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Sample records for physical function disease

  1. Effects of resistance training on physical function in older disabled women with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Brochu, Martin; Savage, Patrick; Lee, Melinda; Dee, Justine; Cress, M Elaine; Poehlman, Eric T; Tischler, Marc; Ades, Philip A

    2002-02-01

    We studied whether disabled older women with coronary heart disease can perform resistance training at an intensity sufficient to improve measured and self-reported physical function [n = 30, 70.6 +/- 4.5 (SD) yr]. Compared with the controls, the resistance-training group showed significant improvements in overall measured physical function score using the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (+24 vs. +3%). The Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance Test measures physical function for 15 practical activities, such as carrying groceries or climbing stairs. Resistance training led to improved measures for domains of upper body strength (+18 vs. +6%), lower body strength (+23 vs. +6%), endurance (+26 vs. +1%), balance and coordination (+29 vs. -2%), and 6-min walk (+15 vs. +7%). Women involved in the flexibility-control group showed essentially no improvement for physical function measures. No changes were observed for body composition, aerobic capacity, or self-reported physical function in either group. In conclusion, disabled older women with coronary heart disease who participate in strength training are able to train at an intensity sufficient to result in improvements in multiple domains of measured physical functional performance, despite no change in lean body mass.

  2. Aging and chronic kidney disease: the impact on physical function and cognition.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shuchi; Johansen, Kirsten L; Kurella Tamura, Manjula

    2014-03-01

    Evidence has recently been building that the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent contributor to decline in physical and cognitive functions in older adults. CKD affects 45% of persons older than 70 years of age and can double the risk for physical impairment, cognitive dysfunction, and frailty. To increase awareness of this relatively new concept of CKD as a risk factor for accelerated aging, we review studies on the association of CKD with physical function, frailty, and cognitive function. We also present a summary of the proposed mechanisms for these associations.

  3. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  4. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  5. Daily changes in pain, mood and physical function in children hospitalized for sickle cell disease pain.

    PubMed

    Zempsky, William T; Palermo, Tonya M; Corsi, John M; Lewandowski, Amy S; Zhou, Chuan; Casella, James F

    2013-01-01

    Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) are commonly hospitalized for treatment of painful vaso-occlusive episodes (VOE). However, limited data are available concerning the course of hospitalization for these children and adolescents and, in particular, whether daily changes occur in pain, emotional status and physical function. To characterize changes in daily pain intensity, physical function and mood over the course of hospitalization, and to determine whether specific clinical characteristics were associated with these changes. Daily ratings of pain (0 to 10 numerical rating scale) and mood (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children) were completed by 25 youth (11 to 20 years of age) with SCD over a total of 152 days (mean [± SD] = 6.7±5.6 days) of hospitalization. Trained raters determined each youth's daily physical function. Linear mixed modelling was used to examine changes in pain, mood and physical function during hospital stay. The rate of change over the course of hospitalization was significant for reductions in pain intensity (P<0.001) and improvements in physical (motor) function (P=0.001). Positive affect over time was significantly associated with subjects' physical function scores (B 0.24 [95% CI 0.12 to 0.35]) but not with their pain scores. In contrast, negative affect was positively associated with pain and inversely associated with physical function scores (B 1.58 [95% CI 0.23 to 2.93]). The results of the present study demonstrated that children made daily improvements in physical function and pain over hospitalization for VOE. Mood was related to changes in pain and physical recovery. Assessment of physical function and mood during hospitalization may help guide strategies to better understand the pain experience in youth with SCD hospitalized with VOE.

  6. Daily changes in pain, mood and physical function in youth hospitalized for sickle cell disease pain

    PubMed Central

    Zempsky, William T; Palermo, Tonya M; Corsi, John M; Lewandowski, Amy S; Zhou, Chuan; Casella, James F

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) are commonly hospitalized for treatment of painful vaso-occlusive episodes (VOE). However, limited data are available concerning the course of hospitalization for these children and adolescents and, in particular, whether daily changes occur in pain, emotional status and physical function. OBJECTIVES: To characterize changes in daily pain intensity, physical function and mood over the course of hospitalization, and to determine whether specific clinical characteristics were associated with these changes. METHODS: Daily ratings of pain (0 to 10 numerical rating scale) and mood (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children) were completed by 25 youth (11 to 20 years of age) with SCD over a total of 152 days (mean [± SD] = 6.7±5.6 days) of hospitalization. Trained raters determined each youth’s daily physical function. RESULTS: Linear mixed modelling was used to examine changes in pain, mood and physical function during hospital stay. The rate of change over the course of hospitalization was significant for reductions in pain intensity (P<0.001) and improvements in physical (motor) function (P=0.001). Positive affect over time was significantly associated with subjects’ physical function scores (B 0.24 [95% CI 0.12 to 0.35]) but not with their pain scores. In contrast, negative affect was positively associated with pain and inversely associated with physical function scores (B 1.58 [95% CI 0.23 to 2.93]). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study demonstrated that children made daily improvements in physical function and pain over hospitalization for VOE. Mood was related to changes in pain and physical recovery. Assessment of physical function and mood during hospitalization may help guide strategies to better understand the pain experience in youth with SCD hospitalized with VOE. PMID:23457684

  7. The impacts of widowhood, chronic disease, and physical function on mortality among older people.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Hsi; Hung, Wen-Shai

    2013-06-01

    Age-related physical and mental health is well documented. The numbers of widows and widowers are rising in Taiwan. Thus, it is worthwhile to consider factors affecting survival rates after the death of a spouse. This study examined the impacts of widowhood, chronic disease, and physical function on mortality risk among the older people in Taiwan. A panel data design was applied to investigate the hazard ratio of mortality among the older people. Subject data were obtained from the 2003 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Aged and Elderly in Taiwan and linked to the 2003-2007 national death registry data. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the relationships between survival rates and factors including status as a widower or widow, chronic disease, and physical function disability. After controlling for potentially confounding variables, survival analysis indicated a relatively higher mortality risk among the widowed compared with those whose spouses were still alive. Of these, widowers showed a higher mortality risk than widows. In addition, incidence of tumor and stroke significantly influenced mortality among both married men and women. Bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory disease significantly raised the risk of mortality for married men but not for married women. Moreover, physical function variables were significant predictive factors related to mortality hazard, with instrumental activities of daily living showing the strongest predictive relationship. The study confirmed that widowhood, chronic disease, and physical function were strongly associated with mortality hazard in older people. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to these factors to reduce elderly mortality risk. Research results should be useful in developing welfare strategies for this group.

  8. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hülya; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-01-01

    The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD. Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years) were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg) (n=18), and the control (PaO2 ≥60 mmHg) (n=21) groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05). Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05). Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD.

  9. Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-ε4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-ε4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

  10. Utility of SARC-F for Assessing Physical Function in Elderly Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinya; Kamiya, Kentaro; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Matsuzawa, Ryota; Nozaki, Kohei; Maekawa, Emi; Noda, Chiharu; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Masuda, Takashi; Ako, Junya

    2017-02-01

    A simple and inexpensive tool for screening of sarcopenia would be helpful for clinicians. The present study was performed to determine whether the SARC-F questionnaire is useful in screening of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) for impaired physical function. Cross-sectional study. Single university hospital. A total of 235 Japanese patients ≥65 years old admitted to our hospital for CVD. SARC-F, handgrip strength, leg strength, respiratory muscle strength, standing balance, usual gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score, and 6-minute walking distance were measured before discharge from hospital. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to SARC-F score: SARC-F < 4 (nonsarcopenia group) and SARC-F ≥ 4 (sarcopenia group). The sarcopenia prevalence rate was 25.5% and increased with age (P trend < .001). The sarcopenia group (SARC-F score ≥ 4) had significantly lower handgrip strength, leg strength, and respiratory muscle strength, poorer standing balance, slower usual gait speed, lower SPPB score, and shorter 6-minute walking distance compared to the nonsarcopenia group (SARC-F score < 4). Patients in the sarcopenia group had consistently poorer physical function even after adjusting for covariates. The SARC-F questionnaire is a useful screening tool for impaired physical function in elderly CVD patients. These findings support the use of the SARC-F for screening in hospital settings. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  12. Physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease and associations with functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Amberger, Tamara; Berg, Anika; Goeder, Daniel; Remmele, Julia; Oberhoffer, Renate; Ewert, Peter; Hager, Alfred

    2017-07-01

    Improved survival has yielded to growing importance of functional outcome measures in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study applied the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to assess self-reported physical activity (PA) in patients with CHD and their association with exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Prior to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), 786 consecutive patients (335 female, 31.1±11.6 years) with CHD filled in the short form of the IPAQ and the HrQoL questionnaire 36-Item Short Form. In total, 393 (50.0%) patients reported health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA), 237 (30.2%) minimal activity and 156 (19.8%) inactivity. In comparison with the HEPA group, the inactive group had significant lower peak oxygen uptake (74.2%±20.7% vs 86.8%±22.3%; p<0.001) as well as lower physical (91.0%±16.9% vs 97.4%±13.6%; p<0.001) and mental (97.1%±22.2% vs 104.1%±15.6%; p<0.001) HrQoL. Independent of severity class, surgery, age, beta-blocker, pacemaker and oxygen saturation, the HEPA group in comparison with the inactive group showed significantly less probability for impairments in mental (OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.45; p<0.001) and physical (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.92; p=0.027) HrQoL and exercise capacity (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.59; p<0.001). Categorisation of patientswith CHD with the IPAQ quickly provides clinical information as HEPA patients have a less probability for impaired HrQoL and diminished exercise capacity. Nevertheless, the IPAQ cannot substitute an accelerometer-based assessment for PA, nor a CPET for exercise capacity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Patient reported outcomes in GNE myopathy: incorporating a valid assessment of physical function in a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Slota, Christina; Bevans, Margaret; Yang, Li; Shrader, Joseph; Joe, Galen; Carrillo, Nuria

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three patient reported outcome (PRO) measures characterizing physical function in GNE myopathy: the Human Activity Profile, the Inclusion Body Myositis Functional Rating Scale, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. This analysis used data from 35 GNE myopathy subjects participating in a natural history study. For construct validity, correlational and known-group analyses were between the PROs and physical assessments. Reliability of the PROs between baseline and 6 months was evaluated using the intra-class correlation coefficient model; internal consistency was tested with Cronbach's alpha. The hypothesized moderate positive correlations for construct validity were supported; the strongest correlation was between the human activity profile adjusted activity score and the adult myopathy assessment endurance subscale score (r = 0.81; p < 0.0001). The PROs were able to discriminate between known high and low functioning groups for the adult myopathy assessment tool. Internal consistency of the PROs was high (α > 0.8) and there was strong reliability (ICC >0.62). The PROs are valid and reliable measures of physical function in GNE myopathy and should be incorporated in investigations to better understand the impact of progressive muscle weakness on physical function in this rare disease population. Implications for Rehabilitation GNE myopathy is a rare muscle disease that results in slow progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, ultimately leading to wheelchair use and dependence on a caregiver. There is limited knowledge on the impact of this disease on the health-related quality of life, specifically physical function, of this rare disease population. Three patient reported outcomes have been shown to be valid and reliable in GNE myopathy subjects and should be incorporated in future investigations to better understand how progressive muscle weakness impacts physical

  14. Effect of physical activity on memory function in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Takanori; Takechi, Hajime; Arai, Hidenori; Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-10-01

    It is very important to maintain cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the amount of physical activity is associated with memory function in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 47 older adults with mild cognitive disorder were studied; 30 were diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease and 17 with mild cognitive impairment. The global cognitive function, memory function, physical performance and amount of physical activity were measured in these patients. We divided these patients according to their walking speed (<1 m/s or >1 m/s). A total of 26 elderly patients were classified as the slow walking group, whereas 21 were classified as the normal walking group. The normal walking group was younger and had significantly better scores than the slow walking group in physical performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the daily step counts were associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in patients of the slow walking group (β=0.471, P=0.031), but not other variables. No variable was significantly associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in the normal walking group. Memory function was strongly associated with the amount of physical activity in patients with mild cognitive disorder who showed slow walking speed. The results show that lower physical activities could be a risk factor for cognitive decline, and that cognitive function in the elderly whose motor function and cognitive function are declining can be improved by increasing the amount of physical activity. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Physical function in ankylosing spondylitis is independently determined by both disease activity and radiographic damage of the spine.

    PubMed

    Landewé, R; Dougados, M; Mielants, H; van der Tempel, H; van der Heijde, D

    2009-06-01

    To study the relationship between disease activity, radiographic damage and physical function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) PATIENTS AND METHODS: Baseline and 2-year data of the Outcome in Ankylosing Spondylitis International Study (OASIS)(217 patients) were used. Physical function was expressed by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Dougados Functional Index (DFI); disease activity by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and by erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein; and structural damage by the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). Syndesmophyte- and non-syndesmophyte sum cores, and numbers of affected (bridged) vertebral units were derived from the mSASSS. Univariate correlations were calculated on baseline values using the Spearman rank correlation. Multivariate associations were investigated by generalised estimating equations (GEE) on baseline and 2-year data. mSASSS correlated moderately well with BASFI (Spearman's r = 0.45) and DFI (r = 0.38). BASDAI correlated well with BASFI (r = 0.66) and DFI (r = 0.59). Correlation coefficients for mSASSS versus BASFI and DFI decreased by increasing levels of BASDAI, being zero at the highest quintile of BASDAI. GEE showed that both BASDAI and mSASSS independently and significantly helped to explain either BASFI or DFI. Results were similar for syndesmophyte sum score, non-syndesmophyte sum score, number of affected VUs or number of VUs with bridging. The lumbar part of the mSASSS contributed similarly to the cervical part in explaining BASFI/DFI. Physical function impairment in AS is independently caused by patient-reported disease activity and the level of structural damage of the lumbar and cervical spine. Syndesmophytes and other radiographic abnormalities contribute to physical function impairment.

  16. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  17. Physical Activity is Associated with Better Neurocognitive and Everyday Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Marquine, Maria J.; Dufour, Catherine; Henry, Brook L.; Montoya, Jessica; Gouaux, Ben; Moore, Raeanne C.; Letendre., Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V.; Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p=0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p=0.04). Higher levels of moderate PA were also associated with lower odds of IADL Dependence (p = 0.03), although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08) when including covariates. Follow-up analysis showed those with both NCI and IADL Dependence had lower moderate PA than those with neither (p=0.03). While these cross-sectional findings suggest PA is associated with better neurocognitive and everyday functioning in older HIV+ adults, longitudinal studies utilizing objective PA methods are needed to evaluate directionality and mechanisms. PMID:25731660

  18. Two Year Exercise Program Improves Physical Function in Parkinson’s Disease: the PRET-PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Rafferty, Miriam; David, Fabian J.; Poon, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David E.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Leurgans, Sue; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Robichaud, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in Parkinson’s disease trial (PRET-PD) showed that PRE improved the motor signs of PD compared to a modified Fitness Counts (mFC) program. It is unclear how long-term exercise affects physical function in these individuals. Objective To examine the effects of long-term PRE and mFC on physical function outcome measures in individuals with PD. Methods A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 38 patients with idiopathic PD who completed the PRET-PD trial. Participants were randomized into PRE or mFC groups and exercised 2 days/week up to 24 months. Blinded assessors obtained functional outcomes on and off medication at baseline, 6 and 24 months with the Modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT), five times sit to stand test (STS), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), and 50ft walking speed (walk speed). Results The groups did not differ on any physical function measure at 6 or 24 months (p’s > 0.1). Across time, all physical function measures improved from baseline to 24 months when tested on medication (p’s < .0001), except for 6MWT(p = .068). Off medication results were similar except that the 6MWT was now significant. Conclusions 24 months of supervised and structured exercise (either PRE or mFC) is effective at improving functional performance outcomes in individuals with moderate PD. Clinicians should strive to include structured and supervised exercise in the long-term plan of care for individuals with PD. PMID:24961994

  19. Associations between exercise capacity, physical activity, and psychosocial functioning in children with congenital heart disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Helbing, Willem A; Duppen, Nienke; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2014-10-01

    Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease (ConHD) may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, possibly associated with lowered self-esteem and quality of life (QoL). The studies into associations between these parameters have not been reviewed before. Review of studies into associations between exercise capacity, physical activity, respectively exercise training, and psychosocial functioning of ConHD youngsters. PubMed, Embase and reference lists of related articles. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2012 into exercise capacity and/or physical activity, and a measure of psychosocial functioning in children with ConHD. Two investigators independently reviewed the identified articles for eligibility, and one author extracted the data. Although exercise capacity was strongly related to physical domains of parent-reported and self-reported QoL, it was almost never associated with psychosocial domains of QoL. Physical activity was rarely associated with physical or psychosocial domains of QoL. Remarkably, self-reported depressive symptoms were associated with both physical and psychosocial QoL. The few studies into exercise-training programmes showed promising results in QoL and emotional and behavioral problems, but they contained methodological flaws. No clear relationships were found between exercise capacity, physical activity, and QoL in children and adolescents with ConHD. Therefore we recommend assessing QoL separately, preferably both self-reported and parent-reported. Since depressive symptoms were associated with reduced physical and psychosocial QoL, screening on these symptoms is also recommended. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Tight control of disease activity fails to improve body composition or physical function in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lemmey, Andrew B; Wilkinson, Thomas J; Clayton, Rebecca J; Sheikh, Fazal; Whale, John; Jones, Hope S J; Ahmad, Yasmeen A; Chitale, Sarang; Jones, Jeremy G; Maddison, Peter J; O'Brien, Thomas D

