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  1. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822

  2. The association between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat in American adults.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E J; Byers, T; Coates, R J; Serdula, M K; Mokdad, A H; Heath, G W

    1995-01-01

    Relations between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat were examined in a population-based probability sample of 29,672 adults in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Consumption of 13 high-fat food items and participation in physical activities were measured, and fat and activity scores were calculated. Dietary fat and physical activity were strongly and inversely associated. This association was independent of nine other demographic and behavioral risk factors. Etiologic researchers should consider that diet and physical activity can potentially confound each other, and creators of public health messages that target one behavior should consider including the other. PMID:7856785

  3. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qian-fen; Tu, Ling; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers. PMID:26694441

  4. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  5. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  6. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  7. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  8. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. PMID:26101666

  9. Parent readiness to change differs for overweight child dietary and physical activity behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; McEachern, Rebecca; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Providence, RI answered questions assessing their SOC, beliefs about child health and weight, and provider behaviors. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine which factors were associated with parent readiness to make changes for child dietary and PA behaviors. Almost 62% of parents were in the action SOC for child dietary behaviors, but only 41% were in the action SOC for PA behaviors. Parents who believed their own weight was a health problem were less likely to be ready to make changes to their child’s dietary behaviors. Physician discussion of strategies was related to readiness to make changes for child dietary behaviors, but not PA behaviors. In the PA domain, parents of younger children were more likely to be ready to make changes. Training healthcare providers to address PA readiness and be aware of factors influencing dietary and PA readiness may result in more effective conversations with parents and improve behavior change efforts for pediatric weight loss. PMID:24953789

  10. Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A

    2006-02-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the North American reference standards for nutrients in the diets of healthy individuals. The macronutrient DRI report includes the standards for energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate and fiber, and protein and amino acids. Equations used to identify the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) were also developed based on individual characteristics including levels of physical activity. The DRIs for the macronutrients are presented as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs), as well as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs), and were arrived at by considering both nutrient inadequacies and excesses. In addition, recommendations are made that would reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as setting intake limits for added sugar; reducing cholesterol, saturated, and trans fatty acids consumption; and increasing levels of physical activity. As healthy individuals include those engaged in various levels of physical activity, the DRIs should apply to the athlete and address their macronutrient and energy needs. This paper summarizes the macronutrient DRI report as applied to the adult, with discussion of the dietary needs of those engaged in various levels of physical activity, including the athlete.

  11. Effects of providing a nutrition education program for teenagers: dietary and physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Yuen, Dorothy T W

    2009-06-01

    This study enhanced nutritional knowledge in an education program and encouraged healthy dietary habits and regular physical activity among teenagers. A total of 203 adolescents from a secondary school in Hong Kong took part in the study. Their Body Mass Index, dietary habits, and physical exercise pattern were recorded and examined before and after the health education program. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with the fat composition, were high among the participants before the nutrition education program. There was a marked gain in knowledge upon its completion. A follow-up action conducted 3 months later revealed positive outcomes in relation to the diet and physical activity level. The teenagers were able to take control of their health and requested the tuck shop to sell more healthy food and reduce the supply of unhealthy items. The educational initiatives in dietary habits and physical activities proved to be effective in encouraging the teenagers to eat more healthily and to adopt an active lifestyle.

  12. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  13. The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and

  14. The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and

  15. The associations between family history of coronary heart disease, physical activity, dietary intake and body size.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Schumacher, M C; Hunt, S C; Williams, R R

    1993-02-01

    Physical activity has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as several CHD risk factors. In this study, we examine the association of a positive family history of CHD and physical activity on dietary intake and body size indicators among 891 healthy young adults (18 to 39 years of age) and 471 older adults (40 to 83) observed between 1980 and 1986. Participants reported the number of times per week they walked and/or jogged one mile, biked three miles, participated in sports, or performed other intense activities. Older men with a family history of CHD reported more physical activity than men without a family history of CHD (60% compared to 28.6%; p = 0.002). Younger women without a family history of CHD reported more physical activity than women with a family history of CHD (30.2% compared to 15.9%; p = 0.004). Fruit and vegetable intake increased with increasing levels of physical activity in younger adults. The only dietary association with family history was higher levels of fatty foods reported among older women with a family history versus those without a family history (p = 0.03). Young women with a family history of CHD were more likely to have higher BMI levels at all levels of physical activity and a higher percent of their ideal body weight per unit of physical activity (p = 0.01). For instance, young women who were most active with a family history of CHD were at 115% of their ideal body weight, while those without a family history were at 110.2% of their ideal body weight. There were no significant interactions between physical activity and CHD family history in this population. These findings suggest that family history of CHD alone may not be adequate to stimulate one to adopt a more healthy lifestyle.

  16. Comparison of dietary and smoking habit changes in physical fitness improvers and nonimprovers.

    PubMed

    Blair, S N; Goodyear, N N; Wynne, K L; Saunders, R P

    1984-07-01

    Changes in dietary, smoking, and alcohol intake habits of men who voluntarily increased their physical fitness level (n = 532) were compared with men who did not increase physical fitness (n = 390). These men were middle-aged (average age = 43 years), initially sedentary and free of disease, and had been examined twice at a preventive medicine clinic within a 1- to 6-year period. Subjects were retrospectively assigned to two fitness groups--improvers and nonimprovers--based on changes in treadmill performance between baseline and follow-up examinations. Fifteen lifestyle variables were assessed by questionnaire and evaluated for change. At baseline the two groups were similar in demographic variables and diet, differing significantly only in follow-up interval (P less than 0.001), treadmill time (P less than 0.001), whole milk consumption (P less than 0.003), and smoking (P less than 0.001). At follow-up, positive changes in health habits were seen for both groups. Statistically significant differences in health habit change between the groups were seen only for beef (P less than 0.003) and coffee (P less than 0.003) consumption (consumption of both decreasing in more improvers than nonimprovers). Smokers at baseline were less likely to improve their physical fitness. We concluded that individuals who voluntarily increased their physical fitness level were not more likely to change their dietary and alcohol habits than persons who maintained a more sedentary lifestyle. PMID:6504869

  17. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  18. The Integration of a Family Systems Approach for Understanding Youth Obesity, Physical Activity, and Dietary Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this review provides a family systems theory framework for evaluating family-level variables in weight loss, physical activity, and dietary approaches in youth. Studies were reviewed and effect sizes were calculated for interventions that manipulated the family system, including components that targeted parenting styles, parenting skills, or family functioning, or which had novel approaches for including the family. Twenty-one weight loss interventions were identified, and 25 interventions related to physical activity and/or diet were identified. Overall, family-based treatment programs that incorporated training for authoritative parenting styles, parenting skills, or child management, and family functioning had positive effects on youth weight loss. Programs to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors that targeted the family system also demonstrated improvements in youth health behaviors; however, direct effects of parent-targeted programming is not clear. Both treatment and prevention programs would benefit from evaluating family functioning and parenting styles as possible mediators of intervention outcomes. Recommendations are provided to guide the development of future family-based obesity prevention and treatment programs for youth. PMID:20689989

  19. Self-Control Constructs Related to Measures of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Mendoza, Don; Ainette, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To test self-regulation concepts in relation to dietary intake and physical activity patterns in adolescence, which we predicted to be influenced by components of a self-control model. Methods A survey was conducted with a multiethnic sample of 9th grade public school students in a metropolitan area (N = 539). Confirmatory analysis tested the measurement structure of self-control. Structural equation modeling tested the association of self-control constructs with measures of fruit and vegetable intake, saturated-fat intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Confirmatory analysis of 14 indicators of self-control showed best fit for a two-factor structure, with latent constructs of good self-control (planfulness) and poor self-control (impulsiveness). Good self-control was related to more fruit and vegetable intake, more participation in sports, and less sedentary behavior. Poor self-control was related to more saturated-fat intake and less vigorous exercise. These effects were independent of gender, ethnicity, and parental education, which themselves had relations to diet and exercise measures. Multiple-group modeling indicated that effects of self-control were comparable across gender and ethnicity subgroups. Conclusions Self-control concepts are relevant for patterns of dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents. Attention to self-control processes may be warranted for prevention programs to improve health behaviors in childhood and adolescence. PMID:18023783

  20. The integration of a family systems approach for understanding youth obesity, physical activity, and dietary programs.

    PubMed

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K; St George, Sara M; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2010-09-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this review provides a family systems theory framework for evaluating family-level variables in weight loss, physical activity, and dietary approaches in youth. Studies were reviewed and effect sizes were calculated for interventions that manipulated the family system, including components that targeted parenting styles, parenting skills, or family functioning, or which had novel approaches for including the family. Twenty-one weight loss interventions were identified, and 25 interventions related to physical activity and/or diet were identified. Overall, family-based treatment programs that incorporated training for authoritative parenting styles, parenting skills, or child management, and family functioning had positive effects on youth weight loss. Programs to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors that targeted the family system also demonstrated improvements in youth health behaviors; however, direct effects of parent-targeted programming is not clear. Both treatment and prevention programs would benefit from evaluating family functioning and parenting styles as possible mediators of intervention outcomes. Recommendations are provided to guide the development of future family-based obesity prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  1. [Dietary and physical activity factors as determinants of the increase in overweight/obesity in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Cristina Pinheiro; dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Data from Brazilian national surveys conducted since the 1970s have indicated an increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. The two most frequently cited causes of this trend have been dietary changes and reduction in physical activity, characterizing a "contemporary Western lifestyle". The objective of this paper is to identify and assess some indicators associated with changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns in the Brazilian population in the last 30 years. Despite the lack of detailed data, the following factors appear to play an important role in the process: internal migration; dining out; increased consumption of fast food; labor changes; transportation; and the use of home appliances. More information on dietary and physical activity patterns in association with anthropometric data on the Brazilian population are needed for a better understanding of each factor's role in these relationships. Meanwhile, inter-sector programs and projects with well-defined targets and outcomes are needed for the population's adherence to a healthier lifestyle, in order to control the increase in overweight/obesity. PMID:15263980

  2. Physical and intellectual development in Philippine children fed five different dietary staples.

    PubMed

    Guzman, V B; Guthrie, H A; Guthrie, G M

    1976-11-01

    Assessments of dietary intake, intelligence, physical growth, and clinical signs of malnutrition were made on 600 children from five Philippine communities. Five boys and five girls each at ages 8,9, and 10 from poor and less poor families drawn from town and rural schools in each community were examined. Dietary staples were rice, fish, corn, coconuts, and sweet potatoes, respectively, at the five sites. Analyses of variance indicated marked differences among communities in nutrient intake based on 24-hr recall, in intellectual and anthropometric measures and in clinical signs of malnutrition. There were few significant F ratios for urban-rural residence, socioeconomic status, sec, or age. There were positive correlations of approximately 0.20 between intake of calories and carbohydrates and intelligence; between calories and carbohydrates and anthropometric measures; and between intelligence and anthropometric measures. Clinical signs in the eye and on the skin showed low correlations of about-0.20 with dietary intake of protein, fat, thiamin, and riboflavin but not with vitamin A. In all communities energy intake was low reflecting limited fat consumption. Where rice or corn was the staple, thiamin and riboflavin were also frequent deficiencies; with fish, ascorbic acid; with sweet potatoes and coconuts, calcium, riboflavin, and thiamin. A very high incidence of eye changes, suggestive of a vitamin A deficiency, was found even where vitamin A intake seemed adequate. PMID:998540

  3. Physical and intellectual development in Philippine children fed five different dietary staples.

    PubMed

    Guzman, V B; Guthrie, H A; Guthrie, G M

    1976-11-01

    Assessments of dietary intake, intelligence, physical growth, and clinical signs of malnutrition were made on 600 children from five Philippine communities. Five boys and five girls each at ages 8,9, and 10 from poor and less poor families drawn from town and rural schools in each community were examined. Dietary staples were rice, fish, corn, coconuts, and sweet potatoes, respectively, at the five sites. Analyses of variance indicated marked differences among communities in nutrient intake based on 24-hr recall, in intellectual and anthropometric measures and in clinical signs of malnutrition. There were few significant F ratios for urban-rural residence, socioeconomic status, sec, or age. There were positive correlations of approximately 0.20 between intake of calories and carbohydrates and intelligence; between calories and carbohydrates and anthropometric measures; and between intelligence and anthropometric measures. Clinical signs in the eye and on the skin showed low correlations of about-0.20 with dietary intake of protein, fat, thiamin, and riboflavin but not with vitamin A. In all communities energy intake was low reflecting limited fat consumption. Where rice or corn was the staple, thiamin and riboflavin were also frequent deficiencies; with fish, ascorbic acid; with sweet potatoes and coconuts, calcium, riboflavin, and thiamin. A very high incidence of eye changes, suggestive of a vitamin A deficiency, was found even where vitamin A intake seemed adequate.

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  5. Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Matthews, Stephen A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and weight-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants' movement was tracked for 7 days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors.

  6. Activity Space Environment and Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and obesity-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants’ movement was tracked for seven days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors. PMID:21696995

  7. Clustering patterns of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behavior among European adolescents: The HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors. Methods The study comprised a total of 2084 adolescents (45.6% male), from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using self-reported questionnaires and diet quality was assessed based on dietary recall. Based on the results of those three indices, cluster analyses were performed. To identify gender differences and associations with socio-demographic variables, chi-square tests were executed. Results Five stable and meaningful clusters were found. Only 18% of the adolescents showed healthy and 21% unhealthy scores on all three included indices. Males were highly presented in the cluster with high levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and low quality diets. The clusters with low levels of MVPA and high quality diets comprised more female adolescents. Adolescents with low educated parents had diets of lower quality and spent more time in sedentary activities. In addition, the clusters with high levels of MVPA comprised more adolescents of the younger age category. Conclusion In order to develop effective primary prevention strategies, it would be important to consider multiple health indices when identifying high risk groups. PMID:21586158

  8. Exercise, physical fitness, and dietary habits of first-year female nursing students.

    PubMed

    Irazusta, Amaia; Gil, Susana; Ruiz, Fátima; Gondra, Juan; Jauregi, Andoni; Irazusta, Jon; Gil, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the practice of regular physical exercise, the anthropometrical and physiological characteristics, and the dietary habits of a group of female nursing students (n=46) and of a control group of female students from other disciplines (n=58) attending the University of the Basque Country. To this end, diets and leisure-time physical exercise were analyzed and the following variables were measured: body mass index, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and explosive muscle strength. Results show that the percentage of sedentary students was higher among first-year nursing students (50%) than among other matched students (43.6%). Regular physical exercise in nursing students was found to be positively correlated with higher absolute (p < .01) and relative VO2 max (p < 0.05) and with lower diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Analysis of the diets of the nursing students showed that their energetic intake was deficient and was very low in carbohydrates and very high in fat and protein. Statistically significant differences between the two groups in anthropometric indices were not observed. The competence to provide adequate nutritional and preventive physical exercise recommendations was higher among active final-year nursing students than among sedentary final-year nursing students. Overall, the results of the present study highlight the need for a greater emphasis on the benefits of regular physical exercise and an adequate nutritional education early in the nursing educational program to encourage students to adopt healthier behaviors and to provide more effective preventive physical exercise and nutritional counseling for their future patients. PMID:16552945

  9. Physical activity and dietary fat as determinants of body mass index in a cross-sectional corelational design.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, Omondi D; Ayado, Othuon L O; Mbagaya, Grace M

    2009-04-01

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of overweight/obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI . The purpose of this article is to present the prediction power of physical activity and dietary fat intake on BMI of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The studyadopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 120 lecturers who participated in the study. Data collection was conducted through questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist, 24-hour food recall, anthropometrics measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis of data involved the use of bivariate correlation and linear regression. A significant inverse association occurred between BMI and minutes spent in moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (R2=0.096, F=13.616, beta=-3.22, t=-3.69, N=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). In conclusion, physical activity was a significant predictor to BMI and on the contrary no significant impact was caused by dietary fat intake. Therefore, we still need further investigations on the effect of physical activity and dietary fat on BMI and risk factors associated poor diet should take priority.

  10. Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.

    PubMed

    Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend < 0·01) and women (P for trend < 0·03) and negatively associated with an 'alcohol/meat' pattern in men (P for trend < 0·01). TV viewing was positively associated with a 'convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes. PMID:21251337

  11. Executive function moderates the intention-behavior link for physical activity and dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Epp, Lynette J; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-01-01

    Dominant theories of health behavior posit that social-cognitive and conative variables are sufficient to explain health behavior tendencies. The current studies challenge this assumption in two ways: (1) by demonstrating that unique variance in health protective behavior is predictable by knowing about individual differences in executive functioning, and (2) by demonstrating that executive function moderates the association between intention and behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, participants completed a computer-based task of executive function (Go/NoGo task) and articulated 1-week behavioral intentions for physical activity (Study 1) and dietary behavior (Study 2). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that executive function predicts unique variance in both behaviors, and strongly moderates the association between behavioral intention and behavioral performance. Together behavioral intention and executive function explain more variance in health protective behavior than 'rational actor' models that have been widely adopted and disseminated. PMID:25160480

  12. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating.

  13. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating. PMID:24774065

  14. Participation in School Physical Education and Selected Dietary Patterns among High School Students--United States, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of self-reported enrollment, attendance, and participation in school physical education, noting dietary patterns among students in grades 9-12 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Percentages of students participating varied significantly. Males participated and exercised more than females. Very few students…

  15. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  16. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  17. Consumption of dietary caffeine and coffee in physically active populations: physiological interactions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A; Lun, Victor; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements. PMID:19088792

  18. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n = 10, 023) in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P < .001). They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P < .001), while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P = .017), but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22685637

  19. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  20. Influence of dietary intake and physical activity on annual rhythm of human blood cholesterol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Blüher, M; Hentschel, B; Rassoul, F; Richter, V

    2001-05-01

    Seasonal variation in the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been repeatedly reported, with contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of these parameters. Furthermore, it is still not well established whether the variation is due to changes in the nutrition or changes in physical activity depending on the season. The aim of this study was therefore to determine plasma TC and HDL-C in different groups of healthy participants: 19 vegetarians with a constant diet independent of the season, 14 athletes with almost constant physical activity over the year, and 114 controls in the age groups 20-26 years (mean age 24 + 1.5 years) and 40-48 years (mean age 44.3 + 2.1 years). Over 2 years, blood samples were collected every 2-3 months and were analyzed for plasma TC and HDL-C. At all visits, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated, and nutrition and physical activity profiles were obtained. The seasonal model was calculated using object-oriented software for the analysis of longitudinal data in S (OSWALD); multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age, gender, diet, and physical activity on seasonal changes of the lipid parameters. In all groups, we found an annual rhythm of the plasma TC and HDL-C concentrations, which can be mathematically described by a sine curve with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. This rhythm was independent of the age, gender, BMI, diet, or physical activity. The observed seasonal differences between the maximum and the minimum were about 5%-10% for TC and about 5%-8% for HDL-C concentration. These differences were greater than the determined circadian (TC 3.5%, HDL-C 4%) and day-to-day changes for TC and HDL-C (coefficient of variation <5% for both). In conclusion, annual rhythm of TC and HDL-C is not primarily induced by seasonal differences in dietary intake or physical activity. Therefore, the annual rhythm in

  1. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season.

  2. Dietary protein intake is associated with better physical function and muscle strength among elderly women.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2016-04-14

    Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Sarcopaenia was defined using European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. At the baseline, women with higher protein intake (≥ 1·2 g/kg BW) had better performance in hand-grip strength/body mass (GS/BM) (P=0·001), knee extension/BM (P=0·003), one-leg stance (P=0·047), chair rise (P=0·043), squat (P=0·019), squat to the ground (P=0·001), faster walking speed for 10 m (P=0·005) and higher short physical performance battery score (P=0·004) compared with those with moderate and lower intakes (0·81-1·19 and ≤ 0·8 g/kg BW, respectively). In follow-up results, higher protein intake was associated with less decline in GS/BM, one-leg stance and tandem walk for 6 m over 3 years. Overall, results were no longer significant after controlling for FM. Associations were detected between protein intake and PF in non-sarcopaenic women but not in sarcopaenic women, except for change of GS (P=0·037). Further, FM but not LM was negatively associated with PF measures (P<0·050). This study suggests that higher protein intake and lower FM might be positively associated with PF in elderly women.

  3. Household factors, family behavior patterns, and adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines among children at risk for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kunin-Batson, Alicia S.; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Langer, Shelby L.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the proportion of children adhering to recommended physical activity and dietary guidelines, and examine demographic and household correlates of guideline adherence. Design Cross-sectional (pre-randomization) data from a behavioral intervention trial designed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children. Participants Four hundred and twenty-one children (ages 5–10 years) at risk for obesity (body mass index percentile 70–95). Main Outcomes Measured Physical activity (accelerometry), screen time (parent survey), fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (24-hour dietary recall). Analysis Proportions meeting guidelines were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between demographic and household factors and whether children met recommended guidelines for 1) physical activity (≥ 60 minutes/day), 2) screen time (≤ 2 hours/day), 3) fruit/vegetable intake (≥ 5 servings/day), and 4) sugar-sweetened beverage avoidance. Results Few children met more than one guideline. Only 2% met all four recommended guidelines, and 19% met none. Each guideline had unique sociodemographic and domain-specific household predictors (i.e. availability of certain food/beverages, media, and active play/exercise equipment). Conclusions and Implications Families equipped to promote healthy child behavior patterns in one activity or dietary domain may not be in others. Results have implications for the development of interventions to impact children’s weight-related behaviors and growth trajectories. (200) PMID:25748634

  4. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  5. [Characteristics of smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical exercise in health behavioral models].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Shimouchi, A; Hayashi, K; Hatta, H; Morita, M; Fukumoto, M; Masumoto, T; Oonishi, S

    1995-12-01

    Various kinds of preventive health behaviors are promoted by health education. The extent of behavioral modification achieved, however, obviously differs from individual to individual according to habits, one of the reasons being the characteristics of various health habits are perceived differently. This cross-sectional study examined the association of indices representing health behavior models with smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical exercise. The indices and their meaning were as follows; health locus of control (HLC) and saliency of health are thought to cause the most active behavioral change, health norm relatively passive change, and vulnerability to illness the most passive change. The indices and lifestyle (health related practices) were surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire in a rural town in March 1994. The study sample consisted of 1,010 males and 1,055 females aged 20 years or older who responded to all questions related to the indices. Results are as follows: 1) Smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with vulnerability to illness, suggesting that people who quit smoking or alcohol drinking do so because of perception of their association with illness. Alcohol drinking seemed to have a higher magnitude of being associated with becoming ill or with fear of illness than smoking. 2) Consuming green-yellow vegetables and fresh fish, and physical fitness were associated with internal HLC, saliency of health, and health norm. These habits appeared to be easy to modify by active personal behavior choice. 3) Consuming milk, yogurt, boiled beans, tofu, oranges, and other fruits were associated with saliency of health. These habits seemed to relate to personal sense of being "healthy". 4) It seemed that younger people more likely changed their behavior by active self-management, while, older people changed due to their sense of value or norm. While it is important for health education to promote "self-management of health" by active

  6. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

  7. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season. PMID:25964421

  8. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  9. Influence of physical activity and dietary restraint on resting energy expenditure in young nonobese females.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Viers, H F; Detzer, M

    1991-03-01

    An understanding of the physiological and behavioral determinants of resting energy requirements is important to nutritional considerations in females. We examined the influence of endurance training and self-reported dietary restraint on resting metabolic rate and fasting plasma hormones in 44 nonobese females characterized for body composition, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), and daily energy intake. To examine the association of metabolic rate and dietary restraint with hormonal status, fasting plasma levels of insulin, glucose, and thyroid hormones (total and free fractions of thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were determined. In univariate analysis, resting metabolic rate (kcal.min-1) was positively related to VO2 max (L.min-1) (r = 0.54; p less than 0.01). This relationship, however, was partially dependent on body size, since fat-free mass was also related to resting metabolic rate (r = 0.42; p less than 0.01) and VO2 max (L.min-1) (r = 0.75; p less than 0.01). After controlling for fat-free weight using partial correlation analysis, the relation between RMR and VO2 max was weaker but controlling for fat-free weight using partial correlation analysis, the relation between RMR and VO2 max was weaker but still significant (partial r = 0.38; p less than 0.05). On the other hand, high levels of dietary restraint were associated with higher levels of body fat (r = 0.31; p less than 0.05) and a lower resting metabolic rate (r = -0.29; p = 0.07). These associations persisted after control for differences in fat-free mass. Total energy intake as well as total and free levels of triiodothyronine were not related to resting metabolic rate or level of dietary restraint.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2059897

  10. Physical activity, dietary practices, and other health behaviors of at-risk youth attending alternative high schools.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2004-04-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high school administrators in Minnesota were surveyed (response rate = 83%; n = 130/157). During summer 2002, one-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with key school personnel (n = 15) from urban and suburban schools. Findings indicated few schools had been invited to participate in research on nutrition (11%) and physical activity (7%). However, more than 80% of administrators reported interest in their students participating in such research. Most schools offered health and PE classes and had access to indoor gym facilities and outdoor play areas. While most schools offered a school lunch program, participation was low, cold lunches were common, and food often was unappealing. Beverage and snack vending machines were common. Overall, the physical environment of most alternative schools did not support physical activity and healthy eating as normative behavior. Interest in interventions on physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary practices, and other priority health-risk behavior common in students attending alternative schools was high among teachers and administrators. Results suggest research in alternative high schools is feasible and successful implementation and evaluation of programs possible.

