or diet restriction (DR; n = 10; fed 70% of SED) for 8 wk. WR and DR rats exhibited markedly lower adiposity (7.1 ± 0.4 and 15.7 ± 1.1% body fat, respectively) relative to SED (27 ± 1.2% body fat), as well as improved blood lipid profiles and systemic markers of insulin resistance. Reduced adiposity in both WR and DR was associated with decreased AT mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (e.g., MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) and markers of immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8, CD11c, and F4/80). The extent of these effects were most pronounced in visceral AT compared with subcutaneous and periaortic AT. Markers of inflammation in brown AT were upregulated with WR but not DR. In periaortic AT, WR- and DR-induced reductions in expression and secretion of cytokines were accompanied with a more atheroprotective gene expression profile in the adjacent aortic wall. WR, but not DR, resulted in greater insulin-stimulated relaxation in the aorta; an effect that was, in part, mediated by a decrease in insulin-induced endothelin-1 activation in WR aorta. Collectively, we show in OLETF rats that lower adiposity leads to less AT and aortic inflammation, as well as an exercise-specific improvement in insulin-stimulated vasorelaxation.

  9. Adipose tissue and vascular phenotypic modulation by voluntary physical activity and dietary restriction in obese insulin-resistant OLETF rats

    PubMed Central

    Crissey, Jacqueline M.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Lansford, Kasey A.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Bayless, David S.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Rector, R. Scott; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT)-derived cytokines are proposed to contribute to obesity-associated vascular insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary physical activity and diet restriction-induced maintenance of body weight would both result in decreased AT inflammation and concomitant improvements in insulin-stimulated vascular relaxation in the hyperphagic, obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat. Rats (aged 12 wk) were randomly assigned to sedentary (SED; n = 10), wheel running (WR; n = 10), or diet restriction (DR; n = 10; fed 70% of SED) for 8 wk. WR and DR rats exhibited markedly lower adiposity (7.1 ± 0.4 and 15.7 ± 1.1% body fat, respectively) relative to SED (27 ± 1.2% body fat), as well as improved blood lipid profiles and systemic markers of insulin resistance. Reduced adiposity in both WR and DR was associated with decreased AT mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (e.g., MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) and markers of immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8, CD11c, and F4/80). The extent of these effects were most pronounced in visceral AT compared with subcutaneous and periaortic AT. Markers of inflammation in brown AT were upregulated with WR but not DR. In periaortic AT, WR- and DR-induced reductions in expression and secretion of cytokines were accompanied with a more atheroprotective gene expression profile in the adjacent aortic wall. WR, but not DR, resulted in greater insulin-stimulated relaxation in the aorta; an effect that was, in part, mediated by a decrease in insulin-induced endothelin-1 activation in WR aorta. Collectively, we show in OLETF rats that lower adiposity leads to less AT and aortic inflammation, as well as an exercise-specific improvement in insulin-stimulated vasorelaxation. PMID:24523340

  10. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  11. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  12. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Viester, Laura; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Proper, Karin I; van Dongen, Johanna M; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-01-30

    The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). MAIN STUDY PARAMETERS/ENDPOINTS: The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme, if proven effective, can be directly

  13. Long-term Outcomes of the FRESH START Trial: Exploring the Role of Self-efficacy in Cancer Survivors’ Maintenance of Dietary Practices and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Lobach, David F.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether changes in self-efficacy explain the effects of a mailed print intervention on long-term dietary practices of breast and prostate cancer survivors. The relationship between change in self-efficacy and long-term physical activity (PA) also was examined. Methods Breast and prostate cancer survivors (N=543) from 39 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces participated in the FRESH START intervention trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a 10-month program of mailed print materials on diet and PA available in the public domain or a 10-month program of tailored materials designed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, decrease fat intake, and/or increase PA. Changes in self-efficacy for F&V intake and fat restriction were analyzed as potential mediators of the intervention’s effects on diet at 2-year follow-up. Because we previously found that change in self-efficacy for PA did not vary by group assignment, the relationship between change in self-efficacy and PA at 2-year follow-up was examined across study conditions. Results Results suggest that change in self-efficacy for fat restriction partially explained the intervention’s effect on fat intake (mean indirect effect=-.28), and change in self-efficacy for F&V consumption partially explained the intervention’s effect on daily F&V intake (mean indirect effect=.11). Change in self-efficacy for fat restriction partially accounted for the intervention’s impact on overall diet quality among men only (mean indirect effect=.60). Finally, change in self-efficacy for PA predicted PA at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Findings suggest that self-efficacy may influence long-term maintenance of healthy lifestyle practices among cancer survivors. PMID:22544562

  14. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary-modification program, or both in overweight children: the HIKCUPS study.

    PubMed

    Okely, Anthony D; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Warren, Janet M; Cliff, Dylan P; Burrows, Tracy L; Colyvas, Kim; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate whether a child-centered physical activity program, combined with a parent-centered dietary program, was more efficacious than each treatment alone, in preventing unhealthy weight-gain in overweight children. An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial involving 165 overweight/obese 5.5- to 9.9- year-old children. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions: a parent-centered dietary program (Diet); a child-centered physical activity program (Activity); or a combination of both (Diet+Activity). All groups received 10 weekly face-to-face sessions followed by 3 monthly relapse-prevention phone calls. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome was change in body mass index z-score at 6 and 12 months (n=114 and 106, respectively). Body mass index z-scores were reduced at 12-months in all groups, with the Diet (mean [95% confidence interval]) (-0.39 [-0.51 to 0.27]) and Diet + Activity (-0.32, [-0.36, -0.23]) groups showing a greater reduction than the Activity group (-0.17 [-0.28, -0.06]) (P=.02). Changes in other outcomes (waist circumference and metabolic profile) were not statistically significant among groups. Relative body weight decreased at 6 months and was sustained at 12 months through treatment with a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary program, or both. The greatest effect was achieved when a parent-centered dietary component was included. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary intake and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Abnet, Christian C; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Though dietary factors are implicated in chronic disease risk, assessment of dietary intake has limitations, including problems with recall of complex food intake patterns over a long period of time. Diet and nutrient biomarkers may provide objective measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, as well as an integrated measure of intake, absorption and metabolism. Thus, the search for an unbiased biomarker of dietary intake and nutritional status is an important aspect of nutritional epidemiology. This chapter reviews types of biomarkers related to dietary intake and nutritional status, such as exposure biomarkers of diet and nutritional status, intermediate endpoints, and susceptibility. Novel biomarkers, such as biomarkers of physical fitness, oxidative DNA damage and tissue concentrations are also discussed.

  16. Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rebholz, Cornelia E; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bere, Elling; Bringolf, Bettina; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Singh, Amika S; Brug, Johannes; te Velde, Saskia J

    2014-09-05

    mass index and parents who perceived their child to be underweight. Parents and children perceive parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours differently in all parts of Europe, with considerable variation across specific practices and countries. Therefore, future studies should assess both, parents and children's view on parental practices.

  17. Monitoring dietary intake and physical activity electronically: feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Spook, Jorinde Eline; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Van Empelen, Pepijn

    2013-09-24

    Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants' states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and ecologically valid tool to measure DI and PA behaviors among

  18. Longitudinal associations between body mass index, physical activity, and healthy dietary behaviors in adults: A parallel latent growth curve modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngdeok; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Jungyoon; Dhurandhar, Emily; Soliman, Ghada; Wehbi, Nizar K.; Canedy, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and healthy dietary behaviors (HDB) are two well-documented lifestyle factors influencing body mass index (BMI). This study examined 7-year longitudinal associations between changes in PA, HDB, and BMI among adults using a parallel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM). Methods We used prospective cohort data collected by a private company (SimplyWell LLC, Omaha, NE, USA) implementing a workplace health screening program. Data from a total of 2,579 adults who provided valid BMI, PA, and HDB information for at least 5 out of 7 follow-up years from the time they entered the program were analyzed. PA and HDB were subjectively measured during an annual online health survey. Height and weight measured during an annual onsite health screening were used to calculate BMI (kg·m2). The parallel LGCMs stratified by gender and baseline weight status (normal: BMI<25, overweight BMI 25–29.9, and obese: BMI>30) were fitted to examine the longitudinal associations of changes in PA and HDB with change in BMI over years. Results On average, BMI gradually increased over years, at rates ranging from 0.06 to 0.20 kg·m2·year, with larger increases observed among those of normal baseline weight status across genders. The increases in PA and HDB were independently associated with a smaller increase in BMI for obese males (b = -1.70 and -1.98, respectively), and overweight females (b = -1.85 and -2.46, respectively) and obese females (b = -2.78 and -3.08, respectively). However, no significant associations of baseline PA and HDB with changes in BMI were observed. Conclusions Our study suggests that gradual increases in PA and HDB are independently associated with smaller increases in BMI in overweight and obese adults, but not in normal weight individuals. Further study is warranted to address factors that check increases in BMI in normal weight adults. PMID:28296945

  19. Monitoring Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Electronically: Feasibility, Usability, and Ecological Validity of a Mobile-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Van Empelen, Pepijn

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants’ states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. Objective To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. Methods The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. Results Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. Conclusions The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and

  20. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  1. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  2. Dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  3. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  4. Dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Escudero Alvarez, E; González Sánchez, P

    2006-05-01

    Currently and after 30 years of research, dietary fibre is part of what is considered a healthy diet. There is no single definition yet comprising the different components of dietary fibre and its functions. The main factors of fibre are complex carbohydrates and lignin, although new products may be included in the future within the concept of fibre. Dietary fibres reach the large bowel and are attacked by colonic microflora, yielding short chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane as fermentation products. Short chain fatty acids represent a way of recovering energy and they are also implicated in other beneficial functions for the human organism. Although there are no yet conclusive data on recommendations of different types of fibre, it is still appropriate to indicate a diet providing 20-35 g/day of fibre from different sources. There is a consensus to recommend a mixture of fibres or fibre like soybean polysaccharide for constipation. There are few conclusive data, still, on the benefit of fibre on prevention of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, a fibre-rich diet is recommended from early years of life since it is often associated to a lifestyle that in the long term helps controlling other risk factors.