    2016-10-01

    RA typically features rheumatoid cachexia [loss of muscle mass (MM) and excessive total fat mass (TFM), especially trunk FM], which contributes to physical disability. Since rheumatoid cachexia is driven by inflammation, it would be anticipated that the success of tight control of disease activity, such as treat-to-target (T2T), in attenuating inflammation would benefit body composition and physical function. This aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of T2T on body composition and objectively assessed function in RA patients. A total of 82 RA patients exclusively treated by T2T, were compared with 85 matched sedentary healthy controls (HCs). Body composition was estimated by DXA, with appendicular lean mass the surrogate measure of total MM. Physical function was assessed by knee extensor strength, handgrip strength, 30 s sit-to-stands, 8' up and go, and 50' walk (tests which reflect the ability to perform activities of daily living). Although generally well treated (mean DAS28 = 2.8, with 49% in remission), RA patients had ∼10% proportionally less appendicular lean mass and were considerably fatter (by ∼27%), particularly in the trunk (∼32%), than HCs. All measures of function were 24-34% poorer in the RA patients relative to HC. Despite marked improvements in disease control (most patients achieving or approaching remission), the relative loss of MM and increased adiposity in RA patients compared with matched HCs was similar to that observed pre-T2T. Additionally, performance of objective function tests was unchanged from that reported by our group for pre-T2T RA patients. Thus T2T, even in responsive RA patients, did not attenuate rheumatoid cachexia or improve objectively assessed function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Relationship of physical and functional independence and perceived quality of life of veteran patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Paul A; Kim, Dong-Yun; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Ewing, Helen; Kim, Kye Y

    2013-08-01

    Alzheimer disease not only affects the cognitive function but also impacts one's abilities to perform daily tasks. This study evaluated for correlation between the quality of life of patients with Alzheimer disease (QoL-AD) and the level of independence and to evaluate the statistical difference between patients' quality of life and proxy perception of quality of life by utilizing the Katz activities of daily living and QoL-AD on patients and QoL-AD on caregivers. There was a small positive correlation (r = .13) between the levels of physical and functional independence and the perceived QoL. Also, patient consistently had higher QoL-AD than their caregiver counterparts. These findings provide some insight into our need to acknowledge factors that may influence QoL and illustrate the importance of monitoring for executive dysfunction and the safety risk.

  2. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  3. Preserving cognition, quality of life, physical health and functional ability in Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise (ADEX trial): rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Beyer, Nina; Vogel, Asmus; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Johannsen, Peter; Lolk, Annette; Terkelsen, Ole; Cotman, Carl W; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    Exercise is hypothesized to improve cognition, physical performance, functional ability and quality of life, but evidence is scarce. Previous studies were of short duration, often underpowered and involving home-based light exercise programs in patients with undefined dementia. The aim of the ADEX ('Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: the Effect of Physical Exercise') trial is to establish whether aerobic exercise is effective in improving cognition as well as in reducing the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ADEX study is a multicenter, single-blind, randomized trial with two arms: an intervention group attending 16 weeks of continuously supervised moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise and a control group receiving usual care. We plan to recruit 192 patients with mild AD. The primary outcome measure is change from baseline in cognitive performance at 16 weeks (as measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities test). To our knowledge this is the first large-scale controlled study to investigate the effects of supervised moderate aerobic exercise on cognition in patients with AD. Recruitment began in January 2012 and results are expected to be available in 2014. We summarize the methodological challenges we and other studies have faced in this type of complex multicenter intervention with unique challenges to study design. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Neil A; Ford, Matthew P; Standaert, David G; Watts, Ray L; Bickel, C Scott; Moellering, Douglas R; Tuggle, S Craig; Williams, Jeri Y; Lieb, Laura; Windham, Samuel T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2014-03-01

    We conducted, in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), a thorough assessment of neuromotor function and performance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses of skeletal muscle tissue, and further tested the adaptability of PD muscle to high-intensity exercise training. Fifteen participants with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2-3) completed 16 wk of high-intensity exercise training designed to simultaneously challenge strength, power, endurance, balance, and mobility function. Skeletal muscle adaptations (P < 0.05) to exercise training in PD included myofiber hypertrophy (type I: +14%, type II: +36%), shift to less fatigable myofiber type profile, and increased mitochondrial complex activity in both subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar fractions (I: +45-56%, IV: +39-54%). These adaptations were accompanied by a host of functional and clinical improvements (P < 0.05): total body strength (+30-56%); leg power (+42%); single leg balance (+34%); sit-to-stand motor unit activation requirement (-30%); 6-min walk (+43 m), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQ-39, -7.8pts); Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total (-5.7 pts) and motor (-2.7 pts); and fatigue severity (-17%). Additionally, PD subjects in the pretraining state were compared with a group of matched, non-PD controls (CON; did not exercise). A combined assessment of muscle tissue phenotype and neuromuscular function revealed a higher distribution and larger cross-sectional area of type I myofibers and greater type II myofiber size heterogeneity in PD vs. CON (P < 0.05). In conclusion, persons with moderately advanced PD adapt to high-intensity exercise training with favorable changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular and subcellular levels that are associated with improvements in motor function, physical capacity, and fatigue perception.

  5. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Neil A.; Ford, Matthew P.; Standaert, David G.; Watts, Ray L.; Bickel, C. Scott; Moellering, Douglas R.; Tuggle, S. Craig; Williams, Jeri Y.; Lieb, Laura; Windham, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted, in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), a thorough assessment of neuromotor function and performance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses of skeletal muscle tissue, and further tested the adaptability of PD muscle to high-intensity exercise training. Fifteen participants with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2–3) completed 16 wk of high-intensity exercise training designed to simultaneously challenge strength, power, endurance, balance, and mobility function. Skeletal muscle adaptations (P < 0.05) to exercise training in PD included myofiber hypertrophy (type I: +14%, type II: +36%), shift to less fatigable myofiber type profile, and increased mitochondrial complex activity in both subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar fractions (I: +45–56%, IV: +39–54%). These adaptations were accompanied by a host of functional and clinical improvements (P < 0.05): total body strength (+30–56%); leg power (+42%); single leg balance (+34%); sit-to-stand motor unit activation requirement (−30%); 6-min walk (+43 m), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQ-39, −7.8pts); Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total (−5.7 pts) and motor (−2.7 pts); and fatigue severity (−17%). Additionally, PD subjects in the pretraining state were compared with a group of matched, non-PD controls (CON; did not exercise). A combined assessment of muscle tissue phenotype and neuromuscular function revealed a higher distribution and larger cross-sectional area of type I myofibers and greater type II myofiber size heterogeneity in PD vs. CON (P < 0.05). In conclusion, persons with moderately advanced PD adapt to high-intensity exercise training with favorable changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular and subcellular levels that are associated with improvements in motor function, physical capacity, and fatigue perception. PMID:24408997

  6. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example.

  7. Ecological Immunology through the Lens of Exercise Immunology: New Perspective on the Links between Physical Activity and Immune Function and Disease Susceptibility in Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Matson, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    Locomotion and other physical activities by free-living animals may influence immune function and disease susceptibility. This influence may be a consequence of energetic trade-offs or other mechanisms that are often, but not always, inseparably linked to an animal's life history (e.g., flight and migration). Ecological immunology has mainly focused on these life-history trade-offs, overlooking the possible effects of physical activity per se on immune function and disease susceptibility. In this review, we explore the field of exercise immunology, which examines the impact of exercise on immune function and disease susceptibility in humans, with the aim of presenting new perspectives that might be transferable to ecological immunology. First, we explore key concepts in exercise immunology that could be extended to animals. Next, we investigate the concept "exercise" in animals, and propose the use of "physical activity" instead. We briefly discuss methods used in animals to quantify physical activity in terms of energy expenditure and summarize several examples of animals engaging in physical activity. Then, we highlight potential consequences of physical activity on immune function and disease susceptibility in animals, together with an overview of animal studies that examine these links. Finally, we explore and discuss the potential for incorporating perspectives from exercise immunology into ecological immunology. Such integration could help advance our understanding of human and animal health and contribute new ideas to budding "One Health" initiatives.

  8. The effect of regular physical activity on the left ventricle systolic function in patients with chronic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Panovský, R; Kukla, P; Jančár, R; Meluzín, J; Jančík, J; Kincl, V; Poloková, K; Mífková, L; Havelková, A; Látalová, R; Dobšák, P; Pešl, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of aerobic training on the left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Thirty patients with stable coronary artery disease, who had participated in the conducted 3-month physical training, were retrospectively divided into 2 cohorts. While patients in the cohort I (n=14) had continued training individually for 12 months, patients in the cohort II (n=16) had stopped training after finishing the conducted program. Rest and stress dobutamine/atropine echocardiography was performed in all patients before the training program and 1 year later. The peak systolic velocities of mitral annulus (Sa) were assessed by tissue Doppler imaging for individual LV walls. In addition, to determine global LV systolic longitudinal function, the four-site mean systolic velocity was calculated (Sa glob). According to the blood supply, left ventricular walls were divided into 5 groups: A- walls supplied by nonstenotic artery; B- walls supplied by coronary artery with stenosis ≤50 %; C- walls supplied by coronary artery with stenosis 51-70 %; D- walls with stenosis of supplying artery 71-99 %; and E- walls with totally occluded supplying artery. In global systolic function, the follow-up values of Sa glob in cohort I were improved by 0.23±0.36 as compared with baseline values at rest, and by 1.26±0.65 cm/s at the maximal load, while the values of Sa glob in cohort II were diminished by 0.53±0.22 (p=NS), and by 1.25±0.45 cm/s (p<0.05), respectively. Concerning the resting regional function, the only significant difference between cohorts in follow-up changes was found in walls E: 0.37±0.60 versus -1.76±0.40 cm/s (p<0.05). At the maximal load, the significant difference was found only in walls A (0.16±0.84 versus -2.67±0.87 cm/s; p<0.05). Patients with regular 12-month physical activity improved their global left ventricle systolic function mainly due to improvement of contractility in walls supplied by a totally occluded coronary

  9. Effects of a program of hospital-supervised chest physical therapy on lung function tests in children with chronic respiratory disease: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, L; Tancredi, G; Barreto, M; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Monaco, F; Duse, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether a hospital-supervised program of chest physical therapy improves lung function in children with chronic pulmonary diseases, twenty-four children (4 with Kartagener?s syndrome, 12 with common variable immunodeficiency, and 8 with primary ciliary dyskinesia) average age 11.2 +/- 3.2 years, were randomly assigned to a one-month hospital-supervised program of chest physical therapy (13 patients) or to a control group (11 patients) that continued unsupervised chest physical therapy at home. Lung function was assessed before the program, and one and 12 months after. At the one-month assessment, thoracic gas volume was significantly lower in the supervised group than in the controls. At the one-year assessment, forced expiratory volume in one second was significantly higher in the supervised group than in controls. A supervised program of chest physical therapy significantly improved lung function in children with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  10. Optimal dietary protein level improved growth, disease resistance, intestinal immune and physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary proteins on the growth, disease resistance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that optimal dietary protein levels: increased the production of antibacterial components, up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels, whereas down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, c-Rel, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ and eIF4E-binding proteins 2 mRNA levels in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05), suggesting that optimal dietary protein level could enhance fish intestinal immune barrier function; up-regulated the mRNA levels of tight junction complexes, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, and increased the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, whereas down-regulated myosin light chain kinase, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b mRNA levels, and decreased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that optimal dietary protein level could improve fish intestinal physical barrier function. Finally, the optimal dietary protein levels for the growth performance (PWG) and against enteritis

  11. The relationship between habitual physical activity status and executive function in individuals with Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal, cross-lagged panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Farina, Nicolas; Tabet, Naji; Rusted, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether habitual physical activity status specifically influences executive function change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) over 1 year. In this longitudinal cohort study, 45 participants with AD were recruited and provided follow-up data approximately 1 year later. Executive function measures (map search task, digit symbol substitution task, controlled oral word association task, verbal fluency task) and habitual physical activity measures (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and handgrip strength) were taken at baseline and follow-up. Individual composites were subsequently created. Additional demographic, lifestyle, and neuropsychiatric measures were also taken. In a structural equation model (χ(2)(26) = 9.84, p = .998, comparative fit index = 1.00, root mean square error of approximation = .00), a significant association was found between habitual physical activity and executive function change (β = .27, p = .04). In a cross-lagged panel analysis, a significant path was found between the PASE score and executive change (β = .22, p = .01). As higher habitual physical activity levels were associated with reduced executive function change, the promotion of low-intensity habitual physical activities in individuals with a diagnosis of AD may be warranted. Further research is needed, however, to explore the impact of habitual physical activity on the trajectory of change across cognitive domains, and how this relates to the progression of the underlying pathology associated with this disease.

  12. Correlation Between Caregiver Reports of Physical Function and Performance-based Measures in a Cohort of Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD.

  13. Urban-Rural Differences in the Effect of a Medicare Health Promotion and Disease Self-Management Program on Physical Function and Health Care Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda; Liebel, Diane; Dixon, Denise; Eggert, Gerald; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent health promotion and disease self-management intervention on physical function and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine if these outcomes vary by urban or rural residence. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from a 22-month randomized controlled trial of a health…

  14. Urban-Rural Differences in the Effect of a Medicare Health Promotion and Disease Self-Management Program on Physical Function and Health Care Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda; Liebel, Diane; Dixon, Denise; Eggert, Gerald; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent health promotion and disease self-management intervention on physical function and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine if these outcomes vary by urban or rural residence. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from a 22-month randomized controlled trial of a health…

  15. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  16. Physical Function Traits of Long-term Officially Acknowledged Victims of Pollution-related Illnesses Compared with Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takako; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kozu, Ryo; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] To examine the long-term effects of air pollution on the physical functioning of a group of officially acknowledged victims of pollution-related illnesses (Victims group) who were exposed to air pollution more than 50 years ago, we compared them with age-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD group). [Subjects and Methods] The Victims group comprised 34 subjects and the COPD group 24, all of whom were aged over 65 years. Respiratory function, muscle strength, exercise capacity and physical activity were measured and compared between the groups. [Results] The Victims group had significantly higher forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), proportion of predicted FEV1, proportion of predicted vital capacity (VC), and ratio of FEV1 to forced VC than the COPD group. Surprisingly, the muscle strength of the Victims group was significantly weaker, their incremental shuttle walking test distance was significantly shorter, and their physical activity was significantly less than those of the COPD group. [Conclusion] Although the pulmonary function of Victims was better than that of the COPD group, their physical functioning was worse. Exposure to air pollution 50 years ago appears to continue to adversely affect their physical function. It is particularly important to offer Victims rehabilitation to improve their exercise performance and physical activity.

  17. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Succeeds Across Different Patient-reported Outcome Measures Assessing Physical Function, But Fails Across Other Dimensions and Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Elien A M; Boers, Nadine; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; den Broeder, Alfons A; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2017-08-15

    The aims of this study are (1) to establish the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) cutoff values of different patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) assessing physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and (2) to assess the influence of sex, age, duration of symptoms, and presence of depressive feelings on being in PASS. Patients fulfilling the clinical American College of Rheumatology knee OA criteria received standardized nonsurgical treatment and completed different questionnaires at baseline and 3 months assessing physical function: Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lequesne Algofunctional Index, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, numerical rating scale, and the physical function subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. PASS values were defined as the 75th percentile of the score of questionnaires for those patients who consider their state acceptable. Of the 161 included patients, 62% were women with a mean age of 59 years (SD 9) and body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) (SD 5). Standardized PASS values (95% CI) for different questionnaires for physical function varied between 48 (44-54) and 54 (50-56). Female patients and patients feeling depressed were found to have a lower probability to be in PASS for physical function, with OR (95% CI) varying from 0.45 (0.23-0.91) to 0.50 (0.26-0.97) and from 0.27 (0.14-0.55) to 0.38 (0.19-0.77), respectively. PASS cutoff values for physical function are robust across different PROM in patients with knee OA. Our results indicate that PASS values are not consistent across dimensions and rheumatic diseases, and that the use of a generic PASS value for patients with OA or even patients with other rheumatic diseases might not be justifiable.