  11. Physical activity, dietary practices, and other health behaviors of at-risk youth attending alternative high schools.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2004-04-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high school administrators in Minnesota were surveyed (response rate = 83%; n = 130/157). During summer 2002, one-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with key school personnel (n = 15) from urban and suburban schools. Findings indicated few schools had been invited to participate in research on nutrition (11%) and physical activity (7%). However, more than 80% of administrators reported interest in their students participating in such research. Most schools offered health and PE classes and had access to indoor gym facilities and outdoor play areas. While most schools offered a school lunch program, participation was low, cold lunches were common, and food often was unappealing. Beverage and snack vending machines were common. Overall, the physical environment of most alternative schools did not support physical activity and healthy eating as normative behavior. Interest in interventions on physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary practices, and other priority health-risk behavior common in students attending alternative schools was high among teachers and administrators. Results suggest research in alternative high schools is feasible and successful implementation and evaluation of programs possible. PMID:15193001

  12. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiongran; Yang, Yanfei; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hajinezhad, Daryoush; Kontulainen, Saija; Honaramooz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Elk velvet antler (EVA) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4-8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model. PMID:26366186

  13. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiongran; Yang, Yanfei; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hajinezhad, Daryoush; Kontulainen, Saija; Honaramooz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Elk velvet antler (EVA) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model. PMID:26366186

  14. A validation study concerning the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on children’s recall accuracy for dietary intake and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Hitchcock, David B.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Puryear, Megan P.; Royer, Julie A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Wilson, Dawn K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Practitioners and researchers are interested in assessing children’s dietary intake and physical activity together to maximize resources and minimize subject burden. Objective To investigate differences in dietary and/or physical-activity recall accuracy by content (diet-only; physical-activity-only; diet-&-physical-activity), retention interval (same-day-recalls-in-the-afternoon; previous-day-recalls-in-the-morning), and grade (third; fifth). Design Children (n=144; 66% African American, 13% White, 12% Hispanic, 9% Other; 50% girls) from four schools were randomly selected for interviews about one of three contents. Each content group was equally divided by retention interval, each equally divided by grade, each equally divided by sex. Information concerning diet and physical activity at school was validated with school-provided breakfast and lunch observations, and accelerometry, respectively. Dietary accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and kilocalorie correspondence rate and inflation ratio. Physical activity accuracy measures were absolute and arithmetic differences for moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity minutes. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, linear models determined effects of content, retention interval, grade, and their two-way and three-way interactions; ethnicity and sex were control variables. Results Content was significant within four interactions: intrusion rate (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0004), correspondence rate (content-×-grade; p=.0004), inflation ratio (content-×-grade; p=.0104), and arithmetic difference (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0070). Retention interval was significant for correspondence rate (p=.0004), inflation ratio (p=.0014), and three interactions: omission rate (retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0095), intrusion rate, and arithmetic difference (both already mentioned). Grade was significant for absolute difference (p=.0233) and five

  15. The Association between Dietary Intake of Folate and Physical Activity with Psychological Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms among Students from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yary, Teymoor

    2013-01-01

    Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B6, B9, and B12 and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores) and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints. PMID:24324965

  16. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  17. Differences in Overweight and Obesity among Children from Migrant and Native Origin: The Role of Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Sleep Duration.

    PubMed

    Labree, Wim; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child's behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed.

  18. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  19. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zeeshan Nasir; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Shafiq, Mudassar; Chaudhary, Aghosh-e-Gul; Jabeen, Atika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. Methods: A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females) of the median age of 20 years (range: 18–25) were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio) were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Results: Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7%) students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30–420). Only 70 (28.7%) students had regular walk or jogging. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students. PMID:27042417

  20. Effects of Promoting Health Among Teens on Dietary, Physical Activity and Substance Use Knowledge and Behaviors for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jelani C.; Valois, Robert F.; Farber, Naomi B.; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura; Brown, Larry K.; Carey, Michael P.; Romer, Daniel; Stanton, Bonita; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Spencer, A Melinda; Annang, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Health promotion interventions hold promise for reducing health disparities. Purpose Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT) is a brief, culturally tailored health education intervention to decrease cardiovascular disease and cancer risk for African Americans. This study evaluated the effects of PHAT for African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 in four eastern cities in the USA. Methods A randomized controlled design (N = 1,654) was used to determine differences in health knowledge, diet, physical activity, and substance use behaviors between PHAT participants and a sexual health promotion control group. Data were collected at baseline, three, six, and twelve months post intervention. Growth curve modeling was used to detect differences in health knowledge, dietary behaviors, physical activity, and substance use between PHAT and control group participants. Results PHAT participants had significantly greater knowledge gains but modest behavior changes compared to control group participants. Discussion PHAT is a promising intervention to increase knowledge and address selected health behaviors in African American youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Future attempts to execute PHAT should continue its emphasis on knowledge building while increasing intervention dosage and modifying length of time for intervention sessions. PMID:23957017

  1. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  2. Child goal setting of dietary and physical activity in a serious videogame

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious video game for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX...

  3. Dietary Habits and Physical Self-Concept of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To identify main differences in nutrient patterns, food preferences and physical self-concept between the world's elite rhythmic gymnasts and untrained controls. Material and methods: A group of elite rhythmic gymnasts (n = 103) aged 15-21 years volunteered to participate in the study during the 2003 World Championships in Rhythmic…

  4. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical activity, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555

  5. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p < 0.001). There was a trend for lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  6. Association of usual self-reported dietary intake with ecological momentary measures of affective and physical feeling states in children ☆

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Huh, Jimi; Schembre, Susan M.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and affective and physical feeling states in children. Purpose The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to examine how usual dietary intake is cross-sectionally associated with both average affective and physical feeling state ratings and rating variability in children. Methods Children (N = 110, mean age = 11.0 ± 1.2 years, 52.5% male, 30.1% Hispanic/Latino) completed EMA measures of affective and physical feeling states 3–7 times per day for a full or partial day (weekday evenings and weekend days and evenings) over a 4-day period. Usual intake of pre-selected dietary components was measured prior to the EMA measurement period using the Block Kids Food Screener. Statistical analyses included mixed models and mixed-effects location scale models. Results Greater usual fiber intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average positive affect (PA) ratings, lower variability of NA ratings, and higher variability of physical fatigue ratings. Lower usual glycemic load of diet was cross-sectionally associated with lower variability of NA ratings. Lower usual added sugar intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average physical energy ratings and lower variability of NA ratings. Conclusions Although temporal precedence was not established by these findings, they indicate that characteristics of children’s usual dietary intake are cross-sectionally associated with both the average and variability of affective and physical feeling states. EMA offers a promising avenue through which to explore the associations between affective states and diet and has the potential to provide insight into nuances of this relationship. PMID:26032196

  7. Physical activity increases the bioavailability of flavanones after dietary aronia-citrus juice intake in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Medina, S; Domínguez-Perles, R; García-Viguera, C; Cejuela-Anta, R; Martínez-Sanz, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2012-12-15

    Control and triathlete volunteers (n=8 and n=15, respectively) were given 400 mL and 200 mL of aronia-citrus juice (AC-juice), respectively. The 24h urine samples were hydrolysed to determine the flavanones concentration by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. The flavanones metabolites in both groups of volunteers were glucuronides, sulfates, and sulfo-glucuronides, and the total excretion of flavanones increased fivefold in the triathletes compared with the control volunteers. The increase of ninefold in the homoeriodictyol of triathletes compared to control volunteers may suggest the overactivation of the microbiota metabolism caused by physical exercise. No differences concerning the bioavailability were detected between men and women in controlboth groups. The AC-juice could provide synergistic effects on health due to the increase in the bioavailability of flavanones, avoiding the deleterious effects caused by the overdosage of nutritional supplements.

  8. Effect of Dietary Patterns on Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in the Very Old: Findings from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Granic, Antoneta; Jagger, Carol; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R.; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C.; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy diet has been associated with better muscle strength and physical performance in cross-sectional studies of older adults but the effect of dietary patterns (DP) on subsequent decline, particularly in the very old (aged 85+), has not been determined. Objective We investigated the association between previously established DP and decline in muscle strength and physical performance in the very old. Design 791 participants (61.8% women) from the Newcastle 85+ Study were followed-up for change in hand grip strength (HGS) and Timed Up-and Go (TUG) test over 5 years (four waves 1.5 years apart). Mixed models were used to determine the effects of DP on muscle strength and physical performance in the entire cohort and separately by sex. Results Previously we have established three DP that varied in intake of red meats, potato, gravy and butter and differed with key health and social factors. HGS declined linearly by 1.59 kgF in men and 1.08 kgF in women (both p<0.001), and TUG slowed by 0.13 log10-transformed seconds (log10-s) in men and 0.11 log10-s in women per wave after adjusting for important covariates (both p<0.001), and also showed a nonlinear change (p<0.001). Men in DP1 (‘High Red Meat’) had worse overall HGS (β = -1.70, p = 0.05), but men in DP3 (‘High Butter’) had a steeper decline (β = -0.63, p = 0.05) than men in DP2 (‘Low Meat’). Men in DP1 and women in DP3 also had overall slower TUG than those in DP2 (β = 0.08, p = 0.001 and β = 0.06, p = 0.01, respectively), but similar rate of decline after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and functioning factors. The results for HGS and TUG were not affected by participants’ cognitive status. Conclusions DP high in red meats, potato and gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) may adversely affect muscle strength and physical performance in later life, independently of important covariates and cognitive status. PMID:26934360

  9. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M.; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. Methods In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Results Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (p<.05); however, men reported a higher intake of unhealthy foods such as fast food and soft drinks. Conclusions We conclude that the prevalence of obesity is significantly higher in urban middle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles. PMID:27610059

  10. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  11. Children at familial risk for obesity: an examination of dietary intake, physical activity and weight status.

    PubMed

    Eck, L H; Klesges, R C; Hanson, C L; Slawson, D

    1992-02-01

    A large cohort of children was divided into two groups based on their parents' weight status. The high risk group had one or two overweight parent(s) (n = 92, 4.4 +/- 0.5 years), while the low risk group had no parent overweight (n = 95, 4.5 +/- 0.5 years). Weight of the two groups was similar at the start of the study but the high risk group gained marginally more weight over a one year period (P = 0.05). Although total energy intake was similar, the high risk group was consuming a larger percentage of energy from fat (P = 0.0004) and a smaller percentage from carbohydrate (P = 0.0002). Observed physical activity as similar for most levels but marginally higher for the stationary level and marginally lower in total activity in the high risk group. These results suggest a pattern that may lead to increased weight gain in a high risk group as they grow older.

  12. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M.; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. Methods In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Results Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (p<.05); however, men reported a higher intake of unhealthy foods such as fast food and soft drinks. Conclusions We conclude that the prevalence of obesity is significantly higher in urban middle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  13. Review of evaluation tools used to assess the impact of nutrition education on dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity of low-income audiences.

    PubMed

    McClelland, J W; Keenan, D P; Lewis, J; Foerster, S; Sugerman, S; Mara, P; Wu, S; Lee, S; Keller, K; Hersey, J; Lindquist, C

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition education programs and social marketing campaigns frequently focus on low-income audiences with the goal of improving dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity. The impact of nutrition education can be assessed by measuring change in relation to any or all of these broad variables. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of measures used to assess these constructs with low-income audiences of adults and adolescents. This article reviews the literature and discusses the types of available measures that have been used and evaluated for the above audiences. It describes specific measures used to assess total diet, consumption of food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid, and behaviors related to weight management and physical activity. Overall, this review suggests that there is a critical need for additional development and evaluation of dietary quality measurement tools for low-income and minority audiences. PMID:12857543

  14. Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Breneman, Charity B; Tucker, Larry

    2013-07-28

    The present study was conducted to determine the association between fibre intake and insulin resistance in 264 women using a cross-sectional design. Insulin resistance was indexed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (US formula: fasting insulin (μU/ml) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/405 international formula: fasting glucose (mmol/l) × fasting insulin (μU/l)/22.5). Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records. Fibre was expressed as g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using the BOD POD, and physical activity (PA) was ascertained using Actigraph accelerometers (Health One Technology) worn for seven consecutive days. Women with high total fibre intakes (F= 4·58, P= 0·0332) or high soluble fibre intakes (F= 7·97, P= 0·0051) had significantly less insulin resistance than their counterparts. Participants with high insoluble fibre intakes did not differ from their counterparts (F= 0·7, P= 0·6875). Adjusting for either PA or BF% weakened the relationships significantly. Controlling for BF% nullified the total fibre–HOMA-IR link (F= 1·96, P= 0·1631) and attenuated the association between soluble fibre and HOMA-IR by 32 % (F= 6·86, P= 0·0094). To create dichotomous variables, fibre intake and HOMA-IR were each divided into two categories using the median (low and high). In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0·52 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women. Part of this association is a function of differences in PA and BF%.

  15. Models of Individual Dietary Behavior Based on Smartphone Data: The Influence of Routine, Physical Activity, Emotion, and Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smartphone applications (apps) facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person’s eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models. Method Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject’s activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance), those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments. Results Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and

  16. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  17. Adiposity, dietary and physical activity patterns in ethnic Chinese youths: a cross-country comparison of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z

    1994-06-01

    During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.

  18. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  19. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) modulates the thermogenic and physical activity responses to high fat feeding and markedly influences dietary fat preference

    PubMed Central

    Tung, YC Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Complete POMC deficiency causes a human syndrome of hypoadrenalism, altered skin and hair pigmentation and severe hyperphagic obesity. Heterozygote carriers of nonsense mutations are strongly predisposed to obesity. Pomc+/- mice have normal body weight on a chow diet but increase food intake and become more obese than wild-type littermates when placed on a high fat diet. In order to further explore the mechanisms whereby dietary fat interacts with Pomc genotype to produce obesity we examined Pomc-null, Pomc+/-, and wild type mice for a) changes in the components of energy balance in response to provision of a high fat diet and b) macronutrient preference when presented with a selection of dietary choices. In contrast to wild type mice, Pomc null mice did not increase their resting energy expenditure or their spontaneous physical activity when given a high fat diet. Pomc+/- mice increased resting energy expenditure similarly to wild types but their increase in physical activity was significantly less than that seen in wild-type mice. In two independent experimental tests of macronutrient preference, Pomc genotype was a strong predictor of dietary fat preference with Pomc null animals choosing to eat approximately twice as much fat, but similar amounts of carbohydrate and protein, as wild type animals. Pomc+/- mice showed an intermediate response. In summary, POMC-derived peptides have influences on multiple aspects of the organism’s response to the presentation of high fat diet. This includes a major influence, readily discernible even in heterozygote animals, on the dietary preference for fat. PMID:17717049

  20. Dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A.A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C.Y.; Patrick, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. This study investigated how dietary behaviors, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) relate to weight-specific QoL and work productivity. The study was conducted in 31 small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33.5% non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and vegetables, dietary behaviors such as fast food consumption, Godin free-time physical activity scores, measured height and weight, Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) scores, and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) scores. Baseline data were analyzed using linear mixed models separately for men (n=348) and women (n=399), since gender modified the effects. BMI was negatively associated with OWLQOL in both women (p<0.001) and men (p<0.001). The linear effect estimate for OWLQOL score associated with one-category increase in BMI was 30% (95% CI: 25%, 44%) for women and 14% (95% CI: 10%, 17%) for men. BMI was positively associated with productivity loss only in women (exp(slope)=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.11, p=0.04). Eating while doing another activity was negatively associated with OWLQOL scores in men (p=0.0006, independent of BMI) and with productivity in women (p=0.04, effect diminished when adjusting for BMI). Fast food meals were associated with decreased productivity for men (p=0.038, independent of BMI). Results suggest the obesogenic dietary behaviors and higher BMI are associated with decreased QoL and productivity variously in women and men. PMID:22142517

  1. Dietary and physical activity behaviours related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial.

    PubMed

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C Y; Patrick, Donald L

    2012-09-28

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QOL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. The present study investigated how dietary behaviours, physical activity and BMI relate to weight-specific QOL and work productivity. The study was conducted in thirty-one small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33·5 % non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and vegetables, dietary behaviours such as fast food consumption, Godin free-time physical activity scores, measured height and weight, Obesity and Weight-Loss QOL (OWLQOL) scores, and Work Limitations Questionnaire scores. Baseline data were analysed using linear mixed models separately for men (n 348) and women (n 399), since sex modified the effects. BMI was negatively associated with OWLQOL in both women (P < 0·001) and men (P < 0·001). The linear effect estimate for OWLQOL scores associated with a one-category increase in BMI was 30 (95 % CI 25, 44) % for women and 14 (95 % CI 10, 17) % for men. BMI was positively associated with productivity loss only in women (exp(slope) = 1·46, 95 % CI 1·02, 2·11, P = 0·04). Eating while doing another activity was negatively associated with OWLQOL scores in men (P = 0·0006, independent of BMI) and with productivity in women (P = 0·04, although the effect diminished when adjusting for BMI). Fast-food meals were associated with decreased productivity in men (P = 0·038, independent of BMI). The results suggest that obesogenic dietary behaviours and higher BMI are associated with decreased QOL and productivity to different degrees in women and men.

  2. Combined risk assessment of physical activity and dietary habits on the development of colorectal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindorf, K; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Popiela, T; Jedrychowski, W; Penar, A; Matyja, A; Wahrendorf, J

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the importance of physical activity performed both in occupational settings and in leisure time on the risk of colorectal cancer, considering the possible confounding effects of dietary habits. The hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Poland. In total, 180 incident cases of colorectal cancer were recruited. An equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age, were chosen from patients with no history of cancer. A food frequency questionnaire combined with quantity of foods eaten was used to assess the usual dietary pattern for 148 food items. The average physical load of the interviewed patients before the occurrence of disease was ascertained by self-assessment. The degree to which patients' recreational time was sedentary was measured by the number of hours spent watching TV. The adjusted risk of colorectal cancer was reduced by half in those active in leisure time (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84). The effect of occupational physical activity was of about the same order of magnitude in terms of risk reduction (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29-1.29) and both activities combined acted as independent protective factors. The protective effect of healthy nutrition appeared to be independent from that attributed to physical effort.

  3. Automated Personalized Feedback for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change With Mobile Phones: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pfammatter, Angela; Zhang, Mi; Spring, Bonnie; Choudhury, Tanzeem

    2015-01-01

    Background A dramatic rise in health-tracking apps for mobile phones has occurred recently. Rich user interfaces make manual logging of users’ behaviors easier and more pleasant, and sensors make tracking effortless. To date, however, feedback technologies have been limited to providing overall statistics, attractive visualization of tracked data, or simple tailoring based on age, gender, and overall calorie or activity information. There are a lack of systems that can perform automated translation of behavioral data into specific actionable suggestions that promote healthier lifestyle without any human involvement. Objective MyBehavior, a mobile phone app, was designed to process tracked physical activity and eating behavior data in order to provide personalized, actionable, low-effort suggestions that are contextualized to the user’s environment and previous behavior. This study investigated the technical feasibility of implementing an automated feedback system, the impact of the suggestions on user physical activity and eating behavior, and user perceptions of the automatically generated suggestions. Methods MyBehavior was designed to (1) use a combination of automatic and manual logging to track physical activity (eg, walking, running, gym), user location, and food, (2) automatically analyze activity and food logs to identify frequent and nonfrequent behaviors, and (3) use a standard machine-learning, decision-making algorithm, called multi-armed bandit (MAB), to generate personalized suggestions that ask users to either continue, avoid, or make small changes to existing behaviors to help users reach behavioral goals. We enrolled 17 participants, all motivated to self-monitor and improve their fitness, in a pilot study of MyBehavior. In a randomized two-group trial, investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either MyBehavior’s personalized suggestions (n=9) or nonpersonalized suggestions (n=8), created by professionals, from a mobile phone

  4. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7) and control (n = 7) groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1) a health information brochure; 2) two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3) teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed. Participants will be

  5. The Nutrition Attitude Survey: associations with dietary habits, psychological and physical well-being, and coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J F; Carmody, T P; Connor, S L; Fey, S G; Matarazzo, J D

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a variety of health habits. In the present study, the Nutrition Attitude Survey (NAS) was developed to measure attitudes pertaining to the adoption of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Factor analysis identified four primary attitudinal factors: Helpless and Unhealthy, Food Exploration, Meat Preference, and Health Consciousness. For a community sample of 415 healthy men and women, relationships were examined among these attitudinal factors and dietary habits, family food patterns, medical and psychological symptoms, and traditional coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the Helpless and Unhealthy factor was associated with increased meat consumption, weight, emotional distress, reported medical and psychological symptoms, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Food Exploration factor was more characteristic of younger men and women and positively associated with men's reported involvement in family food preparation activities. For both sexes, Meat Preference scores were positively associated with meat consumption and inversely associated with consumption of meatless meals, beans, and fruit. Health Consciousness factor scores were associated with less meat consumption, more meatless meals, and better overall dietary adherence scores for both men and women. Overall, the findings provide initial support for the reliability and predictive validity of the NAS and underscore the importance of assessing and addressing the attitudes and preferences of participants in dietary intervention programs. PMID:3757988

  6. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  7. Impact of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity on Bone Health among 40 to 60 Year Old Females at Risk of Osteoporosis in India.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Rafiya; Kochhar, Anita; Garg, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bones with increasing risk among women. However, a number of modifiable factors can help in combating this disorder. Present study examined the relationship of diet and physical activity and risk of osteoporosis through biochemical tests, bone mass density (BMD) scores, and standard questionnaires. Genetic risk for osteoporosis, presence of osteoarthritis, and thyroid problems were found among 8%, 7%, and 3% of participants, respectively; and 78% had onset of menopause between 47 to 55 years of age. Results revealed that less intake of proteins, minerals, and diverse fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly (p≤0.05; 0.01) correlated with decreased BMD score and serum calcium. It was concluded that adequate intake of varied fruits and vegetables, good protein, habit of daily physical activity, adequate sun exposure, and dietary calcium, may play a promising role in decreasing the risk of osteoporosis among women of this age group.