  5. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-04

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  6. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings are an

  7. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O.; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk. PMID:20700407

  8. Overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans and adherence to recommended dietary and physical activity guidelines among Hmong and white middle school students.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Julia; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted among low-income middle-school students (N = 426) in rural northern California to compare rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans (AN) between Hmong and white students. Associations among rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, AN, and scores for adherence to recommended dietary guidelines were also examined. Fifty-two percent (52%) of white students were overweight/obese compared to 38% of Hmong students. Higher fruit consumption was associated with a lower BMI among white, but not Hmong students. Whereas 7% of white students were classified as pre-hypertensive/hypertensive, the rate for Hmong students was 17%. Additionally, at 13 versus 2%, six-fold more Hmong students had an elevated blood pressure with a normal BMI compared to white students, respectively. Ethnicity was also an independent predictive factor for AN. Hmong students appear to be at higher risk for both hypertension and AN than white students irrespective of BMI.

  9. An intervention study of individual, apoE genotype-based dietary and physical-activity advice: impact on health behavior.

    PubMed

    Hietaranta-Luoma, Hanna-Leena; Tahvonen, Raija; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Puolijoki, Hannu; Hopia, Anu

    2014-01-01

    To assess the behavioral effects of receiving personal genetic information, using apoE genotypes as a tool for promoting lifestyle changes. apoE was chosen because it has a significant impact on lipid metabolism and cholesterol absorption, both factors in cardiovascular disease. This study was a 1-year intervention study of healthy adults aged 20-67 years (n = 107). Their behavioral changes were measured by diet (e.g., fat quality, as well as consumption of vegetables, berries, fruits, and fatty and sugary foods), alcohol consumption, and exercise. Health and taste attitudes were assessed with the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS). The measurements were performed 4 times: at baseline (T0), as well as 10 weeks (T1), 6 months (T2), and 12 months after baseline (T3). These behavioral effects were assessed for three groups: a high-risk (Ɛ4+; n = 16), a low-risk (Ɛ4-; n = 35), and a control group (n = 56). Personal genetic information affected health behavior. Dietary fat quality improved more in the Ɛ4+ group than in the Ɛ4- and control groups after personal, genotype-based health advice. This change differed significantly between the Ɛ4+ and the control group (p < 0.05), but only for a short time. Personal genetic information, based on apoE, may affect dietary fat quality. More research is required to determine how to utilize genotype-based health information and how to efficiently achieve long-term changes in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  10. Dietary Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... and maintain bones, muscles and skin. We get proteins in our diet from meat, dairy products, nuts, and certain grains ... level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough protein in their diet.

  11. Effects of lifestyle intervention on dietary intake, physical activity level, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women with different pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index in a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Hui, Amy Leung; Back, Lisa; Ludwig, Sora; Gardiner, Phillip; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Dean, Heather J; Sellers, Elisabeth; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Jiang, Depeng; Shen, Garry X

    2014-09-24

    The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 116 pregnant women (<20 weeks of pregnancy) without diabetes were enrolled and 113 pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment. The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (≤24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p < 0.05). Those weight related-changes were not detected between the intervention (n = 27) and control group (n = 29) in the above normal pre-pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Increased physical activity and reduced carbohydrate intake were detected in women with normal (p < 0.05), but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI at 2 months after the onset of the intervention compared to the control group. The results of the present study demonstrated that the lifestyle intervention program decreased EGWG, GWG, offspring birth weight in pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake. NCT00486629.

  12. Dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Kåre Birger; Byfuglien, Marte Gjeitung; Falzon, Louise; Olsen, Sissel Urke; Smedslund, Geir

    2009-01-21

    The question of what potential benefits and harms are associated with certain dietary regimes used in rheumatoid arthritis is an important one for many patients and health care providers. To assess the effectiveness and safety of dietary interventions in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library, issue 1 2008), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and reference lists of relevant articles (up to January 2008), and contacted authors of included articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) where the effectiveness of dietary manipulation was evaluated. Dietary supplement studies (including fish oil supplements) were not included. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the internal validity of included trials and extracted data. Investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Fourteen RCTs and one CCT, with a total of 837 patients, were included. Due to heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes, baseline imbalance and inadequate data reporting, no overall effects were calculated. A single trial with a moderate risk of bias found that fasting, followed by 13 months on a vegetarian diet, may reduce pain (mean difference (MD) on a 0 to 10 scale -1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.62 to -0.16), but not physical function or morning stiffness immediately after intervention. Another single trial with a moderate risk of bias found that a 12-week Cretan Mediterranean diet may reduce pain (MD on a 0 to 100 scale -14.00, 95% CI -23.6 to -4.37), but not physical function or morning stiffness immediately after intervention. Two trials compared a 4-week elemental diet with an ordinary diet and reported no significant differences in pain, function or stiffness. Due to inadequate data reporting, the effects of vegan and elimination diets are uncertain. When comparing any dietary manipulation with an ordinary diet we found

  13. Dietary Supplementation with a Superoxide Dismutase-Melon Concentrate Reduces Stress, Physical and Mental Fatigue in Healthy People: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. Results: The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. Conclusion: SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. Trial registration: trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922. PMID:24949549

  14. Dietary supplementation with a superoxide dismutase-melon concentrate reduces stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-06-19

    We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  15. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management.

  16. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID:28731144

  17. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.

  18. Physical meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed varying dietary protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity markers in European adolescents: effect of physical activity and dietary habits. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Rey-López, J P; Béghin, L; Manios, Y; Cuenca-García, M; Plada, M; Diethelm, K; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Al-Tahan, J; Moreno, L A

    2011-10-01

    Adequate sleep is a critical factor for adolescent's health and health-related behaviors. (a) to describe sleep duration in European adolescents from nine countries, (b) to assess the association of short sleep duration with excess adiposity and (c) to elucidate if physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and/or inadequate food habits underlie this association. A sample of 3311 adolescents (1748 girls) aged 12.5-17.49 years from 10 European cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden was assessed in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Study between 2006 and 2008. We measured anthropometric data, sleep duration, PA (accelerometers and questionnaire), television watching and food habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). Average duration of daily sleep was 8 h. Shorter sleepers showed higher values of BMI, body fat, waist and hip circumferences and fat mass index (P<0.05), particularly in females. Adolescents who slept <8 h per day were more sedentary, as assessed by accelerometry, and spent more time watching TV (P<0.05). The proportion of adolescents who eat adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables and fish was lower in shorter sleepers than in adolescents who slept ≥8 h per day, and so was the probability of having adequate food habits (P<0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that short sleep is associated with higher obesity parameters. In European adolescents, short sleep duration is associated with higher adiposity markers, particularly in female adolescents. This association seems to be related to both sides of the energy balance equation due to a combination of increased food intake and more sedentary habits.

  20. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p < 0.05) was confirmed. Belonging to a cluster other than "Mediterranean-like" was significantly associated with obesity. The low consumption of Med-diet patterns among youth, and the frequent association of sociocultural, psychological issues and inappropriate lifestyle with overweight/obesity, highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach including market policies, to promote a wider awareness of the Mediterranean eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  1. The Dietary Guidelines For Americans 2005: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Educator, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans [Dietary Guidelines] provides science-based advice to promote health and to reduce risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. Major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States are related to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Some specific diseases linked to poor diet and…

  2. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  3. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents.

    PubMed

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3-7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test-retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and Intention when respondents were

  4. Seasonal variations in dietary intake affect the consistency of dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Shahar, D R; Yerushalmi, N; Lubin, F; Froom, P; Shahar, A; Kristal-Boneh, E

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology studies are usually based on one dietary assessment without taking into account the season in which the interview is taken or adjusting for the difference in reporting dietary intake in different seasons. The semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire has become the primary questionnaire method for measuring dietary intake in epidemiological studies. The aims of this report were (a) to evaluate the effect of season on dietary intake as measured by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) conducted twice: once in summer and a second time in winter; and (b) to assess the effect of the differences in dietary intake on biochemical and anthropometric seasonal related changes, such as serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI). The study population consisted of 94 male industrial employees who participated in clinical biochemical and physical examinations as well as evaluation of their dietary intake twice a year. Dietary intake was assessed using the semiquantitative FFQ that included 96 items and was conducted by a personal interview. We found a significant increase in the intake of selected nutrients in winter as compared to summer as well as an increased intake of animal fat-containing foods such as meat and dairy products. Significant correlation coefficients were shown between the increase in dietary intake of saturated fat and the increase in BMI, serum total and LDL cholesterol. The increase in dietary cholesterol was significantly and positively correlated with the increase in serum total and LDL cholesterol. Although FFQ are designed to assess average yearly food intake, we identified significant seasonal changes in dietary intake as measured by FFQ. These changes have a health impact on our population.