  18. Physical frailty and functional status in patients with advanced kidney disease: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brett, Kendra E; Bennett, Alexandria; Ritchie, Lindsay J; Knoll, Greg A

    2017-07-06

    Predicting outcomes in those with chronic kidney disease or following transplantation is challenging, and current models lack detailed patient-level information. Frailty and poor functional status are risk factors for adverse patient outcomes that may be useful additions to prognostic tools in patients with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine whether frailty or functional status are associated with increased risk of mortality or adverse clinical outcomes in patients with advanced kidney disease. We will conduct a systematic review to identify and evaluate studies linking frailty and functional status with patient outcomes in populations with advanced kidney disease. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials. Two reviewers will conduct all screening and data extraction independently. A modified version of the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool will be used to evaluate the quality of the studies. If meta-analysis of outcome data is possible, a random effects model will be used. The results of this review will inform the development, selection, and validation of appropriate metrics needed to improve prognostication in patients with chronic kidney disease. PROSPERO CRD42016045251.

  19. Is There an Association of Physical Activity with Brain Volume, Behavior, and Day-to-day Functioning? A Cross Sectional Design in Prodromal and Early Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, McKenzie; Downing, Nancy; Lourens, Spencer; Mills, James; Kim, Ji-in; Long, Jeffrey; Paulsen, Jane; PREDICT-HD Investigators and Coordinators of the Huntington Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Background: Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive motor, cognitive, and behavioral decline. Subtle changes in these domains are detectable up to 15 years before a definitive motor diagnosis is made. This period, called prodromal HD, provides an opportunity to examine lifestyle behaviors that may impact disease progression. Theoretical Framework: Physical activity relates to decreased rates of brain atrophy and improved cognitive and day-to-day functioning in Alzheimer disease and healthy aging populations. Previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impact of physical activity on disease progression in HD and paid little attention to the prodromal phase. Methods: We conducted analyses of associations among current physical activity level, current and retrospective rate of change for hippocampus and striatum volume, and cognitive, motor, and day-to-day functioning variables. Participants were 48 gene-expanded cases with prodromal and early-diagnosed HD and 27 nongene-expanded control participants. Participants wore Fitbit Ultra activity monitors for three days and completed the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Hippocampal and striatal white matter volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive tests included the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Motor function was assessed using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale total motor score (TMS). Day-to-day functioning was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) version 2.0. Results: Higher Fitbit activity scores were significantly related to better scores on the SDMT and WHODAS in case participants but not in controls. Fitbit activity scores tracked better with TMS scores in the group as a whole, though the association did not reach statistical significance in the case participants. Higher Fitbit activity scores

  20. Train the vessel, gain the brain: physical activity and vessel function and the impact on stroke prevention and outcome in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolf; Endres, Matthias; Dimeo, Fernando; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2013-01-01

    The burden of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is huge and therapeutic options are limited. Physical activity is effective in preventing coronary heart and peripheral artery disease both experimentally and clinically. It is likely that the protective effects of exercise can be extended to both CVD and cognitive impairment. The pleiotropic protective and preventive mechanisms induced by physical activity include increased perfusion as well as mechanisms of collateral recruitment and neovascularization mediated by arterio- and angiogenesis. Physical activity increases the bioavailability of nitric oxide, bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells and growth factors, all of which promote neovascularization. Additionally, shear stress is discussed as a potential mechanism for vessel growth. Moreover, physical activity plays a role in endothelial function and cerebral autoregulation in small- and large-artery CVD. The vascular niche hypothesis highlights the complex interactions of neuro- and angiogenesis for regenerative and repair mechanisms in the human brain. Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate the positive impact of prior physical activity on stroke lesion size and on outcome after stroke. Clinical trials are necessary to further address the impact of physical activity on primary and secondary stroke prevention, outcome and cognitive function.

  1. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  2. The influence of chronic disease, physical function, and lifestyle on health transition among the middle-aged and older persons in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Hsi; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chronic disease, physical function, and lifestyle on health transitions among the middle-aged and older persons in Taiwan. A longitudinal design was applied to investigate whether chronic disease, physical function, and lifestyle were associated significantly with health transition in this population. Data on participants were obtained from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Aged and Elderly in Taiwan, a study initially conducted in 1999 that encompassed observations on 2,130 individuals 53 years and older. Data were collected again in 2003 to capture the health transition. A binary probit model was used to determine relationships between health transition and sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, physical functional ability, and lifestyle conditions by gender. Principal empirical results confirmed that, after controlling for potentially confounding variables, those participants who were relatively younger and had higher education levels were more likely to maintain good health during the study period (1999-2003) for both men and women. In addition, when other factors were excluded, this article identified stroke as the ailment most strongly associated with continuing good health. Similarly, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living demonstrated significant and negative effects on continuing good health regardless of gender. However, lifestyle rendered interesting and plausible findings. Smoking showed a significant influence on health transition for women but an insignificant influence on such for men. Regular exercise showed significance for both men and women. Findings suggest that chronic disease, physical functional ability, and lifestyle variables have strong and significant influences on health transition for the middle-aged and older persons. Research results should be useful in developing strategies that target disease care services and lifestyles

  3. Aerobic capacity correlates to self-assessed physical function but not to overall disease activity or organ damage in women with systemic lupus erythematosus with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Boström, C; Dupré, B; Tengvar, P; Jansson, E; Opava, C H; Lundberg, I E

    2008-02-01

    The present aim is to investigate the relationships between aerobic capacity and disease activity, organ damage, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and physical activity in 34 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage. Mean age was 51 (SD 10) years, disease duration 17 (SD 11) years. Aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake/VO2 max) was measured with a bicycle ergometer exercise test. Overall disease activity was assessed with Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Disease Activity Index (modified SLE-DAI), overall organ damage with the Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index, [SLICC/(ACR)-DI], HRQL with the 36-item Short-form health-survey (SF-36) and physical activity with a self-assessed question. The women who were low-to-moderately physically active had 89-92% (P < or = 0.001) of VO2 max predicted for sedentary women. Maximal oxygen uptake (L/min, mL/min/kg) correlated to SF-36 physical function (rs = 0.49, rs = 0.72) (P < or = 0.01), but not (rs < or = 0.25) to other HRQL scales, overall disease activity or organ damage or physical activity. The correlation between aerobic capacity and physical function and the absence of correlation between aerobic capacity and physical activity, suggest a possible disease-related factor behind the low aerobic capacity. However, with no correlation between aerobic capacity and overall disease activity and organ damage, low physical activity may contribute to the low aerobic capacity in our sample.

  4. Defining arthritis and measuring functional status in elders: methodological issues in the study of disease and physical disability.

    PubMed Central

    Guccione, A A; Felson, D T; Anderson, J J

    1990-01-01

    This study explores the degree to which the association of knee osteoarthritis with physical disability changes with different definitions of osteoarthritis in 1,416 Framingham Study elders. When all categories of radiographic osteoarthritis were aggregated into a single "arthritis" variable and dependence upon human assistance in one or more functional activities combined into a single variable, elders with osteoarthritis had only moderately increased odds for dependence after controlling for age or sex (OR = 1.25). A definition of osteoarthritis based only upon symptoms produced larger odds for dependency (OR = 1.85). Elders with mild osteoarthritis and infrequent knee pain had no significantly elevated risk for dependence in any of the seven functional activities. Elders with infrequently symptomatic, moderate to marked radiographic osteoarthritis were at increased risk for dependence in stair climbing, walking a mile, housekeeping, and carrying bundles. Elder with radiographic osteoarthritis accompanied by frequent pain had an increased odds of dependence in stair climbing, walking a mile, and housekeeping. Using a generic definition of "arthritis" and aggregating functional activities may underestimate the impact of osteoarthritis on physical disability in the elderly and obscure the task-specific nature of that relationship. PMID:2368855

  5. Effects of a 12-week program of Tai Chi exercise on the kidney disease quality of life and physical functioning of patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jo-Han; Koo, Malcolm; Wu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training in patients with end-stage renal disease could improve their physical functioning and quality of life. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi exercise in patients on hemodialysis. To investigate the effects of a Tai Chi exercise intervention on the quality of life and physical functioning in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. A pre-post experimental design. Patients, aged 20 years or older, on hemodialysis recruited from the hemodialysis unit at a medical center in central Taiwan were assigned, based on their own preference, to either a control group (n=25) or an intervention group (n=21). A weekly one-hour short-form Yang style Tai Chi session for a total of 12 weeks. Physical functioning and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) at the baseline and at the end of the intervention. The least square means of repetition of sit-to-stand cycles in one minute (STS-60), 6-min walk test, and gait speed test were significantly improved in the intervention group. In addition, the least square means of the five different dimensions of the KDQOL were all significantly higher in the intervention group, except the SF-12 physical health score. Improvements in the kidney disease quality of life and physical functioning were observed in Taiwanese patients on hemodialysis with a 12-week Tai Chi exercise intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, immune function and physical barrier function in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after challenged with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-10-01

    The effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, gill immune function and physical barrier function of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were investigated in this study. A total of 540 grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Flavobacterium columnare for 3 days. The results indicated that optimal levels of dietary protein had the following effects: (1) the production of antibacterial components increased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, IκB kinase (IKK) α, IKKβ, IKKγ, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 4E-BP2 were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that fish gill immune function was enhanced at an optimal level of dietary protein; (2) the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content increased, the contents of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased, and NF-E2-related factor 2, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and tight junction complexes mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein (Keap) 1a, Keap1b, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 3, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mRNA levels were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that the fish gill physical barrier function improved at an optimal level of dietary protein. Finally, based on the gill rot morbidity, ACP activity and PC

  7. Patient education, disease activity and physical function: can we be more targeted? A cross sectional study among people with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and hand osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Drăgoi, Răzvan G; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Sadlonova, Martina; Hill, Jackie; Duer, Mona; Graninger, Winfried; Smolen, Josef; Stamm, Tanja A

    2013-10-20

    In order to target educational needs of patients more effectively, an Austrian-German educational needs assessment tool (OENAT) was developed, the educational needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and hand osteoarthritis (HOA) were described and the relationships between educational needs, gender, disease activity and function were explored. The English ENAT was adapted into Austrian-German using Beaton's cross-cultural adaptation process. Internal construct validity was assessed by Rasch analysis. Educational needs across diagnostic groups and subgroups of patients were summarized descriptively and their relationship with disease activity and physical functioning explored. The sample comprised 130 RA, 125 PsA and 48 HOA patients. Their mean ages ± SD were 56 ± 14, 51 ± 11 and 64 ± 7 years for RA, PsA and HOA; disease duration was 11 ± 9, 11 ± 11 and 14 ± 9 years, respectively. More than 70% in each patient group expressed interest in receiving education about their disease. This study showed that educational needs vary with personal characteristics. Patient education may be more targeted and effective, if gender, age, educational background and disease duration are taken into account. Correlations with disease activity and function suggest that the OENAT could enable identification of 'intervention points', which can be ideal opportunities for effective patient education.

  8. Stress reactivity as a moderator of family stress, physical and mental health, and functional impairment for children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Marsha J; Alkon, Abbey; Quirolo, Keith C; Boyce, W Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity modifies the relation between family stress, and physical and mental health, and functional impairment for children with sickle cell disease. Thirty-eight 5-to 8-year old children with sickle cell disease completed a 20-minute ANS reactivity protocol measuring respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period during comparison and challenge tasks in social, cognitive, sensory, and emotion domains. Domain-specific reactivity was calculated as the difference between challenge and comparison tasks; overall reactivity was calculated across domains as the mean of the difference scores. ANS profile scores combined the overall respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period reactivity scores. Caregivers completed measures of family stress, child physical and mental health symptoms, and functional impairment. Family stress was associated with child functional impairment whereas overall and cognitive ANS reactivity was associated with co-morbid internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms. Interaction models showed that children with the classic ANS profile (parasympathetic inhibition and sympathetic activation) in the cognitive and emotion domains were most vulnerable to the effects of stress, with more functional impairment and injuries when family stress was high, controlling for age, sex, and parent education. The costs to patients and families in diminished quality of life and to the health care system could be reduced by further exploration of strategies to identify children with sickle cell disease who are most vulnerable under conditions of high family stress and heightened psychobiologic reactivity.

  9. Effect of Vitamin K on Vascular Health and Physical Function in Older People with Vascular Disease--A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fulton, R L; McMurdo, M E T; Hill, A; Abboud, R J; Arnold, G P; Struthers, A D; Khan, F; Vermeer, C; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Witham, M D

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin K insufficiency is common and linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporotic fractures. The aim of this study was to examine whether daily supplementation with oral vitamin K could improve vascular health and physical function in older people with established vascular disease. A double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants aged ≤ 70 years with a history of vascular disease were randomised to receive 6 months of daily oral 100mcg vitamin K2 (MK7 subtype) or matching placebo with outcomes measured at 0, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was between-group difference in endothelial function assessed using flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness, C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, cholesterol and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein levels. Handgrip strength and the Short Physical Performance Battery assessed physical function, while postural sway was measured using a 3-dimensional force platform. 80 participants were randomised, mean age 77 (SD 5) years; 44/80 were male. Vitamin K levels rose in the intervention arm compared to placebo (+48 pg/ml vs -6 pg/ml, p=0.03) at 6 months. Desphospho-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla protein levels fell in the intervention group compared to placebo at 6 months (-130 [SD 117] pmol/L vs +13 [SD 180] pmol/L, p<0.001). No change was seen in endothelial function (between group difference -0.3% [95%CI -1.3 to 0.8], p=0.62). A modest, non-significant improvement in pulse wave velocity was seen in the vitamin K group (-0.8m/s [95%CI -1.8 to 0.3], p=0.15) while all other vascular and physical function outcomes unchanged. Six months of vitamin K2 supplementation did not improve markers of vascular health or physical function in older patients with vascular disease.

  10. Patient-reported outcomes in Huntington's disease: Quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) and Huntington's disease health-related quality of life (HDQLIFE) physical function measures.

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Ready, Rebecca E; Frank, Samuel; Cella, David; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Goodnight, Siera M; Schilling, Stephen G; Boileau, Nicholas R; Dayalu, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    There is a need for patient-reported outcome measures that capture the impact that motor impairments have on health-related quality of life in individuals with Huntington's disease. The objectives of this study were to establish the reliability and validity of new physical functioning patient-reported outcome measures in Huntington's disease. A total of 510 individuals with Huntington's disease completed 2 Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Lower Extremity Function and Upper Extremity Function) and 3 Huntington's Disease Health-Related Quality of Life (Chorea, Speech Difficulties, and Swallowing Difficulties) measures. Clinician-rated and generic self-report measures were also administered. Reliabilities for the new patient reported physical functioning measures were excellent (all Cronbach's α > .92). Convergent, discriminant validity and known group validity was supported. The results provide psychometric support for new patient-reported physical functioning measures and the fact that these measures can be used as clinically meaningful endpoints in Huntington's disease research and clinical practice. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. The Glittre-ADL test reflects functional performance measured by physical activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Karloh, Manuela; Araujo, Cintia L. P.; Gulart, Aline A.; Reis, Cardine M.; Steidle, Leila J. M.; Mayer, Anamaria F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) is a valid and reliable test for the evaluation of functional capacity and involves multiple physical activities of daily living (PADL), which are known to be troublesome to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, it is still unknown if this test is also able to reflect the functional performance of patients with COPD. Objective To investigate whether the TGlittre reflects the functional performance of COPD patients and whether the necessary time to complete the TGlittre and the PADL varies according to disease severity. Method Thirty-eight patients with COPD (age 65, SD=7 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second 41.3, SD=15.2% predicted) underwent anthropometric and lung function assessments and were submitted to the TGlittre and PADL measurement. Results TGlittre performance correlated significantly (p<0.05) with PADL variables, such as time sitting (r=0.50), walking (r=-0.46), number of steps taken (r=–0.53), walking movement intensity (r=–0.66), walking energy expenditure (r=-0.50), and total energy expenditure (r=–0.33). TGlittre performance was not significantly different in patients among the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) spirometric stages, but walking and sitting time were significantly lower and greater, respectively, in severe and very severe patients compared to those with moderate disease (p<0.05). Conclusion The performance on the TGlittre correlates with walking and sitting time and other real life PADL measurements. The severity of the disease is associated with the differences in the level of physical activity in daily life more than in functional capacity. PMID:27437713

  12. Effects of community-deliverable exercise on pain and physical function in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Hootman, Jennifer M; Jones, Dina L