  8. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  9. Sustainability of a Curriculum-based Intervention on Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, SDS; Francis, MP; Dalrymple, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood obesity and poor lifestyle practices are emerging as major public health challenges in the Caribbean. Given the fact that a significant part of childhood is spent at school, curriculum-based interventions aimed at improving good dietary and physical activity patterns may provide a useful vehicle for mass inculcation of long-term healthy lifestyle practices. In this study, we evaluated the long-term impact of a brief curriculum based intervention on dietary behaviour, physical activity and knowledge level of primary schoolchildren. Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention. One hundred students each were then randomly assigned to the intervention (IVG) and non-intervention (NIVG) groups and followed-up for 18 months. Participants in the IVG group were exposed to a curriculum consisting of six one-hour modules followed by school-based activities geared at fostering healthy behaviours. Students in the non-intervention group did not receive any modules and were subject to the information available at school on a regular basis. Results: In multivariate regression equations controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and baseline values, intervention was associated with lower intake of fried foods and sodas (p < 0.05) and higher knowledge scores (p < 0.01) 18 months later but not significantly associated with improved physical activity or lower BMI. Conclusions: In this study, participants in the intervention group reported significantly lower intakes of fried foods and sodas and higher knowledge scores than participants in the control group some 18 months post-intervention independent of age, gender, BMI, ethnicity and the intakes at baseline. PMID:25303198

  10. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  11. Dietary Habits and Leisure-time Physical Activity in Relation to Adiposity, Dyslipidemia, and Incident Dysglycemia in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Andrew B.; Adesanya, E.A. Omoluyi; Owei, Ibiye; Gilles, Ashley K.; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Wan, Jim; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary and exercise data are frequently recorded in clinical research, but their correlation with metabolic measures needs further evaluation. Objective We examined the association of food and exercise habits with body size, lipid profile, and glycemia in a prospective biracial cohort. Methods The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study followed initially normoglycemic offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for the occurrence of incident prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). At enrollment, participants underwent a 75-g OGTT, anthropometry, measurement of fasting lipids, insulin, and body fat (DEXA), and completed the Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ), and Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). We assessed the relationship between FHQ and MAQ scores and adiposity, cardiometabolic measures, and incident dysglycemia. Results Among our cohort of 338 subjects (188 black, 150 white; mean age {± SD} 45.2 ± 10.2 y, BMI 30.3 ± 7.2 kg/m2), FHQ and MAQ scores were individually correlated with BMI (r= 0.14, −0.12; P=0.01, 0.03) and waist circumference (r= 0.19, −0.11; P=0.004, 0.05). Diet-adjusted leisure activity (MAQ/FHQ) was significantly correlated with total body fat (r= −0.20, P=0.0007), trunk fat (r= −0.20, P=0.0006), and serum triglycerides (r= −0.17, P=0.003) and HDL cholesterol (r= 0.11, P=0.04) levels. During 5.5yrs of follow-up, 111 subjects (Progressors) developed prediabetes (n=101) or diabetes (n=10) and 227 remained normoglycemic (Non-progressors). Age, BMI, MAQ and MAQ/FHQ values were significant predictors of incident prediabetes/diabetes. Progressors reported similar dietary habits (FHQ score 2.57±0.49 vs. 2.57±0.53) but 30% lower physical activity (MAQ score 15.2±20.5 vs. 22.3±30.5 MET-hr/wk, P=0.015) compared with non-progressors. Conclusions Among African-American and Caucasian offspring of parents with T2DM, self-reported dietary and exercise

  12. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  13. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  14. Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for more longitudinal studies investigating the associations between screen-based sedentary behaviors (SB), dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity (PA). Methods In the HEIA cohort study, 908 children were followed from age 11 to age 13 (September 2007 – May 2009). The children self-reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks with sugar and snacks. TV/DVD use, computer/game use and leisure-time PA were also self-reported. Multilevel generalized linear mixed model analysis was used to assess longitudinal associations between the screen-based SB and each of the two other behaviors. Results Twenty-month changes in TV/DVD use and computer/game use were positively associated with changes in the consumption of soft drinks with sugar and unhealthy snacks in the same period; and inversely associated with change in vegetable consumption. Change in computer/game use was also inversely related to change in fruit consumption. An inverse but non-substantive association was found between change in TV/DVD use and change in leisure-time PA. Change in computer/game use was not significantly associated with change in leisure-time PA. Conclusions Changes in screen-based SB were associated with multiple unfavorable changes in dietary habits, although the associations were weak. These associations need to be further investigated in intervention/experimental studies, to assess whether changing screen-based SB will result in clinically relevant changes in dietary behaviors. However, the findings of this study suggest that screen-based SB and leisure-time PA are largely independent behaviors which should be addressed separately in health promotion activities. PMID:23351357

  15. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs.

  16. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs. PMID:17620212

  17. Effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, immune function and physical barrier function in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after challenged with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-10-01

    The effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, gill immune function and physical barrier function of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were investigated in this study. A total of 540 grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Flavobacterium columnare for 3 days. The results indicated that optimal levels of dietary protein had the following effects: (1) the production of antibacterial components increased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, IκB kinase (IKK) α, IKKβ, IKKγ, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 4E-BP2 were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that fish gill immune function was enhanced at an optimal level of dietary protein; (2) the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content increased, the contents of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased, and NF-E2-related factor 2, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and tight junction complexes mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein (Keap) 1a, Keap1b, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 3, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mRNA levels were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that the fish gill physical barrier function improved at an optimal level of dietary protein. Finally, based on the gill rot morbidity, ACP activity and PC

  18. Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Overall Health in Overweight and Obese Children and Youth with Intellectual Disability or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica A.; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New…

  19. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro), central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse) and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis), pulse wave velocity (PWV) with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity), nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X), physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170), carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax), and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin). Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical exercise and diet

  20. Dietary selenomethionine exposure induces physical malformations and decreases growth and survival to metamorphosis in an amphibian (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    PubMed

    Lockard, Laura; Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient with a narrow therapeutic concentration range. The relative toxicity of Se increases as it is biotransformed into organic compounds, primarily selenomethionine (SeMet), within the aquatic food chain. Effects of aquatic Se contamination are well quantified for many freshwater fish and aquatic bird species, but impacts on amphibians are not well known. This study investigated the responses of larval Cope's gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) fed a diet enriched with one of two concentrations of SeMet (50.1 and 489.9 μg Se g(-1) dw [low and high groups, respectively]) by way of a food-limited (ration) or ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen. The high dose caused 100 % mortality during the larval period independent of resource provision levels. Regardless of feeding regimen, the low dose decreased larval survival and successful metamorphosis relative to control treatments. The low dose also induced rear limb deformities in ≤73 % of individuals initiating metamorphosis. Providing low-dose food by way of a rationed feeding regimen decreased observed toxicity, likely because of decreased dietary exposure to SeMet relative to the low ad lib treatment. Individuals from the low ration treatment had decreased wet mass at initiation and completion of metamorphic climax (Gosner stages 42 through 46) compared with those from the control ad lib treatment, indicating that resource limitation combined with Se exposure might negatively affect energy stores after metamorphosis. However, lipid content analyses of recently metamorphosed individuals did not reveal any influence of treatment or resource provision on energy stored as lipids. The mean tissue Se concentration of individuals that received the low dose and completed metamorphosis was significantly greater than that of control ad lib or ration individuals at the same developmental stage. This study demonstrates that larval exposure to dietary SeMet can decrease growth and survival

  1. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in dietary, physical activity, and clinical outcomes in church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...

  2. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  3. Physical Activity, Dietary Practices, and Other Health Behaviors of At-Risk Youth Attending Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high…

  4. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  5. Physical activity, dietary habits and overall health in overweight and obese children and youth with intellectual disability or autism.

    PubMed

    Hinckson, Erica A; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-04-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New Zealand children and youth with intellectual disability or autism. Twenty-two children and youth 14±4 y (mean±SD) and their families participated in a 10-week school-based program. The program consisted of 18 sessions focusing on physical activity and nutrition. Changes were measured immediately after completion of the program (post 1) and at 24 weeks (follow up). Fitness was assessed with the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and body fatness via waist circumference and BMI. Physical activity and nutrition changes were measured by means of proxy reporting and interviews with parents. Individual interviews were conducted with school teachers and program leaders at 24 weeks to gain feedback regarding the program. Most quantitative outcomes were either unclear or trivial. The only possible change was observed in the six-minute walk-test where 24 weeks post program where participants walked 51 m further. There was however, a substantial reduction in the consumption of confectionery and chocolate at the two measurement points. Parents commented that during the program there were less hospital visits and absences from school related to illness. The program assisted in the development of a supportive community network and participants' abilities to partake in family and community activities. This the first study to report on the results of a physical activity and nutrition program targeted in children and youth with intellectual disability and autism. The results of this study may support and inform future developments of an integrated weight management and prevention program to enhance the health and well being in children and youth

  6. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  7. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters. Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback. Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. Discussion This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention

  8. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain. PMID:27379504

  9. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity of Surinamese Immigrants of Indian Descent in The Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, A.-M.; Gubbels, J. S.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Kremers, S. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health beliefs about eating habits and physical activity (PA) of Surinamese immigrants of Indian (Hindustani) descent to examine how health education messages to prevent obesity can be made more culturally sensitive. Indians are known for their increasing obesity incidence and are highly vulnerable for obesity-related consequences such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Therefore they might benefit from culturally sensitive health education messages that stimulate healthy eating habits and increase PA levels. In order to examine how health education messages aimed at preventing obesity could be adapted to Indian culture, we interviewed eight Hindustanis living in The Netherland, and conducted two focus groups (n = 19) with members from a Surinamese Hindustani community. Results showed cultural implications that might affect the effectiveness of health education messages: karma has a role in explaining the onset of illness, traditional eating habits are perceived as difficult to change, and PA was generally disliked. We conclude that health education messages aimed at Hindustani immigrants should recognize the role of karma in explaining the onset of illness, include more healthy alternatives for traditional foods, pay attention to the symbolic meaning of food, and suggest more enjoyable and culturally sensitive forms of PA for women. PMID:24533213

  10. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called "Dietary Advice on Prescription" (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish). It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and "Physical Activity on Prescription" (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish). The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  11. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  12. Long-term Outcomes of the FRESH START Trial: Exploring the Role of Self-efficacy in Cancer Survivors’ Maintenance of Dietary Practices and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Lobach, David F.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether changes in self-efficacy explain the effects of a mailed print intervention on long-term dietary practices of breast and prostate cancer survivors. The relationship between change in self-efficacy and long-term physical activity (PA) also was examined. Methods Breast and prostate cancer survivors (N=543) from 39 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces participated in the FRESH START intervention trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a 10-month program of mailed print materials on diet and PA available in the public domain or a 10-month program of tailored materials designed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, decrease fat intake, and/or increase PA. Changes in self-efficacy for F&V intake and fat restriction were analyzed as potential mediators of the intervention’s effects on diet at 2-year follow-up. Because we previously found that change in self-efficacy for PA did not vary by group assignment, the relationship between change in self-efficacy and PA at 2-year follow-up was examined across study conditions. Results Results suggest that change in self-efficacy for fat restriction partially explained the intervention’s effect on fat intake (mean indirect effect=-.28), and change in self-efficacy for F&V consumption partially explained the intervention’s effect on daily F&V intake (mean indirect effect=.11). Change in self-efficacy for fat restriction partially accounted for the intervention’s impact on overall diet quality among men only (mean indirect effect=.60). Finally, change in self-efficacy for PA predicted PA at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Findings suggest that self-efficacy may influence long-term maintenance of healthy lifestyle practices among cancer survivors. PMID:22544562

  13. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  14. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  15. Effecting dietary change.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  16. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O.; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk. PMID:20700407

  17. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  18. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  19. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  20. Digestibility of new dietary fibre materials, resistant glucan and hydrogenated resistant glucan in rats and humans, and the physical effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Morita, Shigeki; Hamaguchi, Norihisa; Shimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Sadako

    2015-11-28

    Resistant glucan (RG) and hydrogenated resistant glucan (HRG) are newly developed non-digestible carbohydrate materials that decrease lifestyle-related diseases. The bioavailability of RG and HRG was investigated by in vitro experiments using human and rat small intestinal enzymes and by in vivo experiments using rats in the present study. Oligosaccharides, which are minor components of RG and HRG, were hydrolysed slightly by small intestinal enzymes of humans and rats, and the hydrolysing activity was slightly higher in rats than in humans. The amount of glucose released from HRG was greater than that from RG. However, the high-molecular-weight carbohydrates of the main components were hardly hydrolysed. Furthermore, neither RG nor HRG inhibited disaccharidase activity. When rats were raised on a diet containing 5 % of RG, HRG, resistant maltodextrin or fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) for 4 weeks, all rats developed loose stools and did not recover during the experiment, except for the FOS group. Body weight gain was normal in all groups and was not significantly different compared with the control group. Caecal tissue and content weights were significantly increased by feeding RG or HRG, although other organ and tissue weights were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, RG and HRG consist of small amounts of glucose and digestible and non-digestible oligosaccharides, and large amounts of glucose polymers, which were hardly hydrolysed by α-amylase and small intestinal enzymes. RG and HRG, which were developed newly as dietary fibre materials, had no harmful effects on the growth and development of rats.

  1. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julia; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Roux, Ana V Diez

    2015-11-01

    Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI), obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America. PMID:26648373

  2. [Intensive dietary advice program in primary care].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Raquel; Gea-Lázaro, María Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate eating habits are the main causes of major diseases (cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancers), as well as a high morbidity and mortality. The Dietary Advice program was designed by the Andalusian Health Department to promote healthy habits (i.e. physical exercise and a balanced diet) to prevent secondary diseases. This program is organised in two phases: Basic Dietary Advice and Intensive Dietary Advice. This paper aims to describe the interventions protocol on the intensive dietary phase of the program focused on the promotion on changes in people's lifestyles from a multi-factorial approach. The program consisted of two individual nurse visits, five workshops and nursing follow up clinics. The individual visits ensured that the team learned of each person needs; likewise, the group activities were aimed at improving the transmission of knowledge and the acquisition of skills, abilities and attitudes towards healthier lifestyles.

  3. Dietary Supplementation with a Superoxide Dismutase-Melon Concentrate Reduces Stress, Physical and Mental Fatigue in Healthy People: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. Results: The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. Conclusion: SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. Trial registration: trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922. PMID:24949549

  4. The Dietary Guidelines For Americans 2005: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Educator, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans [Dietary Guidelines] provides science-based advice to promote health and to reduce risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. Major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States are related to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Some specific diseases linked to poor diet and…

  5. 21 CFR 111.15 - What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical... contamination of components, dietary supplements, or contact surfaces. The methods for adequate ground... constitute a source of contamination in areas where components, dietary supplements, or contact surfaces...

  6. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and

  7. Dietary fibre analysis.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V

    2003-02-01

    The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research. PMID:12740050

  8. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  9. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  11. Dietary pantothenic acid deficiency and excess depress the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical functions by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (253.44 ± 0.69 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of PA (PA1, PA15, PA30, PA45, PA60 and PA75 diets) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that compared with PA deficiency (PA1 diet) and excess (PA75 diet) groups, optimal PA supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) percent weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency; (2) lysozyme activity, complement 3 content, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and hepcidin, interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1 and inhibitor of κBα mRNA levels in some intestinal segments; (3) activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase, and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA level in the whole intestine; (4) Claudin b, Claudin 3, Claudin c, Occludin and ZO-1 mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. Conversely, optimal PA supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interferon γ2, interleukin 8, nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65), IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA expression levels in some intestinal segments; (2) reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b in the intestine; (3) Claudin 12, Claudin 15a and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. In conclusion, optimum PA promoted growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of signaling molecules NF-κB P65, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK in grass carp intestine. Based on the quadratic

  12. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  13. Dietary determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Du, Huaidong; Feskens, Edith

    2010-08-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, protein, total carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, fibre, free sugars, fructose and sugar sweetened beverages, dietary energy density, portion size, eating outside home, glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Popular weight loss diets, including the Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Ornish diet and Zone diet, are also briefly discussed for their safety and efficacy in the maintenance of weight loss.

  14. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys?

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Siervo, Mario; Jebb, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    Underreporting is endemic in most dietary studies and ways to reliably identify individuals who may underreport energy intake are needed. Whether questions on self-reported dieting and dietary restraint, in addition to weight status, would identify individuals who may underreport energy intakes was examined in a United Kingdom representative survey. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level and to calculate estimated energy requirements from published equations. Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed dietary restraint. Underreporting was higher in men and women reporting current dieting than nondieters (P<0.001) and higher in high-restrained (P<0.001) than low-restrained. When stratified by body mass index category, in men these associations were only significant in the overweight (P<0.001). Dieting was associated with greater underreporting in both lean (P<0.01) and overweight women (P<0.001). Underreporting was higher in lean high-restrained women than low-restrained (P=0.02), but similar in overweight women regardless of restraint score. Questions to assess dietary restraint and current dieting may be useful tools to identify and evaluate underreporting at an individual level in dietary surveys.

  15. Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns are related to pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Koohdani, Fariba; Mahaki, Behzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Yavari, Parvaneh; Shaibu, Osman Mohammed; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-09-01

    Pre-diabetes increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. Several studies have investigated the relationship between food intake and pre-diabetes morbidity, but the dietary patterns of pre-diabetes subjects were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and pre-diabetes. In this regard, 150 pre-diabetic subjects and 150 healthy controls, who attended the diabetes screening centre in Shahreza, Iran, were matched for age group and sex. The weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and blood glucose levels of all participants were measured. Dietary information was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Using factor analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: the vegetables, fruits and legumes (VFL) dietary pattern and the sweet, solid fat, meat and mayonnaise (SSMM) dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pre-diabetes and dietary patterns. After adjusting for age, education, physical activity, BMI and energy intake, the VFL dietary pattern was found to be negatively associated with lower pre-diabetes (OR 0·16; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·26). Furthermore, the SSMM dietary pattern was positively associated with pre-diabetes (OR 5·45; 95 % CI 3·22, 9·23). In conclusion, the VFL dietary pattern is inversely related to pre-diabetes, whereas the SSMM dietary pattern is associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes. PMID:27451983

  16. Dietary interventions for atopic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mavrommati, Despoina; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of atopic conditions that involve mast cells ranging from common allergies to arthritis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. In addition to the well known allergic triggers, many food substances, drugs, as well as physical and mental stressful conditions could trigger mast cell activation in the absence of any allergic diathesis. The chronicity and morbidity of these conditions and the concern for the "adverse side effects" of the available therapeutic agents has prompted the widespread use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). One of the most common CAM interventions in the treatment of allergies is the use of dietary supplements that may contain specific compounds such as chondroitin sulfate, bioflavonoids or various herb extracts including Forsythia, Gingko, and Echinacea. The basis of such use has evolved from clinical anecdotal observations over time, to a growing number of in vitro and some in vivo studies that support the use of some of these compounds, especially select flavonoids. PMID:23701569

  17. [Dietary habit and longevity].

    PubMed

    Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Obesity is one of the most important causes of life-style related diseases, and recently its pathophysiology is emphasized as metabolic syndrome. Preventing obesity by good dietary habit is a key to achieve healthy longevity. However, a lean body is not always good for health. There is an ideal body size for each person. This ideal body size differs according to age. Especially in the elderly, to prevent weight loss is more important for maintaining health and longevity than to be obese. Malnutrition is a critical factor of diseases and death in the elderly. Problems in nutritional status, and dietary intake, and methods of nutritional assessment in the elderly are discussed. Ideal body size for health and longevity, the relationship of body fat distribution and intra-abdominal fat accumulation health, and the effects of rapid weight change are also discussed to clarify the association of dietary habit and nutrition with longevity.

  18. Promoting dietary change.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  19. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  20. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  1. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.

  2. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  3. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  4. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  5. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  6. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  7. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  8. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  9. [Dietary life style of Japanese college students: relationship between dietary life, mental health and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuji; Nouchi, Rui; Takano, Haruka; Kojima, Akiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    A scale was constructed to investigate the dietary life style of Japanese college students relating to dietary life, mental health, and eating disorders. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors, termed "dietary mood," "dietary regulation," "dietary stress avoidance behavior," and "food safety." Cluster analysis revealed four typical dietary habits of Japanese college students: "deprecating food safety," "dietary regulation oriented and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior," "deprecating dietary moods," and "frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior." Regarding eating disorders, a high percentage of the moderate eating disorder group exhibited frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. Regarding mental health, a high percentage of the healthy group showed dietary regulation orientation and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. A high percentage of the neurotic-level participants deprecated dietary moods. These results suggest that dietary regulation and deprecatory mood and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior lead to college students having a healthy dietary life.

  10. Dietary interventions to lower the risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Southwick, Lauren; Carman, Heather

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and permanent disability in the USA; primary prevention and risk reduction are a critical health concern. A wealth of research investigated stroke risk factors, including primary hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation. Research has expanded to examine lifestyle factors, such as diet/dietary patterns, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and obesity distribution, as critical modifiable risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests diet/dietary patterns may lead to heightened risk of stroke. Despite a growing literature, research has yet to implement dietary interventions to explore this relationship within a US sample. This review discusses available clinical research findings reporting on the relationship among diet/dietary patterns, cardiovascular disease, and risk of stroke. We will assess challenges, limitations, and controversies, and address future research directions. PMID:25708674

  11. Validity of repeated dietary measurements in a dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, G; Callmer, E; Gustafsson, J A

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the compliance in a dietary intervention study. When drawing conclusions about the relationship between dietary intake and disease occurrence/disease-related variables it is important to obtain valid dietary data. 20 healthy, non-smoking normal-weight omnivores changed from a mixed to a lactovegetarian diet. Dietary surveys (four 24 h recalls per person and time-period), urinary and faecal sample collections were performed before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the dietary shift. The validation of energy, protein, sodium and potassium yielded approximately the same ratio of dietary intake to biological marker at 0 and 3 months. This ratio decreased towards 6 months and continued to decrease towards 12 months. The fibre intake was compared to the total faecal weight directly and indirectly by calculating the fibre intake from the stool weight, the water content in faeces and the excretion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These four methods of fibre validation showed that the ratio of dietary intake to biological marker was always highest at 12 months, indicating an overestimation of the fibre intake at the end of the study. This is the first time these methods of validating fibre intake have been used in an epidemiological study. The ratio of dietary calcium intake to urinary and faecal calcium excretion did not show any statistical difference between the period before and 3 months after the dietary shift. To conclude, almost all investigated dietary data show approximately the same validity before and 3 months after the dietary shift, and show the least validity 12 months after the dietary shift. Thus, this study demonstrates that it is difficult to obtain valid dietary data 1 year after a drastic dietary change, indicating a decreased compliance to the new dietary regimen at the end of the 1 year study period. This represents important information when attempting to relate biological effects to dietary intake, and illustrates

  12. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R.

    2014-01-01

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis. PMID:24445377

  13. [Dietary modification in hypertensives].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Kloock, B; König, D

    2006-11-23

    Successful treatment of hypertension requires a holistic approach. In this connection, focusing on a healthy lifestyle, eating, drinking and consumption behavior and, finally, the quality of foodstuffs and the exercise habits of the patient represents an essential supplement to the classical forms of pharmaceutical treatment. The major dietary-physiological factors have been shown to be weight reduction, the monitoring of salt consumption, appropriate intake of fiber, a preference for vegetables, and a reduction of immoderate alcohol consumption.

  14. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  15. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  16. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-01

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  17. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report Concerning Dietary Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kim A; Krause, Amanda J; Shearer, Sarah; Devries, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The most recent 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report indicated that "cholesterol is not considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption." However, this statement may be too general as it does not acknowledge conflicting findings in literature regarding cardiovascular risk in certain populations. Current research suggests that dietary cholesterol may increase an subject's risk of developing diabetes, increases a diabetic patient's risk of cardiovascular disease, and may worsen coronary risk factors in subjects who are "hyper-responders" to dietary cholesterol. In conclusion, we suggest that a more cautious approach to dietary cholesterol intake is warranted, especially in high-risk populations. PMID:26341187

  18. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications... the draft guidance for industry entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements:...

  19. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient...

  20. Dietary principles in disease management.

    PubMed

    Moser, E

    1990-08-01

    Nutritional management of medical and surgical animal patients to provide better total health care is not a new concept, but one that has gained credibility in veterinary medicine in the 1980s. Therapeutic dietary management is an alteration of diets intended to provide optimal health in pets by restricting, moderating, or enhancing nutrients and/or manipulating dietary ingredients. In many cases, dietary therapy is an integral component of animal patient management that may complement or even replace drug administration or surgery.