  5. Consumption and reasons for use of dietary supplements in an Australian university population.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Katelyn; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Alsharairi, Naser; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary supplement use and sociodemographic factors in an Australian university population. Additionally, reasons for use of specific dietary supplements were explored. A cross-sectional online questionnaire was completed by 1633 students and staff members of Griffith University, Queensland, Australia (76% female). The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dietary supplements, and reasons for use of each dietary supplement reported. Multiple regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between demographic factors and dietary supplement use. Pearson χ(2) was used to identify correlations between frequency of dietary supplement use and selected demographic factors. Frequency distributions were used to explore the reasons for use of each dietary supplement reported. Vitamin or mineral use and use of "other" dietary supplements was reported by 69% and 63% of participants, respectively. Age, sex, ethnicity, and physical activity were independently associated with dietary supplement use. Age, sex, and income were associated with acute use of specific dietary supplements during illness or injury. The reasons for use of specific dietary supplements were closely aligned with marketed claims. Broad reasons of health were commonly reported for use of most dietary supplements. Use of dietary supplements in this population reflects that of other countries. Individuals were unsure of the benefits and risks associated with dietary supplementation. Health professionals should account for dietary supplements when assessing diet. These results also warrant consideration by regulating bodies and public health officers to ensure safe practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  7. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  8. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to take. If you experience any side effects that concern you, stop taking the dietary supplement, and contact your health care provider. You can report serious problems suspected with dietary supplements to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of ...

  9. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  10. Dietary Factors Related to Physical Fitness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    QiJALry Health Psychology Department Naval Health Research Center Accession For P. 0 Box 85122 NTIS GJRA&l San Diego, CA 92138-9174 DTIC TABUnannounced E... Researh su’ppn tq tfie tole of execi!is in icdun.ing fat stores anid spar ing lean body t issue dul ing Ii e t i ng ( PavIil, S t Ciffee, LC ii.n... Psychology , 4(4), 323-335. Cohn, C. (1964). Feed ing patterns and some aspects of cholesterol metabolism. Federation Proceedings, 23, 76-81. Cole, P

  11. Chronic dietary oxalate nephropathy after intensive dietary weight loss regimen

    PubMed Central

    Khneizer, Gebran; Al-Taee, Ahmad; Mallick, Meher S; Bastani, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hyperoxaluria has been associated with nephrolithiasis as well as acute and chronic kidney disease. We present a case of end stage renal failure caused by excessive dietary oxalate intake in a dietary weight loss regimen. Case Presentation: A 51-year-old Caucasian male with the past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, hypertension and morbid obesity was referred to the primary care clinic after being found pale and easily fatigued. The patient had lost 36 kg over a 7-month period by implementing exercise and intense dietary measures that included 6 meals of spinach, kale, berries, and nuts. Physical examination revealed a blood pressure of 188/93 mm Hg with sunken eyes and dry mucus membranes. Laboratory workup was notable for blood urea nitrogen of 122 mg/dL, creatinine of 12 mg/dL, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 4.4 mL/min/1.73m2. Patient denied any history of renal disease or renal stones, or taking herbal products, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), or any type of "diet pills." Family history was unremarkable for any renal diseases. After failing intravenous fluid resuscitation, patient was started on maintenance hemodialysis. Abdominal imaging was consistent with chronic renal parenchymal disease with no evidence of nephrolithiasis. Renal biopsy revealed numerous polarized oxalate crystal deposition and diabetic nephropathy class IIA. At this point the patient was instructed to adopt a low oxalate diet. A 24-hour urine collection was remarkable for pH 4.7, citrate <50 mg, and oxalate 46 mg. Importantly, serum oxalate level was undetectable. Repeat renal biopsy 5 months later while patient was still on maintenance hemodialysis revealed persistence of extensive oxalate crystal deposition. Patient has been referred for evaluation for renal transplantation. Conclusions: Clinicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for dietary hyperoxaluria as a potential etiology for acute or

  12. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  13. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. Objectives This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. Patients and Methods A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. Results In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with

  14. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-09-01

    Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with obesity (P < 0.05). Intake of a Western dietary

  15. Dietary patterns and functional disability in older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Lee, Soon Young; Kim, Young Ok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Park, Sat Byul

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary patterns and disability in the Korean elderly. We used data from a cross-sectional study of 327 men and 460 women aged ≥65 years who completed the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A single 24-h dietary recall method was used to assess dietary intake and dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scales. The association of dietary patterns with ADL and IADL disability was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for age, marital status, education, household income, region, chronic conditions, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and energy intake. Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women: the modified traditional dietary pattern, characterized by a relatively lower consumption of white rice, but higher consumption of fruits, dairy products, and legumes, and the traditional dietary pattern, characterized by high consumption of white rice. After controlling for covariates, in men, those who engaged in modified traditional dietary pattern, compared with traditional dietary pattern, showed a lower likelihood of ADL disability (odds ratio [OR]=0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.56). In women, the modified traditional dietary pattern compared with the traditional pattern was associated with a significantly decreased risk of ADL (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.90) and IADL disability (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.72). The modified traditional dietary pattern is associated with a decreased risk of functional disability in older Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  18. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include monitoring mandatory reporting of serious adverse events by dietary supplement ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  19. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  20. Pragmatic dietary advice for diabetes during Navratris

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lovely; Khandelwal, Deepak; Singla, Rajiv; Gupta, Piyush; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Navratri is one of the most common religious fasts observed among Hindus. A large number of people with diabetes follow Navratris fast irrespective of its health implications, often without proper education and medical advice. The quest for the scientific research on dietary advices for Hindu fasts including Navratris shows paucity of literature comparative to the dietary advices advocated during Ramadan. The eating and physical activity patterns during different fasts vary a lot depending up on social and cultural factors. Even eating pattern is not uniform among all persons following Navratris and is modified as per their region, local culture, and religious beliefs. Dietary advice during Navratris depends upon pattern of fasting, religious beliefs, and local sociocultural factors. In this review, efforts are made to provide pragmatic dietary advice for people with diabetes, modifications in the menus and cooking practices, and timings of the meals for successful blood glucose management during Navratris. This review will also help plan diet and physical activity advice for persons observing other fasts as well. PMID:28217524

  1. The optimal dietary strategy to manage risk associated with various dyslipidemias.

    PubMed

    Stone, N J

    2001-09-01

    A successful dietary strategy should reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) endpoints, improve correctable risk factors for CHD, and provide for an overall healthful lifestyle. The therapeutic diet achieves a lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by limiting saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, avoiding an increase in trans fatty acids, and incorporates the use of dietary adjuncts such as an increase in dietary viscous fiber and dietary plant stanol/sterol esters. For those with elevated triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, impaired fasting glucose, increased waist circumference and other stigmata of the metabolic syndrome, individualized and supervised weight loss, and regular physical activity is strongly recommended.

  2. Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns are related to pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Koohdani, Fariba; Mahaki, Behzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Yavari, Parvaneh; Shaibu, Osman Mohammed; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-09-01

    Pre-diabetes increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. Several studies have investigated the relationship between food intake and pre-diabetes morbidity, but the dietary patterns of pre-diabetes subjects were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and pre-diabetes. In this regard, 150 pre-diabetic subjects and 150 healthy controls, who attended the diabetes screening centre in Shahreza, Iran, were matched for age group and sex. The weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and blood glucose levels of all participants were measured. Dietary information was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Using factor analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: the vegetables, fruits and legumes (VFL) dietary pattern and the sweet, solid fat, meat and mayonnaise (SSMM) dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pre-diabetes and dietary patterns. After adjusting for age, education, physical activity, BMI and energy intake, the VFL dietary pattern was found to be negatively associated with lower pre-diabetes (OR 0·16; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·26). Furthermore, the SSMM dietary pattern was positively associated with pre-diabetes (OR 5·45; 95 % CI 3·22, 9·23). In conclusion, the VFL dietary pattern is inversely related to pre-diabetes, whereas the SSMM dietary pattern is associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes.

  3. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-02

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  4. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyla L.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Howie, Erin K.; Straker, Leon M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  5. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  6. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  7. Association between dietary carbohydrates and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara; Chiriboga, David; Hebert, James R; Li, Youfu; Li, Wenjun; Campbell, MaryJane; Gendreau, Katherine; Ockene, Ira S

    2005-02-15

    The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly from each subject throughout a 1-year study period. Data were collected between 1994 and 1998. Longitudinal analyses were conducted, and results were adjusted for other factors related to body habitus. Average body mass index was 27.4 kg/m(2) (standard deviation, 5.5), while the average percentage of calories from carbohydrates was 44.9 (standard deviation, 9.6). Mean daily dietary glycemic index was 81.7 (standard deviation, 5.5), and glycemic load was 197.8 (standard deviation, 105.2). Body mass index was found to be positively associated with glycemic index, a measure of the glycemic response associated with ingesting different types of carbohydrates, but not with daily carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrates, or glycemic load. Results suggest that the type of carbohydrate may be related to body weight. However, further research is required to elucidate this association and its implications for weight management.