    2011-01-01

    To use the meta-analytic approach to determine the effects of community-deliverable exercise on pain and physical function in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases (AORD). Data sources consisted of 6 electronic databases, cross-referencing from retrieved studies and expert review. Study selection included 1) randomized controlled trials; 2) ≥ 1 exercise intervention group; 3) community-deliverable exercise interventions ≥ 4 weeks in duration; 4) control group; 5) adults ages ≥ 18 years with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, lupus, gout, or ankylosing spondylitis; 6) published and unpublished studies; 7) studies published in any language between January 1, 1980, and January 1, 2008; and 8) data available for pain and/or physical function. Data abstraction included dual coding by 2 of the authors. Standardized effect sizes (g) and random-effects models were used to pool pain and physical function outcomes. Data were analyzed according to per-protocol and intent-to-treat (ITT) results. The minimally clinically important difference (MCID) and number needed to treat (NNT) were also calculated. Thirty-three studies representing 3,180 men and women (1,857 exercise, 1,323 control) with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia were included. Statistically significant and clinically important improvements were observed for pain (per-protocol g = -0.37 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.53, -0.21], MCID -18%; ITT g = -0.20 [95% CI -0.33, -0.07], MCID -9%, NNT 9) and physical function (per-protocol g = 0.37 [95% CI 0.21, 0.52], MCID 15%; ITT g = 0.34 [95% CI 0.25, 0.43], MCID 10%, NNT 5). Community-deliverable exercise improves pain and physical function in adults with the types of AORD included in the analysis. Dose-response as well as studies in those with other types of AORD is needed. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Association of cigarette smoking with Chinese ankylosing spondylitis patients in Taiwan: a poor disease outcome in systemic inflammation, functional ability, and physical mobility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Chen, Hung-An; Lu, Chin-Li; Liao, Hsien-Tzung; Liu, Chin-Hsiu; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the association between smoking and the disease activity, functional ability, physical mobility, and systemic inflammation in Chinese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Seventy five male Chinese AS patients in Taiwan were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. These patients fulfilled the 1984 modified New York criteria. Patients completed the questionnaires, containing the demographic data, disease activity, functional ability (BASFI), and patient's global assessment. Meanwhile, physical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical mobility. Acute-phase reactants, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein levels were also measured in the AS patients. Smoking habits with smoking duration and smoking intensity (pack-years of smoking) were recorded. Among these physical mobility parameters, modified Schober's index (p < 0.001), cervical rotation (p = 0.034), later lumbar flexion (p = 0.002), chest expansion (p = 0.016), and occiput-to-wall distances (p = 0.003) were significantly impaired in smoking AS patients (n = 35) as compared to non-smoking (n = 40). Systemic inflammation parameter, ESR was significantly higher in smoking AS patients than non-smoking (p = 0.03). The odds ratio of advanced modified Schober's index, lateral lumbar flexion, fingertip-to-floor distance, chest expansion, and occiput-to-wall were significantly elevated in smoking AS patients as compared to non-smoking. Moreover, the smoking intensity correlated significantly with BASFI (r = 0.481, p = 0.005), cervical rotation (r = -0.401, p = 0.031), fingertip-to-floor distance (r = 0.485, p = 0.004), and occiput-to-wall distance (r = 0.473, p = 0.005) in the 35 smoking AS patients. The cigarette smokers in the Chinese AS patients have increased systemic inflammation and poor physical mobility. In addition, the higher smoking intensity in the AS smokers is associated with poor disease outcome, including functional ability and physical mobility

  14. The NB-LRR proteins RGA4 and RGA5 interact functionally and physically to confer disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Césari, Stella; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Bernoux, Maud; Chalvon, Véronique; Kawano, Yoji; Shimamoto, Ko; Dodds, Peter; Terauchi, Ryohei; Kroj, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plant resistance proteins of the class of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain proteins (NB-LRRs) are immune sensors which recognize pathogen-derived molecules termed avirulence (AVR) proteins. We show that RGA4 and RGA5, two NB-LRRs from rice, interact functionally and physically to mediate resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and accomplish different functions in AVR recognition. RGA4 triggers an AVR-independent cell death that is repressed in the presence of RGA5 in both rice protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Upon recognition of the pathogen effector AVR-Pia by direct binding to RGA5, repression is relieved and cell death occurs. RGA4 and RGA5 form homo- and hetero-complexes and interact through their coiled-coil domains. Localization studies in rice protoplast suggest that RGA4 and RGA5 localize to the cytosol. Upon recognition of AVR-Pia, neither RGA4 nor RGA5 is re-localized to the nucleus. These results establish a model for the interaction of hetero-pairs of NB-LRRs in plants: RGA4 mediates cell death activation, while RGA5 acts as a repressor of RGA4 and as an AVR receptor. PMID:25024433

  15. Physical unclonable functions: A primer

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Todd; Hamlet, Jason

    2014-11-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) make use of the measurable intrinsic randomness of physical systems to establish signatures for those systems. Thus, PUFs provide a means to generate unique keys that don't need to be stored in nonvolatile memory, and they offer exciting opportunities for new authentication and supply chain security technologies.

  16. Physical activities in daily life and functional capacity compared to disease activity control in acromegalic patients: impact in self-reported quality of life.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Renata Aparecida Elias; Passos, Karine Elias; Porto, Lara Benigno; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Reis, Marcia Cristina; Naves, Luciana Ansaneli

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of life and its association with daily physical activity and disease control in acromegalic patients. A cross-sectional, case series study, composed of 42 patients recruited from the Neuroendocrinology Unit of the University Hospital of Brasilia. Level of physical activity was accessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ 6-short-form), which evaluates the weekly time spent on physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity in different contexts of life. Quality of life was evaluated by The Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire Short Form (SF-36). Data was compared to growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels. Students' t test and Fisher test were used, p < 0.05, SPSS 17.0. Twenty-two women, aged 51.33 ± 14.33 and 20 men, aged 46.2 ± 13.18 were evaluated. Arthralgia was present in 83% of cases. In men, the most common sites of pain were the knees (73%), spine (47% lumbar, and 53% thoracic and cervical segments), hands and wrists (40%). Higher scores on SF-36 were observed in patients with intermediate or high levels of physical activity, in the domains social functioning (75 CI 57.3-92.6), general health (75.5 CI 60.4-90.5), mental health (70 CI 57.8-82.1). In this study, the presence and severity of physical disability and pain were not associated with initial GH and IGF-1 levels or time of exposure to GH excess. However, the patients considered controlled, with normal a normal age-adjusted IGF-1, presented higher scores in SF-36, in physical and emotional domains, compared with patients with persistent hypersomatotrophism. These findings suggest benefits of metabolic control in self-reported quality of life.

  17. Physical function assessment tools in pediatric rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Lakshmi Nandini; Peterson, Margaret GE; Harrison, Melanie J; Onel, Karen B; Lehman, Thomas JA

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric rheumatic diseases with predominant musculoskeletal involvement such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis(JDM) can cause considerable physical functional impairment and significantly affect the children's quality of life (QOL). Physical function, QOL, health-related QOL (HRQOL) and health status are personal constructs used as outcomes to estimate the impact of these diseases and often used as proxies for each other. The chronic, fluctuating nature of these diseases differs within and between patients, and complicates the measurement of these outcomes. In children, their growing needs and expectations, limited use of age-specific questionnaires, and the use of proxy respondents further influences this evaluation. This article will briefly review the different constructs inclusive of and related to physical function, and the scales used for measuring them. An understanding of these instruments will enable assessment of functional outcome in clinical studies of children with rheumatic diseases, measure the impact of the disease and treatments on their lives, and guide us in formulating appropriate interventions. PMID:18533038

  18. Physical treatment of Peyronie disease.

    PubMed

    Culibrk, M S; Culibrk, B

    2001-08-01

    Peyronie disease is a localized and progressive fibrosis. It is characterized by a plaque in the tunica albuginea, which leads to penile deformity, making sexual intercourse difficult, if not impossible. During a 4-yr period, we treated 35 patients, aged 30-62 yr, in different stages of this disease. We applied ultrasound therapy (0.5 W/cm; 10 min), infrared radiation, and iontophoresis with 8% potassium iodide (0.2 mA; 30 min). The patients were taught to administer therapy by themselves. The patients' diseases were classified into three stages on the basis of subjective symptoms and clinical findings. At the beginning of treatment, 20 patients' diseases were classified as being in the first stage, 13 patients' diseases in the second stage, and 2 patients' diseases in the third stage. By the end of treatment, 10 patients were cured, 17 patients' diseases were classified as being in the first stage, 8 patients' diseases were in the second stage, and there were no patients in the third stage. The method is simple, safe, painless, and inexpensive. Patients were taught to administer the therapy by themselves. There were no side effects. Functional improvement and the cessation of pain were noted by all the patients. The level of improvement depended on the disease duration, the length of therapy, and the stage of the disease.

  19. Effectiveness of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chloe Lau Ha; Thilarajah, Shamala; Tan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence investigating the effectiveness of resistance training on strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. Seven electronic databases (COCHRANE, CINAHL, Medline ISI, Psycinfo, Scopus, Web of Science ISI and Embase) were systematically searched for full-text articles published in English between 1946 and November 2014 using relevant search terms. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease were considered. The PEDro scale was used to assess study quality. Studies with similar outcomes were pooled by calculating standardized mean differences (SMD) using fixed or random effects model, depending on study heterogeneity. Seven studies, comprising of 401 participants with early to advanced disease (Hoehn & Yahr stage 1 to 4), were included. The median quality score was 6/10. The meta-analyses demonstrated significant SMD in favour of resistance training compared to non-resistance training or no intervention controls for muscle strength (0.61; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.87; P <0.001), balance (0.36; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.64; P = 0.01) and parkinsonian motor symptoms (0.48; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.75; P < 0.001) but not for gait, balance confidence and quality of life. This review demonstrates that moderate intensity progressive resistance training, 2-3 times per week over 8-10 weeks can result in significant strength, balance and motor symptoms gains in people with early to moderate Parkinson's disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Subsystem functional for confinement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Feng; Mattsson, Ann; Armiento, Rickard

    2010-03-01

    Recent success of the AM05 [1,2] functional shows that the subsystem functional scheme is a practical framework to construct well-performing functionals in density functional theory (DFT). The idea is to divide the real material system into regions with different characteristic physics that can be described by model systems. In AM05, subsystem functionals based on a surface model system and a uniform electron gas model system are combined to include both the edge and interior physics. By studying a harmonic oscillator model system restricted in one dimension, we are aiming to build a subsystem functional that can include ``confinement physics'' into the scheme. The new model system may help in constructing a more generally accurate functional working for both solid-state and chemical systems. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. [1] R. Armiento, A.E. Mattsson, PRB 72, 085108 (2005), [2] A.E. Mattsson et al. JCP 128, 084714 (2008).

  1. Impaired physical function following pediatric LT.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Neighbors, Katie; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Rak, Melanie; Varni, James W; Alonso, Estella M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the spectrum of physical function of pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients 12-24 months after LT. Review data were collected through the functional outcomes group, an ancillary study of the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Patients were eligible if they had survived LT by 12-24 months. Children ≥ 8 years and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales, which includes 8 questions assessing physical function. Scores were compared to a matched healthy child population (n = 1658) and between survivors with optimal versus nonoptimal health. A total of 263 patients were included. Median age at transplant and survey was 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3-11.4 years) and 5.9 years (IQR, 2.6-13.1 years), respectively. The mean physical functioning score on child and parent reports were 81.2 ± 17.3 and 77.1 ± 23.7, respectively. Compared to a matched healthy population, transplant survivors and their parents reported lower physical function scores (P < 0.001); 32.9% of patients and 35.0% of parents reported a physical function score <75, which is > 1 standard deviation below the mean of a healthy population. Physical functioning scores were significantly higher in survivors with optimal health than those with nonoptimal health (P < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between emotional functioning and physical functioning scores for LT recipients (r = 0.69; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, primary disease, height z score < -1.64 at longterm follow-up (LTF) visit,  > 4 days of hospitalization since LTF visit, and not being listed as status 1 were predictors of poor physical function. In conclusion, pediatric LT recipients 1-2 years after LT and their parents report lower physical function than a healthy population. Findings suggest practitioners need to routinely assess physical function, and

  2. Impaired Physical Function Following Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy G.; Neighbors, Katie; Mukherjee, Shubra; Rak, Melanie; Varni, James W.; Alonso, Estella M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigate the spectrum of physical function of pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients 12–24 months post-LT. Study design Review data collected through the Functional Outcomes Group, an ancillary study of Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Patients were eligible if they had survived LT by 12–24 months. Children ≥ 8 years and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, which includes 8 questions assessing physical function. Scores were compared to a matched healthy child population (n=1658), and between survivors with optimal versus non-optimal health. Results A total of 263 patients were included. Median age at transplant and survey was 4.8 years (IQR 1.3–11.4) and 5.9 years (IQR 2.6–13.1), respectively. The mean Physical Functioning Score on child and parent reports were 81.2± 17.3 and 77.1± 23.7, respectively. Compared to a matched healthy population, transplant survivors and their parents reported lower physical function scores (p<0.01). 32.9% of patients and 35.0% of parents reported a physical function score <75, which is >1 SD below the mean of a healthy population. Physical Function Scores were significantly higher in survivors with optimal health than those with non-optimal health (p<0.01). There was a significant relationship between Emotional Functioning and Physical Functioning Scores for LT recipients (r=0.69, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, primary disease, height Z score<−1.64 at long term follow-up (LTF) visit, ≥4 days of hospitalization since LTF visit, and not listed as Status 1 were predictors of poor physical function. Conclusions Pediatric LT recipients 1–2 years post-LT and their parents report lower physical function than a healthy population. Findings suggest practitioners need to routinely assess physical function, and development of rehabilitation programs may be important. PMID:26850789

  3. Patient education, disease activity and physical function: can we be more targeted? A cross sectional study among people with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and hand osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In order to target educational needs of patients more effectively, an Austrian-German educational needs assessment tool (OENAT) was developed, the educational needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and hand osteoarthritis (HOA) were described and the relationships between educational needs, gender, disease activity and function were explored. Methods The English ENAT was adapted into Austrian-German using Beaton's cross-cultural adaptation process. Internal construct validity was assessed by Rasch analysis. Educational needs across diagnostic groups and subgroups of patients were summarized descriptively and their relationship with disease activity and physical functioning explored. Results The sample comprised 130 RA, 125 PsA and 48 HOA patients. Their mean ages ± SD were 56 ± 14, 51 ± 11 and 64 ± 7 years for RA, PsA and HOA; disease duration was 11 ± 9, 11 ± 11 and 14 ± 9 years, respectively. More than 70% in each patient group expressed interest in receiving education about their disease. The educational needs differed significantly between women and men in all 3 groups. In RA and PsA, female patients expressed significantly higher educational needs than men in 'movements’ and 'feelings’ domains (p=0.04 and p=0.03 for RA and p<0.01 and p=0.01 for PsA). Female patients in the HOA group had significantly higher scores on all domains except for the 'movements’. Older patients with PsA scored significantly higher than their younger counterparts in the 'pain’ domain (p=0.05). RA patients with disease duration >5 years), expressed higher educational needs in 'movements’ (p<0.01). Educational background had effects in the PsA group only, patients with basic education had greater scores than those with higher education on 'movements’ and 'arthritis process’ (p=0.01). In the RA group, DAS28 correlated significantly with 'movements’ (r=0.24, p=0.01), 'feelings’ (r=0.22, p

  4. Physical health functioning among United Methodist clergy.

    PubMed

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; LeGrand, Sara

    2012-09-01

    United Methodist clergy have been found to have higher than average self-reported rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, and high blood pressure. However, health diagnoses differ from physical health functioning, which indicates how much health problems interfere with activities of daily living. Ninety-five percent (n = 1726) of all actively serving United Methodist clergy in North Carolina completed the SF-12, a measure of physical health functioning that has US norms based on self-administered survey data. Sixty-two percent (n = 1074) of our sample completed the SF-12 by self-administered formats. We used mean difference tests among self-administered clergy surveys to compare the clergy SF-12 Physical Composite Scores to US-normed scores. Clergy reported significantly better physical health composite scores than their gender- and age-matched peers, despite above average disease burden in the same sample. Although health interventions tailored to clergy that address chronic disease are urgently needed, it may be difficult to elicit participation given pastors' optimistic view of their physical health functioning.

  5. Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L

    2012-11-01

    In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Besides Depression, Number of Physiological Diseases is More Important than Physical Function on Mental Health of Elderly Adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren-Hau; Wu, Yi-Ying; Tsang, Hin-Yeung

    2017-02-01

    This study contrasted the relative importance between the number of physiological diseases and activities of daily living (ADLs) to the mental health of elderly adults after controlling for mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores and depression. Participants were 1342 elderly people with a mean age of 73.22 years and living in three communities in southern Taiwan. Age, gender, years of education duration, marital status, and MMSE and hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) scores were control variables. The ability of the ADLs scale scores and number of physiological diseases to predict mental health, as measured by the 12-item Chinese health questionnaire, was compared using hierarchical regression analyses. The final hierarchical model indicated that only HAMD and the number of physiological diseases scores were significant and that the former was much more predictive than the latter. The results imply that the number of physiological diseases is more predictive of mental health than ADLs scores and that depression is a dangerous risk factor for elderly people.