  1. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  2. Effects of ground flaxseed in swine diets on pig performance and on physical and sensory characteristics and omega-3 fatty acid content of pork: II. Duration of 15% dietary flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Romans, J R; Wulf, D M; Johnson, R C; Libal, G W; Costello, W J

    1995-07-01

    Four barrows and four gilts were assigned to each of five dietary treatments: a control (CO) diet or a 15% flaxseed (FS) diet fed for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d prior to slaughter. Flaxseed treatments did not affect any production or carcass traits (P > .10). No pork processing problems due to lack of firmness were encountered. Amounts (milligrams/gram of tissue) and percentages of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA [18: 3n-3]), arachidonic acid (AA [20:4n-6]), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA [20:5n-3]) increased (P < .001) in both backfat layers and in kidney (leaf) fat and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA [22:6n-3]) increased (P < .006) in the middle/inner backfat layer after FS. The effects of dietary FS on fatty acid profiles were maintained in lard and pastry. Alpha-linolenic acid, AA, and EPA increased (P < .001) and DHA increased (P < .021) in the raw belly in response to FS; the effect was maintained throughout processing to microwaved bacon. Percentage of oleic acid (OA [18:1n-9]) decreased (P < .016) in raw bellies after FS. Alpha-linolenic acid and EPA increased (P < .001) with duration of FS in longissimus thoracis and liver neutral lipids, polar lipids, and combined lipid fractions, but DHA increased (P < .004) only in longissimus thoracis polar and combined lipid fractions. Arachidonic acid decreased in the longissimus thoracis polar lipid fractions (P < .037) and in liver neutral (P < .01) and combined lipid fractions (P < .006) with FS. All ALA:AA and EPA:AA ratios increased (P < .001 to P < .048) with increased duration of FS (except ALA:AA in pastry [P = .56]). Processing of bellies into bacon and storing at -18 degrees C for 6 wk did not cause thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values to exceed a value of 1.0 after either the CO or FS diets. After microwaving bacon when TBA values approached 2.0, there was no FS dietary effect on TBA values. Trained panelists rated FS bacon more flavor-intense than CO bacon and recorded more flavor defects for FS bacon. A 105-member consumer

  3. Hormetic Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies suggest beneficial roles of dietary phytochemicals in protecting against chronic disorders such as cancer, and inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging findings suggest that several dietary phytochemicals also benefit the nervous system and, when consumed regularly, may reduce the risk of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The evidence supporting health benefits of vegetables and fruits provide a rationale for identification of the specific phytochemicals responsible, and for investigation of their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action. One general mechanism of action of phytochemicals that is emerging from recent studies is that they activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways. From an evolutionary perspective, the noxious properties of such phytochemicals play an important role in dissuading insects and other pests from eating the plants. However at the relatively small doses ingested by humans that consume the plants, the phytochemicals are not toxic and instead induce mild cellular stress responses. This phenomenon has been widely observed in biology and medicine, and has been described as ‘preconditioning’ or ‘hormesis’. Hormetic pathways activated by phytochemicals may involve kinases and transcription factors that induce the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors and other cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin – FOXO pathway, the NF-κB pathway and the Nrf-2 –ARE pathway. In this article we describe the hormesis hypothesis of phytochemical actions with a focus on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway as a prototypical example of a neuroprotective mechanism of action of specific dietary phytochemicals. PMID:18543123

  4. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3%) were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted. PMID:23006931

  5. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  6. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  7. Pesticides on Household Surfaces May Influence Dietary Intake of Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical and chemical environment influences children’s exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children’s activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children’s Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition t...

  8. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  9. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  10. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  11. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  12. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  13. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  14. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally

  15. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines. PMID:18296306

  16. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

    2008-01-15

    A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

  17. Dietary carbohydrates for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Costabile, Giuseppina

    2012-12-01

    The literature on the impact of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of blood glucose levels and other metabolic abnormalities in diabetic patients over the last 3 years is reviewed. We try to differentiate the metabolic effects due to the amount of carbohydrates from those due to their different types. The review comprises a part dealing with the effects of diets having low or high carbohydrate content on body weight reduction, and a part in which the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are discussed in relation to isoenergetic diets. Overall, the data accumulated in the period considered seem to confirm that the decrease in energy intake is more important than the qualitative composition of the diet to reduce body weight, but that both the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are important in modulating blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in both the fasting and the postprandial phases in diabetic individuals. PMID:22847773

  18. Fitness, dietary intake, and body mass index in urban Native American youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Amy; Smith, Chery

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated correlations among physical fitness, dietary intakes, activity levels, and body mass index (BMI) for 155 urban Native American youth, ages 5 to 18 years. Heights, weights, skinfold measurements, activity level, balance times, and dietary intakes were assessed. Presidential Physical Fitness (PPF) testing was completed with 82 youth. Age groups were examined for differences in energy and macronutrient intake, sedentary activities, activity level, and PPF achievement. Pearson and Spearman rho correlations were examined among dietary intakes, fitness, balance, and activity levels. The majority of youth (63%) were at risk for overweight or already overweight, and 59% were sedentary. BMI was correlated with age and PPF achievement for all youth, and with physical activity and frequency of television viewing for youth ages 9 to 18 years. No correlation was found between dietary intake and activity level. Culturally appropriate interventions for obesity should start early, focusing on decreasing sedentary activity and increasing opportunities for fitness. PMID:12963950

  19. Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns and Health-Related Quality of Life in the SUN Project

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    Objective The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up. Materials and Methods This analysis included 11,128 participants from the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey. Results Two major dietary patterns were identified, the ‘Western’ dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food) and the “Mediterranean” dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil). After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5) and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from −0.8 (for mental health) to −3.5 (for vitality). On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning) to +3.4 (for vitality) when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences. Conclusions Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project. PMID:23658694

  20. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  1. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. However, higher consumption of Unhealthy dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of BBD. In conclusion, Healthy dietary pattern might be inversely associated with the risk of BBD; however, this result should be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27198589

  2. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling...

  3. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling...

  4. Dietary Effects of Oregano (Origanum Vulgaris L.) Plant or Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Mill.) Wood Extracts on Microbiological, Chemico-Physical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Cooked ham During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Dino; Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo; Acuti, Gabriele; Codini, Michela; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Forte, Claudio; Branciari, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.) or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L.) extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL), with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR) and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW), respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20) and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days). At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay) and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: total microbial count (TMC), lactic acid bacteria count (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*), total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW. PMID:27800421

  5. Pesticides on household surfaces may influence dietary intake of children.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Byron, Margie Z; Brown, G Gordon; Clayton, C Andrew; Michael, Larry C

    2011-05-15

    The physical and chemical environment influences children's exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children's activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children's Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition to the chemical exposure associated with the food itself, this model incorporates excess dietary exposures due to handling of food during consumption. To stochastically evaluate CDIM, distributions of measured, and in some cases estimated, model factors were determined from measurements of permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon derived from assembled databases and laboratory experiments. Using the distributions of these factors, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain distributions of total dietary intake of pesticides. To target the sources of pesticide contamination that were influencing total dietary intake, each factor was evaluated. We found pesticide surface concentration to be highly influential. By excluding surface concentration, we were also able to determine the influence of the other factors based on the F-statistic. Transfer efficiencies, followed by pesticide residue in consumed foods and amount of food consumed, were the next most influential factors within the model. With these distributions for model inputs, CDIM has the potential to more accurately predict total dietary intake of a contaminant by a child.

  6. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements PMID:26472157

  7. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuna; Ma, Guansheng; Zhai, Fengying; Li, Yanping; Hu, Yisong; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Information on dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify the food factors and dietary pattern clusters. RESULTS Four dietary pattern clusters were identified (“Green Water,” “Yellow Earth,” “Western Adopter,” and “New Affluence”). The prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities ranged from 3.9% in the Green Water to 8.0% in the New Affluence. After adjustment for area, age, sex, current smoking, and physical activity, subjects in the Yellow Earth cluster (prevalence ratio 1.22 [95% CI 1.04–1.43]) and New Affluence cluster (2.05 [1.76–2.37]) had significantly higher prevalence rates compared with those for the Green Water cluster. After further adjustment for BMI and waist-to-height ratio, the elevated risk in the New Affluence remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Dietary patterns and food factors are associated with the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities in China, even independent of obesity. A New Affluence diet is an important modifiable risk factor, which needs attention from the prevention point of view. PMID:19675202

  8. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  9. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  10. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  11. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  12. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  13. Dietary changes among cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, G; Murphy, S; Shumay, D M; Kakai, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the limited scientific knowledge about dietary factors that affect cancer recurrence, dietary guidelines for cancer survivors are similar to general recommendations on healthy eating. This study explored the patterns of and motivation for, dietary changes among cancer patients. We conducted in-person interviews with 143 cancer survivors who were chosen from a mail survey on complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients. We applied qualitative analysis using the software package NUD*IST to sort and code the transcribed interviews. The majority of dietary changes reported by 69 cancer patients agreed with current nutritional recommendations, such as decreasing meat and fat intake and increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruits. However, many diet changers also reported the intake of herbal and vitamin supplements, many with unproven effects. The major themes for changing diet were hopes that nutrition would increase well-being, maintain health and prevent cancer recurrence and beliefs that foods that cause or prevent cancer should be avoided and increased, respectively. Many cancer patients use non-scientific reasons when deciding on dietary changes and supplement use. Increasing communication with health care providers may prevent the use of extreme diets, unproven and possibly harmful supplements and reduce exaggerated hopes related to the benefits of a particular dietary regimen. PMID:11827263

  14. Impact of a program of Tai Chi plus behaviorally based dietary weight loss on physical functioning and coronary heart disease risk factors: a community-based study in obese older women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Furong; Letendre, Jonathan; Bekke, Jillian; Beebe, Nowen; Mahler, Leslie; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Delmonico, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a quasi-experimental design in a community-based study translating the results of our recent findings on the combined effects of Tai Chi and weight loss on physical function and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. A 16-week intervention was conducted to assess the impact of Tai Chi plus a behavioral weight loss program (TCWL, n = 29) on obese (body mass index [BMI] = 35.4 ± 0.8 kg/m²) older (68.2 ± 1.5 yr.) women compared to a control group (CON, n = 9, BMI = 38.0 ± 1.5 kg/m², 65.6 ± 2.7 yr.), which was asked to maintain their normal lifestyle. The TCWL group lost weight (1.6 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.006) while the CON group did not (1.2 ± 1.9 kg, P = 0.106). Physical functioning as measured by the short physical performance battery improved in TCWL when compared to the CON group (β = 1.94, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.12, 2.76, P < 0.001). TCWL also improved in sit-and-reach flexibility (β = -2.27, 95% CI: -4.09, -0.46, P = 0.016), body fat mass (BMI, β = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.26, P = 0.002), waist circumference (β = -1.78, 95% CI: -2.83, -0.72, P = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (β = -16.41, 95% CI: -21.35, -11.48, P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (β = -9.52, 95% CI: -12.65, -6.39, P < 0.001). Thus, TCWL intervention may represent an effective strategy to improve physical function and ameliorate CHD risk in the older adult population. PMID:25803604

  15. Impact of a program of Tai Chi plus behaviorally based dietary weight loss on physical functioning and coronary heart disease risk factors: a community-based study in obese older women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Furong; Letendre, Jonathan; Bekke, Jillian; Beebe, Nowen; Mahler, Leslie; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Delmonico, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a quasi-experimental design in a community-based study translating the results of our recent findings on the combined effects of Tai Chi and weight loss on physical function and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. A 16-week intervention was conducted to assess the impact of Tai Chi plus a behavioral weight loss program (TCWL, n = 29) on obese (body mass index [BMI] = 35.4 ± 0.8 kg/m²) older (68.2 ± 1.5 yr.) women compared to a control group (CON, n = 9, BMI = 38.0 ± 1.5 kg/m², 65.6 ± 2.7 yr.), which was asked to maintain their normal lifestyle. The TCWL group lost weight (1.6 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.006) while the CON group did not (1.2 ± 1.9 kg, P = 0.106). Physical functioning as measured by the short physical performance battery improved in TCWL when compared to the CON group (β = 1.94, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.12, 2.76, P < 0.001). TCWL also improved in sit-and-reach flexibility (β = -2.27, 95% CI: -4.09, -0.46, P = 0.016), body fat mass (BMI, β = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.26, P = 0.002), waist circumference (β = -1.78, 95% CI: -2.83, -0.72, P = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (β = -16.41, 95% CI: -21.35, -11.48, P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (β = -9.52, 95% CI: -12.65, -6.39, P < 0.001). Thus, TCWL intervention may represent an effective strategy to improve physical function and ameliorate CHD risk in the older adult population.

  16. Hominoid dietary evolution.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P; Martin, L

    1991-11-29

    During the later Palaeocene and early Miocene, catarrhine primates and the evolving hominoids had adaptations for frugivorous diets, with the emphasis on soft foods. Early in the middle Miocene the hominoids underwent a major shift, both in morphology and in habitat, with the morphology characterized by thickened enamel on the molars, enlarged incisors and massive jaws. The diet indicated by this morphology is interpreted as still mainly frugivorous but with changed emphasis, possibly towards harder objects. The thick-enamelled hominoids are found associated with more open forest habitats, and the distribution of food resources in equivalent habitats today is discontinuous both in time and in space, leading to evolutionary pressures particularly affecting locomotion, brain size and social behaviour. The earliest known hominid fossils differed little in dental and mandibular morphology from the middle Miocene apes, and the implied dietary similarity, together with ape-like patterns of dental development and retained arboreal adaptations of the postcrania, suggests little change in the foraging strategies of the earliest hominids compared with their ape ancestors and further suggests similarity in evolutionary grade. This similarity may have extended to other aspects of behaviour, for example to patterns of tool making and use, which may have been similar in the common ancestor of apes and humans to the pattern shared by the earliest australopithecines and chimpanzees. PMID:1685578

  17. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  18. Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Lay, Sovichea; Yu, Hai-Ning; Shen, Sheng-Rong

    2016-09-01

    A high quality diet is believed to play a functional role in promoting the healthy growth of mankind and preventing many kinds of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Adherence to a high quality diet has been strongly associated with a lower risk of mortality. To help promote healthy lifestyles and physical strength, the Chinese government has produced a new revised version of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016) and the Chinese Food Pagoda, as guidance for dietary intake among its population. Similarly, the Japanese government has produced the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top Model, and the US government has recently published revised dietary recommendations in its 2015-2020 eighth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The evidence from all respective cohort studies involved in producing these guidelines shows a reduced risk of many chronic diseases and mortality if the guidelines are followed. All scientific findings support encouraging the general population to consume a broad variety of food on the basis of nutrient and food intakes in order to prevent deficiency diseases and a surplus of energy and nutrients, and recommend daily physical activity for health promotion.

  19. Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-shan; Lay, Sovichea; Yu, Hai-ning; Shen, Sheng-rong

    2016-01-01

    A high quality diet is believed to play a functional role in promoting the healthy growth of mankind and preventing many kinds of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Adherence to a high quality diet has been strongly associated with a lower risk of mortality. To help promote healthy lifestyles and physical strength, the Chinese government has produced a new revised version of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016) and the Chinese Food Pagoda, as guidance for dietary intake among its population. Similarly, the Japanese government has produced the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top Model, and the US government has recently published revised dietary recommendations in its 2015–2020 eighth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The evidence from all respective cohort studies involved in producing these guidelines shows a reduced risk of many chronic diseases and mortality if the guidelines are followed. All scientific findings support encouraging the general population to consume a broad variety of food on the basis of nutrient and food intakes in order to prevent deficiency diseases and a surplus of energy and nutrients, and recommend daily physical activity for health promotion. PMID:27604857

  20. Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Lay, Sovichea; Yu, Hai-Ning; Shen, Sheng-Rong

    2016-09-01

    A high quality diet is believed to play a functional role in promoting the healthy growth of mankind and preventing many kinds of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Adherence to a high quality diet has been strongly associated with a lower risk of mortality. To help promote healthy lifestyles and physical strength, the Chinese government has produced a new revised version of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016) and the Chinese Food Pagoda, as guidance for dietary intake among its population. Similarly, the Japanese government has produced the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top Model, and the US government has recently published revised dietary recommendations in its 2015-2020 eighth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The evidence from all respective cohort studies involved in producing these guidelines shows a reduced risk of many chronic diseases and mortality if the guidelines are followed. All scientific findings support encouraging the general population to consume a broad variety of food on the basis of nutrient and food intakes in order to prevent deficiency diseases and a surplus of energy and nutrients, and recommend daily physical activity for health promotion. PMID:27604857

  1. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds... use in the manufacture, packaging, labeling, or holding of dietary supplements must: (a) Be suitable... dietary supplements during manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding; (c) Permit the use of...

  2. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  3. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  4. Dietary guidelines for the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Aranceta, J; Serra-Majem, L

    2001-12-01

    Therapeutic properties have been attributed to the diet since ancient times. Epidemiological evidence starting in the early 1960s supports the relationship between different dietary components, dietary balance and the development of risk factors for prevalent chronic diseases in Western societies. There is also evidence supporting the protective effect of other components of the diet and lifestyle, like regular physical activity. During the last two years, groups of Spanish experts in the field of food, nutrition and health sciences have been involved in the process of analysing each food group in Spanish food patterns under a standard format. For each food group, current level of consumption, trends and scientific evidence linking each particular group or its components with patterns of disease, risk factors or protective effects have been determined from a public health perspective. Conclusions and recommendations for each food group, agreed under consensus by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) collaborative group of experts, are summarised and reflected in the Food Guide Pyramid presented in this paper. PMID:11918490

  5. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  6. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  7. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  8. Presenilin Promotes Dietary Copper Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Southon, Adam; Greenough, Mark A.; Ganio, George; Bush, Ashley I.; Burke, Richard; Camakaris, James

    2013-01-01

    Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1). Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN) gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake. PMID:23667524

  9. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  10. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany.

  11. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  12. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  13. Does personality affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported.

  14. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…

  15. Dietary compounds in relation to dietary diversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claude L; Dhiman, Tilak R

    2002-01-01

    The human diet contains numerous endocrine-active compounds that influence mammalian physiology. The effects of these dietary compounds may be mediated by interaction with well-characterized intracellular hormone receptors or by other effects on patterns of endogenous hormone production, metabolism, target tissue signaling, growth, or differentiation. Because humans evolved as omnivores, the spectrum of dietary compounds that can be tolerated at modest levels of intake without frank toxicity is broad. Modest intake of these diverse nonnutritive endocrine-active compounds offers potential human health benefits through modulation of metabolic and hormonal responses, especially in sedentary individuals consuming a highly refined diet.

  16. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  17. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  18. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure.

  19. Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelial barrier function as the key initial event in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental, empirical elimination and allergy test directed diets. Dietary therapy with exclusive elemental diet offers the best response. Cow's milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut/tree nut, and fish/shellfish are the 6 food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation.

  20. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  1. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children. PMID:10967615

  3. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  4. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  5. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  6. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  7. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  8. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  9. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  10. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-12-28

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  11. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  12. Physical-chemical behavior of dietary and biliary lipids during intestinal digestion and absorption. 2. Phase analysis and aggregation states of luminal lipids during duodenal fat digestion in healthy adult human beings.

    PubMed

    Hernell, O; Staggers, J E; Carey, M C

    1990-02-27

    Following the feeding of a triacylglycerol-rich meal to healthy adult human beings, duodenal contents were aspirated for ex vivo chemical and physical-chemical analyses. The aspirates were collected during established lipid digestion and absorption into a "cocktail" of chemical inhibitors that rapidly inhibited ex vivo lipolysis. Following ultracentrifugation, the lipids separated into a floating oil layer, several interfacial layers, a "clear" or turbid "subphase", and a precipitated "pellet". By chemical and phase analyses, the floating layer was composed of oil-in-water emulsion particles with cores of triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerols (DG), and cholesteryl esters (CE) emulsified with a surface coat of partially ionized fatty acids (FA), monoacylglycerols (MG), diacylphosphatidylcholine (PL), and bile salts (BS). The interfacial layers contained similar emulsion particles dispersed among excess emulsifier which adopted a lamellar liquid-crystalline structure. Precipitated pellets were composed principally of emulsifying lipids, with smaller amounts of crystalline calcium soaps and BS. Relative lipid compositions of all but three subphases fell within a two-phase region of the condensed ternary phase diagram (Staggers et al., 1990, companion paper) where saturated mixed micelles composed of BS, FA "acid-soaps", MG, PL, cholesterol (Ch), and traces of DG (and TG) coexisted with unilamellar liquid-crystalline vesicles composed of the same lipids. Attempts to achieve clean separation of vesicles from micelles by repeat ultracentrifugation failed. Compared with the structure and sizes of lipid particles in equilibrated model systems (Staggers et al., 1990), quasielastic light scattering (QLS) analysis revealed that ex vivo micellar sizes (mean hydrodynamic radii, Rh) were similar (less than or equal to 40 A), whereas unilamellar vesicle sizes (Rh = 200-600 A) were appreciably smaller. Two-component QLS analysis of the subphases showed that much larger proportions

  13. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document is intended primarily for use by policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators. The information in the Dietary Guidelines is useful for the development of educational materials and aids policymakers in designing and implementing nutrition-related programs, including federal food, nutrition…

  14. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations. PMID:12798783

  15. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  16. Physical-chemical behavior of dietary and biliary lipids during intestinal digestion and absorption. 1. Phase behavior and aggregation states of model lipid systems patterned after aqueous duodenal contents of healthy adult human beings.

    PubMed

    Staggers, J E; Hernell, O; Stafford, R J; Carey, M C

    1990-02-27

    :mixed bile salt (MBS) ratio, pH, total lipid concentration, and FA:MG ratio, but not by Ch content. In comparison, micellar systems equilibrated rapidly, and their Rh values only slightly influenced by physical-chemical variables of physiological importance. In contrast to the BS-PL-Ch system [Mazer, N. A., & Carey, M. C. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 426-442], no divergence in micellar sizes occurred as the micellar phase boundary was approached. The ionization state of FA at simulated "intestinal" pH values (5.5-7.5) in the micellar and physiologic two-phase zones was principally that of 1:1 sodium hydrogen dioleate, an insoluble swelling "acid soap" compound. By phase separation and analysis, tie-lines for the constituent phase in the two-phase zone demonstrated that the mixed micelles were saturated with MIL and Ch and the coexisting vesicles were saturated with MBS, but not with Ch.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-07-15

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06-1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02-1.09) and 1.17 (1.25-1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships.

  18. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  19. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  20. Dietary health behaviour and beliefs among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of six healthy dietary behaviours and associated factors in university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. In a cross-sectional survey, we used a self-administered questionnaire (largely based on the European Health and Behaviour Survey) among 19503 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, Standard deviation=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 27 universities in 26 countries. Results indicated that for a total of six healthy dietary behaviours, overall, students scored a mean of 2.8 healthy dietary behaviours. More female than male students indicated healthy dietary behaviours. In multivariate linear regression among men and women, living in an upper middle income or high income country, dieting to lose weight, the high importance of dietary health benefits, high non-organized religious activity, high physical activity and currently a non-tobacco user were associated with the healthy dietary behaviour index. The study found a high prevalence of relatively poor dietary healthy behaviours. PMID:26693760

  1. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  2. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.

  3. Dietary amelioration of locomotor, neurotransmitter and mitochondrial aging.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Vadim; Long, Jiangang; Lokuge, Sonali; Foster, Jane A; Liu, Jiankang; Rollo, C David

    2010-01-01

    Aging degrades motivation, cognition, sensory modalities and physical capacities, essentially dimming zestful living. Bradykinesis (declining physical movement) is a highly reliable biomarker of aging and mortality risk. Mice fed a complex dietary supplement (DSP) designed to ameliorate five mechanisms associated with aging showed no loss of total daily locomotion compared with >50% decrement in old untreated mice. This was associated with boosted striatal neuropeptide Y, reversal of age-related declines in mitochondrial complex III activity in brain and amelioration of oxidative stress (brain protein carbonyls). Supplemented mice expressed approximately 50% fewer mitochondrial protein carbonyls per unit of complex III activity. Reduction of free radical production by mitochondria may explain the exceptional longevity of birds and dietary restricted animals and no DSP is known to impact this mechanism. Functional benefits greatly exceeded the modest longevity increases documented for supplemented normal mice. Regardless, for aging humans maintaining zestful health and performance into later years may provide greater social and economic benefits than simply prolonging lifespan. Although identifying the role of specific ingredients and interactions remains outstanding, results provide proof of principle that complex dietary cocktails can powerfully ameliorate biomarkers of aging and modulate mechanisms considered ultimate goals for aging interventions.