  8. Why US children use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-12-01

    Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to "improve overall health" (41%), to "maintain health" (37%), for "supplementing the diet" (23%), to "prevent health problems" (20%), and to "boost immunity" (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin-mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children.

  9. Why US children use dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  10. Improved parental dietary quality is associated with children's dietary intake through the home environment

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A. S.; Ghosh‐Dastidar, M. B.; Beckman, R.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L.; Dubowitz, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. Objective Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert. Methods Among a randomly selected cohort of households living in a food desert, parental diet was assessed before and after the opening of a full‐service supermarket. The home environment and children's intake of fruits and vegetables was measured at one point – after the store's opening. Structural equation models were used to estimate the pathways between changes in parental dietary quality at follow‐up and children's dietary intake through the home environment. Results Parental dietary improvement after the supermarket opened was associated with having a better home environment (β = 0.45, p = 0.001) and with healthier children's dietary intake (β = 0.46, p < 0.001) through higher family nutrition and physical activity scores (β = 0.25, p = 0.02). Conclusions Policy solutions designed to improve diet among low‐resource communities should take into account the importance of the home environment. PMID:28392933

  11. Improved parental dietary quality is associated with children's dietary intake through the home environment.

    PubMed

    Flórez, K R; Richardson, A S; Ghosh-Dastidar, M B; Beckman, R; Huang, C; Wagner, L; Dubowitz, T

    2017-03-01

    Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert. Among a randomly selected cohort of households living in a food desert, parental diet was assessed before and after the opening of a full-service supermarket. The home environment and children's intake of fruits and vegetables was measured at one point - after the store's opening. Structural equation models were used to estimate the pathways between changes in parental dietary quality at follow-up and children's dietary intake through the home environment. Parental dietary improvement after the supermarket opened was associated with having a better home environment (β = 0.45, p = 0.001) and with healthier children's dietary intake (β = 0.46, p < 0.001) through higher family nutrition and physical activity scores (β = 0.25, p = 0.02). Policy solutions designed to improve diet among low-resource communities should take into account the importance of the home environment.

  12. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  13. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dietary supplements. This issue provides information about scope of use of complementary health practices by children , ... Systematic Reviews/Reviews/Meta-analyses (PubMed®) Randomized Controlled Trials (PubMed®) Research Spotlights National Survey Reports on CAM ...

  14. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  15. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  16. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  17. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  18. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease’s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. Methods A hospital based case–control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000–2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. Conclusions The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across

  19. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-10-04

    An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the

  20. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  1. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  2. Dietary interventions to lower the risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Southwick, Lauren; Carman, Heather

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and permanent disability in the USA; primary prevention and risk reduction are a critical health concern. A wealth of research investigated stroke risk factors, including primary hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation. Research has expanded to examine lifestyle factors, such as diet/dietary patterns, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and obesity distribution, as critical modifiable risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests diet/dietary patterns may lead to heightened risk of stroke. Despite a growing literature, research has yet to implement dietary interventions to explore this relationship within a US sample. This review discusses available clinical research findings reporting on the relationship among diet/dietary patterns, cardiovascular disease, and risk of stroke. We will assess challenges, limitations, and controversies, and address future research directions.

  3. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  4. Dietary factors and coronary heart disease*

    PubMed Central

    Masironi, R.

    1970-01-01

    Mortality data from arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart disease (AHD) and per capita consumption of total fat, saturated fat, sucrose, simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and protein, and calorie intake for 37 countries were statistically evaluated to investigate possible relationships between dietary factors and incidence of AHD. On a geographical basis, consumption of total and saturated fats is strongly and positively correlated with the death rates, while consumption of complex carbohydrates is negatively correlated. No correlations were found with temporal changes in death rates or with differences within one country. These findings are discussed in the light of the works of many other investigators. It is concluded that the relation of diet to AHD is still controversial, and that the development and severity of the disease cannot be confidently attributed to any single dietary factor nor to blood cholesterol. The contributing effects of other factors, such as physical activity, mental stress, and affluence, are also discussed. PMID:5309508

  5. Dietary supplement use in people being treated for depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hedderley, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased over the past 10 years, with up to 50% of adults being reported to have taken dietary supplements. The types of supplements taken are often related to physical morbidities. However, information about their use in combination with prescription drugs is lacking. In particular, there is little information on the use of supplements by people with depression. Our aim was to examine the use of dietary supplements by people being treated for depression. Seventy-two participants who were being treated for depression in the community were recruited for a clinical trial to determine the effect of fish oil on mood in the treatment of depression. The results of the primary analysis are reported elsewhere. Exclusion criteria included any co-existing psychiatric disorder (except anxiety disorders), blood clotting disorders, unstable medical conditions, and those taking fish oil supplements. Demographic information, details about the participants' depression and current therapies, use of dietary and herbal supplements in the previous 12 months, and physical activity data were collected at baseline. Characteristics of supplement users were compared with those of non-users using either chi-square or Mann-Whitney U tests. Forty-five (63%) of 72 participants who provided dietary supplement information had taken at least one dietary supplement within the previous 12 months. On average, supplement users were found to have taken 2.8 (SD=1.56) dietary supplements during the assessment period. Women were more likely to be taking supplements than men (P<0.001). In conclusion, the use of dietary supplements is common among people being treated for depression. This has important implications for clinical practice as little is known about supplement-drug interactions.

  6. [Dietary modification in hypertensives].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Kloock, B; König, D

    2006-11-23

    Successful treatment of hypertension requires a holistic approach. In this connection, focusing on a healthy lifestyle, eating, drinking and consumption behavior and, finally, the quality of foodstuffs and the exercise habits of the patient represents an essential supplement to the classical forms of pharmaceutical treatment. The major dietary-physiological factors have been shown to be weight reduction, the monitoring of salt consumption, appropriate intake of fiber, a preference for vegetables, and a reduction of immoderate alcohol consumption.

  7. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials focused on this problem, there is not ample evidence to confidently recommend dietary changes. Despite this, numerous recent and past experiences support modification of diet as having a primary role in the prevention of nephrolithiasis. In particular, it is recommended to limit animal protein and salt intake, to consume milk and derivatives in amounts corresponding to calcium intake of about 1200 mg/day and to assume fiber (40 g/day), vegetables and fruit daily avoiding foods with high oxalate content. Furthermore, vitamin C intake not exceeding 1500 mg/day plays a protective role as well as avoiding vitamin B6 deficiency and abstaining, if possible, from vitamin D supplements. Lastly, it is recommended to drink enough water to bring the urinary volume up to at least 2 L/day and, as much as possible, to use fresh or frozen products rather than prepacked or precooked foods which are often too rich in sodium chloride. PMID:22460996

  8. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  9. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: <0·30 ng/mL) were measured initially and after changing the diet. Twelve dogs were presented with a median age of five years. The median plasma thyroxine concentration was 156·1 (range of 79·7 to 391·9) nmol/L; in six dogs, thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration was measured and was <0·03 ng/mL in five dogs and 0·05 ng/mL in one dog. Six dogs showed clinical signs such as weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  11. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction 'Treatments' Sold Online 'All Natural' Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction: A Risky Proposition For More Information Questions and ...

  12. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Larissa L; Berry, Judith A

    2003-09-01

    To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. In the United States, 6 out of every 10 people use dietary supplements. For decades, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protected the public from mislabeled and unsafe products by regulating as foods those dietary supplements that included only essential nutrients. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 included herbs as dietary supplements. When the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was passed, the FDA lost its regulatory power. The DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients. Dietary supplements are no longer considered food additives, which makes them exempt from prescreening or any safety and efficacy studies before they are released to the public. Under the DSHEA, the FDA may take action if a product poses a direct health threat and only after adverse health effects have already occurred. A good understanding of the regulatory procedures for dietary supplements will aid nurse practitioners (NPs) in patient education regarding these products. Patients should be advised to choose supplements that are made by nationally known food and drug manufacturers that belong to trade groups. NPs and patients can contact the manufacturer directly and can access government Internet sites for more product information.

  14. Pesticides on Household Surfaces May Influence Dietary Intake of Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical and chemical environment influences children’s exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children’s activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children’s Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition t...

  15. Pesticides on Household Surfaces May Influence Dietary Intake of Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical and chemical environment influences children’s exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children’s activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children’s Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition t...