  7. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  8. Blood Pressure and Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Forbang, Nketi; Ix, Joachim; Criqui, Michael; Rifkin, Dena

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension in older adults is a dynamic process, with significant diurnal fluctuation. Little research has been done on the associations between increased short-term blood pressure variability and blunted night-time dipping in respect to decreased physical function in the elderly. Our aim is to use a cross-sectional analysis to illuminate any associations. Methods: A cross-sectional sub-study (mean age: 72, 67.5% female) was performed on selected participants from the San Diego Population Study (Criqui, et al, 2003). Blood pressure was measured both in the office (3 independent blood pressure readings) and using a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring cuff. Blood pressure variability was measured using average real variability (ARV). Physical function was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test. Statistical analysis was performed on IBM SPSS Statistics (1911) software. Results: An unadjusted univariate analysis adjusted for age and gender showed associations between 24-hr ARV of SBP (P = .001), 24-hr ARV pulse pressure (P < .001), and percent systolic dipping (P = .011) and SPPB score. After multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender was performed, the results were substantially attenuated. However, the association of ARV of SBP was not significant with a P-value of .052 and the ARV of pulse pressure remained significant with a P-value of .022. Multivariate hierarchical linear regression models revealed insignificant trends. Conclusions: Increased short-term variability and blunted night-time dipping were associated physical function but were not independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Further research can be done as to the biology of how both age and BMI influence blood pressure patterns. The trends observed in this study may warrant the investigation of abnormal blood pressure patterns in those who are either elderly or have increased BMI.

  9. Objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function and prospective associations with mortality and newly diagnosed disease in UK older adults: an OPAL four-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Davis, Mark G; Simmonds, Bethany A J; Thompson, Janice L; Stathi, Afroditi; Gray, Selena F; Sharp, Deborah J; Coulson, Joanne C

    2015-03-01

    Objective measures of physical activity and function with a diverse cohort of UK adults in their 70s and 80s were used to investigate relative risk of all-cause mortality and diagnoses of new diseases over a 4-year period. Two hundred and forty older adults were randomly recruited from 12 general practices in urban and suburban areas of a city in the United Kingdom. Follow-up included 213 of the baseline sample. Socio-demographic variables, height and weight, and self-reported diagnosed diseases were recorded at baseline. Seven-day accelerometry was used to assess total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity and sedentary time. A log recorded trips from home. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Medical records were accessed on average 50 months post baseline, when new diseases and deaths were recorded. ANOVAs were used to assess socio-demographic, physical activity and lower limb function group differences in diseases at baseline and new diseases during follow-up. Regression models were constructed to assess the prospective associations between physical activity and function with mortality and new disease. For every 1,000 steps walked per day, the risk of mortality was 36% lower (hazard ratios 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.91, P=0.013). Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.68, P=0.030) and low frequency of trips from home (IRR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98-2.05, P=0.045) were associated with diagnoses of more new diseases. Physical activity should be supported for adults in their 70s and 80s, as it is associated with reduced risk of mortality and new disease development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  10. Objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function and prospective associations with mortality and newly diagnosed disease in UK older adults: an OPAL four-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Davis, Mark G.; Simmonds, Bethany A. J.; Thompson, Janice L.; Stathi, Afroditi; Gray, Selena F.; Sharp, Deborah J.; Coulson, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: objective measures of physical activity and function with a diverse cohort of UK adults in their 70s and 80s were used to investigate relative risk of all-cause mortality and diagnoses of new diseases over a 4-year period. Participants: two hundred and forty older adults were randomly recruited from 12 general practices in urban and suburban areas of a city in the United Kingdom. Follow-up included 213 of the baseline sample. Methods: socio-demographic variables, height and weight, and self-reported diagnosed diseases were recorded at baseline. Seven-day accelerometry was used to assess total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity and sedentary time. A log recorded trips from home. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Medical records were accessed on average 50 months post baseline, when new diseases and deaths were recorded. Analyses: ANOVAs were used to assess socio-demographic, physical activity and lower limb function group differences in diseases at baseline and new diseases during follow-up. Regression models were constructed to assess the prospective associations between physical activity and function with mortality and new disease. Results: for every 1,000 steps walked per day, the risk of mortality was 36% lower (hazard ratios 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44–0.91, P = 0.013). Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.04–2.68, P = 0.030) and low frequency of trips from home (IRR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98–2.05, P = 0.045) were associated with diagnoses of more new diseases. Conclusion: physical activity should be supported for adults in their 70s and 80s, as it is associated with reduced risk of mortality and new disease development. PMID:25377744

  11. Effects of Community-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Body Composition and Physical Function in Individuals with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: 1.6-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Hodge, Claire; Stevens, Emily; Walker, Robert; Nye, Edwin R.; Body, Dianne; Barclay, Leanne; Williams, Michael J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine long-term changes in physical function and body composition in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients participating in ongoing community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Design. Thirty-four individuals (69.7 ± 8.2 years; 79% men) participated in this longitudinal observational study. Baseline and follow-up assessments included incremental shuttle walk, short physical performance battery, handgrip strength, chair stands, body composition, last year physical activity, and CR attendance. Results. Participants attended 38.5 ± 30.3% sessions during 1.6 ± 0.2 year followup. A significant increase in 30-second chair stands (17.0 ± 4.7 to 19.6 ± 6.4, P < 0.001), body weight (75.8 ± 11.1 to 77.2 ± 12.1 kg, P = 0.001), and body fat (27.0 ± 9.5 to 29.1 ± 9.6%, P < 0.001) and a decline in handgrip strength (36.4 ± 9.4 to 33.0 ± 10.6 kg·f, P < 0.001) and muscle mass (40.8 ± 5.6 to 39.3 ± 5.8%, P < 0.001) were observed during followup. There was no significant change in shuttle walk duration. CR attendance was not correlated to observed changes. Conclusions. Elderly CAD patients participating in a maintenance CR program improve lower-body muscle strength but experience a decline in handgrip strength and unfavourable changes in body composition, irrespective of CR attendance. PMID:23865071

  12. Myofilament Protein Alterations Promote Physical Disability in Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark S.; Toth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function declines with age and age-associated diseases. Although muscle atrophy undoubtedly contributes to this decrease, recent findings suggest that reduced myofilament protein content and function also may participate. Based on these data, we propose that age- and disease-related alterations in myofilament proteins represent one molecular mechanism contributing to the development of physical disability. PMID:23392279

  13. Physical activity and Alzheimer disease course.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A; Brickman, Adam M; Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Xin-Tang, Ming; Gu, Yian; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and Alzheimer disease (AD) course. PA has been related to lower risk for AD. Whether PA is associated with subsequent AD course has not been investigated. In a population-based study of individuals aged 65 years and older in New York who were prospectively followed up with standard neurologic and neuropsychological evaluations (every ~1.5 years), 357 participants i) were nondemented at baseline and ii) were diagnosed with AD during follow-up (incident AD). PA (sum of participation in a variety of physical activities, weighted by the type of activity [light, moderate, and severe]) obtained 2.4 (standard deviation [SD], 1.9) years before incidence was the main predictor of mortality in Cox models and of cognitive decline in generalized estimating equation models that were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, comorbidities, and duration between PA evaluation and dementia onset. One hundred fifty incident AD cases (54%) died during the course of 5.2 (SD, 4.4) years of follow-up. When compared with incident AD cases who were physically inactive, those with some PA had lower mortality risk, whereas incident AD participants with much PA had an even lower risk. Additional adjustments for apolipoprotein genotype, smoking, comorbidity index, and cognitive performance did not change the associations. PA did not affect rates of cognitive or functional decline. Exercise may affect not only risk for AD but also subsequent disease duration: more PA is associated with prolonged survival in AD.

  14. [Physical activity and respiratory tract diseases asthma and allergy].

    PubMed

    Carlsen, K H

    2000-11-10

    This article presents a review of the relationship between physical training and airways diseases: the relationship between physical activity and the development of airways diseases, and the effect of physical training in rehabilitation after airways diseases. The article is a systematic review of exercise-induced asthma (EIA), the effect of physical training upon bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the development of asthma; how chronic lung diseases affect the ability to participate in physical activity; and the use of physical training in rehabilitation after airways diseases. Physical training may provoke EIA in asthmatic patients. Furthermore, heavy regular training over long periods of time may contribute to the development of asthma. Mastering EIA is an important goal in the management of asthma, especially in children and adolescents, in order to foster normal physical and mental development. Physical training improves fitness and the mastering of asthma, but not of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma activity. In other airways disorders like cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive lung disease, a reduced lung function may limit the ability to participate in physical activity. Training is an important tool in the rehabilitation of patients with pulmonary disorders as it improves physical fitness and quality of life.

  15. The fitness for the Ageing Brain Study II (FABS II): protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Observational studies have documented a potential protective effect of physical exercise in older adults who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. The Fitness for the Ageing Brain II (FABS II) study is a multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) aiming to determine whether physical activity reduces the rate of cognitive decline among individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This paper describes the background, objectives of the study, and an overview of the protocol including design, organization and data collection methods. Methods/Design The study will recruit 230 community-dwelling participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: usual care group or 24-week home-based program consisting of 150 minutes per week of tailored moderate physical activity. The primary outcome measure of the study is cognitive decline as measured by the change from baseline in the total score on the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive section. Secondary outcomes of interest include behavioral and psychological symptoms, quality of life, functional level, carer burden and physical function (strength, balance, endurance, physical activity). Primary endpoints will be measured at six and twelve months following the baseline assessment. Discussion This RCT will contribute evidence regarding the potential benefits of a systematic program of physical activity as an affordable and safe intervention for people with Alzheimer's disease. Further, if successful, physical activity in combination with usual care has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and improve its management and the quality of life of patients and their carers. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000755235 PMID:21143943

  16. Physical Mistreatment in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    VandeWeerd, Carla; Paveza, Gregory J.; Walsh, Margaret; Corvin, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Physical mistreatment has been estimated to affect 2 million older persons each year and dramatically affects health outcomes. While researchers have attempted to examine risk factors for specific forms of abuse, many have been able to focus on only victim or perpetrator characteristics, or a limited number of psychosocial variables at any one time. Additionally, data on risk factors for subgroups such as persons with Alzheimer's disease who may have heightened and/or unique risk profiles has also been limited. This paper examines risk for physical violence in caregiver/patient dyads who participated in the Aggression and Violence in Community-Based Alzheimer's Families Grant. Data were collected via in-person interview and mailed survey and included demographics as well as measures of violence, physical and emotional health, and health behaviors. Logistic regression analysis indicated that caregivers providing care to elders with high levels of functional impairment or dementia symptoms, or who had alcohol problems, were more likely to use violence as a conflict resolution strategy, as were caregivers who were providing care to elders who used violence against them. By contrast, caregivers with high self-esteem were less likely to use violence as a conflict resolution strategy. Significant interaction effects were also noted. PMID:23577255

  17. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  18. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    González, Karimé; Fuentes, Jorge; Márquez, José Luis

    2017-05-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A PubMed database search was undertaken, using the following key words: physical activity, physical inactivity, sedentarism, sedentary behavior, and non-communicable chronic disease. This literature review provides an updated view on physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, and reevaluates their prevalence and association with major non-communicable chronic disease.

  19. Pancreatic function in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hegnhøj, J; Hansen, C P; Rannem, T; Søbirk, H; Andersen, L B; Andersen, J R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated exocrine pancreatic function in a population of patients with Crohn's disease in order to correlate the pancreatic function with clinical and laboratory variables. A total of 143 patients affected by Crohn's disease and 115 control subjects were studied. All had a Lundh meal test. As a group patients with Crohn's disease had significantly decreased activity of both amylase (p less than 0.02) and lipase (p less than 0.001) in duodenal aspirates. In patients with Crohn's disease enzyme activities were not correlated to duration of disease or to extent or localisation of previous bowel resection. The lowest enzyme values were found in patients with the most extensive bowel involvement, and they were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than in patients with disease confined to the terminal ileum. The differences between enzyme values in other subgroups of patients were not significant. For the patient group as a whole no correlation was found between disease activity and enzyme values, but for the most uniform group of patients, those with terminal ileitis, pancreatic function was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in patients with moderate and severe disease compared with patients with mild disease. Thus at least two factors seem to be responsible for impaired pancreatic function in Crohn's disease: firstly disease activity and secondly localisation or extent of disease. PMID:1698692

  20. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  1. Physical Activity Transitions and Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century in the United States (U.S.) has experienced a dramatic increase in life expectancy among adult men and women, an increase unprecedented in the history of this country. As a result, the pattern of disease and conditions most responsible for death in the U.S. shifted during the past century from infectious diseases and unintentional injuries to the current array of the leading causes of mortality dominated by the chronic diseases. During this same period, daily lifestyle dramatically shifted from a life full of active living to one of inactivity. The argument has been made that in the case of human beings, there has been little or no change in our genotype within the past 50 years. However, there have been major changes documented in the living environment among economically developed societies during this same time period. Through the collection of epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings, evidence exists to suggest that physical inactivity is associated with the onset of chronic diseases of our day. Trends in physical inactivity evident through the monitoring of transport, recreational, sport, and purposeful activity have demonstrated that the current lifestyle of the 21st century has contributed substantially to the chronic disease burden in the U.S. and elsewhere. By addressing the domains that influence physical activity behaviors including the environment (both physical and social/cultural), health systems access, and behavioral correlates of physical activity and inactivity, the current chronic disease crisis can potentially be addressed. PMID:20161359

  2. Fatigue: an overlooked determinant of physical function in scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Sandusky, S. B.; Smith, M. T.; Wigley, F. M.; Haythornthwaite, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the frequency and correlates of fatigue and its impact on physical and social functioning in patients with scleroderma, and to investigate whether fatigue mediates an association between pain and physical function. Methods. One hundred and seven scleroderma patients attending an academic scleroderma specialty centre completed measures of fatigue, sleep, pain, depressive symptoms, and physical and social functioning. Patients had received a comprehensive clinical assessment with a diagnosis of limited or diffuse scleroderma from their attending rheumatologist. Results. In this sample of scleroderma patients, 76% reported experiencing fatigue and 61% of these patients reported fatigue as one of their three most distressing symptoms. Patients endorsing greater pain had higher levels of self-reported fatigue, as did those reporting greater depression and poorer functioning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that global fatigue was a significant cross-sectional correlate of physical, but not social, functioning after controlling for depressive symptoms, level of education, poor sleep quality and disease subtype. However, global fatigue did not predict physical function when pain was included in the analyses. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that fatigue is common in scleroderma and that pain and fatigue are significant determinants of physical functioning for patients with limited and diffuse disease subtypes. Future research should investigate whether effective pain treatments reduce symptoms of fatigue, as well as identify other possible causes of fatigue in order to improve quality of life for scleroderma patients. PMID:19106163

  3. Fatigue: an overlooked determinant of physical function in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sandusky, S B; McGuire, L; Smith, M T; Wigley, F M; Haythornthwaite, J A

    2009-02-01

    To examine the frequency and correlates of fatigue and its impact on physical and social functioning in patients with scleroderma, and to investigate whether fatigue mediates an association between pain and physical function. One hundred and seven scleroderma patients attending an academic scleroderma specialty centre completed measures of fatigue, sleep, pain, depressive symptoms, and physical and social functioning. Patients had received a comprehensive clinical assessment with a diagnosis of limited or diffuse scleroderma from their attending rheumatologist. In this sample of scleroderma patients, 76% reported experiencing fatigue and 61% of these patients reported fatigue as one of their three most distressing symptoms. Patients endorsing greater pain had higher levels of self-reported fatigue, as did those reporting greater depression and poorer functioning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that global fatigue was a significant cross-sectional correlate of physical, but not social, functioning after controlling for depressive symptoms, level of education, poor sleep quality and disease subtype. However, global fatigue did not predict physical function when pain was included in the analyses. Our findings indicate that fatigue is common in scleroderma and that pain and fatigue are significant determinants of physical functioning for patients with limited and diffuse disease subtypes. Future research should investigate whether effective pain treatments reduce symptoms of fatigue, as well as identify other possible causes of fatigue in order to improve quality of life for scleroderma patients.