  4. Dietary supplement usage and motivation in Brazilian road runners

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary supplements is highest among athletes and it can represent potential a health risk for consumers. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of dietary supplements by road runners. Methods We interviewed 817 volunteers from four road races in the Brazilian running calendar. The sample consisted of 671 male and 146 female runners with a mean age of 37.9 ± 12.4 years. Results Of the sample, 28.33% reported having used some type of dietary supplement. The main motivation for this consumption is to increase in stamina and improve performance. The probability of consuming dietary supplements increased 4.67 times when the runners were guided by coaches. The consumption of supplements was strongly correlated (r = 0.97) with weekly running distance, and also highly correlated (r = 0.86) with the number of years the sport had been practiced. The longer the runner had practiced the sport, the higher the training volume and the greater the intake of supplements. The five most frequently cited reasons for consumption were: energy enhancement (29.5%), performance improvement (17.1%), increased level of endurance (10.3%), nutrient replacement (11.1%), and avoidance of fatigue (10.3%). About 30% of the consumers declared more than one reason for taking dietary supplements. The most consumed supplements were: carbohydrates (52.17%), vitamins (28.70%), and proteins (13.48%). Conclusions Supplement consumption by road runners in Brazil appeared to be guided by the energy boosting properties of the supplement, the influence of coaches, and the experience of the user. The amount of supplement intake seemed to be lower among road runners than for athletes of other sports. We recommend that coaches and nutritionists emphasise that a balanced diet can meet the needs of physically active people. PMID:25302054

  5. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  6. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  7. Designing mobile dietary management support technologies for people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arsand, Eirik; Tufano, James T; Ralston, James D; Hjortdahl, Per

    2008-01-01

    We performed two cycles of laboratory-based usability testing of three food registration prototypes for people with diabetes. The design concepts were a commercial web application, various smartphones and a mobile phone photo blogging approach. Six adults with Type 1 diabetes and three adults with Type 2 diabetes participated in the usability tests. The results provided five distinct implications for devices for the future dietary management support of people with diabetes. Study participants valued many of the features offered by the three systems that were tested, although the usability tests also revealed several opportunities to enhance their design. Our findings suggest that further development is justified of mobile dietary and nutritional support for individuals living with diabetes. Applications that support healthy eating habits should be integrated with applications for managing blood glucose data and physical activity data, and potentially medication data as well.

  8. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  9. Dietary protein and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bursztyn, P G; Vas Dias, F W

    1985-01-01

    Vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores. Dietary protein may be partly responsible. Human volunteers, whose normal diet contained little soya protein, were given soya based foods to replace some of the meat in their diet. During this period over 20% of the total protein intake was derived from soya, however blood pressures remained unchanged. Rabbits were given diets based on either soya, casein, or fish protein. The animals' diets were then changed to one of the other protein sources. During the subsequent 3 weeks, small increases in blood pressure were seen in the casein and soya groups. When rabbits were given fat enriched diets, blood pressures rose but the increase was independent of the type of protein in the diet. It is concluded that the type of protein consumed is unlikely to account for the blood pressure differences between vegetarians and omnivores. Arguments are presented suggesting that other dietary components, such as fat or fibre may be responsible.

  10. Physiological relevance of dietary melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J; Somoza, Veronika; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Melanoidins are the final products of the Maillard reaction. The main dietary sources of melanoidins are coffee, bread crust, bakery products, black beer and cocoa. Although the chemical structures of melanoidins are widely unknown, data from gravimetric techniques allow to roughly estimate a daily intake in the order of 10 g with a Western diet. Melanoidins contribute to the sensorial properties, modulating texture and flavour of foods. Growing evidence also suggests that melanoidins have health beneficial properties, such as chemopreventive, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the ability to chelate different minerals. In the gastrointestinal tract, melanoidins behave not only as antioxidants, but also as dietary fibre by promoting the growth of bifidobacteria. This array of biological activities suggests the need for analytical techniques to identify the melanoidin structures and to control their formation during thermal food processing.

  11. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-12-14

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  12. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  13. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  14. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT). Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs) in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group). Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF). Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p < 0.001), and-25.1% for vitamin D (117.9 ± 34.3 and 157.4 ± 93.3 IU·d-1, respectively, p < 0.001). During BT calcium and vitamin D intake continued to be at the same low values for the SF group but decreased for the NSF group and no significant differences were found between these two groups. Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration. PMID:22413851

  15. Dietary patterns among older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Ferrari, Pietro; Overvad, Kim; Hundborg, Heidi H; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nagel, Gabriele; Boffetta, Paolo; Boeing, Heiner; Hoffmann, Kurt; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Baibas, Nikos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Norat, Teresa; Slimani, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H; van Rossum, Caroline T; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Berglund, Göran; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Roddam, Andrew W; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2005-07-01

    Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival.

  16. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  17. Case reports: Death of active duty soldiers following ingestion of dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA).

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michael J; Eichner, Amy; Cancio, Anthony; Bestervelt, Lori; Adams, Bruce D; Deuster, Patricia A

    2012-12-01

    Dietary supplements and their associated adverse events are not uncommon in the U.S. military, and selected dietary supplements have been associated with a number of nontraumatic deaths in service members. Specific ingredients and dietary supplement products in the civilian community are often associated with multiple adverse events and some have subsequently been removed from the marketplace; the most notable in the last decade is ephedra. We present case reports for two soldiers who were taking commercially available dietary supplements containing multiple ingredients to include the sympathomimetic, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA); both collapsed during physical exertion from cardiac arrest and ultimately died. A presentation of their clinical courses and a discussion of the history and pharmacology of dietary supplement ingredients, including DMAA, are provided. Our cases highlight concerns that DMAA in combination with other ingredients may be associated with significant consequences, reminiscent of previous adverse events from other sympathomimetic drugs previously removed from the market.

  18. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  19. Healthy dietary habits in relation to social determinants and lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L; Thelle, D S; Solvoll, K; Bjørneboe, G E; Drevon, C A

    1999-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of social status and lifestyle for dietary habits, since these factors may influence life expectancy. We studied the association of four indicators for healthy dietary habits (fruits and vegetables, fibre, fat and Hegsted score) with sex, age, socio-economic status, education, physical leisure exercise, smoking and personal attention paid to keeping a healthy diet. Data were gathered with a self-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire distributed to a representative sample of Norwegian men and women aged 16-79 years in a national dietary survey, of whom 3144 subjects (63%) responded. Age and female sex were positively associated with indicators for healthy dietary habits. By separate evaluation length of education, regular physical leisure exercise and degree of attention paid to keeping a healthy diet were positively associated with all four indicators for healthy dietary habits in both sexes. Socio-economic status, location of residence and smoking habits were associated with from one to three indicators for healthy dietary habits. In a multiple regression model, age, education and location of residence together explained from 1 to 9% of the variation (R2) in the four dietary indicators. Length of education was significantly associated with three of four dietary indicators both among men and women. By including the variable 'attention paid to keeping a healthy diet' in the model, R2 increased to between 4 and 15% for the four dietary indicators. Length of education remained correlated to three dietary indicators among women, and one indicator among men, after adjusting for attention to healthy diet, age and location of residence. Residence in cities remained correlated to two indicators among men, but none among women, after adjusting for age, education and attention to healthy diet. In conclusion, education was associated with indicators of a healthy diet. Attention to healthy diet showed

  20. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Vajihe; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key words: Healthy dietary pattern, mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary pattern, diet intervention and adiponectin and adipokines. Then, we recruited 10 articles to review in the present study. Results: Cohort studies that are examined this relationship among women showed the strong positive association in this regard. According to cross-sectional studies adherence to healthy dietary pattern like Mediterranian intervention with moderate weight loss had a positive association with concentration of adiponectin. Conclusion: It seems that adherents to the healthy dietary patterns have great levels of circulating adiponectin. However, it is not clear that whether the separate components of healthy dietary patterns like good sources of fats or protein or fibers mostly have important roles in these beneficial effects of such dietary patterns or not. PMID:25983773

  1. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  2. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  3. The role of dietary creatine.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26874700

  4. Dietary antioxidants and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Fraine, E; Hunt, L P; Acheson, D W; Braganza, J M

    1986-03-01

    Fifteen patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (aged 17-78 years), who had not altered their diet since their first symptoms, completed 7-d weighed dietary records at home. The computed information was compared with that from 15 age- and sex-matched volunteers. Attention was focussed on the intakes of antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids. The patients ingested less selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C and riboflavin than did controls (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.02, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 respectively, using paired t-tests): selenium was by far the best discriminator on step-wise analysis. When the selenium intakes were examined alongside the results of theophylline tests--which reflect cytochromes P450 activities and, thereby, provide an index of antioxidant demand--a line of discrimination separated the majority of patients (with faster drug clearances and lower selenium intakes) and controls. There were no differences in the intakes of individual unsaturated fatty acids, C14:1 through to C24:6, between the two groups. However, amongst six subjects in the overlap zone, three with chronic pancreatitis habitually ate greater amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids C20:4 to C24:6 inclusive (1970, 1049, 750 mg/d) than did three controls (329, 320, 82 mg/d). Animal experiments show that suboptimal intakes of dietary antioxidants and/or excessive intakes of highly unsaturated fatty acids and/or induction of cytochromes P450 facilitate peroxidation of cellular lipid membranes by free radicals. Our dietary data, taken in conjunction with pharmacokinetic data, thus suggest that a similar situation--favouring lipid peroxidation--may underlie human chronic pancreatitis.

  5. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  6. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits. PMID:22221489

  7. The role of dietary creatine.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  9. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.

  10. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in relation to dietary patterns among young Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    Olinto, Maria Teresa A; Willett, Walter C; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify dietary patterns among young adults and the relationships with socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Design Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. Food intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Setting Southern Brazil. Subjects A total of 4202 men and women aged 23 years, who participated in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Results Five dietary patterns were identified: common Brazilian, processed food, vegetable/fruit, dairy/dessert and tubers/pasta. Subjects who had low own or maternal educational levels, low social position or who were always poor throughout life had high adherence to the common Brazilian dietary pattern. In contrast, the processed food pattern was more likely to be followed by those belonging to middle and high social position and who were never poor. Men and smokers showed high adherence to the processed food and common Brazilian dietary patterns. Vegetable/fruit pattern was more likely to be followed by women and subjects engaged in physical activity. Women also showed high adherence to the dairy/dessert pattern. Conclusions Our study among young Brazilian adults has identified distinct dietary patterns that are clearly influenced by socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, which have important policy implications in a country with marked social and economic inequalities. PMID:20576193

  11. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  12. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat.

  13. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  14. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. PMID:27516168

  15. Dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome in thai adults.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, W; Satheannoppakao, W; Putwatana, P; Taneepanichskul, S; Kessomboon, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Chariyalertsak, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30-59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS. PMID:25699190

  16. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  17. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. PMID:24262528

  18. RECENT ENHANCEMENTS TO THE DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation describes recent enhancements & new applications of the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), a model developed to assist in design & interpretation of dietary exposure measurements. Model is an interactive system that provides dietary exposure estimates using dat...

  19. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  20. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  1. Dietary Guidelines and Your Health: Health Educator's Guide to Nutrition and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Nutrition Information Service (USDA), Hyattsville, MD.

    This manual was designed to help incorporate the seven Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services, into a health or physical education curriculum and to make nutrition education contemporary, interesting, and relevant at either the junior or senior high school level. The…

  2. Dietary patterns and depressive mood in a multiethnic representative sample of Texas eighth graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between dietary patterns and depressive mood among 8th grade students in Texas. Data were from the 2004–2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a multistage probability-based sample of Texas 8th graders. Participants (n=8827; 14.7% Afri...

  3. Extension Newsletters and Individual Counseling: Equally Effective in Changing Worksite Wellness Participants Dietary Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Kristi; Litchfield, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides impetus for Extension efforts in worksite wellness. The study reported here examined the influence of two worksite wellness interventions, newsletters and individual counseling. Surveys examined dietary and physical activity behaviors of participants pre- and post-intervention (N = 157). Descriptive statistics,…

  4. ESTIMATING CHILDREN'S DERMAL AND NON-DIETARY INGESTION EXPOSURE AND DOSE WITH EPA'S SHEDS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based stochastic model (SHEDS) has been developed to estimate pesticide exposure and dose to children via dermal residue contact and non-dietary ingestion. Time-location-activity data are sampled from national survey results to generate a population of simulated ch...

  5. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  6. Dietary habits of athletes in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; Ragheb, M A

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the dietary habits of athletes involved in four common sports in Bahrain (football, handball, volleyball and basketball). A sample of 304 athletes was obtained from 14 first class clubs. It was found that 28% of athletes skipped breakfast, and only 39% consumed breakfast daily. Foods eaten before competition were similar to those consumed by other family members, indicating that athletes did not eat any specific diet before events. There were some differences in meal patterns among athletes of various sports. In general, athletes allowed enough time between a meal and competition (2.8-3.1 hours). About half of them consumed water only at restbreak, while the rest consumed fruit drinks, tea and oranges in addition to water. Some (3%) did not consume any fluid. A small proportion of the athletes (4%) used vitamins and protein supplements. Mass media (53.6%) and coaches (20.1%) were the primary sources of nutrition information for athletes. It is suggested that information on nutrition and physical performance should be introduced in all educational programmes for both athletes and coaches.

  7. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:25191598

  8. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  9. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  10. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  11. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  12. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  13. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  14. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... nutritional needs of residents in accordance with the recommended dietary allowances of the Food and...

  15. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  16. A Computer-Based Dietary Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary trial of a program in which principles of patient-computer dialogue have been applied to dietary counseling is described. The program was designed to obtain historical information from overweight patients and to provide instruction and guidance regarding dietary behavior. Beginning with a teaching sequence, 25 non-overweight…

  17. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  18. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  19. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  20. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  1. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  2. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  3. Differences in adolescent dietary behaviors by SES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...

  4. Dietary reference intervals for vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Dietary reference intervals relate to the distribution of dietary requirement for a particular nutrient as defined by the distribution of physiological requirement for that nutrient. These have more commonly been called Dietary Reference Values (DRV) or Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), amongst other names. The North American DRI for vitamin D are the most current dietary reference intervals and arguably arising from the most comprehensive evaluation and report on vitamin D nutrition to date. These are a family of nutrient reference values, including the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level. In particular, the EAR is used for planning and assessing diets of populations; it also serves as the basis for calculating the RDA, a value intended to meet the needs of nearly all people. The DRVs for vitamin D in the UK and the European Community have been in existence for almost two decades, and both are currently under review. The present paper briefly overviews these three sets of dietary reference intervals as case studies to highlight both the similarities as well as possible differences that may exist between reference intervals for vitamin D in different countries/regions. In addition, it highlights the scientific basis upon which these are based, which may explain some of the differences. Finally, it also overviews how the dietary reference intervals for vitamin D may be applied, and especially in terms of assessing the adequacy of vitamin D intake in populations. PMID:22536775

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  6. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  7. Dietary intake data: usefulness and limitations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, A G; Sevigny, J; Seoane, N; Richard, L

    1984-01-01

    In past decades, the main objectives of nutrition surveys were to define nutritional status at the time of the study, to cross-sectionally describe dietary patterns of consumption and food preparation practices, and to identify areas for improvement. Nowadays, the need for ongoing evaluation of nutritional status of individuals and of population is gaining recognition. The present paper, in discussing usefulness and limitations of dietary intake data, will focus on the importance of considering nutrition as a component of overall quality of life as well as a discipline that gains to be integrated to other disciplinary fields such as medicine, biochemistry, immunology, anthropometry and agribusiness. In this respect, the present paper will discuss the methodology of dietary data collection, the various uses of dietary data collected at the individual, community and general population levels and finally will try to define new vistas in regard to emphasis and tools for future dietary intake studies.

  8. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  9. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  10. Estimating under-reporting of energy intake in dietary surveys using an individualised method.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Coward, Andy; Jebb, Susan A

    2007-06-01

    Under-reporting (UR) of energy intake (EI) by self-reported dietary methods is well-documented but the methods used to estimate UR in population-based studies commonly assume a sedentary lifestyle. We compared estimated UR using individualised estimates of energy requirements with a population cut-off based on minimum energy needs. UR was estimated for 1551 adults aged 19-64 years enrolled in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Physical activity diaries and 7 d weighed dietary records were completed concurrently. Mean daily EI (kJ/d) was calculated from the dietary records. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level, and then to calculate estimated energy requirements (EER) from published equations. UR was calculated both as EER - EI with an adjustment for daily EER and EI variation, and also by a population method. By the individual method UR was approximately 27 % of energy needs in men and 29 % in women, with 75 % of men and 77 % of women classified as under-reporters; by the population method 80 and 88 % were classified as under-reporters respectively. When subjects who reported their eating being affected by dieting or illness during dietary recording were excluded, UR was 25 % of energy needs in both sexes. UR was higher in overweight and obese men and women compared with their lean counterparts (P < 0.001). UR of EI must be considered in dietary surveys. The EER method allows UR to be quantified and takes into account an individual's activity level. Measures of physical activity and questions to identify under-eating during dietary recording may help to evaluate secular trends in UR. PMID:17433123

  11. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... Waiver of requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary... requirement for providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

  12. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... Waiver of requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary... requirement for providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

  13. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... Waiver of requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary... requirement for providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

  14. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  15. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  16. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  17. Safety evaluation of dietary aluminum.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; White, S M; Flamm, W G; Burdock, G A

    2001-02-01

    Aluminum is a nonessential metal to which humans are frequently exposed. Aluminum in the food supply comes from natural sources, water used in food preparation, food ingredients, and utensils used during food preparations. The amount of aluminum in the diet is small, compared with the amount of aluminum in antacids and some buffered analgesics. The healthy human body has effective barriers (skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract) to reduce the systemic absorption of aluminum ingested from water, foods, drugs, and air. The small amount of aluminum (<1%) that is systemically absorbed is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the feces. No reports of dietary aluminum toxicity to healthy individuals exist in the literature. Aluminum can be neurotoxic, when injected directly into the brains of animals and when accidentally introduced into human brains (by dialysis or shrapnel). A study from Canada reports cognitive and other neurological deficits among groups of workers occupationally exposed to dust containing high levels of aluminum. While the precise pathogenic role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be defined, present data do not support a causative role for aluminum in AD. High intake of aluminum from antacid for gastrointestinal ailments has not been reported to cause any adverse effects and has not been correlated with neurotoxicity or AD. Foods and food ingredients are generally the major dietary sources of aluminum in the United States. Cooking in aluminum utensils often results in statistically significant, but relatively small, increases in aluminum content of food. Common aluminum-containing food ingredients are used mainly as preservatives, coloring agents, leavening agents, anticaking agents, etc. Safety evaluation and approval of these ingredients by the Food and Drug Administration indicate that these aluminum-containing compounds are safe for use in foods.

  18. Population groups in dietary transition

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles) was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles) were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated), overweight and obesity (14 articles) were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles). For hypertension (three articles), dyslipidemia (four articles), and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles), the results were contradictory. Conclusions Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention. PMID:24106456

  19. Barriers to changing dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Kavita; Kapur, A; Ramachandran, Shobhana; Mohan, V; Aravind, S R; Badgandi, M; Srishyla, M V

    2008-01-01

    Dietary change requires giving up long established patterns of eating behavior and acquiring new habits. 'Non-compliance' to diet advice may be a result of inability to provide diet self-management training and getting the right messages across to change eating behavior. Using a pre-tested questionnaire based interview, we carried out a study amongst 350 adults (> 20 years) with type 2 diabetes from two metro cities in South India, who had previously received diet advice with the objective to understand perceptions, attitudes and practices, as well as study factors that enhance or reduce compliance to diet advice. Ninety six patients (28%) followed diet for the full duration of diabetes (Group1), 131 (38%) followed diet for a partial duration varying between more than a quarter to three quarters of the total diabetes duration (Group 2) and 115 (34%) did not follow diet advice (Group 3) - followed for a duration less than a quarter of their diabetes duration. Study results show that many factors both patient and health care provider related influence outcomes of dietary advice. Factors that have a positive impact on compliance are - older age, shorter duration, nuclear family, good family support, less busy work life, higher health consciousness, advice given by dietician, more frequent visits to dietician, advice that includes elements to promote overall health not merely control of blood sugar, diet counseling that is easy to understand and use and includes healthy food options, cooking methods, practical guidance to deal with lifestyle issues. We conclude that patient barriers related to life circumstance are mostly non-modifiable, most modifiable barriers are related to behavioural aspect and the inability of the health care provider to provide individualized diet advice and self management training. Efforts must be made to improve counseling skills.

  20. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  1. Nutrition awareness, health practices and dietary supplementation.

    PubMed

    Worsley, A; Crawford, D

    1987-04-01

    A detailed questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of 1000 Melbourne residents in June 1984 in order to assess their understanding of the Australian dietary guidelines. Seven hundred and thirty people returned questionnaires. The respondents were categorized as regular dietary supplementers (RS, n = 245); irregular dietary supplementers (IS, n = 84), or non-supplementers (NS, n = 370). Comparisons of the responses of these groups showed that more RS and IS women reported that they drank alcohol and experienced occupational stress; more RS and IS practised meditation-relaxation, and fewer RS were smokers. More of the RS expressed satisfaction with their nutrient status, whereas more of the IS and NS were dissatisfied about their intakes of fibre, starch, salt, sugar and calories. More of the RS practised a range of specific activities related to both orthodox and non-orthodox dietary recommendations, and they attached greater importance to them for their health. They had also referred to more sources of nutrition information in the year preceding the study. The results suggest that regular dietary supplementers are more oriented toward both orthodox and 'alternative' nutrition information than other people. However, they are likely to be a more receptive audience for nutritional or dietary recommendations, such as the dietary guidelines, than other sections of the general population.

  2. Dietary aspects of migraine trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Fernanda C; de Oliveira, Vanessa R; Castro, Kamila; Chaves, Márcia L F; Perla, Alexandre da S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2012-06-01

    The significance of dietary factors as triggers for migraines is controversial, and the assessment of this topic is complex and inconclusive. In order to evaluate the published evidence on dietary triggers, a critical review of the literature was performed by conducting a search for food item descriptors linked to migraines in the PubMed and SciELO databases. Reviews and relevant references cited within the articles that resulted from the search were also included. Of the 45 studies reviewed, 16 were population studies that involved the association between migraines and eating habits or the prevalence of related dietary factors; 12 involved interventions or analyzed observational prospective cohorts; and 17 were retrospective studies. Approximately 30 dietary triggers were explored in total, although only seven of these were addressed experimentally. In the prospective studies, patients were instructed to keep a diary; two of these studies involved dietary interventions. Conclusions that are based on nonpharmacological prophylactic strategies with a scientific basis and that show an association between certain dietary factors and the triggering of migraines are limited by the lack of prospective studies with clear experimental designs. Nevertheless, the high frequency of possible specific dietary triggers validates efforts to elucidate the involvement of food-related factors in precipitating migraines.

  3. Dietary intake of zinc was inversely associated with depression.

    PubMed

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz

    2012-03-01

    Depression is an important cause of morbidity, and World Health Organization has predicted that it will be the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease by 2020. Postgraduate students are at high risk for depression caused by the stress of examinations, the academic environment, and relationship problems with peers, lecturers, and family members. Physical inactivity, advancing age, unmarried status, and many other factors contribute to the development of depression in humans. Associations between symptoms of depression and the intake of nutrients such as magnesium have been investigated; however, the relationship between zinc intake and depression has not received as much attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between dietary intake of zinc and depression in postgraduate students. This study was conducted on 402 participants with a mean age of 32.54 ± 6.22 years, including 173 (43%) women and 229 (57%) men. In this study, we found an inverse relationship between dietary intake of zinc and depression. The results persisted even after we controlled for several potential confounding variables related to depression symptoms, including age, sex, years of education, smoking status (current and past), and physical activity. The results of this study show that long-term intake of zinc may modulate symptoms of depression.

  4. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  5. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  6. Are dietary bioactives ready for recommended intakes?

    PubMed

    Gaine, P Courtney; Balentine, Douglas A; Erdman, John W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Ellwood, Kathleen C; Hu, Frank B; Russell, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that numerous dietary bioactive components that are not considered essential may still be beneficial to health. The dietary reference intake (DRI) process has been applied to nonessential nutrients, such as fiber, yet the majority of bioactive components await a recommended intake. Despite a plethora of new research over the past several years on the health effects of bioactives, it is possible that the field may never reach a point where the current DRI framework is suitable for these food components. If bioactives are to move toward dietary guidance, they will likely require an alternative path to get there.