  16. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  17. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3%) were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted. PMID:23006931

  18. Hormetic Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies suggest beneficial roles of dietary phytochemicals in protecting against chronic disorders such as cancer, and inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging findings suggest that several dietary phytochemicals also benefit the nervous system and, when consumed regularly, may reduce the risk of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The evidence supporting health benefits of vegetables and fruits provide a rationale for identification of the specific phytochemicals responsible, and for investigation of their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action. One general mechanism of action of phytochemicals that is emerging from recent studies is that they activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways. From an evolutionary perspective, the noxious properties of such phytochemicals play an important role in dissuading insects and other pests from eating the plants. However at the relatively small doses ingested by humans that consume the plants, the phytochemicals are not toxic and instead induce mild cellular stress responses. This phenomenon has been widely observed in biology and medicine, and has been described as ‘preconditioning’ or ‘hormesis’. Hormetic pathways activated by phytochemicals may involve kinases and transcription factors that induce the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors and other cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin – FOXO pathway, the NF-κB pathway and the Nrf-2 –ARE pathway. In this article we describe the hormesis hypothesis of phytochemical actions with a focus on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway as a prototypical example of a neuroprotective mechanism of action of specific dietary phytochemicals. PMID:18543123

  19. Dietary control of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiguang; Cai, Ling; Tu, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Organisms must be able to rapidly alter gene expression in response to changes in their nutrient environment. This review summarizes evidence that epigenetic modifications of chromatin depend on particular metabolites of intermediary metabolism, enabling the facile regulation of gene expression in tune with metabolic state. Nutritional or dietary control of chromatin is an often-overlooked, yet fundamental regulatory mechanism directly linked to human physiology. Nutrient-sensitive epigenetic marks are dynamic, suggesting rapid turnover, and may have functions beyond the regulation of gene transcription, including pH regulation and as carbon sources in cancer cells. PMID:26094239

  20. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  1. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  2. Weight loss intention, dietary behaviors, and barriers to dietary change in veterans with lower extremity amputations.

    PubMed

    Littman, A J; McFarland, L V; Thompson, M L; Bouldin, E D; Arterburn, D E; Majerczyk, B R; Boyko, E J

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is thought to be highly prevalent in persons with lower extremity amputations (LEAs) and can impair physical and social functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of weight loss intention, weight loss strategies, dietary patterns, and barriers to making dietary changes, and their associations with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), amputation characteristics, health status, and socioeconomic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 150) using data from a self-administered questionnaire. 43% of participants were obese and 48% were trying to lose weight; 83% of those trying to lose weight reported trying to "eat differently", but only 7% were following a comprehensive weight loss program involving dietary changes, physical activity, and behavioral counseling. 21% of participants reported ≥ 6 barriers to changing their eating habits (e.g., habit, too little money, stress/depression). Obesity was associated with younger age, lower physical health scores, hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Compared to those not trying to lose weight, a greater proportion of those trying to lose weight had a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2), age <55 years, higher physical and mental health scores, and more frequent consumption of vegetables, beans, chicken, and fish. Though over half of overweight and obese individuals with LEA were trying to lose weight, few reported following a comprehensive program to lose weight, which may indicate an unmet need for services for this group. To be effective, these programs will need to address the complex physical and mental health challenges that many of these individuals face. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Dietary supplements for chronic gout.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Falzon, Louise; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-10-07

    Dietary supplements are frequently used for the treatment of several medical conditions, both prescribed by physicians or self administered. However, evidence of benefit and safety of these supplements is usually limited or absent. To assess the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation for people with chronic gout. We performed a search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL on 6 June 2013. We applied no date or language restrictions. In addition, we performed a handsearch of the abstracts from the 2010 to 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) conferences, checked the references of all included studies and trial registries. We considered all published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared dietary supplements with no supplements, placebo, another supplement or pharmacological agents for adults with chronic gout for inclusion. Dietary supplements included, but were not limited to, amino acids, antioxidants, essential minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, prebiotic agents, probiotic agents and vitamins. The main outcomes were reduction in frequency of gouty attacks and trial participant withdrawal due to adverse events. We also considered pain reduction, health-related quality of life, serum uric acid (sUA) normalisation, function (i.e. activity limitation), tophus regression and the rate of serious adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified two RCTs (160 participants) that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. As these two trials evaluated different diet supplements (enriched skim milk powder (SMP) and vitamin C) with different outcomes (gout flare prevention for enriched SMP and sUA reduction for vitamin C), we reported the results separately.One trial including 120 participants, at moderate risk of bias, compared SMP enriched with glycomacropeptides (GMP) with

  4. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  5. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  6. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  7. Dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome) specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  8. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... Waiver of requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary... requirement for providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary...

  9. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling...

  10. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling...

  11. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  12. Dietary Approaches to Prevent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Lydia A.; Green, Torrance; Harrison, Teresa N.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure arises from a combination of environmental and genetic factors and the interactions of these factors. A substantial body of evidence from animal studies, epidemiologic studies, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials has demonstrated that certain dietary patterns and individual dietary elements play a prominent role in the development of hypertension. Changes in diet can lower blood pressure, prevent the development of hypertension, and reduce the risk of hypertension-related complications. Dietary strategies for the prevention of hypertension include reducing sodium intake, limiting alcohol consumption, increasing potassium intake, and adopting an overall dietary pattern such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet or a Mediterranean diet. In order to reduce the burden of blood pressure-related complications, efforts that focus on environmental and individual behavioral changes that encourage and promote healthier food choices are warranted. PMID:24091874

  13. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines.

  14. Dietary Effects of Oregano (Origanum Vulgaris L.) Plant or Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Mill.) Wood Extracts on Microbiological, Chemico-Physical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Cooked ham During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Dino; Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo; Acuti, Gabriele; Codini, Michela; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Forte, Claudio; Branciari, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.) or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L.) extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL), with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR) and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW), respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20) and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days). At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay) and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: total microbial count (TMC), lactic acid bacteria count (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*), total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW. PMID:27800421

  15. Dietary Effects of Oregano (Origanum Vulgaris L.) Plant or Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Mill.) Wood Extracts on Microbiological, Chemico-Physical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Cooked ham During Storage.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo; Acuti, Gabriele; Codini, Michela; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Forte, Claudio; Branciari, Raffaella

    2015-11-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.) or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L.) extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL), with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR) and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW), respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20) and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days). At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay) and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: total microbial count (TMC), lactic acid bacteria count (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*), total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW.

  16. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways are the key targets for weight loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics, and lipidomics were employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups for 10 weeks: ad lib-fed sedentary control, ad lib-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE), and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics, and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67, and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE, and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including upregulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways are cancer preventive targets that have been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches. PMID:25283328

  17. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways is the key target for weight-loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity.

    PubMed

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-12-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics and lipidomics was employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into four groups for 10 weeks: ad-libitum-fed sedentary control, ad-libitum-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE) and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67 and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including up-regulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears that the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways is a cancer preventive target that has been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches.

  18. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  19. [Dietary changes in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mayans, J A; García Campos, M; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Mata Rivera, N; Zárate Mondragón, F; Mason Cordero, T; Villarreal Espinosa, A

    2003-06-01

    Although the Mexican population has traditionally been malnourished, the prevalence of obesity in children and adults has increased by almost 50 % in the last 10 years. Recent studies show substantial changes in the nutritional status of Mexicans, especially in the pediatric population. Among the factors associated with the development of obesity are overeating, sedentariness, and genetics. The apparent economic development in Mexico, as well as the influence of dietary patterns from other countries, have contributed to modifying lifestyle. Despite measures taken by the health system, iron- and zinc-deficiency anemia continue to be prevalent. The present review aims to describe the changes that have taken place in Mexico in the last few decades leading to a generation of short and obese children, as well as to determine the associated factors in order to promote healthier eating patterns among the Mexican population.

  20. Impact of a program of Tai Chi plus behaviorally based dietary weight loss on physical functioning and coronary heart disease risk factors: a community-based study in obese older women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Furong; Letendre, Jonathan; Bekke, Jillian; Beebe, Nowen; Mahler, Leslie; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Delmonico, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a quasi-experimental design in a community-based study translating the results of our recent findings on the combined effects of Tai Chi and weight loss on physical function and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. A 16-week intervention was conducted to assess the impact of Tai Chi plus a behavioral weight loss program (TCWL, n = 29) on obese (body mass index [BMI] = 35.4 ± 0.8 kg/m²) older (68.2 ± 1.5 yr.) women compared to a control group (CON, n = 9, BMI = 38.0 ± 1.5 kg/m², 65.6 ± 2.7 yr.), which was asked to maintain their normal lifestyle. The TCWL group lost weight (1.6 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.006) while the CON group did not (1.2 ± 1.9 kg, P = 0.106). Physical functioning as measured by the short physical performance battery improved in TCWL when compared to the CON group (β = 1.94, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.12, 2.76, P < 0.001). TCWL also improved in sit-and-reach flexibility (β = -2.27, 95% CI: -4.09, -0.46, P = 0.016), body fat mass (BMI, β = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.26, P = 0.002), waist circumference (β = -1.78, 95% CI: -2.83, -0.72, P = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (β = -16.41, 95% CI: -21.35, -11.48, P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (β = -9.52, 95% CI: -12.65, -6.39, P < 0.001). Thus, TCWL intervention may represent an effective strategy to improve physical function and ameliorate CHD risk in the older adult population.