  4. Relationship between physical performance and self-perceived physical function.

    PubMed

    Cress, M E; Schechtman, K B; Mulrow, C D; Fiatarone, M A; Gerety, M B; Buchner, D M

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two methods of measuring physical function in subjects with a broad range of abilities and to evaluate the effects of cognitive, social, educational, and age factors on the relationship between the two methods. Multiple regression analysis was used to compare self-perceived (dependent variables) with performance measures (independent variables). Covariates included age, gender, Mini-Mental State Exam score, education, living status, and depression score. Five community-dwelling and two nursing home sites. 417 community-dwelling subjects and 200 nursing home residents aged 62-98 years. Self-perceived physical function was assessed with the physical dimension summary score of the Sickness Impact Profile, which comprises three subscales: ambulation, mobility, and body care and movement. Physical performance was evaluated by self-selected gait speed, chair-stand time, maximal grip strength, and a balance score. Nursing home residents and community-dwellers were significantly different (P < .0001) in all variables except age and gender. Self-perceived and performance-based measures were moderately correlated, with a range from r = -.194 to r = -.625 (P < .05). Gait speed was the strongest independent predictor of self-perceived physical function in both groups. Symptoms of depression were also an independent predictor of self-perceived function in nursing home residents; subjects who had such symptoms report more self-perceived dysfunction than would be predicted based on performance tests. Self-selected gait speed is a global indicator of self-perceived physical function over a broad range of abilities. External determinants (depressive symptoms, cognitive function, marital status, etc.) affect self-perceived function in both groups, but gait speed is the greatest single predictor of self-perceived function. In nursing home residents depressive symptomatology is related to self-perceived.

  5. Physical functioning for prostate health.

    PubMed

    Segal, Roanne

    2014-07-01

    Men who undergo long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may experience systemic side effects similar to the classical metabolic syndrome. Exercise is a potential strategy for offsetting the adverse effects of ADT among patients with prostate cancer, resulting in improved muscular resistance and positive outcomes on body size and composition. Fitness (aerobic capacity), fatigue and certain quality of life (QOL) outcomes may also improve in response to a regular exercise regimen. Caution and cardiovascular screening are merited given the elderly population with this disease.

  6. Physical functioning for prostate health

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Roanne

    2014-01-01

    Men who undergo long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may experience systemic side effects similar to the classical metabolic syndrome. Exercise is a potential strategy for offsetting the adverse effects of ADT among patients with prostate cancer, resulting in improved muscular resistance and positive outcomes on body size and composition. Fitness (aerobic capacity), fatigue and certain quality of life (QOL) outcomes may also improve in response to a regular exercise regimen. Caution and cardiovascular screening are merited given the elderly population with this disease. PMID:25243044

  7. Muscular strength and physical function.

    PubMed

    Brill, P A; Macera, C A; Davis, D R; Blair, S N; Gordon, N

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association of muscular strength and endurance at baseline with the prevalence of functional limitations at follow-up. Study participants were 3,069 men and 589 women (30-82 yr) who received a clinical examination including a strength evaluation at the Cooper Clinic between 1980 and 1989 and responded to a 1990 mail-back survey. Participants also had to achieve at least 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate on a maximal exercise treadmill test and have no history of heart attack, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, or arthritis at their first visit. A strength index composite score (0-6) was calculated using age- and sex-specific tertiles from bench press, leg press, and sit-up tests. Those scoring 5 or 6 were categorized in the high strength group. Functional health status was assessed by responses to questions about the participant's ability to perform light, moderate, and strenuous recreational, household, daily living, and personal care tasks. After an average follow-up of 5 yr, 7% of men and 12% of women reported at least one functional limitation. A logistic regression model including age, aerobic fitness, body mass index, and new health problems at follow-up found that, relative to those with lower levels of strength, the odds of reporting functional limitations at follow-up in men and women categorized as having higher levels of strength were 0.56 (95%CI = 0.34, 0.93) and 0.54 (95%CI = 0.21, 1.39), respectively. These findings, if replicated in other populations, suggest that maintenance of strength throughout the lifespan may reduce the prevalence of functional limitations.

  8. Role of physical exercise in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI-WEI; ZHANG, XIA; HUANG, WEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on the brain and general wellness are well recognised, but not particularly well known to the general public. Understanding the importance of integrating active behavior for overall health is crucial at any age and particularly for the elderly who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease mainly affecting individuals aged >65 years. AD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular senile plaques of amyloid-β, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau, brain atrophy and dementia. The beneficial effects of physical exercise have been observed on the maintenance of brain size and efficiency for the prevention of AD risks, such as obesity, hypertension and stroke. These effects are extended to individuals with, or at risk of dementia and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, although extensive studies are required to fully understand the mechanisms by which physical exercise procures beneficial effects, data suggest the relevance of integrating physical exercise in the prevention and/or cure of AD, disease whose incidence is predicted to increase in the future. Such an increase, may pose medical, social and economical challenges for populations and the health care system worldwide. In the present review we assess the positive aspects of physical exercise with regard to prevention and cure of AD. PMID:27073621

  9. PHYSICAL FUNCTION AND HISTORY OF FALLS

    PubMed Central

    I, Mangani; M, Cesari; A, Russo; G, Onder; C, Maraldi; V, Zamboni; N, Marchionni; R, Bernabei; M, Pahor; F, Landi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but the consequences of falls on physical function measures are still unclear. The present study explores the association between history of falls and physical function measures in older persons. Methods Data are from baseline evaluation of the ilSIRENTE study. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the 4-m walking test. Muscle strength was measured by hand grip strength. Functional status was assessed using the Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively) scales. Self reported history of falls occurred during the previous 90 days was recorded. Analyses of covariance and linear regression models were performed to evaluate the relationship between history of falls and physical function measures. Results Mean age of participants (n=364) was 85.9 (SD=4.9) years. Fifty participants (15.9%) reported at least one fall event in the previous 90 days. Participants with history of falls had significantly lower adjusted means for the 4-m walking test (0.382 m/s) and the SPPB score (5.602) compared to non fallers (0.498 m/s and 6.780, respectively, all p< 0.05). No statistically significant association of hand grip strength, ADLs and IADLs scales with history of falls was reported after adjustment. Physical activity was the strongest confounder of the association between history of falls and physical function. Physically active participants had a significantly higher physical function compared to sedentary subjects, regardless of history of falls. Conclusions Physical performance measures, walking speed and SPPB in particular, are negatively associated with history of falls. PMID:18594191

  10. Physical activity and Alzheimer's disease: from prevention to therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2008-07-01

    A number of factors, including physical activity, may contribute to prevention of cognitive decline and delay the onset of dementia. In addition to its convincing multiple benefits, an increasing body of evidence suggests that an active life has a protective effect on brain functioning in elders. Physical activity may also slow down the course of Alzheimer's disease. These hypotheses have led to increasing research in this specific area during the past decade. This review systematically analyzes the current literature on Alzheimer's disease and the effect of physical activity. Epidemiological studies, short-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in nondemented participants, and biological research suggest that physical activity improves cognitive function in older subjects. The limitations of these works are discussed. No RCTs have yet demonstrated that regular physical activity prevents dementia. Additional challenging clinical interventional studies are needed to demonstrate this relationship, but accumulating evidence from biological research is available. Defining the optimal preventive and therapeutic strategies in terms of type, duration, and intensity of physical activity remain an open question. In the future, the prevention of Alzheimer's disease may be based on rules governing lifestyle habits such as diet, cognitive activity, and physical activity.

  11. Validity of PROMIS® Physical Function Measures in Diverse Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Schalet, Benjamin D.; Hays, Ron D.; Jensen, Sally E.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Fries, James F.; Cella, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of the PROMIS® Physical Function measures using longitudinal data collected in six chronic health conditions. Study Design and Setting Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), major depressive disorder (MDD), back pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart failure (CHF), and cancer completed the PROMIS Physical Function computerized adaptive test (CAT) or fixed-length short form (SF) at baseline and at the end of clinically-relevant follow-up intervals. Anchor items were also administered to assess change in physical function and general health. Linear mixed effects models and standardized response means were estimated at baseline and follow-up. Results 1415 individuals participated (COPD n = 121; CHF n = 57; back pain n = 218; MDD n = 196, RA n = 521; cancer n = 302). The PROMIS Physical Function scores improved significantly for treatment of CHF and back pain patients, but not for patients with MDD or COPD. Most of the patient subsamples that reported improvement or worsening on the anchors showed a corresponding positive or negative change in PROMIS Physical Function. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the PROMIS Physical Function measures are sensitive to change in intervention studies where physical function is expected to change and able to distinguish among different clinical samples. The results inform the estimation of meaningful change, enabling comparative effectiveness research. PMID:26970039

  12. Physical function and quality of life in patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease: A summary of preclinical and clinical studies and a call for exercise intervention trials in patients

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Simpson, Richard J.; Ramírez, Manuel; Lucia, Alejandro; Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant, to reconstitute hematopoietic and immune status of patients undergoing myeloablative therapy for hematologic disorders, has been of great benefit in minimizing or eradicating disease and extending survival. Patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) are subject to many comorbidities among which the most significant, affecting quality of life (QoL) and survival, are acute (aGVHD) and chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (cGVHD), resulting from donor lymphocytes reacting to and damaging host tissues. Physical activity and exercise have clearly been shown, in both children and adults, to enhance fitness, improve symptomatology and QoL, reduce disease progression and extend survival for many diseases including malignancies. In some cases, vigorous exercise has been shown to be equal to or more effective than pharmacologic therapy. This review addresses how cGVHD affects patients’ physical function and physical domain of QoL, and the potential benefits of exercise interventions along with recommendations for relevant research and evaluation targeted at incorporating this strategy as soon as possible after allo-HSCT and ideally, as soon as possible upon diagnosis of the condition leading to allo-HSCT. PMID:26367233

  13. Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated. ♦ Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure. ♦ Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association. ♦ Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD. PMID:22942271

  14. The effect of physical training on rat calf muscle, oxygen tension, blood flow, metabolism and function in an animal model of chronic occlusive peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, C D; Angersbach, D; Wilke, R

    1992-01-01

    The effect of treadmill physical training (PT) on rat gastrocnemius/plantaris muscle after bilateral femoral artery ligation was investigated. To enable a comparison to be made between the susceptibility of muscles with restricted blood flow and normally perfused skeletal muscle to PT, animals without ligated femoral arteries also underwent PT. PT increased the oxidative capacity of the gastrocnemius/plantaris muscle, as judged by the activity of citrate synthase, and reduced muscle fatigue in both groups of animals. Exercise also tended to lower the activity of a marker enzyme for glycolysis, glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase in all animals, although this only reached the level of statistical significance in the animals with ligated femoral arteries. In the animals with restricted muscle blood flow, PT increased gastrocnemius skeletal muscle blood flow and pO2 and prolonged the time taken to attain maximum muscle twitch tension. The results indicate a great susceptibility of hindlimb skeletal muscles of rats with ligated femoral arteries to PT. They also suggest that the beneficial effect of PT observed in man with chronic occlusive arterial disease (COAD) may result both from an increase in muscle blood flow and from an enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity in the afflicted muscle.

  15. [Chronic kidney disease in 5 708 people receiving physical examination].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo; Chen, Zhiheng; Zhang, Hao; Gong, Ni; Wang, Yan

    2014-04-01

    To investigate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in people receiving physical examination. This retrospective study included people over 20 years old who had physical examination in the Health Management Center of Third Xiangya Hospital from Janurary 2008 to June 2011. CKD and its risk factors as well as questionnaire were recorded. The risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic analysis. CKD was defined by kidney damage (microalbuminuria≥30 mg/L) and/or hematuria and/or reduced kidney function [evaluate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 mL/(min.1.73 m2)]. We counted eGFR according to the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD). A total of 5 708 physical examination reports were included. The detection rate of albuminuria, reduced renal function and hematuria was 25.0%, 1.7% and 1.1%. The detection rate of CKD was 25.6%, and detection rate of CKD stage 1-5 was 17.8%, 6.7%, 1.1%, 0 and 0, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, male, age, and smoking were the risk factors for CKD. Increasing physical activity was the protective factor against CKD. High prevalence of CKD in people receiving physical examination is found in Changsha, especially stage 1 and 2 CKD. Physical examination is important to screen CKD. Stopping smoking, control of blood glucose, blood pressure, blood lipids and increasing physical activity may help reduce the prevalence of CKD.

  16. Association between the ankle–brachial index, intermittent claudication, and physical activity level: what is the influence on the functional capacity of patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Nardi Gomes, Tiago José; Martins de Albuquerque, Isabella; de Moraes Costa, Patrícia; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; de Moraes Costa, Gabriela; da Costa Vieira, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease have a poor functional capacity; however, the influence of association among intermittent claudication (IC), abnormal ankle–brachial index (ABI), and physical activity level on functional capacity of these patients has not been fully studied. Objective The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between the ABI, IC, and physical activity level, and the influence of these variables on the functional capacity of patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease seen in a reference cardiology outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil. The secondary objective was to assess the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in this sample of patients. Patients and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 162 consecutive patients were evaluated and classified into three groups according to their ABI: normal ABI (n=104, values between 1.00 and 1.40); borderline PAD (n=23, values between 0.91 and 1.00); and patients with PAD (n=35, ≤0.90). The presence of IC was assessed using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. The level of physical activity was assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and functional capacity was assessed by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results The prevalence of PAD was 21.6% in the total sample. The 6MWD showed strong correlation with the absence of IC (r=0.785; P<0.001), moderate correlation with age (r=−0.347; P<0.001), and weak correlations with IPAQ scores (r=0.164; P=0.038) and ABI (r=0.216; P=0.006). Age, ABI, and absence of IC were independently associated with the outcome (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusion The current study demonstrates that 6MWD is associated with IPAQ scores, ABI, and absence of IC. Age, ABI and absence of IC were independently associated with functional capacity in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease

  17. [Female sexual function and chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bronner, Gila

    2006-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.

  18. Inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Phillips, Louise H; Della Sala, Sergio; Henry, Julie D

    2004-05-01

    We present a comprehensive review of studies assessing inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease. The objectives of this review are: (i) to establish whether Alzheimer's disease affects all inhibitory mechanisms equally, and (ii) where possible, to assess whether any effects of Alzheimer's disease on inhibition tasks might be caused by other cognitive deficits, such as slowed processing. We review inhibitory mechanisms considered to play a crucial role in various domains of cognition, such as inhibition involved in working memory, selective attention and shifting abilities, and the inhibition of motor and verbal responses. It was found that whilst most inhibitory mechanisms are affected by the disorder, some are relatively preserved, suggesting that inhibitory deficits in Alzheimer's disease may not be the result of a general inhibitory breakdown. In particular, the experimental results reviewed showed that Alzheimer's disease has a strong effect on tasks requiring controlled inhibition processes, such as the Stroop task. However, the presence of the disease appears to have relatively little effect on tasks requiring more automatic inhibition, such as the inhibition of return task. Thus, the distinction between automatic, reflexive inhibitory mechanisms and controlled inhibitory mechanisms may be critical when predicting the integrity of inhibitory mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease. Substantial effects of Alzheimer's disease on tasks such as negative priming, which are not cognitively complex but do require some degree of controlled inhibition, support this hypothesis. A meta-analytic review of seven studies on the Stroop paradigm revealed substantially larger effects of Alzheimer's disease on the inhibition condition relative to the baseline condition, suggesting that these deficits do not simply reflect general slowing.

  19. Trajectories of prediagnostic functioning in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; Stricker, Bruno H; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-02-01

    SEE BREEN AND LANG DOI101093/AWW321 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: At the time of clinical diagnosis, patients with Parkinson's disease already have a wide range of motor and non-motor features that affect their daily functioning. However, the temporal sequence of occurrence of these features remains largely unknown. We studied trajectories of daily functioning and motor and non-motor features in the 23 years preceding Parkinson's disease diagnosis by performing a nested case-control study within the prospective Rotterdam study. Between 1990 and 2013, we repeatedly performed standardized assessments of daily functioning (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale), potential prediagnostic motor (hypo- and bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, postural imbalance, postural abnormalities) and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease, including cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Stroop Test, Letter-Digit-Substitution Test, Word Fluency Test), mood (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale), and autonomic function (blood pressure, laxative use). In addition, the cohort was followed-up for the onset of clinical Parkinson's disease using several overlapping modalities, including repeated in-person examinations, as well as complete access to medical records and specialist letters of study participants. During follow-up, 109 individuals were diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, and each case was matched to 10 controls based on age and sex (total n = 1199). Subsequently, we compared prediagnostic trajectories of daily functioning and other features between Parkinson's disease cases and controls. From 7 years before diagnosis onwards, prediagnostic Parkinson's disease cases more commonly had problems in instrumental activities of daily functioning, and more frequently showed signs of movement poverty and slowness, tremor and subtle cognitive deficits. In the

  20. [Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirat, Jure

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading health problem of the modern age. They are the first cause of mortality in developed as well as in transition countries. Physical activity has a beneficial impact on the cardiovascular system, both directly by improving endothelial function and indirectly by normalizing risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, obesity and by positive effects on coagulation mechanism. The impact of physical activity on the cardiovascular system is manifested by immediate changes in hemodynamics, blood pressure and heart rate during physical training. After some time, consequences of continuous training are manifested as a decrease in the basal heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate responsiveness to physical activity stress, which indicates good conditioning i.e. increased physical capacity. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary style of life has a twice-higher risk of sudden death and cardiovascular mortality. Physical activity should be permanent to have positive effects on the cardiovascular system; it means 4 to 5 times weekly depending on duration and intensity of exercises. In case of exercises 60-75% of the maximum, duration should be 30 to 45 minutes. Evidence based data show a 20-25 % lower mortality rate after myocardial infarction in the patients submitted to rehabilitation program of physical exercises. Physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease must be individualized, quantified and under control. In subjects with impaired function of the heart muscle, physical activity is limited with characteristic symptoms - dyspnea and stenocardia. These patients are classified into groups with mild, moderate and high risk, and based on this the allowed intensity of their physical activity is assessed, as well as the grade of its control. Physical exercises must be without range of tolerance and must not exceed this limit of symptoms. The aim of physical

  1. Brain function, disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Sandilyan, Malarvizhi Babu; Dening, Tom

    2015-05-27

    Dementia is a consequence of brain disease. This article, the second in this series on dementia, discusses normal brain function and how certain functions are localised to different areas of the brain. This is important in determining the symptoms of dementia, depending on which parts of the brain are most directly involved. The most common types of dementia - Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia - affect the brain in different ways and cause different changes at the microscopic level. Dementia is affected by genetics, and recent advances in molecular techniques have improved our understanding of some of the mechanisms involved, which in turns suggests possibilities for new treatments in the future.