  7. Quantitative Determination of Vinpocetine in Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    French, John M T; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-05-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6-5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations.

  8. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose.

    PubMed

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a nutritional concept based not on physiological functions but on defined chemical and physical properties. Recent definitions of dietary fiber differentiate inherent plant cell wall-associated fiber from isolated or synthetic fiber. For the latter to be defined as fiber, beneficial physiological effects should be demonstrated, such as laxative effects, fermentability, attenuation of blood cholesterol levels, or postprandial glucose response. Grain fibers are a major natural source of dietary fiber worldwide, while inulin, a soluble indigestible fructose polymer isolated from chicory, and polydextrose, a synthetic indigestible glucose polymer, have more simple structures. Inulin and polydextrose show many of the same functionalities of grain fiber in the large intestine, in that they are fermentable, bifidogenic, and laxative. The reported effects on postprandial blood glucose and fasting cholesterol levels have been modest, but grain fibers also show variable effects. New biomarkers are needed to link the physiological functions of specific fibers with long-term health benefits.

  9. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  10. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  11. Can claims, misleading information, and manufacturing issues regarding dietary supplements be improved in the United States?

    PubMed

    Gibson, James E; Taylor, David A

    2005-09-01

    The safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are assessed through the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) OTC drug review. Prescription drugs are approved through the rigorous new drug application (NDA) process. In contrast, dietary supplements are regulated as foods, and the FDA must determine that a dietary supplement ingredient poses a "significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury" instead of requiring the manufacturer to provide safety data. According to the FDA, there are more than 29,000 different dietary supplements available to consumers today. This momentum has its roots in consumer interest in health and self-care and suggests that Americans are searching for alternatives to conventional foods for physical and mental well being. The Committee on the Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary Supplements was formed under the auspices of the Food and Nutrition Board that produced a report entitled Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety. Categories of specific information identified for use are 1) human data, 2) animal studies, 3) in vitro experiments, and 4) information on related substances. Several factors were identified to guide the FDA in applying the framework. Two of these factors are expressed as follows: 1) "the appropriate scientific standard to be used to overturn this basic assumption of safety is to demonstrate significant or unreasonable risk, not prove that an ingredient is unsafe"; and 2) "approaches taken by diverse organizations and governmental bodies, both within and outside the United States, which evaluate the safety and at times efficacy of dietary supplement ingredients, vary in their relevance to the protection of the American public from risks associated with consumption of dietary supplement ingredients".

  12. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    PubMed

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  13. Dietary composition and its associations with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mélanie; Benedetti, Andrea; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the associations between macronutrient intake and insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion (ISct), taking into consideration moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fitness and sedentary behaviour. Caucasian youth (n 630) aged 8-10 years at recruitment, with at least one obese biological parent, were studied (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort). IS was measured using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and Matsuda IS index. ISct was measured using HOMA2%-β, the ratio of the AUC of insulin:glucose over the first 30 min (AUC I/G(t= 30 min)) of the oral glucose tolerance test and AUC I/G(t= 120 min) over 2 h. Fitness was measured using VO₂(peak), percentage of fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7 d MVPA using accelerometry; screen time (ST) by average daily hours of self-reported television, video game or computer use. Dietary composition was measured using three non-consecutive dietary recalls. Non-parametric smoothing splines were used to model non-linear associations; all models were adjusted for age, sex, season, pubertal stage, MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. The percentage of total daily energy from dietary protein, fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate and the consumption of dietary vitamin D, sugar-sweetened beverages, fibre and portions of fruits and vegetables were taken into consideration. No dietary component was associated with any measure of IS after adjusting for MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. For every 1% increase in daily protein intake (%), AUC I/G(t= 30 min) decreased by 1·1% (P= 0·033). Otherwise, dietary composition was not associated with ISct. While long-term excess of energy intake has been shown to lead to overweight and obesity, dietary macronutrient composition is not independently correlated with IS or ISct in youth.

  14. Response of rat heart membranes and associated ion-transporting ATPases to dietary lipid.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, M Y; McMurchie, E J; Russell, G R; Sawyer, W H; Charnock, J S

    1984-09-19

    The effects of different dietary fat intake on the lipid composition and enzyme behaviour of sarcolemmal (Na+ + K+)ATPase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase from rat heart were investigated. Rat diets were supplemented with either sunflower seed oil (unsatd./satd. 5.6) or sheep kidney fat (unsatd./satd. 0.8). Significant changes in the phospholipid fatty acid composition were observed in both membranes after 9 weeks dietary lipid treatment. For both membranes, the total saturated/unsaturated fatty acid levels were unaffected by the dietary lipid treatment, however the proportions of the major unsaturated fatty acids were altered. Animals fed the sunflower seed oil diet exhibited an increase in n-6 fatty acids, including linoleic (18:2(n-6] and arachidonic (20:4(n-6] while the sheep kidney fat dietary rats were higher in n-3 fatty acids, principally docosahexaenoic (22:6), with the net result being a higher n-6/n-3 ratio in the sunflower seed oil group compared to sheep kidney fat dietary animals. Fluorescence polarization indicated that the fluidity of sarcoplasmic reticular membrane was greater than that of sarcolemmal membrane, with a dietary lipid-induced decrease in fluidity being observed in the sarcoplasmic reticular membrane from sheep kidney fat dietary animals. Despite these significant changes in membrane composition and physical properties, neither the specific activity nor the temperature-activity relationship (Arrhenius profile) of the associated ATPases were altered. These results suggest that with regard to the parameters measured in this study, the two ion-transporting ATPases are not modulated by changes which occur in the membrane lipid composition as a result of the diet.

  15. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  16. Association Between Dietary Pattern and Serum C-Reactive Protein in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Hara, Megumi; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary pattern may influence the risks of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome through its effects on inflammation. We evaluated the association between dietary pattern and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in a Japanese population. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis, we used baseline data from 3905 men and 5640 women (age 40–69 years) who participated in a population-based cohort study between November 2005 and December 2007. Participants with possible inflammation-related diseases, current analgesic use, high hs-CRP levels (≥3000 ng/mL) or extreme dietary energy intake were excluded. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. Results We identified 5 dietary patterns: healthy (high in vegetables and fruit), Western (high in meat and fried foods), seafood (high in shellfish, squid, fish, etc.), bread (high in bread and low in rice), and dessert (high in confections and fruit). After adjustment for age, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, hs-CRP levels in men were inversely associated with the healthy, bread, and dessert patterns (P-trend: 0.01, 0.06, and <0.01, respectively) and positively associated with the seafood pattern (P-trend = 0.02). In women, hs-CRP levels were inversely associated with the healthy pattern (P-trend = 0.06) and positively associated with the Western pattern (P-trend = 0.06). Conclusions The healthy dietary pattern may be associated with suppressed inflammation in Japanese men and women, independently of body mass index and other factors. The sex-specific associations of hs-CRP with other dietary patterns (eg, the seafood pattern) require further study. PMID:21325731

  17. Dietary patterns and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among urban indigenous women in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lako, J V; Nguyen, V C

    2001-01-01

    The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of beta-carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary

  18. Dietary patterns and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among urban indigenous women in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lako, J V; Nguyen, V C

    2001-01-01

    The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of beta-carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary

  19. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers. PMID:16503233

  20. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers.

  1. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Paul; Shattock, Paul; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Seim, Anders; Reichelt, Karl L.; Todd, Lynda; Carr, Kevin; Hooper, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioral symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free (GF), casein-free (CF), or gluten- and casein-free diet (GFCF) can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention, and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted. PMID:23316152

  2. A quality dietary supplement: before you start and after it's marketed--a conference report.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Mark A; Appelhans, Kristy R; Braun, Lesley A; Dziedziczak, Darren; Jennings, Sam; Liu, Laura; Osiecki, Henry; Wyszumiala, Edward; Griffiths, James C

    2015-01-01

    Consumers worldwide are turning to dietary supplements as one part of their personal goal to lead healthier and more active lives. In truth, the quality of life now supersedes the length of life as no one would trade living to one hundred (the last forty with compromised physical abilities and decreased mental acuity) for 80 years of travel, time with family, and intellectual pursuits. If there is the possibility of preventing a disease or debilitating condition through efficient lifestyle changes (additions, subtractions, modifications) and to also avoid the costly and escalating medical and pharmaceutical treatments that accompany having the disease/condition, then a sensible individual would focus on their overall health and wellness…proactively, instead of reactively. However, an important caveat is that over-regulation or inappropriate application of current regulations can increase the price of dietary supplements and nutritional products and thus cause underutilization of the potentially beneficial physiological attributes of these products. Conversely, strict adherence to regulatory guidelines could result in safer dietary supplements and fewer adverse reactions requiring medical attention. If new regulations or stricter interpretation/application of existing regulations result in certain dietary supplements being taken off the market, will continued demand create a completely unregulated, underground economy that will create unforeseen problems? More research should be supported by government agencies to determine the effectiveness of dietary supplements, nutritional products and complementary medicine in reducing personal and societal medical costs and further contribution to the overall health of the population. PMID:25579377

  3. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-06-11

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance.

  4. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Paul; Shattock, Paul; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Seim, Anders; Reichelt, Karl L; Todd, Lynda; Carr, Kevin; Hooper, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioral symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free (GF), casein-free (CF), or gluten- and casein-free diet (GFCF) can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention, and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted. PMID:23316152

  5. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  6. Dietary patterns are linked to cardiovascular risk factors but not to inflammatory markers in Alaska Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Mete, Mihriye; Nobmann, Elizabeth D; Xu, Jiaqiong; Fabsitz, Richard R; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Howard, Barbara V

    2009-12-01

    Despite the tradition of a diet high in fish oils and abundant physical activity, coronary artery disease is increasing among Alaska Eskimos. Explanations for this observation include lifestyle changes. In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated dietary patterns of Alaska Eskimos and investigated the relations between these dietary patterns and known cardiovascular risk factors, including inflammatory markers. We used a principal component analysis with data from FFQ collected in 2000-2004 to determine dietary patterns of Alaska Eskimos. Four dietary patterns were identified: a traditional pattern, plus 3 patterns based on purchased food, one of which reflected healthy food choices. The traditional dietary pattern was associated with lower triglycerides (P < 0.001) and blood pressure (P = 0.04) and slightly higher LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.05). Whereas the healthy purchased diet was associated with a trend toward lower LDL-C (P = 0.09), the beverages and sweets diet was positively associated with LDL-C (P = 0.02). Diet pattern was not associated with inflammatory markers or pathogen burden. Our data show that the traditional diet is related to a better profile of cardiovascular disease risk factors and should be encouraged. Programs are needed to encourage the availability of healthy food choices for those not able to obtain traditional foods.

  7. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I.; Kahn, Michael Z.; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K.; Claflin, Kristin E.; Burnett, Colin M.L.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Lutter, Michael L.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  8. [Estimation of dietary fiber content of feedstuffs].

    PubMed

    Lipiec, A; Grela, E; Zürcher, U; Wenk, C

    1994-01-01

    In a series of 8 concentrates, 18 roughages and 13 wet feedstuffs the interactions between different dietary fibre fractions were studied. In comparison to other analytical methods the crude fibre method (XF) did not allow a satisfactory estimation of the dietary fibre content (DF) of the experimental feedstuffs. In comparison to the NDF and the dietary fibre content and depending on the feedstuff, XF content was lowered by 2 to 3 times and 2 to 4 times, respectively. There was a surprisingly high correspondence between the contents of NDF and unsoluble dietary fibre for almost all feedstuffs. Highly significant statistical coherences could be observed between the different fibre fractions. It can be expected, that these correlations do not always follow a linear relationship, as could be observed in the regressions equations for NDF to DF and XF to ADF. PMID:7668971

  9. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  10. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... regulations and provides oversight of dietary supplement labeling, marketing, and safety. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION The Federal Trade ... 17, 2011 Share This Page: E-mail Twitter Facebook Google+ Pinterest Contact Us | Accessibility | Site Policies | Disclaimer | ...

  11. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  12. Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use. PMID:22589230

  13. Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use.

  14. Dietary Screener in the 2009 CHIS: Validation

    Cancer.gov

    In the Eating at America's Table Study and the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, Risk Factors Branch staff assessed the validity of created aggregate variables from the 2009 CHIS Dietary Screener.

  15. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  16. CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

  17. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  18. [Dietary management of diabetic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Shimron-Nachmias, Limor; Frishman, Sigal; Hod, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    During pregnancy, several metabolic changes are observed which aim to provide optimum substrate, energy and other nutritional requirements to both the mother and the fetus. Maternal nutrition is the only source for most nutrients, influencing neonatal and placenta development, mother's physiological adjustment and also playing a major role in the destiny of the offspring. Over-nutrition or malnutrition are both linked with increased risk of diabetes mellitus in the offspring. Diabetes in pregnancy is the most common and important metabolic dysfunction in pregnancy. This is divided into two types and it is very important to distinguish between them, as each has different nutritional requirements and a different impact on the course of the pregnancy and the development of the fetus. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the main type of diabetes in pregnancy, it usually appears in the second half of pregnancy and mainly influences fetal growth rate and can slow systemic development. Most women with GDM are treated with nutritional management alone. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus is present before pregnancy and it's effects begin at fertilization and implantation, and continue throughout pregnancy and thereafter. It involves high risk of early abortion, severe congenital defects and disrupted organogenesis. Although the treatment of pre-existing diabetes is usually a pharmacological one (insulin or oral pharmacological agents), nutritional management is still very important in normalization of glucose levels before and throughout the pregnancy. Fetal morbidity is lower in women with diabetes in pregnancy when optimal glucose control is maintained. Normalization of glucose levels during pregnancy is agreed to be the main factor in preventing poor outcomes in pregnancy. Dietary advice throughout pregnancy include frequent small meals which contain carbohydrates that are not highly processed, rich with slowly absorbed starches and non-soluble polysaccharides and with a

  19. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  20. Physical activity changes during pregnancy in a comparative impact trail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestat...

  1. Dietary fibre in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Asp, N G; Agardh, C D; Ahrén, B; Dencker, I; Johansson, C G; Lundquist, I; Nyman, M; Sartor, G; Scherstén, B

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in digestible carbohydrates and dietary fibre might be beneficial in the regulation of type II non insulin dependent diabetes (NIDD). Addition of the gel forming type of dietary fibre such as pectin and guar gum to meals or glucose solutions reduces post-prandial glucose and insulin response. Addition of cereal fibres in the form of bran seems to have long term beneficial effect improving glucose tolerance. Little is known, however, concerning effects of dietary fibre naturally occurring in food on postprandial glucose and hormone response. In the present study we prepared two breakfast meals which were similar regarding digestible carbohydrates but differed in their dietary fibre content. One of the meals, including whole grain bread and whole apples, contained 8.4 g of dietary fibre, and the other one, containing white bread and apple juice, 3.1 g. When given to eight NIDD, the fibre rich breakfast gave significantly lower blood glucose increment during the three hours following ingestion. The results indicate that foods rich in dietary fibre might be useful in the regulation of type II diabetes.

  2. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  3. Merging Dietary Assessment with the Adolescent Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Schap, TusaRebecca E; Zhu, Fengqing M; Delp, Edward J; Boushey, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera, (e.g., Apple iPhone, Google Nexus One, Apple iPod Touch). Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis, i.e., segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiologic or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarizes the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  4. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  5. Pediatric dietary lipid guidelines: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaull, G E; Giombetti, T; Woo, R W

    1995-10-01

    The 1992 AAP policy of dietary fat and cholesterol restrictions in all children over two is based on incomplete evidence. The low-fat diet has never been demonstrated to be beneficial for prepubescent healthy children, and the unguided rapid implementation of numerical guidelines could lead to ill effects. Caution in the face of incomplete data was the hallmark of the 1983 and 1986 AAP Committee positions. Subsequent AAP policy change should have awaited either the direct clinical evidence they had previously considered necessary to demonstrate efficacy or the more general availability of the dietary guidance needed for safe implementation of strict numerical guidelines. We are neither calling for paralysis of policy nor do we wish to imply that 30% dietary fat is necessarily unhealthful for children. However, we do foresee the need for greater nutritional guidance for parents. In the absence of better nutrition education, zealous parents could switch a 2-year old immediately to a low-fat regimen to such an extent that the child might not achieve adequate nutrient intake to assure optimal growth and development. Moreover, current changes in lifestyle result in less parental supervision in all spheres of behavior, making closer dietary supervision less likely. A prudent pediatric guideline should encourage moderation and the gradual reduction of dietary fat intake throughout the early childhood years, achieving the numerical standards set for adults during adolescence. Such a policy has not been shown to foster atherosclerosis or to provide the yoke of unhealthful dietary habits that must be broken in adulthood.

  6. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  7. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  8. Dietary change and stable isotopes: a model of growth and dormancy in cave bears.

    PubMed Central

    Lidén, K; Angerbjörn, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to discuss dietary change over time by the use of stable isotopes, it is necessary to sort out the underlying processes in isotopic variation. Together with the dietary signal other processes have been investigated, namely metabolic processes, collagen turnover and physical growth. However, growth and collagen turnover time have so far been neglected in dietary reconstruction based on stable isotopes. An earlier study suggested that cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) probably gave birth to cubs during dormancy. We provide an estimate of the effect on stable isotopes of growth and metabolism and discuss collagen turnover in a population of cave bears. Based on a quantitative model, we hypothesized that bear cubs lactated their mothers during their first and second winters, but were fed solid food together with lactation during their first summer. This demonstrates the need to include physical growth, metabolism and collagen turnover in dietary reconstruction. Whereas the effects of diet and metabolism are due to fractionation, growth and collagen turnover are dilution processes. PMID:10518325

  9. [Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    RUS

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein,fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy.

  10. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  11. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score for fibre intake. They also report higher consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as a higher fat intake. No difference in fish consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women is observed. In line with recommendations, pregnant women report reduced consumption of food products with heightened safety-related risks, lower use of alcohol and tobacco, and safer food handling practices. Reduced intake of raw vegetables for food safety reasons is not compensated by higher intake of cooked vegetables. Pregnant women also report a lower frequency of moderate physical activity. Most differences in food choice by pregnant versus non-pregnant women pertain to the avoidance of specific, potentially harmful food groups. A substantial share of pregnant women does not follow upon recommendations with respect to alcohol use and exposure to tobacco. Personal medical sources for pregnant women and personal social sources for non-pregnant women are reported as the most attended sources of diet-related information. The perceived role of food for health is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and there were no significant interaction effects between pregnancy and presence of children, which indicates that the observed differences in dietary behaviour can be attributed to the state of being pregnant. PMID:17005297

  12. [Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    RUS

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein,fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy. PMID:26852529

  13. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) is a computer-based model developed for estimating dietary exposure to chemical residues in food. The DEPM is based on food consumption data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) administered by the United States ...

  15. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  16. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  17. Dietary patterns and quality in West-African immigrants in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, Hélène F; Vioque, Jesús; Gil, Augusta

    2009-01-01

    Background Eating patterns of immigrants deserve to be better documented because they may reflect the extent of acculturation and associated health risks. The study assessed dietary patterns and quality in Bubi immigrants (from Equatorial Guinea) using cluster analysis and comparing different diet quality indexes. Methods A random sample of 83 Bubi men and 130 women living in Madrid were studied. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire was administered, body weights and heights were self-reported and socio-demographic and health information was collected during interviews. Usual intakes were collapsed into 19 food groups. Cluster analysis of standardized food intakes per 1000 kcalories was performed. Dietary quality was appraised using the Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and scores of micronutrient adequacy and prevention based on WHO/FAO recommendations. Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'Healthier' pattern, so confirmed by two dietary quality indexes, featured a higher consumption of fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products and bread while the 'Western' pattern included more processed meat, animal fat, and sweetened foods and drinks. One third of the subjects were in the 'Healthier' food cluster, with the same proportion of men and women. Age ≥ 30 and residence in Madrid ≥ 11 years were independently associated with the healthier diet. Consumption of traditional foods was unrelated to dietary pattern, however. Overall, Bubi diets were somewhat protective because of high intakes of fruits and vegetables and monounsaturated fat (olive oil), but not with respect to sugar, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. Less than two thirds of subjects had adequate intakes of iron, calcium and folate in both dietary phenotypes. Body mass index, physical exercise, and self-reported health and cardiovascular disease condition showed no significant association with the dietary pattern. Conclusion Cluster

  18. [Dietary fats and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lourdes Carrillo; Serra, Jaime Dalmau; Álvarez, Jesús Román Martínez; Alberich, Rosa Solà; Jiménez, Francisco Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to <10% and <1%, respectively, of the total calorie intake. Recent population studies, particularly that conducted in Kuopio, Finland, and those on Mediterranean diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences.

  19. Dietary supplements: how they are used and regulated.

    PubMed

    Hathcock, J

    2001-03-01

    Overall use of nutrient and botanical dietary supplements (DS) has increased for years across all major categories. Many DS are simply taken as part of a healthy lifestyle, but some are used to reduce risk of or modulate risk factors for specific chronic diseases, such as heart disease (vitamin E, folic acid, garlic), cancer (selenium, vitamin E, garlic) and certain birth defects (folic acid). Other DS are used for short-term benefits such as sleep management (valerian, melatonin) and enhanced physical performance (pyruvate, creatine). DS are regulated under food law, but with certain provisions that apply only to DS. Thus, DS are eligible for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized health claims under the Nutrition and Labeling Education Act (NLEA). Health claims have already been authorized for folic acid and calcium, but not for several others. In 1994, when the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was passed, it expanded and clarified the definition of DS, specified additional requirements for safety and provided for four types of claims of nutritional support. These include prevention of classic nutritional deficiencies, structure or function (S/F) effects, mechanisms for S/F effects and general well-being. Although S/F effects result from both foods and drugs, representation that a product will treat, cure, mitigate or diagnose a disease is reserved for drugs. Therefore, the wording of S/F claims for DS has become a difficult issue in the proposed DS labeling regulations.

  20. Lifestyle and dietary risk factors for peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) usually refers to ischemia of the lower limb vessels. Currently, the estimated number of cases in the world is 202 million. PAD is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. The measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recommended as a first-line noninvasive test for screening and diagnosis of PAD. An ABI <0.90 is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and this measurement is useful to identify patients at moderate to high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening for PAD with the ABI in asymptomatic adults. Lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, dietary changes and physical activity, are currently the most cost-effective interventions. Inverse associations with PAD have been reported for some subtypes of dietary fats, fiber, antioxidants (vitamins E and C), folate, vitamins B6, B12 and D, flavonoids, and fruits and vegetables. A possible inverse association between better adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of symptomatic PAD has also been reported in a large randomized clinical trial. Therefore, a Mediterranean-style diet could be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of PAD, although further experimental studies are needed to better clarify this association.  (Circ J 2014; 78: 553-559).

  1. The use of dietary supplements in oncology.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sierpina, Victor

    2014-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements among patients affected by cancer is extensive, with an estimated 20-90 % of patients using these products. Their use of these products is often not shared with the treating physician. This is because patients perceive or believe that their physicians are indifferent or negative toward the use of dietary supplements. As a result, patients may obtain information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unnecessary risks. Since there are limited scientific data on the efficacy and safety of many dietary supplements, advising patients about when to use them during the course of illness is a clinical challenge. Improving the communication process between the health care team and their patients in this area is critical. We describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care. This approach makes use of all available scientific data relating to the safety and efficacy of these supplements combined with how to have an open, patient-centered discussion with patients about their needs and expectations.

  2. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate.