  1. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Moloney, M

    2000-11-01

    Numerous dietary treatments that purport to promote something unique for stimulating weight loss have been published. These treatments include fad diets, diets formulated by various commercial slimming clubs, very-low-energy diets (VLCD) and conventional diets. Fad diets may possibly reduce some weight short-term; however, there is no scientific basis to their long-term use. Commercial slimming clubs may be suitable for some individuals but they need to be properly assessed professionally. There are specific guidelines for the use of VLCD, which are only appropriate for short-term use. There is scientific evidence to suggest that conventional diets can produce both short- and long-term weight loss. A successful weight-loss programme depends on a multidisciplinary team approach. Management strategies should be devised for addressing issues such as goals, monitoring, follow-up, relapse and evaluation. Initial assessments should include medical, laboratory and anthropometric data, fitness level and dietary and behavioural attitudes. These results will form the basis of the treatment plan. Frequent visits to the clinic are fundamental in promoting continuing weight loss during the long-term maintenance stage of treatment. The visits should be made worthwhile for the patient. Realistic and attainable goals for diet, exercise and behaviour modification should be made. The diet should have a novel approach and be tailored to the needs of the patient. It should be adequate nutritionally, low in energy and fat. The overall aim should be to promote lifelong changes in lifestyle, improvement in quality of life and health risks.

  2. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  3. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-04

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  4. Dietary supplement consumption among cardiac patients admitted to internal medicine and cardiac wards.

    PubMed

    Karny-Rahkovich, Orith; Blatt, Alex; Elbaz-Greener, Gabby Atalya; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Golik, Ahuva; Berkovitch, Matityahu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements may have adverse effects and potentially interact with conventional medications. They are perceived as "natural" products, free of side effects with no need for medical consultation. Little is known about consumption of dietary supplements by patients with cardiac diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary supplement consumption among cardiac patients admitted to internal and cardiology wards. Potential drug-dietary supplement interactions were also assessed. During a period of 6 months, patients with cardiac disease hospitalized in the Internal Medicine and Cardiology Wards at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center were evaluated regarding their dietary supplement consumption. A literature survey examining possible drug-supplement interaction was performed. Out of 149 cardiac patients, 45% were dietary supplement consumers. Patients ad-mitted to the Internal Medicine Wards consumed more dietary supplements than those admit-ted to the Cardiology Division. Dietary supplement consumption was associated with older age (OR = 1.05, p = 0.022), female gender (OR = 2.94, p = 0.014) and routine physical activity (OR = 3.15, p = 0.007). Diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.68, p = 0.020), hematological diseases (OR = 13.29, p = 0.022), and the use of anti-diabetic medications (OR = 4.28, p = 0.001) were independently associated with dietary supplement intake. Sixteen potential moderate interactions between prescribed medications and dietary supplements were found. Consumption of dietary supplements is common among cardiac patients. It is more common in those admitted to Internal Medicine Departments than in those admitted to the Cardiology Wards. Due to the risk of various drug-supplement interactions consumed by patients with cardiac diseases, there is a need to increase awareness and knowledge among medical staff regarding the intake of dietary supplements.

  5. Dietary patterns and successful ageing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition is a key determinant of chronic disease in later life. A systematic review was conducted of studies examining dietary patterns and quality of life, physical function, cognitive function and mental health among older adults. Literature searches in MEDLINE complete, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, Ageline, Global health, PsycINFO, SCOPUS and EMBASE and hand searching from 1980 up to December 2014 yielded 1236 results. Inclusion criteria included dietary pattern assessment via dietary indices or statistical approaches, a sample of community-dwelling adults aged 45 years and over at baseline and a cross-sectional or longitudinal study design. Exclusion criteria included a single 24-h recall of diet, evaluation of single foods or nutrients, clinical or institutionalised samples and intervention studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the six-item Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. There were 34 articles (11 cross-sectional and 23 longitudinal) included with 23 studies examining dietary indices and 13 studies using empirical analysis. Most studies examined mental health (n = 10) or cognitive function (n = 18), with fewer studies examining quality of life (n = 6) and physical function (n = 8). Although dietary pattern and outcome assessment methods varied, most studies reported positive associations between a healthier diet and better health outcomes. Overall, the number of studies using dietary patterns to investigate diet and successful ageing is small, and further investigation in longitudinal studies is needed, particularly for quality-of-life outcomes. This review provides support for the importance of a healthy diet for the ageing population globally.

  6. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant interaction of height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society

  7. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Exercise and Healthy Dietary Choices: A Study of Employees and Managers within a Large Transport Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma; Lewis, Rachel; Pavey, Louisa; Jones, Bethan; Green, Melanie; Webster, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine employees' perceived barriers and facilitators of physical activity and healthy dietary choices, and managers' perceptions of how best to facilitate physical activity and healthy dietary choices among their team members. Design: Single time-point survey with categorical and open-ended…

  8. Pesticides on household surfaces may influence dietary intake of children.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Byron, Margie Z; Brown, G Gordon; Clayton, C Andrew; Michael, Larry C

    2011-05-15

    The physical and chemical environment influences children's exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children's activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children's Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition to the chemical exposure associated with the food itself, this model incorporates excess dietary exposures due to handling of food during consumption. To stochastically evaluate CDIM, distributions of measured, and in some cases estimated, model factors were determined from measurements of permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon derived from assembled databases and laboratory experiments. Using the distributions of these factors, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain distributions of total dietary intake of pesticides. To target the sources of pesticide contamination that were influencing total dietary intake, each factor was evaluated. We found pesticide surface concentration to be highly influential. By excluding surface concentration, we were also able to determine the influence of the other factors based on the F-statistic. Transfer efficiencies, followed by pesticide residue in consumed foods and amount of food consumed, were the next most influential factors within the model. With these distributions for model inputs, CDIM has the potential to more accurately predict total dietary intake of a contaminant by a child.

  9. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  10. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  11. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  12. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  13. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  14. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  15. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    PubMed

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds.

  16. Dietary manipulation of mouse metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feige, Jérôme N; Lagouge, Marie; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The maintenance of metabolic homeostasis relies on the balanced intake of nutrients from food. Consequently, diet composition strongly impacts whole-body physiology. Dietary formulations with strong nutrient imbalances can lead to metabolic disorders, with lipids and simple sugars playing a prominent role. This unit describes how diet formulation can be modified to generate mouse models of human metabolic pathologies, and it details methodological procedures linked to dietary manipulations, including caloric restriction and introduction of a test compound.

  17. Dietary patterns and prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Cimino; Vincenzo, Favilla; Tommaso, Castelli; Giuseppe, Sortino; Marco, Russo; Ivana, Caldarella; Giorgio, Russo; Massimo, Madonia; Giuseppe, Morgia

    2012-01-01

    Dietary patterns play a role on prostatic diseases in association with genetic, behavioral, occupational and environmental ones. Data from reviewed literature provide evidences of a possible relationship between dietary habits and the incidence of prostate disorders, even if it is not enough to justify a widespread adoption of new dietary habits. In this review the role of dietary patterns, including the use of supplements, in the prevention and treatment of the most frequent and known prostatic diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) was analyzed. A limited number of well designed trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement intervention appeared to slow disease progression. Although conclusive evidences are limited, the current data suggest that a diet low in total calories and fat, high in vegetables and fruits and that body weight control could be possibly effective in preventing prostatic diseases. On the other hand care must be taken to ensure that over-consumption of dietary supplements does not occur because it may be harmful.

  18. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  19. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  20. Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-shan; Lay, Sovichea; Yu, Hai-ning; Shen, Sheng-rong

    2016-01-01

    A high quality diet is believed to play a functional role in promoting the healthy growth of mankind and preventing many kinds of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Adherence to a high quality diet has been strongly associated with a lower risk of mortality. To help promote healthy lifestyles and physical strength, the Chinese government has produced a new revised version of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016) and the Chinese Food Pagoda, as guidance for dietary intake among its population. Similarly, the Japanese government has produced the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top Model, and the US government has recently published revised dietary recommendations in its 2015–2020 eighth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The evidence from all respective cohort studies involved in producing these guidelines shows a reduced risk of many chronic diseases and mortality if the guidelines are followed. All scientific findings support encouraging the general population to consume a broad variety of food on the basis of nutrient and food intakes in order to prevent deficiency diseases and a surplus of energy and nutrients, and recommend daily physical activity for health promotion. PMID:27604857

  1. Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Lay, Sovichea; Yu, Hai-Ning; Shen, Sheng-Rong

    2016-09-01

    A high quality diet is believed to play a functional role in promoting the healthy growth of mankind and preventing many kinds of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Adherence to a high quality diet has been strongly associated with a lower risk of mortality. To help promote healthy lifestyles and physical strength, the Chinese government has produced a new revised version of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016) and the Chinese Food Pagoda, as guidance for dietary intake among its population. Similarly, the Japanese government has produced the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top Model, and the US government has recently published revised dietary recommendations in its 2015-2020 eighth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The evidence from all respective cohort studies involved in producing these guidelines shows a reduced risk of many chronic diseases and mortality if the guidelines are followed. All scientific findings support encouraging the general population to consume a broad variety of food on the basis of nutrient and food intakes in order to prevent deficiency diseases and a surplus of energy and nutrients, and recommend daily physical activity for health promotion.