  2. Effect of early treatment on physical function in daily management of rheumatoid arthritis: a 5-year longitudinal study of rheumatoid arthritis patients in the National Database of Rheumatic Diseases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akie; Suenaga, Yasuo; Miyamura, Tomoya; Matsui, Toshihiro; Tohma, Shigeto; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohnaka, Keizo; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this study was to assess 5-year changes in physical function and factors associated with improvement among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in daily clinical practice, focusing on the effect of treatments, including biologic agents, in the early stage of disease course. The National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) was searched for patients with disease duration ≤ 2 years and modified health assessment questionnaire (mHAQ) > 0 between 2004 and 2007, so that 510 patients were included in the final analysis. Multivariate-logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of 5-year mHAQ disability score improvement. Median mHAQ score was 0.40 at baseline and decreased to a median 0.17 after 5 years. Seventy-four percent of the patients were treated with methotrexate (MTX) and 25% with biologic agents, with early use of biologic agents (within 2 years of RA onset) increasing over time. Multivariate analyses identified higher baseline Disease Activity Score of 28 joints - C-reactive protein and early use of MTX (within 1 year of RA onset) and of biologic agents (within 2 years) as significantly associated with improved mHAQ; odds ratios of the early treatment were 1.83 (P = 0.01) for MTX and 2.23 (P = 0.04) for biologic agents, respectively. Five-year mHAQ improved in early RA patients in the NinJa database. In daily clinical management of RA, likewise in clinical trials, early administration of MTX or biologic agents is able to improve physical function outcome. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Impact of a program of Tai Chi plus behaviorally based dietary weight loss on physical functioning and coronary heart disease risk factors: a community-based study in obese older women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Furong; Letendre, Jonathan; Bekke, Jillian; Beebe, Nowen; Mahler, Leslie; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Delmonico, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a quasi-experimental design in a community-based study translating the results of our recent findings on the combined effects of Tai Chi and weight loss on physical function and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. A 16-week intervention was conducted to assess the impact of Tai Chi plus a behavioral weight loss program (TCWL, n = 29) on obese (body mass index [BMI] = 35.4 ± 0.8 kg/m²) older (68.2 ± 1.5 yr.) women compared to a control group (CON, n = 9, BMI = 38.0 ± 1.5 kg/m², 65.6 ± 2.7 yr.), which was asked to maintain their normal lifestyle. The TCWL group lost weight (1.6 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.006) while the CON group did not (1.2 ± 1.9 kg, P = 0.106). Physical functioning as measured by the short physical performance battery improved in TCWL when compared to the CON group (β = 1.94, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.12, 2.76, P < 0.001). TCWL also improved in sit-and-reach flexibility (β = -2.27, 95% CI: -4.09, -0.46, P = 0.016), body fat mass (BMI, β = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.26, P = 0.002), waist circumference (β = -1.78, 95% CI: -2.83, -0.72, P = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (β = -16.41, 95% CI: -21.35, -11.48, P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (β = -9.52, 95% CI: -12.65, -6.39, P < 0.001). Thus, TCWL intervention may represent an effective strategy to improve physical function and ameliorate CHD risk in the older adult population.

  4. Mechanisms of Physical Activity Limitation in Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Zakynthinos, George; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lung diseases physical activity limitation is multifactorial involving respiratory, hemodynamic, and peripheral muscle abnormalities. The mechanisms of limitation discussed in this paper relate to (i) the imbalance between ventilatory capacity and demand, (ii) the imbalance between energy demand and supply to working respiratory and peripheral muscles, and (iii) the factors that induce peripheral muscle dysfunction. In practice, intolerable exertional symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and/or leg discomfort are the main symptoms that limit physical performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Furthermore, the reduced capacity for physical work and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, in an attempt to avoid breathlessness upon physical exertion, cause profound muscle deconditioning which in turn leads to disability and loss of functional independence. Accordingly, physical inactivity is an important component of worsening the patients' quality of life and contributes importantly to poor prognosis. Identifying the factors which prevent a patient with lung disease to easily carry out activities of daily living provides a unique as well as important perspective for the choice of the appropriate therapeutic strategy. PMID:23365738

  5. Functional capacity of Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD): relationship between clinical characteristics and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Rinaldi, Natalia M; Santos, Paulo Cezar R; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Vitório, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Arroyo, Cláudia; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa B

    2012-01-01

    The present study had three objectives: (a) to characterize the functional capacity of patients with PD, (b) to assess the relationship between the physical fitness components of functional capacity with clinical characteristics and disease severity, and (c) to compare the physical fitness components of functional capacity with clinical characteristics according to disease severity. The study included 54 patients with idiopathic PD who were distributed into two groups according to PD severity: unilateral group (n=35); and bilateral group (n=19). All patients underwent psychiatric assessment by means of the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging of PD, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively), and The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The physical fitness components of functional capacity were evaluated over a 2-day period, using recommendations by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regressions were calculated to test the correlation between functional capacity and clinical characteristics, and to predict clinical scores from physical performance, respectively. Clinical variables and physical component data were compared between groups using analysis of variance to determine the effects of disease severity. Patients with advanced disease showed low levels of functional capacity. Interestingly, patients with good functional capacity in one of the physical fitness components also showed good capacities in the other components. Disease severity is a major factor affecting functional capacity and clinical characteristics. Medical providers should take disease severity into consideration when prescribing physical activity for PD patients, since the relationship between functional capacity and clinical characteristics is dependent on disease severity.

  6. Pulmonary function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hovestadt, A; Bogaard, J M; Meerwaldt, J D; van der Meché, F G; Stigt, J

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary function was investigated in 31 consecutive patients with relatively severe Parkinson's disease. Clinical disability was assessed by Hoehn and Yahr scale, Northwestern University Disability Scale and Websterscore. All patients were on levodopa substitution therapy and used anticholinergics. Pulmonary function was investigated by spirography, determination of a maximal inspiratory and expiratory flow-volume curve and, when possible, maximal static mouth pressures were determined. Peak inspiratory and expiratory flow, maximal expiratory flow at 50% and maximal static mouth pressures were significantly below normal values. Vital capacity, forced inspiratory volume in 1 s and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and vital capacity were relatively normal. Nine patients had upper airway obstruction (UAO) as judged by abnormal values for peak inspiratory flow, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow and the ratio of maximal expiratory and inspiratory flow at 50%. Flow-volume curves were normal in eight patients; four patients demonstrated flow decelerations and accelerations (type A) and 16 had a rounded off flow-volume curve (type B). Type A can be explained by UAO and type B by a combination of decreased effective muscle strength and possible UAO. Overall results of pulmonary function tests in patients without any clinical signs or symptoms of pulmonary disease point to subclinical upper airway obstruction and decreased effective muscle strength in a significant proportion of patients. PMID:2926415

  7. Pulmonary function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hovestadt, A; Bogaard, J M; Meerwaldt, J D; van der Meché, F G; Stigt, J

    1989-03-01

    Pulmonary function was investigated in 31 consecutive patients with relatively severe Parkinson's disease. Clinical disability was assessed by Hoehn and Yahr scale, Northwestern University Disability Scale and Websterscore. All patients were on levodopa substitution therapy and used anticholinergics. Pulmonary function was investigated by spirography, determination of a maximal inspiratory and expiratory flow-volume curve and, when possible, maximal static mouth pressures were determined. Peak inspiratory and expiratory flow, maximal expiratory flow at 50% and maximal static mouth pressures were significantly below normal values. Vital capacity, forced inspiratory volume in 1 s and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and vital capacity were relatively normal. Nine patients had upper airway obstruction (UAO) as judged by abnormal values for peak inspiratory flow, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow and the ratio of maximal expiratory and inspiratory flow at 50%. Flow-volume curves were normal in eight patients; four patients demonstrated flow decelerations and accelerations (type A) and 16 had a rounded off flow-volume curve (type B). Type A can be explained by UAO and type B by a combination of decreased effective muscle strength and possible UAO. Overall results of pulmonary function tests in patients without any clinical signs or symptoms of pulmonary disease point to subclinical upper airway obstruction and decreased effective muscle strength in a significant proportion of patients.

  8. Relationship between physical prowess and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    García López, Oscar; Burgos Postigo, Silvia

    2012-03-01

    There is some evidence about the low relationship between physical prowess and cognitive function (Posthuma, Mulder, Boomsma & de Geus, 2002). The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (spatial ability, reasoning, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and reasoning and verbal comprehension) and physical prowess in sport performance (agility circuit, coordination circuit, horizontal jump, swimming and sprint racing). Two studies were performance. In the first one we applied a battery of standardized cognitive tests and a battery of physical grading tests to 400 subjects. When we applied factor analysis to the physical prowess and the cognitive variables, we found one general factor in cognitive variables and one general factor in physical prowess. We found a low relationship between both factors (.21). In the second study we compare the cognitive abilities in elite and amateur sport people. Results show that elite gymnastics people present higher cognitive abilities than amateur sportspeople. It should be relevant in order to clarify the total set of variables involved in sport performance.

  9. Neoclassical physics in full distribution function gyrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Latu, G.; Strugarek, A.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.

    2011-06-01

    Treatment of binary Coulomb collisions when the full gyrokinetic distribution function is evolved is discussed here. A spectrum of different collision operators is presented, differing through both the physics that can be addressed and the numerics they are based on. Eulerian-like (semi-Lagrangian) and particle in cell (PIC) (Monte-Carlo) schemes are successfully cross-compared, and a detailed confrontation to neoclassical theory is shown.

  10. Physical Heterogeneity and Aquatic Community Function in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The geomorphological character of a river network provides the template upon which evolution acts to create unique biological communities. Deciphering commonly observed patterns and processes within riverine landscapes resulting from the interplay between physical and biological components is a central tenet for the interdisciplinary field of river science. Relationships between the physical heterogeneity and food web character of functional process zones (FPZs) – large tracts of river with a similar geomorphic character - in the Kanawha River (West Virginia, USA) are examined in this study. Food web character was measured as food chain length (FCL), which reflects ecological community structure and ecosystem function. Our results show the same basal resources were present throughout the Kanawha River but their assimilation into the aquatic food web by primary consumers differed between FPZs. Differences in the trophic position of secondary consumers – fish - were also recorded between FPZs. Overall, both the morphological heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the river bed sediment of FPZs were significantly correlated with FCL. Specifically, FCL increases with greater FPZ physical heterogeneity, supporting tenet 8 of the river ecosystem synthesis. In previous research efforts, we delineated the functional process zones (FPZs) of the Kanawha River. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hydrogeomorphically-derived zones with food webs.

  11. Prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and their impact on health-related quality of life, physical function and mental health in Portugal: results from EpiReumaPt– a national health survey

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Jaime C; Rodrigues, Ana M; Gouveia, Nélia; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro M; da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Laires, Pedro; Sepriano, Alexandre; Araújo, Filipe; Gonçalves, Sónia; Coelho, Pedro S; Tavares, Viviana; Cerol, Jorge; Mendes, Jorge M; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the national prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) in the adult Portuguese population and to determine their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical function, anxiety and depression. Methods EpiReumaPt is a national health survey with a three-stage approach. First, 10 661 adult participants were randomly selected. Trained interviewers undertook structured face-to-face questionnaires that included screening for RMDs and assessments of health-related quality of life, physical function, anxiety and depression. Second, positive screenings for ≥1 RMD plus 20% negative screenings were invited to be evaluated by a rheumatologist. Finally, three rheumatologists revised all the information and confirmed the diagnoses according to validated criteria. Estimates were computed as weighted proportions, taking the sampling design into account. Results The disease-specific prevalence rates (and 95% CIs) of RMDs in the adult Portuguese population were: low back pain, 26.4% (23.3% to 29.5%); periarticular disease, 15.8% (13.5% to 18.0%); knee osteoarthritis (OA), 12.4% (11.0% to 13.8%); osteoporosis, 10.2% (9.0% to 11.3%); hand OA, 8.7% (7.5% to 9.9%); hip OA, 2.9% (2.3% to 3.6%); fibromyalgia, 1.7% (1.1% to 2.1%); spondyloarthritis, 1.6% (1.2% to 2.1%); gout, 1.3% (1.0% to 1.6%); rheumatoid arthritis, 0.7% (0.5% to 0.9%); systemic lupus erythaematosus, 0.1% (0.1% to 0.2%) and polymyalgia rheumatica, 0.1% (0.0% to 0.2%). After multivariable adjustment, participants with RMDs had significantly lower EQ5D scores (β=−0.09; p<0.001) and higher HAQ scores (β=0.13; p<0.001) than participants without RMDs. RMDs were also significantly associated with the presence of anxiety symptoms (OR=3.5; p=0.006). Conclusions RMDs are highly prevalent in Portugal and are associated not only with significant physical function and mental health impairment but also with poor HRQoL, leading to more health resource consumption. The Epi

  12. Beauty at the ballot box: disease threats predict preferences for physically attractive leaders.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Why does beauty win out at the ballot box? Some researchers have posited that it occurs because people ascribe generally positive characteristics to physically attractive candidates. We propose an alternative explanation-that leadership preferences are related to functional disease-avoidance mechanisms. Because physical attractiveness is a cue to health, people concerned with disease should especially prefer physically attractive leaders. Using real-world voting data and laboratory-based experiments, we found support for this relationship. In congressional districts with elevated disease threats, physically attractive candidates are more likely to be elected (Study 1). Experimentally activating disease concerns leads people to especially value physical attractiveness in leaders (Study 2) and prefer more physically attractive political candidates (Study 3). In a final study, we demonstrated that these findings are related to leadership preferences, specifically, rather than preferences for physically attractive group members more generally (Study 4). Together, these findings highlight the nuanced and functional nature of leadership preferences.

  13. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Function in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Katie L; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2017-06-12

    Older adults with multiple sclerosis(MS) experience the combined effects of aging and a chronic, disabling neurological disease on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function. This study examined associations among light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity(LPA and MVPA), sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults with MS. Forty older adults with MS(median age=60 years) who had a median Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 4.5 wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and completed the Short Physical Performance Battery(SBBP), 6-minute walk(6MW), and timed 25-foot walk(T25FW). LPA was associated with SPPB(rs=.551,p<0.01), 6MW(rs=.660,p<0.01), and T25FW(rs=.623,p<0.01) scores; MVPA was associated with 6MW(rs=.529,p<0.01) and T25FW(rs=.403,p<0.01) scores. There were significant associations between LPA, but not MVPA, with SPPB(β=.583,p<0.01), 6MW(β=.613,p<0.01), and T25FW(β=.627,p<0.01) scores in linear regression analyses. Older adults with MS who engaged in more LPA demonstrated better physical function and therefore LPA might be a target of future behavioral interventions.

  14. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing.