  3. Trends of dietary habits in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Fleta, Jesus; Bueno-Lozano, Manuel; Lazaro, Aurora; Bueno, Gloria

    2010-02-01

    Lifestyle plays an important role in the development of obesity during childhood and adolescence. We provide up-to-date information about the relationship between obesity and food intake and dietary patterns in adolescents. Scientific evidence is increasing about the dietary factors associated with this relationship, specifically a low meal frequency, skipping breakfast, and a high consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Maybe some of the reviewed dietary factors could cluster in the same population of adolescents, increasing the individual risk. There is little information about dietary patterns and current time trends in adolescents; however, the available data seem to show that the tendency in the adolescent population worldwide is to increase those dietary factors related with obesity development. Public health efforts should be emphasized in order to decrease the current tendency. Regular family meals could serve as role models for healthy eating behaviors. Educational intervention programs for parents, aiming to modify the healthfulness of the diet, seems to be one of the most adequate tools to deal with the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  4. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  5.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    PubMed

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  6. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once. A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance. Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20–2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62–1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37–1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28–1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38–0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55–0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80–0.93) were negatively

  7. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38-0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school

  8. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38-0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school

  9. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ≥3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  10. The Impact of a Long-Term Reduction in Dietary Energy Density on Body Weight Within a Randomized Diet Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Pierce, John P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary energy density change on body weight in participants of a randomized trial. Intervention participants markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake while reducing energy intake from fat. Participants were 2,718 breast cancer survivors, aged 26−74 yr, with baseline mean body mass index of 27.3 kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). We assessed dietary intake by sets of four 24-h dietary recalls and validated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Weight and height were measured at baseline, 1 yr, and 4 yr. Dietary energy density was calculated using food but excluding beverages. Intervention participants significantly reduced dietary energy density compared to controls and maintained it over 4 yr—both in cross-sectional (P < 0.0001) and longitudinal (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001) analyses. Total energy intake or physical activity did not vary between groups. The intervention group had a small but significant weight loss at 1 yr (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001), but no between-group weight difference was observed at 4 yr. Our study showed that reducing dietary energy density did not result in a reduction in total energy intake and suggests that this strategy alone is not sufficient to promote long-term weight loss in a free-living population. PMID:18444133

  11. The impact of a long-term reduction in dietary energy density on body weight within a randomized diet trial.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Pierce, John P

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary energy density change on body weight in participants of a randomized trial. Intervention participants markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake while reducing energy intake from fat. Participants were 2,718 breast cancer survivors, aged 26-74 yr, with baseline mean body mass index of 27.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). We assessed dietary intake by sets of four 24-h dietary recalls and validated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Weight and height were measured at baseline, 1 yr, and 4 yr. Dietary energy density was calculated using food but excluding beverages. Intervention participants significantly reduced dietary energy density compared to controls and maintained it over 4 yr -- both in cross-sectional (P < 0.0001) and longitudinal (Group x Time interaction, P < 0.0001) analyses. Total energy intake or physical activity did not vary between groups. The intervention group had a small but significant weight loss at 1 yr (Group x Time interaction, P < 0.0001), but no between-group weight difference was observed at 4 yr. Our study showed that reducing dietary energy density did not result in a reduction in total energy intake and suggests that this strategy alone is not sufficient to promote long-term weight loss in a free-living population. PMID:18444133

  12. MODELED RESIDENTIAL CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE AND DOSE TO CHILDREN VIA DERMAL SURFACE RESIDUE CONTACT AND NON-DIETARY INGESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based stochastic model has been applied to estimate residential chlorpyrifos exposure and dace to children via the non-dietary ingestion and dermal residue contact pathways. Time-location-activity data for 2825 children were sampled from national surveys to generat...

  13. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  14. Dietary and other lifestyle characteristics of Cypriot school children: results from the nationwide CYKIDS study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kouta, Christiana; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary and lifestyle behaviors at young ages have been associated with the development of various chronic diseases. Schools are regarded as an excellent setting for lifestyle modification; there is a lack, however, of published dietary data in Cypriot school children. Thus, the objective of this work was to describe lifestyle characteristics of a representative segment of Cypriot school children and provide implications for school health education. Methods The CYKIDS (Cyprus Kids Study) is a national, cross-sectional study conducted among 1140 school children (10.7 ± 0.98 years). Sampling was stratified and multistage in 24 primary schools of Cyprus. Dietary assessment was based on a 154-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and three supplementary questionnaires, assessing dietary patterns and behaviors. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated by the KIDMED index (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents). Physical activity was assessed by a 32-item, semi-quantitative questionnaire. Results Analysis revealed that 6.7% of the children were classified as high adherers, whereas 37% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 20% of boys and 25% of girls reported "not having breakfast on most days of the week", while more than 80% of the children reported having meals with the family at least 5 times/week. Some food-related behaviors, such as intake of breakfast, were associated with socio-demographic factors, mostly with gender and the geomorphological characteristics of the living milieu. With respect to physical activity, boys reported higher levels compared to girls, however, one fourth of children did not report any kind of physical activity. Conclusion A large percentage of Cypriot school children have a diet of low quality and inadequate physical activity. Public health policy makers should urgently focus their attention to primary school children and design school health education programs that

  15. The Inadmissibility of ‘What We Eat In America’ (WWEIA) and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition & Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BM; e.g., interviews, surveys). The reliance on M-BM to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. M-BM data are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support, and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BM has wasted significant resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BM are fundamentally and fatally flawed due to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BM require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (i.e., not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (i.e., memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, nor falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and the continued funding of M-BM constitutes an unscientific and significant misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  16. The Inadmissibility of What We Eat in America and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition and Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-07-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BMs) (eg, interviews and surveys). The reliance on M-BMs to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. Data from M-BMs are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BMs has wasted substantial resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BMs are fundamentally and fatally flawed owing to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BMs require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (ie, not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (ie, memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, or falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and that the continued funding of M-BMs constitutes an unscientific and major misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  17. Ensuring the safety of botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, Richard B; Fong, Harry Hs; Farnsworth, Norman R

    2008-02-01

    Botanical dietary supplements with a history of safe human use may not require the same level of toxicity testing as synthetic pharmaceutical drugs. Most of the documented examples of acute toxicity caused by botanical dietary supplements have been caused by the substitution of toxic plants for the desired species, probably through misidentification or production errors, or by contamination with pharmaceutical agents, either as a result of poor manufacturing practices or adulteration. Although more difficult to document, chronic toxicities attributed to botanical dietary supplements may be caused by contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, or microbes or by inherent properties of constituents of the botanicals themselves. Like drug-drug interactions, botanical-drug interactions can also be a source of toxicity. Most of these toxicity problems may be prevented by implementing good agricultural practices and good manufacturing practices and applying existing toxicity testing similar to those used in drug development or new toxicity assays under development based on proteomics, genomics, or metabolomics.

  18. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  19. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  20. Dietary management of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Moser, H W; Borel, J

    1995-01-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder that involves mainly the nervous system white matter and adrenal cortex. It is associated with the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), such as hexacosanoic acid (C26:0), that occurs as a result of the impaired capacity to degrade these substances, a reaction that normally takes place in the peroxisome. The VLCFAs originate from the diet and are also synthesized endogenously. Interest in dietary therapy arose from the observation that the administration of oils containing erucic and oleic acid (Lorenzo's oil), when combined with restriction of dietary intake of VLCFAs, can normalize plasma VLCFA levels in ALD patients. Clinical results in patients who are already symptomatic have been disappointing. However, preliminary data, still in need of confirmation, suggest that dietary therapy begun in asymptomatic patients can reduce the frequency and severity of later neurological disability.

  1. Dietary RNAs: New Stories Regarding Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Farmer, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are important regulators of various developmental processes in both plants and animals. Several years ago, a report showed the detection of diet-derived plant miRNAs in mammalian tissues and their regulation of mammalian genes, challenging the traditional functions of plant miRNAs. Subsequently, multiple efforts have attempted to replicate these findings, with the results arguing against the uptake of plant dietary miRNAs in healthy consumers. Moreover, several reports suggest the potential for “false positive” detection of plant miRNAs in human tissues. Meanwhile, some research continues to suggest both the presence and function of dietary miRNAs in mammalian tissues. Here we review the recent literature and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of emerging work that suggests the feasibility of dietary delivery of miRNAs. We also discuss future experimental approaches to address this controversial topic. PMID:25942490

  2. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  3. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  4. Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Bao, Ying; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2014-01-01

    Background While unopposed estrogen exposure is considered the main driver of endometrial carcinogenesis, factors associated with states of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are independently associated with endometrial cancer risk. We used dietary insulin load and insulin index scores to represent the estimated insulin demand of overall diets and assessed their association with endometrial cancer risk in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study. Methods We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of invasive endometrial cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. Between the baseline dietary questionnaire (1980) and 2010, we identified a total of 798 incident invasive epithelial endometrial adenocarcinomas over 1,417,167 person-years of follow-up. Results Dietary insulin scores were not associated with overall risk of endometrial cancer. Comparing women in the highest to the lowest quintile, the multivariable-adjusted RRs of endometrial cancer were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.35) for cumulative average dietary insulin load and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.31) for cumulative average dietary insulin index. Findings did not vary substantially by alcohol consumption, total dietary fiber intake, or BMI and/or physical activity (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.10). Conclusions Intake of a diet predicted to stimulate a high postprandial insulin response was not associated with endometrial cancer risk in this large prospective study. Considering the complex interplay of diet, lifestyle and genetic factors contributing to the hyperinsulinemic state, dietary measures alone may not sufficiently capture absolute long-term insulin exposure. Impact This study is the first to investigate dietary insulin scores in relation to endometrial cancer risk. PMID:24859872

  5. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  6. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  7. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  8. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  9. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  10. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  11. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2006-03-27

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was enacted in October 1994 to promote the health of Americans by ensuring easier access to safe dietary supplements. Many supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs and amino acids have been reported to be helpful in chronic conditions (i.e., heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis). Under DSHEA, dietary supplements can be marketed without prior FDA approval; the burden is on this agency to show that a marketed dietary supplement is unsafe. However, DSHEA retained the FDA's authority to issue regulations that require the manufacture of dietary supplements be in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards, which are needed to ensure their quality. Several quality-related concerns of marketed dietary supplements that came to light since the passage of DSHEA prompted the FDA in 2003 to propose rules for cGMP for the manufacture, packaging and holding (storage) of dietary supplements. This review will present the highlights of these proposed rules, focusing on the legislative history of DSHEA, rationale for proposing cGMPs along with a general discussion of the specific requirements. Given the voluminous nature of the specific details, the reader is directed to the pertinent FDA publications for details. In this analysis, selected scientific and legal issues are also discussed to promote a better understanding and implications of these rules.

  12. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of malondialdehyde DNA adducts in a representative sample of the Florence City population.

    PubMed

    Saieva, Calogero; Peluso, Marco; Palli, Domenico; Cellai, Filippo; Ceroti, Marco; Selvi, Valeria; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Assedi, Melania; Munnia, Armelle; Masala, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound that can react with DNA to form several types of DNA adducts including the deoxyguanosine adduct (M1dG). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between individual dietary and lifestyle habits and M1dG levels, measured in peripheral leukocytes in a large representative sample of the general population of Florence City (Italy). Selected anthropometric measurements, detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and blood samples were available for 313 adults of the Florence City Sample enrolled in the frame of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. A multivariate regression analysis adjusted for selected individual characteristics possibly related to M1dG levels (sex, age, BMI, smoke, physical activity level, education level, total caloric intake and a Mediterranean dietary score) was performed to estimate the association between these parameters and M1dG levels. M1dG levels were significantly higher in women (P = 0.014) and lower in moderately active or active subjects (P = 0.037).We also found a significant inverse association with the Modified Mediterranean dietary score (P for trend = 0.049), particularly evident for the highest categories of adherence. Our results indicate that M1dG levels can be modulated by selected individual characteristics such as gender, physical activity and a Mediterranean dietary pattern.

  13. [Diet counseling through "Shoku-dietary Coaching"].

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Naoko

    2005-11-01

    "Shoku-dietary Coaching" is a skill under development by Kageyama, who applies "coaching," widely used in the business field, to diet counseling. This counseling aims at improving conventional "nutritional guidance-type diet counseling" and promoting self-motivation so that healthy clients eagerly improve their own health, and clients with obesity or lifestyle-related diseases can learn self-control. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, the basis for the differentiation between healthy and unhealthy conditions is not only the parameters measured by medical devices. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, attention is directed to clients' assessment of their own lifestyle, dietary goals they have, and actions they will take to achieve them. To increase the health level of clients, we are developing techniques to enhance their motivation by showing sympathy with and support for their dietary behavior and health awareness. In addition, we give guidance through both theory and the practice of such things as having three meals a day at regular hours, knowing the kinds and daily amounts of foods appropriate for each client, and clarifying the percentages of seasonings necessary for cooking. The habit of having meals at regular hours alleviates stress, promotes communication with people sitting at the same table, and increases the health level of both the client and the others. These are important elements in the theory of Shoku-dietary Coaching. Putting the above into practice should not be limited to clients, but should include the clinic staff so as to deepen their own understanding and communication. Enhanced communication reinforces team medical care in the clinic. Communication skills which involve respect for others, continuous motivation of individuals, and achievement of purposes that may even require a long time may be useful for all people.

  14. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one of the two conditions: 1) a high fiber diet and 2) the American Heart Association (AHA) diet. In the high fiber diet condition, patients will be given instruction only on achieving daily dietary fiber intake of 30 g or more. In the AHA diet condition, patients will be instructed to make the several dietary changes recommended by the AHA 2006 guidelines. The trial examines participant weight loss and dietary quality as well as changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory biomarkers, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels, and glycosolated hemoglobin. Potential mediators, i.e., diet adherence and perceived ease of the diet, and the intervention effect on weight change will also be examined. Discussions The purpose of this paper is to outline the study design and methods for testing the simple message of increasing dietary fiber. If the simple dietary approach is found efficacious for weight loss; and, improves dietary quality, metabolic health, and adherence, it might then be used to develop a simple public health message. Trial registration NCT00911885 PMID:20042092

  15. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  16. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  17. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love.

  18. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y; Kubota, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1998-05-01

    Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at the dietary levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm, respectively, for 7 successive days. The increasing amount of SQ transferred into the whole egg during SQ feeding could be well described by the following equation: [equation: see text] where y is the SQ content (ppm) in the whole egg, x is the dietary SQ level (ppm), T is days on SQ feeding (T < or = 4). After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. PMID:9697423

  19. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Background Familial history of obesity (FHO) and certain dietary habits are risk factors for obesity. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were 1) to derive dietary patterns using factor analysis in a population of men and women with and without FHO; 2) to compare mean factor scores for each dietary pattern between individuals with and without FHO; and 3) to examine the association between these patterns and anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Methods A total of 197 women and 129 men with a body mass index <30 kg/m2 were recruited. A positive FHO (FHO+) was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO-) as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Mean factor scores were compared using general linear model among men and women according to FHO. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. Results Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women : the Western pattern characterized by a higher consumption of red meats, poultry, processed meats, refined grains as well as desserts, and the Prudent pattern characterized by greater intakes of vegetables, fruits, non-hydrogenated fat, and fish and seafood. Similar Western and Prudent factor scores were observed in individual with and without FHO. In men with FHO+, the Western pattern is negatively associated with age and positively associated with physical activity, smoking, and personal income. In women with FHO-, the Prudent pattern is negatively associated with BMI and smoking and these pattern is positively associated with age and physical activity. Conclusion Two dietary patterns have been identified among men and women with and without FHO. Although that FHO does not seem to influence the adherence to dietary patterns

  20. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159836.html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sufficient dietary levels of the mineral nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good ...

  1. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART 3: MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...

  2. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  3. Use of accelerometer data in prediction equations for capturing implausible dietary intakes in adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sabrina E; Mattocks, Calum; Emmett, Pauline; Riddoch, Chris J; Ness, Andrew R; Newby, PK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reporting errors have been quantified in epidemiologic studies by comparing reported intakes with predicted energy requirements (pERs). Several studies lacking measures of physical activity level (PAL) assigned low-active levels to obtain pERs. Objective: We applied objective physical activity measures to current methods to quantify dietary reporting errors and compared associations with anthropometric and dietary variables among plausible and implausible reporters. Design: This study included 2868 adolescents with an average age of 13 y. Three-day dietary records, accelerometers, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to assess diet, activity, and body composition, respectively. Three variations of physical activity coefficients were used: 1) assigning low physical activity coefficients (PAlow), 2) calculating PAL values (PAPAL), and 3) applying minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PAMVPA). Results: Of the total participants, 51.5%, 51.8%, and 37.1% of the PAlow, PAPAL, and PAMVPA groups, respectively, were classified as underreporters, and 40.8%, 37.9%, and 42.4% of the respective groups were classified as plausible reporters. Underreporters had a higher body mass index, body fat, and waist circumference than did plausible reporters (P < 0.001 for all). Overreporters had a lower weight and body fat than did plausible reporters (P < 0.001 for all). Underreporters reported lower dairy and calcium intakes than did plausible reporters; the results were attenuated with adjustment for total energy. Conclusion: Accounting for objective physical activity measures to quantify reporting errors resulted in different and potentially more reasonable proportions of implausible reporters. PMID:20881064

  4. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen experiments in physics are described to demonstrate various physical phenomena. These include the areas of velocity of sound, damped oscillations, plastic deformation of wires, materials, testing, air resistance, spectrum optical filtering, and some new improvised apparatus. (PS)

  5. Physical Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical stimulus. Physical stimuli include the following: Cold Sunlight Heat or other stimuli that cause sweating (such ... a foreign substance and attacks it. Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) is an example. Ultraviolet light changes proteins ...

  6. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are 13 physics experiments/demonstrations applicable to introductory physics courses. Activities include: improved current balance, division circuits, liquid pressure, convection, siphons, oscillators and modulation, electrical resistance, soap films, Helmholtz coils, radioactive decay, and springs. (SL)

  7. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents nine physics notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) speed of sound in a steel rod; (2) physics extracts-part four (1978); and (3) a graphical approach to acceleration. (HM)

  8. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined.

  9. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  10. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  11. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  12. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  13. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  14. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  15. Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

  16. Dietary linoleic acid-induced alterations in pro- and anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Amit; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Yang, Jun; Blanchard, Helene; Zamora, Daisy; Loewke, James D; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Hammock, Bruce D; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic idiopathic pain syndromes are major causes of personal suffering, disability, and societal expense. Dietary n-6 linoleic acid has increased markedly in modern industrialized populations over the past century. These high amounts of linoleic acid could hypothetically predispose to physical pain by increasing the production of pro-nociceptive linoleic acid-derived lipid autacoids and by interfering with the production of anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids derived from n-3 fatty acids. Here, we used a rat model to determine the effect of increasing dietary linoleic acid as a controlled variable for 15 weeks on nociceptive lipid autacoids and their precursor n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in tissues associated with idiopathic pain syndromes. Results Increasing dietary linoleic acid markedly increased the abundance of linoleic acid and its pro-nociceptive derivatives and reduced the abundance of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and their anti-nociceptive monoepoxide derivatives. Diet-induced changes occurred in a tissue-specific manner, with marked alterations of nociceptive lipid autacoids in both peripheral and central tissues, and the most pronounced changes in their fatty acid precursors in peripheral tissues. Conclusions The present findings provide biochemical support for the hypothesis that the high linoleic acid content of modern industrialized diets may create a biochemical susceptibility to develop chronic pain. Dietary linoleic acid lowering should be further investigated as part of an integrative strategy for the prevention and management of idiopathic pain syndromes. PMID:27030719

  17. A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the amount or quality of carbohydrate in diet is associated with ovulatory infertility. Subjects and Methods 18,555 married, pre-menopausal women without a history of infertility were followed as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an eight-year period. Diet was assessed twice during follow-up using a validated food-frequency questionnaire and prospectively related to the incidence of infertility due ovulatory disorder. Results During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. Total carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic load were positively related to ovulatory infertility in analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, parity, physical activity, recency of contraception, total energy intake, protein intake, and other dietary variables. The multivariable-adjusted risk ratio [RR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to lowest quintile of total carbohydrate intake was 1.91 (1.27 – 3.02). The corresponding RR (95% CI) for dietary glycemic load was 1.92 (1.26 – 2.92). Dietary glycemic index was positively related to ovulatory infertility only among nulliparous women. Intakes of fiber from different sources were unrelated to ovulatory infertility risk. Conclusions The amount and quality of carbohydrate in diet may be important determinants of ovulation and fertility in healthy women. PMID:17882137

  18. Higher Cognitive Performance Is Prospectively Associated with Healthy Dietary Choices: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Davey, A.; Alkerwi, A.; Dore, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few studies have examined whether cognitive function predicts dietary intake. The majority of research has focused on how diet can influence cognitive performance or risk for cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between cognitive performance and dietary intake in participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. DESIGN A prospective study with neuropsychological testing at baseline and nutritional assessments measured a mean of 18 years later. SETTING Community-dwelling individuals residing in central New York state. PARTICIPANTS 333 participants free of dementia and stroke. MEASUREMENTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was assessed at baseline and dietary intake was measured using the Nutrition and Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Higher WAIS Scores at baseline were prospectively associated with higher intakes of vegetables, meats, nuts and legumes, and fish, but inversely associated with consumption of total grains and carbonated soft drinks. After adjustment for sample selection, socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity), and cardiovascular risk factors, the relations between higher cognitive performance and greater consumption of vegetables, meat, and fish, and lower consumption of grains remained significant. CONCLUSION These data suggest that cognition early in life may influence dietary choices later in life. PMID:26878011

  19. Dietary Education in School-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs12

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review school based interventions designed to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity that focused on modifying dietary behavior and were published between 2000 and May 2009. A total of 25 interventions met the criteria. The grade range of these interventions was from K to 12; 13 studies exclusively targeted elementary school, 2 targeted both elementary and middle school, 9 exclusively targeted middle school, and 1 targeted high school. The majority of the interventions focused on both dietary and physical activity behaviors, whereas 8 interventions focused exclusively on dietary behaviors. Approximately one-half of the interventions were based on a behavioral theory. In terms of duration, 13 were longer than 6 mo, 4 were less than 1 mo, and 8 had a duration between 1 and 6 mo. The majority of the interventions were implemented by teachers. In terms of activities, almost all interventions had a curricular component except 2 that distributed free fruit or vegetables. Besides curricular instructions, parental and family involvement was also utilized by several interventions. Environmental and policy changes were used in 7 interventions. For evaluation, the 2 most popular designs were experimental design with random assignment at group level and quasi experimental design, both of which were used by 9 interventions each. In terms of impact on adiposity indices, only 14 interventions measured it and only 6 of those were able to demonstrate significant changes. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of school based dietary education interventions for childhood obesity prevention are presented. PMID:22332053

  20. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  1. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  2. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  3. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  4. Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christine C

    2014-09-01

    This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis.

  5. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  6. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., palatable, well-balanced diet that meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident...) Substitutes offered of similar nutritive value to residents who refuse food served. (e) Therapeutic diets. Therapeutic diets must be prescribed by the attending physician. (f) Frequency of meals. (1) Each...

  7. Dietary attitudes and diseases of comfort.

    PubMed

    Allegri, C; Turconi, G; Cena, H

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews Western dietary attitudes and lifestyle choices by identifying the environmental, social and personal factors that determine said attitudes and choices. Environmental factors exert a major influence on, and complicate, dietary behavior, primarily by facilitating the consumption of meals away from home and by minimizing time dedicated to meal preparation and consumption. Social factors, from mass media to advertising and cultural traditions, also influence food intake, to an extent that is still underestimated. Ignorance of the real influence of environment and society on food choices could well blind consumers to the real significance of such choices. Accordingly, this review discusses differing aspects of emerging dietary trends and/or philosophies, and underlines their potentially harmful influence on health. Western countries are increasingly witnessing a dichotomy between the findings of nutritional science and the choices that dietary trends propose and impose. Coinciding with the obesity epidemic and the spread of other food-related diseases, this dichotomy calls for the development of effective preventive strategies.

  8. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  9. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  10. Dietary Issues Inpatients Face With Being Vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Dunlop, Julie A.; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature from 1985 through 2010 on research related to the dietary issues vegetarian inpatients may encounter in the acute care setting. A thematic portrayal of vegetarianism in the context of the inpatient setting is described. Implications for future research and nursing practice are identified. PMID:22157507

  11. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS... statement articulating the religious motivation for participation in the religious diet program. (b)...

  12. Mechanisms underlying immune effects of dietary oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jeurink, Prescilla V; van Esch, Betty C A M; Rijnierse, Anneke; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Léon M J

    2013-08-01

    The WHO refers to human milk as the nutritional gold standard for term infants. Human milk contains many immunomodulatory compounds, including oligosaccharides. Human-milk oligosaccharides can serve as prebiotics because the nondigestible oligosaccharides present in human milk show a clear bifidogenic effect on the gut microbiota. Dietary oligosaccharide structures that have prebiotic effects similar to human-milk oligosaccharides include galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. Both animal studies and human clinical trials showed that dietary intervention with these dietary oligosaccharides in early life could lead to the prevention of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and allergic asthma. The immune-modulating effects of these oligosaccharides are likely assisted via alteration of the intestinal microbiota or in a microbiota-independent manner by direct interaction on immune cells or both. In this review, an overview of the prebiotic role of dietary oligosaccharides on the microbiota and the microbiota-independent immune modulation by these prebiotics is provided. In addition, recent publications that report on the pathways by which the oligosaccharides might exert their direct immunomodulatory effect are summarized.