  2. A community-based health promotion intervention using brief negotiation techniques and a pledge on dietary intake, physical activity levels and weight outcomes: lessons learnt from an exploratory trial.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Frances C; Batterham, Alan M; Nixon, Catherine A; Crayton, Alisha M; Pedley, Claire L; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a brief face-to-face health promotion intervention which included a 'pledge' using brief negotiation techniques, compared with standard advice-giving techniques, delivered in a community setting. A parallel group pre-post design using randomised matched groups. Lifestyle helpers delivered the intervention (one consultation per participant). Diet, physical activity and anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Qualitative data were also collected. Middlesbrough (UK). Adults living in low socio-economic areas. Recruitment and engagement of lifestyle helpers was difficult, and initial expectations that local health authority staff working in the community and community champions would act as lifestyle helpers were not realised. As a consequence, recruitment of participants was lower than anticipated. One hundred and twenty-eight adults were recruited and the retention rate was 48 % at 12 months. Barriers to participation included poor health and competing commitments. No significant differences in change in diet or physical activity behaviours, or BMI, between the intervention and control groups were observed. The control group had a significantly greater decrease in waist circumference at 12 months compared with the intervention group. This exploratory trial provides important insights in terms of recruiting lifestyle helpers for community-based health promotion interventions, specifically (i) the priorities and limitations in terms of time (regardless of their general enthusiasm) for staff employed by the local health authority, and (ii) the willingness of potential community champions to serve their local community in areas where community identity and 'spirit' are seen as lacking.

  3. Dietary lipids and cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados, S; Quiles, J L; Gil, A; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C

    2006-05-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death in Western countries. Among the factors that contribute to the appearance of this disease, diet has a fundamental role, and specifically fats are the main component related to the increase in the incidence of cancerous diseases, particularly breast, colon-rectal, and prostate cancer. From dietary lipids, much attention has been given to the beneficial effects of fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 serie, as well as of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids--primarily oleic acid. On the contrary, a negative effect has been reported for polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 serie and for saturated fatty acids. Nutrition constitutes an important aspect of the life of cancer patients. Currently, nutritional formulas are being designed with supplements of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and other components such as arginine, RNA, lysine, etc., with the aim of ameliorating the effects of this pathology. The results demonstrate the lower morbility and therefore improved quality of life, a decline in mortality, and a reduction in related costs.

  4. Dietary habits and hearing.

    PubMed

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: Study groups from three age cohorts of 70-75 year-olds were investigated to search for possible correlations between dietary habits and auditory function. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A total number of 524 people (275 women, 249 men) were recruited from three age cohorts. The study sample was representative of the general population. All participants answered a diet history and were tested with pure-tone audiometry. Eleven categories of food consumption were related to pure-tone averages of low-mid frequency hearing, and high frequency hearing. Two consistent correlations between diet and hearing were observed. One was a correlation between good hearing and a high consumption of fish in the male group. The other was a correlation between poor high frequency hearing and a high consumption of food rich in low molecular carbohydrates in both genders; a larger effect size was seen in females. The study indicates that diet is important for aural health in aging. According to this study fish is beneficial to hearing, whereas consumption of "junk food", rich in low molecular carbohydrates, is detrimental. Other correlations, e.g. between high consumption of antioxidants, were not demonstrated here, but cannot be excluded.

  5. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications...

  6. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  7. Lipid Lowering with Soluble Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Surampudi, Prasanth; Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Berglund, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5-10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels. Hypocholesterolemic benefits were also observed with some fiber-rich foods, such as whole oats, whole barley, legumes, peas, beans, flax seeds, apples, and citrus foods.

  8. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  9. Dietary Behaviors of Adults Born Prematurely May Explain Future Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n=129) and full term (FT-adults, n=38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary behaviors

  10. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  11. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  12. Dietary management of the metabolic syndrome - one size fits all?

    PubMed

    Champagne, Catherine M; Bray, George A

    2013-08-01

    Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome includes a set of laboratory and physical findings, including central adiposity, elevated TAG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, hypertension and elevated fasting glucose or insulin resistance. While definitions have varied slightly, from a practical point of view, identifying dietary and lifestyle factors, including low levels of physical activity, are important in designing a diet and exercise programme that can help individuals with the metabolic syndrome to reduce the associated detrimental health consequences. Specific features of the metabolic syndrome require intervention, whether dietary or otherwise, to move towards normal ranges. It is important to remember that no one size or treatment fits all. While central obesity is perceived as the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome, other features need to be treated independently if they do not respond to lifestyle change. The future may hold treatments for the metabolic syndrome that involve modulation of inflammation.

  13. The contribution of dietary restriction to extended longevity in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Faiman, Roy; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Sullivan, Margery; Huestis, Diana L; Lehmann, Tovi

    2017-03-24

    Variation in longevity has long been of interest in vector biology because of its implication in disease transmission through vectorial capacity. Recent studies suggest that Anopheles coluzzii adults persist during the ~7 month dry season via aestivation. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence linking dietary restriction and low ratio of dietary protein to carbohydrate with extended longevity of animals. Here, we evaluated the effects of dietary restriction and the protein : carbohydrate ratio on longevity of An. coluzzii. In our experiment, we combined dietary regimes with temperature and relative humidity to assess their effects on An. coluzzii longevity, in an attempt to simulate aestivation under laboratory conditions. Our results showed significant effects of both the physical and the dietary variables on longevity, but that diet regimen had a considerably greater effect than those of the physical conditions. Higher temperature and lower humidity reduced longevity. At 22 °C dietary protein (blood) shortened longevity when sugar was not restricted (RH = 85%), but extended longevity when sugar was restricted (RH = 50%). Dietary restriction extended longevity in accord with predictions, but protein : carbohydrate ratio had a negligible effect. We identified conditions that significantly extend longevity in malaria vectors, however, the extent of increase in longevity was insufficient to simulate aestivation.

  14. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  15. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  16. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food. PMID:22611303

  17. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  18. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber.

  19. [Nutrigenomics--bioactive dietary components].

    PubMed

    Gętek, Monika; Czech, Natalia; Fizia, Katarzyna; Białek-Dratwa, Agnieszka; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa

    2013-04-05

    Nutrigenomics analyzes relations between diet and genes, and identifies mechanisms in which food and nutrition affect health and lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases (R. Chadwick, 2004). Bioactive dietary components are signal molecules that carry information from the external environment and affect in terms of quantity and quality in the process of gene expression. The biological effect of bioactive dietary components depends on various of physiological processes that can occur within a few genes. Polymorphism of genes can change their function and physiological response of the body for nutrients. Bioactive dietary components work on at least two levels of the expression of genes as factors regulating chromatin structure and as factors directly regulate the activity of nuclear receptors. The processes of synthesis and DNA repair are regulated by some of vitamins, macro-and micro-elements. They provide, among others, cofactors of enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA methylation and its repair. DNA methylation profile may change under the influence of diet, single nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors. Bioactive dietary components may directly affect the process of gene expression by acting as ligands for nuclear receptors. Sensitive to dietary group of nuclear receptors are sensory receptors. This group includes, among others receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated), responsible for energy metabolism and receptors LXR (liver X receptor), FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and RXR, which is responsible for the metabolism of cholesterol.

  20. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Blumenthal, J A

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing 'whole' diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed.

  1. Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Zara; McKeever, Tricia

    2011-03-16

    There is a wide geographical variation in the prevalence of asthma and observational studies have suggested that dietary sodium may play a role. To assess the effect of dietary sodium manipulation on asthma control. We carried out a search using the Cochrane Airways Group asthma register. We searched the bibliographies of included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for additional studies. We carried out the most recent search in November 2010. We considered only RCTs that involved dietary sodium reduction or increased sodium intake in patients with asthma. Both review authors assessed study and extracted data. We conducted data analyses in RevMan 5 using mean differences and random effects. We identified a total of nine studies in relation to sodium manipulation and asthma, of which five were in people with asthma (318 participants), and four in people with exercise-induced asthma (63 participants). There were no significant benefits of salt restriction on the control of asthma. There was some evidence from the exercise-induced asthma studies that a low sodium diet may improve lung function after exercise and possibly baseline lung function, but this is based on findings from a very small numbers of participants. This review did not find any evidence that dietary sodium reduction significantly improves asthma control. Although dietary sodium reduction may result in improvements in lung function in exercise-induced asthma, the clinical significance of this effect is unclear.

  2. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  3. Eat Well Keep Active: Qualitative findings from a feasibility and acceptability study of a brief midwife led intervention to facilitate healthful dietary and physical activity behaviours in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Warren, Lucie; Rance, Jaynie; Hunter, Billie

    2017-06-01

    overweight and obesity in the pregnant population is increasing and this is a public health concern. Many women have difficulty in following the recommendation to maintain a healthy diet and to keep active, indeed some identify pregnancy as the start of their concern with being overweight. to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' intervention programme designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity in pregnant women. This brief midwife led intervention was based upon the Self Determination Theory (SDT) framework and utilised Motivational Interviewing and individualised goal setting. this was a prospective qualitative study to explore women's views on the acceptability and perceived efficacy of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme obtained through one-to-one interviews 6 weeks after the delivery of the intervention. Data were also analysed to assess fidelity of the intervention to the psychological constructs of SDT; autonomy, competence and relatedness. Wales, UK. pregnant women suitable for Midwife Led Care and therefore deemed to be 'low risk' were recruited from a large maternity unit in South Wales (n=20). the results indicated that the 'Eat Well Keep Active' intervention programme was well received by participants who reported that it positively influenced their health behaviours. There was clear evidence of the intervention supporting the three SDT psychological needs. The Eat Well Keep Active intervention was designed to be incorporated into existing antenatal provision and findings from this study have demonstrated its acceptability. The brief midwife led intervention based on SDT was found to be acceptable by the participants who embraced the opportunity to discuss and explore their lifestyle behaviours with a midwife. theoretically designed interventions that can facilitate women to pursue a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy are lacking and the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme has the potential to address this

  4. Protocol for systematic reviews of determinants/correlates of obesity-related dietary and physical activity behaviors in young children (preschool 0 to 6 years): evidence mapping and syntheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of these reviews is to inform the design and content of interventions to reduce obesity in young children. The behaviors that are associated with obesity/overweight have been studied extensively; however, the factors associated with these behaviors in young children (0 to 6 years) have not been systematically reviewed. Over the past few years the focus of obesity prevention has shifted to preschool children because of the high prevalence of obesity at school entry and recognition that habits formed in early life could track into adulthood. In order to develop effective interventions and change behavior, it is important to understand the factors that are associated with those behaviors. For example, we need to understand whether it would be more important to target the family, childcare settings or the wider environment and identify the most effective way of changing these energy balance related behaviors. Methods/Design Quantitative (intervention and observational) and qualitative literature on determinants/correlates of fruit and vegetable intake, sugar sweetened beverage and other unhealthy diet intake, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors in young children will be systematically identified, mapped and reviewed. A common search strategy (no language or period restrictions) will be used to identify papers from eight electronic databases and this will be supplemented by hand-searching. Next, studies in developed countries that examine the factors associated with these behaviors in children aged 0 to 6 years (at baseline) will be screened and mapped descriptively followed by in-depth data extraction, quality assessment and synthesis. Data from quantitative studies will be summarized using either forest plots or harvest plots and narrative synthesis, and qualitative studies using thematic analysis. Qualitative evidence will be integrated with the quantitative evidence, using a parallel synthesis approach, to provide a deeper understanding

  5. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Vasfiye Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2016-01-01

    Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Different food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be affected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  6. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure.

  7. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Elizabeth A.; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J.; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure. PMID:24644241

  8. Dietary behavior and type 2 diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Albarran, Noemi B; Ballesteros, Martha N; Morales, Gloria G; Ortega, Maria I

    2006-05-01

    To explore risk factors modification, as well as barriers and facilitators for behavioral change in Mexican type 2 diabetics and their families. Risk assessment and impact evaluation included measurements on anthropometrics, diet, physical activity, nutrition knowledge, and HbA(1c.) The intervention included discussion groups and promoted behavioral change on dietary risk, physical exercise, and basic diabetic knowledge of 48 urban diabetic patients and 38 relatives. The educational method consisted of cognitive reframing and situational problem solving during five meetings over an 8-month period. Diabetics were older and less educated than their participating relatives (55.8+/-11 and 34.7+/-13.7 years old, and 4.5+/-3.4 and 7.8+/-3.7 years of schooling, respectively). Factors such as diet, degree of obesity, physical activity and HbA(1c), reflected that 92% of diabetic patients and 83% of their relatives were at high health risk. After the intervention, nutritional knowledge and diet-health awareness increased (p=.013 and .001 respectively); however, no significant health-risks reduction was observed. Focus group analysis suggested that lack of support from family and health services, low income, neighborhood insecurity and misleading "popular knowledge" and advice are key barriers to behavioral change. The study supports the understanding of constrains to health promotion campaigns and better health provider-patient interactions in Mexican population. Additionally, the study contributes to the general knowledge of ethnic socio-cultural environment influences over health care issues, primarily to diet modifications.

  9. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  10. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was <6 g/kg/day and below 30% of energy, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were below, and protein (in men) intakes were higher than, the current recommendations for strength athletes, with no consideration for exploration of macronutrient quality or distribution over the day. Energy

  11. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  12. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-12-28

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  13. SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual Appendices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The appendices for the SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual include a sample food diary, backgorund information on the water concentration data used in SHEDS-Dietary, a food list, food definitions and sample code.

  14. Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166625.html Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol Eating them can reduce ... and Human Services. More Health News on Cholesterol Dietary Fats Heart Diseases--Prevention Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  15. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-850), Food and Drug Administration... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply...

  16. Dietary education in school-based childhood obesity prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to review school based interventions designed to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity that focused on modifying dietary behavior and were published between 2000 and May 2009. A total of 25 interventions met the criteria. The grade range of these interventions was from K to 12; 13 studies exclusively targeted elementary school, 2 targeted both elementary and middle school, 9 exclusively targeted middle school, and 1 targeted high school. The majority of the interventions focused on both dietary and physical activity behaviors, whereas 8 interventions focused exclusively on dietary behaviors. Approximately one-half of the interventions were based on a behavioral theory. In terms of duration, 13 were longer than 6 mo, 4 were less than 1 mo, and 8 had a duration between 1 and 6 mo. The majority of the interventions were implemented by teachers. In terms of activities, almost all interventions had a curricular component except 2 that distributed free fruit or vegetables. Besides curricular instructions, parental and family involvement was also utilized by several interventions. Environmental and policy changes were used in 7 interventions. For evaluation, the 2 most popular designs were experimental design with random assignment at group level and quasi experimental design, both of which were used by 9 interventions each. In terms of impact on adiposity indices, only 14 interventions measured it and only 6 of those were able to demonstrate significant changes. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of school based dietary education interventions for childhood obesity prevention are presented.

  17. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children.

  18. Are Dietary Patterns Associated with Depression in U.S. Adults?

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Kyoung; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable determinants for and consequences of both mental and physical heath. Depression has become an increasingly important public health issue. We tested whether dietary patterns derived from food group intake are associated with depression in U.S. adults in a cross-sectional study with national population. This study included 4180 men and 4196 women aged 20-79 years in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), with complete data of one 24-h dietary recall, sociodemographics, lifestyles, and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9) for screening depression. Two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were investigated for their associations with presence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) by using linear and multivariate logistic regressions. One of two major patterns, labeled "Western" dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of nonwhole grain, white potatoes, cheese, meat, discretionary oil and fat, and added sugar; the second dietary pattern that was labeled "Healthy" dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, nuts and seeds. The "Western" dietary pattern was not significantly associated with depression in both men and women. The "Healthy" dietary pattern scores were inversely associated with the PHQ-9 depression scores and odd ratios (ORs) of depression after adjustment for covariates in women but not in men. The OR of depression in women with the highest quintile of "Healthy" dietary pattern scores was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.85, P < .001) compared to the lowest quintile as a reference. These findings warrant future interventions or clinical trials in elucidating causal and effect relations of depression and dietary patterns, an important public health concern.

  19. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  20. High dietary selenium intake is associated with less insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongbo; Lin, Meiju; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Du, Jianling; Vikram, Chandurkar; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2017-01-01

    As an essential nutrient, Selenium (Se) is involved in many metabolic activities including mimicking insulin function. Data on Se in various biological samples and insulin resistance are contradictory, moreover there is no large study available regarding the relationship of dietary Se intake with insulin resistance in the general population. To investigate the association between dietary Se intake and variation of insulin resistance in a large population based study, a total of 2420 subjects without diabetes from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary Se intake was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were used for the measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of covariance showed that high HOMA-IR groups in both males and females had the lowest dietary Se intake (μg/kg/day) (p < 0.01), being 18% and 11% lower than low HOMA-IR groups respectively. Insulin resistance decreased with the increase of dietary Se intake in females but not in males after controlling for age, total calorie intake, physical activity level, serum calcium, serum magnesium, and body fat percentage (p < 0.01). Partial correlation analysis showed that dietary Se intake was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for the Se confounding factors in subjects whose dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day (r = -0.121 for males and -0.153 for females, p < 0.05). However, the negative correlation was no longer significant when dietary Se intake was above 1.6 μg/kg/day. Our findings suggest that higher dietary Se intake is beneficially correlated with lower insulin resistance when total dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day. Above this cutoff, this beneficial effect disappears.

  1. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  2. Nutrient intake and use of dietary supplements among US adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Andrade, Flavia

    2015-04-01

    Physical, mental, social, and financial hurdles in adults with disabilities may limit their access to adequate nutrition. To examine the impact of dietary supplement use on daily total nutrient intake levels among US adults 20 years and older with disabilities. Study sample came from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey. Disability was classified into 5 categories using standardized indices. Nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements were calculated from 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Two-sample proportion tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the adherence rates to the recommended daily nutrient intake levels between dietary supplement users and nonusers in each disability category. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement use was assessed using multiple logistic regressions, accounting for complex survey design. A substantial proportion of the US adult population with disabilities failed to meet dietary guidelines, with insufficient intakes of multiple nutrients. Over half of the US adults with disabilities used dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher adherence rates for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc intake among adults with disabilities. Women, non-Hispanic Whites, older age, higher education, and higher household income were found to predict dietary supplement use. Proper use of dietary supplements under the guidance of health care providers may improve the nutritional status among adults with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public...) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.78 Dietary services. (a) Meal requirements. (1) Except as... meals t