  13. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  14. MEASURING DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children do not consume foods in a structured manner. Their foods contact surfaces (hands, floors, eating surfaces, etc.) that may be contaminated while they are eating them. Thus, dietary exposures of young children are difficult to accurately assess or measure. A recen...

  15. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  16. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  17. Dietary attitudes and diseases of comfort.

    PubMed

    Allegri, C; Turconi, G; Cena, H

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews Western dietary attitudes and lifestyle choices by identifying the environmental, social and personal factors that determine said attitudes and choices. Environmental factors exert a major influence on, and complicate, dietary behavior, primarily by facilitating the consumption of meals away from home and by minimizing time dedicated to meal preparation and consumption. Social factors, from mass media to advertising and cultural traditions, also influence food intake, to an extent that is still underestimated. Ignorance of the real influence of environment and society on food choices could well blind consumers to the real significance of such choices. Accordingly, this review discusses differing aspects of emerging dietary trends and/or philosophies, and underlines their potentially harmful influence on health. Western countries are increasingly witnessing a dichotomy between the findings of nutritional science and the choices that dietary trends propose and impose. Coinciding with the obesity epidemic and the spread of other food-related diseases, this dichotomy calls for the development of effective preventive strategies. PMID:22526128

  18. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  19. Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein ingestion results in higher ratings of satiety than equicaloric amounts of carbohydrates or fat. Their effect on satiety is mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess; this effect is higher with ingestion of specific "incomplete" proteins (vegetal) than with animal proteins. Diet-induced thermogenesis is higher for proteins than for other macronutrients. The increase in energy expenditure is caused by protein and urea synthesis and by gluconeogenesis. This effect is higher with animal proteins containing larger amounts of essential amino acids than with vegetable proteins. Specifically, diet-induced thermogenesis increases after protein ingestion by 20 - 30 %, but by only 5 - 10 % after carbohydrates and 0 - 5 % after ingestion of fat. Consumption of higher amounts of protein during dietary treatment of obesity resulted in greater weight loss than with lower amounts of protein in dietary studies lasting up to one year. During weight loss and decreased caloric intake, a relatively increased protein content of the diet maintained fat-free mass (i. e. muscle mass) and increased calcium balance, resulting in preservation of bone mineral content. This is of particular importance during weight loss after bariatric surgery because these patients are at risk for protein malnutrition. Adequate dietary protein intake in diabetes type 2 is of specific importance since proteins are relatively neutral with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism, and they preserve muscle and bone mass, which may be decreased in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes. Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen

  20. Prediction of rumen fiber pool in cattle from dietary, fecal, and animal variables.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Detmann, E; Krizsan, S J

    2016-07-01

    Feed intake control in ruminants is based on the integration of physical constraints and metabolic feedbacks. Physical constraints are related to the fill caused by the weight or volume of digesta in the reticulo-rumen. The amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the rumen (RNDF) may be used as an indicator of rumen fill. The objective of this study was to develop equations predicting RNDF from diet and animal characteristics using a meta-analysis technique. A treatment mean data set (n=314) was obtained from 84 studies, in which rumen pool size and diet digestibility were determined in lactating cows (n=231) or growing cattle (n=83). The data were analyzed using linear and nonlinear mixed models. Intake, rumen pool size, and fecal output of NDF were scaled to body weight (BW)(1.0). Due to the heterogeneous nature of dietary NDF, predictions of RNDF based on NDF intake were not precise. Predictions were markedly improved by dividing NDF into potentially digestible and indigestible fractions, because rumen turnover time of indigestible NDF was 2.7 times longer than that of potentially digestible NDF. At equal NDF intake, RNDF was negatively associated with dietary crude protein concentration and positively with the proportion of concentrate in the diet. Models based on fecal NDF output generally performed better than those based on NDF intake, probably because the effects of intrinsic characteristics of dietary cell walls and associative effects of dietary components collectively influence fecal NDF output. The model based on fecal NDF output was improved by including dietary concentration of forage NDF in the model, reflecting slower turnover of forage NDF compared with concentrate NDF. The curvilinear relationship between fecal NDF output and RNDF could be described by a quadratic, Mitscherlich, or power function equation, which performed better than the quadratic or Mitscherlich equation. In addition to fecal NDF output and dietary concentration of forage NDF

  1. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  2. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress.

  3. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  4. Nutrition, physical activity, and blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ideno, K T; Kubena, K S

    1989-01-01

    Forty noninstitutionalized elderly subjects, ages 65-86 years, were recruited for a study to determine relationships between nutritional status, physical activity, and blood pressure. A 24-hour recall of dietary intake and activities, health history, skinfolds, circumferences, height, weight, and blood pressure were obtained. Obesity was associated with hypertension in this group of elderly subjects. Truncal skinfolds (abdomen and subscapula) were positively correlated (P less than .05) with systolic blood pressure while body mass index, dietary magnesium and dietary calcium to magnesium ratio were directly related (P less than .05) to diastolic blood pressure. Physical activity and energy expenditure were not correlated (P greater than .05) with blood pressure in this study; however, the level of activity did not include strenuous exercise.

  5. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Claudia P.; de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide and it is associated with other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are not completely established and there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. In the gold standard treatment for NAFLD weight loss, dietary therapy, and physical activity are included. However, little scientific evidence is available on diet and/or physical activity and NAFLD specifically. Many dietary approaches such as Mediterranean and DASH diet are used for treatment of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but on the basis of its components their role in NAFLD has been discussed. In this review, the implications of current dietary and exercise approaches, including Brazilian and other guidelines, are discussed, with a focus on determining the optimal nonpharmacological treatment to prescribe for NAFLD. PMID:26770987

  6. The Relationship of Parental Mental Health and Dietary Pattern With Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068

  7. [Dietary pattern and nutritional status of metalworkers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Lourenço, Paulo Maurício

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status, dietary and leisure-time physical activity patterns, and energy intake of 65 male metalworkers aged 19 to 58 years from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described in the context of a surveillance build-up system. Mean body mass index was 25.0 kg/m2 (44.6% of the workers were overweight), and mean daily energy intake was 3,209.1 kcal, with a macronutrient distribution of 17.8%, 21.8%, and 60.6% of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively. The most frequently eaten foods were rice, beans, bread, coffee, sugar, butter, juice, whole milk, soda, beef, and poultry. Vegetable, fruit, meat, and egg intakes were higher than the Food Pyramid Guide suggested portions. The results show a paradox for a surveillance system: (1) high prevalence of overweight, but dietary macronutrients within internationally recommended levels; (2) a well-balanced dietary pattern; and (3) some leisure-time physical activity in half of the workers. PMID:15300284

  8. Dietary sodium bicarbonate as a treatment for exertional rhabdomyolysis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Robb, E J; Kronfeld, D S

    1986-03-15

    A 3-year-old mare repeatedly had clinical signs of rhabdomyolysis on mild exertion. Serum creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase activities were high at rest. Responses to dietary sodium bicarbonate were tested through 7 alternating periods of supplementation of a basal ration of timothy hay and oats. Physical signs; venous blood pH and gases; blood glucose and lactate; serum electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine; and urine pH were monitored before and after exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate raised resting venous blood pH and bicarbonate slightly and significantly increased urine pH from pH 7.46 to 8.2 (P less than 0.001). An exercise test included 5 minutes at the walk followed by 20 minutes at the trot. The exercise induced gait stiffness, muscle fasciculations, and muscle induration when the diet was not supplemented, but not when it was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate. Myoglobin was present in 16 of 21 urine samples after exercise during nonsupplemented periods, but only in 3 of 28 urine samples during supplemented periods (P less than 0.0001). Bicarbonate supplementation significantly decreased the responses of blood lactic acid, serum creatine kinase, and aspartate transaminase to exercise. Supplementation of the diet was associated with higher venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentrations throughout exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate apparently mitigated or prevented physical, chemical, and enzymatic characteristics of exertional rhabdomyolysis in this mare, possibly through its enhancement of buffering capacity in muscle tissue fluids.

  9. Dietary fiber information for individuals with Crohn disease: reports of gastrointestinal effects.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Carol S; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of individuals with Crohn disease before and after receiving dietary fiber information have not been described in the literature. This article offers findings from a study that used four semistructured audiorecorded interviews during a 4-week time period for the purpose of exploring the experiences of 11 individuals before and after receiving dietary fiber information from a healthcare professional. The first and second interviews occurred immediately before and after the presentation of information. Follow-up interviews occurred at 2-week intervals. Thematic analysis of the baseline interviews revealed 2 themes: (a) accepting a redefined (lower expectations) definition of normal quality of life and (b) continuing to look for answers. Three themes emerged from the follow-up interviews at Week 4: (a) reevaluating old diet-related concepts, (b) enjoying a healthier lifestyle at a self-set pace, and (c) enjoying positive physical effects of wheat bran consumption. This article examines the 3rd postintervention theme, "enjoying physical effects of wheat bran consumption." The relevance of this research is that nurses equipped with dietary fiber information may be better able to help some individuals with Crohn disease to explore the potential benefits of a well-rounded nutritious pattern of eating that includes wheat bran cereal. PMID:24084130

  10. The Association of Socio-Demographic Status, Lifestyle Factors and Dietary Patterns with Total Urinary Phthalates in Australian Men

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Peter Y.; Wittert, Gary A.; Taylor, Anne W.; Martin, Sean A.; Milne, Robert W.; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. Method We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Results Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5–117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001), were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status. Conclusion Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men. PMID:25875472

  11. Dietary phosphorus intake and mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease: NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Filipowicz, Rebecca; Baird, Bradley C.; Wei, Guo; Greene, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary phosphorus intake is usually restricted in dialysis patients but the associations of dietary phosphorus intake with mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unknown. Therefore, we examined these associations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Methods. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recalls administered by trained personnel. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Time to mortality was examined by Cox regression models taking into account the complex survey design. Results. 1105 adults with CKD were studied. Phosphorus intake was 1033 ± 482 mg/day (mean ± SD), eGFR was 49.3 ± 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 and serum phosphorus was 3.5 ± 0.5 mg/dL. Compared to those in the lowest tertile of phosphorus intake (mean 532 ± 161 mg/day), those in the highest third (1478 ± 378 mg/day) had similar serum phosphorus levels (3.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.5 ± 0.6 mg/dL, P = 0.113) and modestly higher eGFR (50.0 ± 8.1 versus 47.5 ± 12.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.014). After adjustment for demographics, comorbidity, eGFR, physical activity, energy intake and nutritional variables, phosphorus intake was not associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98 per 100 mg/dL increase, 0.93–1.03]. Conclusions. High dietary phosphorus intake is not associated with increased mortality in moderate CKD, presumably because serum phosphorus levels are maintained in the normal range at this level of GFR. Interventional trials are needed to define optimal phosphorus intake in moderate CKD. PMID:21810769

  12. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background : Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective : The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design : The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29-49 years at baseline (1991-1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results : Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions : Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  13. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  14. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process.

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Dietary Patterns: The FinDrink Study

    PubMed Central

    Fawehinmi, Timothy O.; Ilomäki, Jenni; Voutilainen, Sari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53–73 years were included in the study in 1998–2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12–167.9 grams for men, 12–83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥168 grams for men, ≥84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to

  16. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  17. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  18. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  19. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  20. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  1. Dietary Habits of Saudi Medical Students at University of Dammam

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the dietary habits and life style of medical students. Design: Methods This is a cross sectional study as self-reported questionnaire for the male and female medical students at College of Medicine University of Dammam, eastern province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, comparing their habits and life style according to their gender and to their academic levels; 1st, 3rd and 6th year. Results 562 students participated in the study with response rate of 91%, average age: 20.2776± 2.06175), males students were 333 (59.25%) and female students were 229 (40.75%) corresponding to the actual male to female ratio in this medical school. The majority of the students (91.3%) were consuming fast foods, majority are males (85%) do it 3 times or more per week, only 8.7% denied eating fast food with no significant difference between the three academic levels. Majority of students are aware of the benefits of the vegetables and fruits and the disadvantage of the soft drinks yet most of them consume a lot of soft drinks and less of vegetables and fruits. Physical exercise was not done regularly in 65% of the male medical students and 80% of the female with almost similar percentage in all the three levels. Conclusion Contrary to the expectations and regardless of studying in medical college, our medical students; both male and females at different academic levels are having major bad dietary habits and life style that is comparable to the general population in the kingdom. PMID:27610058

  2. Dietary Habits of Saudi Medical Students at University of Dammam

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the dietary habits and life style of medical students. Design: Methods This is a cross sectional study as self-reported questionnaire for the male and female medical students at College of Medicine University of Dammam, eastern province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, comparing their habits and life style according to their gender and to their academic levels; 1st, 3rd and 6th year. Results 562 students participated in the study with response rate of 91%, average age: 20.2776± 2.06175), males students were 333 (59.25%) and female students were 229 (40.75%) corresponding to the actual male to female ratio in this medical school. The majority of the students (91.3%) were consuming fast foods, majority are males (85%) do it 3 times or more per week, only 8.7% denied eating fast food with no significant difference between the three academic levels. Majority of students are aware of the benefits of the vegetables and fruits and the disadvantage of the soft drinks yet most of them consume a lot of soft drinks and less of vegetables and fruits. Physical exercise was not done regularly in 65% of the male medical students and 80% of the female with almost similar percentage in all the three levels. Conclusion Contrary to the expectations and regardless of studying in medical college, our medical students; both male and females at different academic levels are having major bad dietary habits and life style that is comparable to the general population in the kingdom.

  3. Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly Study.

    PubMed

    Hertog, M G; Feskens, E J; Hollman, P C; Katan, M B; Kromhout, D

    1994-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants naturally present in vegetable foods. Some flavonoids, such as quercetin, inhibit carcinogenesis in rodents, but their effect in humans is unknown. We measured the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin in foods and assessed flavonoid intake in 1985 by dietary history in 738 men aged 65-84 years without a history of cancer, who were then followed for five years. Mean flavonoid intake was 25.9 mg/day. The major sources of flavonoid intake were tea at 61% and vegetables and fruits (mainly onions, kale, endive, and apples) at 38%. Between 1985 and 1990, 75 men developed cancer (all sites) and 34 men died from cancer. Flavonoid intake in 1985 was not associated with incidence of all-cause cancer (p for trend = 0.54) or with mortality from all-cause cancer (p for trend = 0.51). Flavonoid intake was also not associated with risk of cancers of the alimentary and respiratory tract (p for trend = 0.92). Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and dietary fiber intake did not change the relative risks. A high intake of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits only was inversely associated with risk of cancer of the alimentary and respiratory tract (relative risk of highest vs. lowest tertile = 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.25-1.05); these results suggest the presence of other nonvitamin components with anticarcinogenic potential in these foods. We conclude that intake of flavonoids, mainly from tea, apples, and onions, does not predict a reduced risk of all-cause cancer or of cancer of the alimentary and respiratory tract in elderly men. The effect of flavonoids on risk of cancer at specific sites needs further investigation in prospective cohort studies. PMID:14502846

  4. Effects of dietary components on cancer of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sara; Marzotto, Marta; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Bassi, Claudio; Bellavite, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Therefore, interventions to reduce levels of smoking, improve diet, and increase physical activity must become much higher priorities in the general population's health and health care systems. The consumption of fruit and vegetables exerts a preventive effect towards cancer and in recent years natural dietary agents have attracted great attention in the scientific community and among the general public. Foods, such as tomatoes, olive oil, broccoli, garlic, onions, berries, soy bean, honey, tea, aloe vera, grapes, rosemary, basil, chili peppers, carrots, pomegranate, and curcuma contain active components that can influence the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, acting on pathways implied in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. The present review illustrates the main foods and their active components, including their antioxidant, cytotoxic, and pro-apoptotic properties, with a particular focus on the evidence related to cancers of the digestive system. PMID:24841279

  5. Effects of dietary components on cancer of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sara; Marzotto, Marta; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Bassi, Claudio; Bellavite, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Therefore, interventions to reduce levels of smoking, improve diet, and increase physical activity must become much higher priorities in the general population's health and health care systems. The consumption of fruit and vegetables exerts a preventive effect towards cancer and in recent years natural dietary agents have attracted great attention in the scientific community and among the general public. Foods, such as tomatoes, olive oil, broccoli, garlic, onions, berries, soy bean, honey, tea, aloe vera, grapes, rosemary, basil, chili peppers, carrots, pomegranate, and curcuma contain active components that can influence the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, acting on pathways implied in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. The present review illustrates the main foods and their active components, including their antioxidant, cytotoxic, and pro-apoptotic properties, with a particular focus on the evidence related to cancers of the digestive system.

  6. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn.

  7. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn. PMID:26987024

  8. A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, D E; Prevost, A T; Whichelow, M J; Cox, B D; Day, N E; Wareham, N J

    2000-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated relationships between individual nutrients and glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, but the association with the overall pattern of dietary intake has not previously been described. In order to characterize this association, 802 subjects aged 40-65 years were randomly selected from a population-based sampling frame and underwent a 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test. Principal component analysis was used to identify four dietary patterns explaining 31.7% of the dietary variation in the study cohort. These dietary patterns were associated with other lifestyle factors including socio-economic group, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. Component 1 was characterized by a healthy balanced diet with a frequent intake of raw and salad vegetables, fruits in both summer and winter, fish, pasta and rice and low intake of fried foods, sausages, fried fish, and potatoes. This component was negatively correlated with central obesity, fasting plasma glucose, 120 min non-esterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol. It therefore appears to be protective for the metabolic syndrome. Component 1 was negatively associated with the risk of having undiagnosed diabetes, and this association was independent of age, sex, smoking and obesity. The findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are associated with other lifestyle factors and with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The results provide further evidence for the recommendation of a healthy balanced diet as one of the main components of chronic disease prevention.

  9. The type, amount, frequency and timing of dietary supplement use by elite players in the First Spanish Basketball League.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Mora, J; Seco, J; Torregrosa, J M; Tramullas, A

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the type, frequency and amount of dietary supplement consumption among a group of professional basketball players. The type, amount and specific timing of supplement use were recorded by 55 professional basketball players from seven different teams of the First Spanish Basketball League. Most participants (58%) consumed dietary supplements. Multivitamins and vitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the athletes (50.9%), followed by sport drinks (21.8%), miscellaneous supplements (21.8%), amino acids (14.5%), proteins (12.7%) and carbohydrates (12.7%). The average daily dietary supplement was one capsule of multivitamins, one capsule of antioxidant vitamins, 0.2-1.0 g vitamin C, 10.3 g protein, 1.9 g amino acids, 16.2 g carbohydrates and 377 ml of a commercial sport drink. Although the proportion of participants who consumed dietary supplements before, during and immediately after exercise was 25.4%, 16.3% and 7.3% respectively, only a few consumed a potentially ergogenic supplement at these times. It would appear unlikely that the type or amount of dietary supplements consumed had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of these professional basketball players, with the possible exception of antioxidant vitamins and the commercial sport drinks.

  10. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility.

  11. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility. PMID:25451101

  12. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2015-11-01

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16-41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice", "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese", and "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood". GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP). All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14%) had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4-17.0) for "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice" pattern, 7.5 (1.8-32.3) for "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese" pattern, and 22.3 (3.9-127.4) for "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood" pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake and log

  13. Interaction of dietary vitamin E with Eimeria maxima infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Fetterer, R H

    2002-01-01

    In two trials, broiler chickens, processed similarly to those placed in commercial operation, were fed, from 1 d of age, a range (13 to 200 ppm) of DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (VE-AC) levels, and the effects on the pathology of Eimeria maxima infections were assessed at 6 d postinoculation (PI). In Trial 1, dietary levels of VE-AC had little significant effect on variables characterizing pathology except for the number of oocysts shed, which was significantly increased in chicks treated with higher VE-AC levels. The infection was judged to be mild based on moderate lesion scores (2.2+/-0.2), lack of significant effects on weight gain (7+/-1.6% decrease), moderate reduction in plasma carotenoids (21+/-2%) and small increases in plasma NO2-+NO3- (141+/-12%). In uninfected and infected chickens, plasma alpha-tocopherol (AT) increased with dietary levels of VE-AC; however, E. maxima infection caused a fairly constant decrease in AT of 35.3+/-3.2% across these levels. Plasma gamma-tocopherol (GT) levels were unaffected by dietary VE-AC or E. maxima infection. In Trial 2, pathology, again, was relatively unaffected by dietary VE-AC level. The infection was judged to be severe based on lesion scores (3.5+/-0.1), reduction in weight gain (30.7+/-3%), plasma carotenoids (72.4+/-1.5%), uric acid (16.3+/-3.4), albumin (37.8+/-2.8%), large increases (261+/-8%) in plasma NO2-+NO3-, and high numbers of oocysts shed per chick (4.12+/-0.4 x 10(7)). Plasma AT again increased with increasing dietary VE-AC levels in uninfected and infected chicks, but the mean decrease across VE-AC levels caused by E. maxima infection was 73.14+/-3.3%. GT levels were erratic and unrelated to dietary VEAC or infection. Thus, in processed broiler chickens, high dietary VE-AC did not prevent or lessen the pathology caused by mild or severe infections with E. maxima. The main effect of E. maxima infection appeared to be reduction in plasma AT levels. We postulate that this reduction may be due to

  14. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2015-11-12

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16-41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice", "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese", and "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood". GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP). All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14%) had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4-17.0) for "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice" pattern, 7.5 (1.8-32.3) for "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese" pattern, and 22.3 (3.9-127.4) for "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood" pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake and log

  15. Diabetes in pregnancy--dietary management.

    PubMed

    Serci, Iolanda

    2008-06-01

    The provision of adequate energy and nutrients in the woman with DM is essential for normal fetal growth. However, dietary modifications including exercise are essential to normalise blood glycaemic levels and prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the evidence surrounding the nutritional management in GDM has been controversial. Dornhorst and Frost (2002) state that not only are there conflicting guidelines on nutritional management but disagreement as to the effectiveness of this on pregnancy outcomes. NICE (2008) has issued guidelines on the management of DM before, during and after pregnancy. Dietary prescriptions should include personal preference, body weight and type and level of exercise, blood glucose levels, ketone levels and any medications taken for the DM. Midwives must empower women to manage their condition through making appropriate and acceptable choices for their health and that of their baby. PMID:18564524

  16. Dietary modulation of the inflammatory cascade.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Branch-Mays, Grishondra; Gonzalez, Octavio A; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplementation has traditionally consisted of adding vitamins and/or minerals to correct or prevent a nutritional deficiency. When supplementing the diet with other inflammatory mediators, such as essential fatty acids, there is an adjunctive benefit to the standard therapies used in the control of chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis. This review focuses on the strategies utilized for therapeutic modulation of the inflammatory cascade through dietary supplementation with specific biomolecules. Examples of how these biomolecules affect local and systemic immune responses to chronic inflammation are examined. In particular, an overview of the literature identifying the potential to modify the host response to chronic periodontitis is provided. PMID:24320963

  17. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices. PMID:7754993

  18. Diabetes in pregnancy--dietary management.

    PubMed

    Serci, Iolanda

    2008-06-01

    The provision of adequate energy and nutrients in the woman with DM is essential for normal fetal growth. However, dietary modifications including exercise are essential to normalise blood glycaemic levels and prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the evidence surrounding the nutritional management in GDM has been controversial. Dornhorst and Frost (2002) state that not only are there conflicting guidelines on nutritional management but disagreement as to the effectiveness of this on pregnancy outcomes. NICE (2008) has issued guidelines on the management of DM before, during and after pregnancy. Dietary prescriptions should include personal preference, body weight and type and level of exercise, blood glucose levels, ketone levels and any medications taken for the DM. Midwives must empower women to manage their condition through making appropriate and acceptable choices for their health and that of their baby.

  19. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  20. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.