  15. Green's function Monte Carlo in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    We review the status of Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) methods as applied to problems in nuclear physics. New methods have been developed to handle the spin and isospin degrees of freedom that are a vital part of any realistic nuclear physics problem, whether at the level of quarks or nucleons. We discuss these methods and then summarize results obtained recently for light nuclei, including ground state energies, three-body forces, charge form factors and the coulomb sum. As an illustration of the applicability of GFMC to quark models, we also consider the possible existence of bound exotic multi-quark states within the framework of flux-tube quark models. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Presence of comorbidity affects both treatment strategies and outcomes in disease activity, physical function, and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ayako; Inoue, Eisuke; Shimizu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Shidara, Kumi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Seto, Yohei; Tanaka, Eiichi; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Momohara, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the impact of comorbidities on treatment strategies and outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a large observational RA cohort, the presence of comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Changes in medication, disease activity by Disease Activity Score-28 joint count (DAS28) over 6 months, disability assessed by the Japanese version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ), and quality of life by EuroQOL-5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) over 1 year in patients with high disease activity (DAS28 > 5.1) at baseline were assessed according to age-adjusted CCI (CCI(A)) and categorized into four groups (CCI(A) 0, 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5). Among 5,317 patients, 975 patients (18.3%) had at least one comorbidity listed by CCI. DAS28, J-HAQ, and EQ-5D increased in severity with increased CCI(A) levels. Among patients with high disease activity (n = 267), treatment with methotrexate and/or biologics and improved DAS28 scores, shown by attenuated intensity, were associated with increased CCI(A) levels. J-HAQ improved from 1.29 ± 0.31 to 0.87 ± 0.37 in 1 year in the CCI(A) 0 group. The adjusted difference (standard error) in J-HAQ at 1 year in CCI(A) 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 groups was worse than J-HAQ in the CCI(A) 0 group by 0.32 (0.09, p < 0.001), 0.45 (0.10, p < 0.001), and 0.45 (0.15, p < 0.01), respectively. The magnitude of improvement of EQ-5D was significantly attenuated with increasing CCI(A) levels. Thus, patients with comorbidities may not experience the same degree of benefit from recent RA treatments compared with patients without comorbidities in daily practice.

  17. Mitochondrial Function in Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Divyaanka; Mishra, Navya; Agrawal, Anurag

    2017-05-01

    The connections between allergy, asthma and metabolic syndrome are becoming increasingly clear. Recent research suggests a unifying mitochondrial link between the diverse phenotypes of these interlinked morbidities. The scope of this review is to highlight cellular mechanisms, epidemiology and environmental allergens influencing mitochondrial function and its importance in allergy and asthma. We briefly also consider the potential of mitochondria-targeted therapies in prevention and cure. Recent research has shown allergy, asthma and metabolic syndrome to be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Environmental pollutants and allergens are observed to cause mitochondrial dysfunction, primarily by inducing oxidative stress and ROS production. Malfunctioning mitochondria change the bioenergetics of the cell and its metabolic profile to favour systemic inflammation, which drives all three types of morbidities. Given the existing experimental evidence, approaches targeting mitochondria (e.g. antioxidant therapy and mitochondrial replacement) are being conducted in relevant disease models-with some progressing towards clinical trials, making mitochondrial function the focus of translational therapy research in asthma, allergy and linked metabolic syndrome.

  18. Do optimism and pessimism predict physical functioning?

    PubMed

    Brenes, Gretchen A; Rapp, Stephen R; Rejeski, W Jack; Miller, Michael E

    2002-06-01

    Dispositional optimism has been shown to be related to self-report measures of health and well-being, yet little research has examined the relationship between optimism and more objective measures of functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between optimism and pessimism and objective physical functioning. Four hundred eighty community-dwelling older adults with knee pain completed a measure of optimism and pessimism and were observed performing four daily activities (walking, lifting an object, climbing stairs, and getting into and out of a car). Results indicated that pessimism was significantly related to performance on all four tasks (p < .001), while optimism was related to performance only on the walking task (p < .05), after controlling for demographic and health variables.

  19. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    , which leads to adaptive changes increasing the efficiency of its functioning and, in intermediate way, modifying and reducing the influence of other risk factors of cardiac vascular disease, mainly obesity dyslipidemy and hypertension. The subsequent scientific observations had an influence on the alterations of scientific associations recommendations concerning the preferred kind, intensity and effective dose of health-oriented physical activity. The current recommendations on preventive usefulness of physical activity, implemented by Polish Cardiological Association, have been based on a document containing the guidelines of European Cardiologic Association coming from 2003. All described evidences present in unambiguous way the undeniable benefits of active lifestyle. Its promoting as well as supporting in this area vast number of population, especially in case of disturbing epidemiological data, is becoming a duty of not only health service workers but also state administration employees responsible for planning public health expenditure.

  20. Effects of physical activity on exercise tests and respiratory function

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Macera, C; Addy, C; Sy, F; Wieland, D; Blair, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Exercise is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease. Objective: To explore the role of physical activity in maintaining cardiac and respiratory function in healthy people. Methods: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill test (MTT), and respiratory function was tested by spirometry. The cross sectional study included data from 24 536 healthy persons who were examined at the Cooper Clinic between 1971 and 1995; the longitudinal study included data from 5707 healthy persons who had an initial visit between 1971 and 1995 and a subsequent visit during the next five years. All participants were aged 25–55 years and completed a cardiorespiratory test and a medical questionnaire. Results: In the cross sectional study, after controlling for covariates, being active and not being a recent smoker were associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function in both men and women. In the follow up study, persons who remained or became active had better MTT than persons who remained or became sedentary. Men who remained active had higher forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) than the other groups. Smoking was related to lower cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function. Conclusions: Physical activity and non-smoking or smoking cessation is associated with maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Change in physical activity habits is associated with change in cardiorespiratory fitness, but respiratory function contributed little to this association during a five year follow up. PMID:14665592

  1. Diastolic Function in Steinert's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, Abdallah; Nardi, Olivier; Annane, Djillali; Orlikowski, David

    2014-01-17

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD) is the most common autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in adults. Cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. We sought to assess diastolic function in MD patients. Echocardiography-Doppler was performed in Steinert's patients and in a control group completed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Twenty-six patients with Steinert's disease were included in the study and were compared to a control group. Mean age was similar in the 2 groups (45.1 years ±10.9 in Steinert's patients vs 42.1 years ±11 in control group p 0.4). 6 /26 patients with Steinert's disease disclosed a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <50%. Mean left atrial (LA) diameter was statistically different between Steinert's patients and patients in group control (27.8 mm ±8.5 vs 19.7 mm ±4; P=0.0018). Mean peak E/A mitral ratio was 1.29±0.45 in Steinert's patients vs 1.36±0.4 in control group (P=0.6). We found an increase of the mitral E deceleration time in Steinert's patients in comparison with patients in control group (219 ms ±53 vs 176 ms ±29; P=0.013). Mean peak lateral early diastolic velocity Ea was similar in the 2 groups (12.3 cm/s ±3 vs 13.1 cm/s ±3.8; P=0.50). Mean peak septal early diastolic velocity was similar in the 2 groups (11.2 cm/s ±2 vs 10.4±2; P=0.51). We found an increase of the LA diameter and an increase of the mitral deceleration time in Steinert's patients that suggest diastolic abnormalities.

  2. Physical Education Performance Outcomes and Cognitive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards (i.e., regular participation in physical activity, physical fitness, motor competence; National Association of Physical…

  3. Physical therapy during hemodialyse in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Saulo Freitas da; Pereira, Augusto Alves; Silva, Weliton Aparecido Honorato da; Simôes, Roger; Barros Neto, José de Resende

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physical therapy program in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) during hemodialysis (HD). Fifty-six CKD patients participated for 16 months in a supervised physical therapy program in HD sessions. They underwent evaluation before the start of the program and 16 months after this training. The program consisted of muscle strengthening exercises, stretching and stationary exercise bike. The analysis is composed of test six-minute walk (6MWT), level of effort by the BORG scale test of one repetition maximum (1RM) to measure the quadriceps strength, quality of life (QOL) and arterial blood pressure (BP), heart (HR) and respiratory (RR). The results showed an increase in distance traveled for the 6MWT and quadriceps strength, reduction of HR and RR and improvement in total score SF-36, but significantly in functional capacity and pain BP reduced, though not significantly. It was found by the Spearman correlation test, only in the areas correralation pain and functional capacity, individually, with the increase in distance walked in 6MWT; correlation between decreases in HR and RR linked to reduction in the Borg scale. Physical therapy, through an exercise program during the intradialytic period, can provided a significant improvement of QOL and physical ability of patients with CKD.

  4. Physical activity and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Froelicher, V; Battler, A; McKirnan, M D

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with more recent investigations of the health benefit of regular aerobic exercise including studies in: epidemiology, echocardiography, animal research, and cardiac rehabilitation. Recent epidemiological studies support the preventative aspects of exercise in apparently healthy individuals. Echocardiographic studies suggest morphologic changes in young individuals. Recent animal research confirms previous results as well as documenting improvment in cardiac function even under hypoxic and ischemic conditions. Studies of cardiac rehabilitation suggest that medically supervised programs do not improve or worsen morbidity and mortality. The question of whether exercise training can cause cardiac effects in patients with coronary disease rather than just improve the response of the peripheral circulation to exercise may be answered using newer radionuclide techniques.

  5. A new physical unclonable function architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Bai; Xuecheng, Zou; Kui, Dai

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a new silicon physical unclonable function (PUF) architecture that can be fabricated on a standard CMOS process. Our proposed architecture is built using process sensors, difference amplifier, comparator, voting mechanism and diffusion algorithm circuit. Multiple identical process sensors are fabricated on the same chip. Due to manufacturing process variations, each sensor produces slightly different physical characteristic values that can be compared in order to create a digital identification for the chip. The diffusion algorithm circuit ensures further that the PUF based on the proposed architecture is able to effectively identify a population of ICs. We also improve the stability of PUF design with respect to temporary environmental variations like temperature and supply voltage with the introduction of difference amplifier and voting mechanism. The PUF built on the proposed architecture is fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the PUF has a good output statistical characteristic of uniform distribution and a high stability of 98.1% with respect to temperature variation from -40 to 100 °C, and supply voltage variation from 1.7 to 1.9 V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376031).

  6. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-01-04

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  7. An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Reuben, D B; Siu, A L

    1990-10-01

    Direct observation of physical function has the advantage of providing an objective, quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. We have developed the Physical Performance Test (PPT), which assesses multiple domains of physical function using observed performance of tasks that simulate activities of daily living of various degrees of difficulty. Two versions are presented: a nine-item scale that includes writing a sentence, simulated eating, turning 360 degrees, putting on and removing a jacket, lifting a book and putting it on a shelf, picking up a penny from the floor, a 50-foot walk test, and climbing stairs (scored as two items); and a seven-item scale that does not include stairs. The PPT can be completed in less than 10 minutes and requires only a few simple props. We then tested the validity of PPT using 183 subjects (mean age, 79 years) in six settings including four clinical practices (one of Parkinson's disease patients), a board-and-care home, and a senior citizens' apartment. The PPT was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and 0.79, interrater reliability = 0.99 and 0.93 for the nine-item and seven-item tests, respectively) and demonstrated concurrent validity with self-reported measures of physical function. Scores on the PPT for both scales were highly correlated (.50 to .80) with modified Rosow-Breslau, Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living scales, and Tinetti gait score. Scores on the PPT were more moderately correlated with self-reported health status, cognitive status, and mental health (.24 to .47), and negatively with age (-.24 and -.18). Thus, the PPT also demonstrated construct validity. The PPT is a promising objective measurement of physical function, but its clinical and research value for screening, monitoring, and prediction will have to be determined.

  8. Can Diet and Physical Activity Limit Alzheimer's Disease Risk?

    PubMed

    Rege, Shraddha D; Geetha, Thangiah; Broderick, Tom L; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting elderly individuals at an alarming rate. It has become a global health crisis imposing tremendous social and economic burden on society. Although there is no cure for AD, it is important to identify and implement preventive strategies that may delay or prevent the symptoms, limit the burden, and improve the quality of life of those afflicted. Adequate nutrition and physical activity are the two potential lifestyle modifiable factors that have gained considerable interest for their potential in the prevention or management of this challenging disease. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of physical activity and adequate nutrition on minimizing the risk of developing AD. The research question was initially formulated in a structured and explicit way. Relevant studies were identified using a wide range of scientific databases. Their potential relevance was based on the criteria for inclusion and exclusion. The quality of selected studies was subjected to a more precise quality assessment using standard tools. A detailed description of the implemented intervention and how it differed from what the control group received was outlined. The effects of intervention on measurable outcomes for the study sample were applied. One hundred and sixty-four references were included in the review comprising of epidemiological, longitudinal, cross-sectional, intervention and randomized controlled studies. This review highlighted the effect of various nutrient diet supplements on cognitive performance in humans as well as animals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, the effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function in animal models with AD was outlined. The findings of this review highlight the therapeutic potential of combination of nutritionally adequate diet and physical activity in preventing or delaying the symptoms associated with AD pathology.

  9. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p < 0.05), lower peak activity (p < 0.01), and lower physical activity complexity (p < 0.05) particularly during the morning. Mild AD was not associated with greater sedentary activity or less lower-intensity physical activity across the day after adjusting for non-cognitive covariates. These findings suggest that factors independent of physical capacity and mobility may drive declines in moderate-intensity physical activity, and not lower-intensity or sedentary activity, during the early stage of AD. This underscores the importance of a better mechanistic understanding of how cognitive decline and AD pathology impact physical activity. Findings emphasize the potential value of designing and testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  10. Visual Function in Geriatric Eye Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faye, Eleanor E.

    1971-01-01

    Visual functioning, treatment, and helpful low vision aids are discussed in relation to four major eye diseases of the elderly: cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. (KW)

  11. Visual Function in Geriatric Eye Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faye, Eleanor E.

    1971-01-01

    Visual functioning, treatment, and helpful low vision aids are discussed in relation to four major eye diseases of the elderly: cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. (KW)

  12. [Measurement of physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Helgo; Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik

    2009-04-15

    Physical activity is an important parameter related to morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome/diabetes, mental disorders, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In COPD, lower levels of physical activity as reported by the patients are associated with a faster annual lung function decline, increased number of hospitalizations, and higher risk of mortality. Self-reported physical activity, however, correlates only poorly with objectively quantified physical activity in patients with COPD. Recent data show that physical activity can reliably be measured in a substantial number of patients with COPD. Extrapulmonary effects of COPD are associated with reduced physical activity. Clinical characteristics commonly used to assess disease severity like the forced expiratory volume in 1 s or the 6-min walk distance only incompletely reflect the physical activity of patients with COPD.

  13. Statistical physics approaches to Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouyong

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of late life dementia. In the brain of an AD patient, neurons are lost and spatial neuronal organizations (microcolumns) are disrupted. An adequate quantitative analysis of microcolumns requires that we automate the neuron recognition stage in the analysis of microscopic images of human brain tissue. We propose a recognition method based on statistical physics. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations of an inhomogeneous Potts model are applied for image segmentation. Unlike most traditional methods, this method improves the recognition of overlapped neurons, and thus improves the overall recognition percentage. Although the exact causes of AD are unknown, as experimental advances have revealed the molecular origin of AD, they have continued to support the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which states that early stages of aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides lead to neurodegeneration and death. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the common cross-beta structural features of the final stable aggregates-amyloid fibrils. Solid-state NMR studies also reveal structural features for some well-ordered fibrils. But currently there is no feasible experimental technique that can reveal the exact structure or the precise dynamics of assembly and thus help us understand the aggregation mechanism. Computer simulation offers a way to understand the aggregation mechanism on the molecular level. Because traditional all-atom continuous molecular dynamics simulations are not fast enough to investigate the whole aggregation process, we apply coarse-grained models and discrete molecular dynamics methods to increase the simulation speed. First we use a coarse-grained two-bead (two beads per amino acid) model. Simulations show that peptides can aggregate into multilayer beta-sheet structures, which agree with X-ray diffraction experiments. To better represent the secondary structure transition happening during aggregation, we refine the

  14. Lambert W function for applications in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veberič, Darko

    2012-12-01

    The Lambert W(x) function and its possible applications in physics are presented. The actual numerical implementation in C++ consists of Halley's and Fritsch's iterations with initial approximations based on branch-point expansion, asymptotic series, rational fits, and continued-logarithm recursion. Program summaryProgram title: LambertW Catalogue identifier: AENC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1335 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 25 283 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (with suitable wrappers it can be called from C, Fortran etc.), the supplied command-line utility is suitable for other scripting languages like sh, csh, awk, perl etc. Computer: All systems with a C++ compiler. Operating system: All Unix flavors, Windows. It might work with others. RAM: Small memory footprint, less than 1 MB Classification: 1.1, 4.7, 11.3, 11.9. Nature of problem: Find fast and accurate numerical implementation for the Lambert W function. Solution method: Halley's and Fritsch's iterations with initial approximations based on branch-point expansion, asymptotic series, rational fits, and continued logarithm recursion. Additional comments: Distribution file contains the command-line utility lambert-w. Doxygen comments, included in the source files. Makefile. Running time: The tests provided take only a few seconds to run.

  15. Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating, frequent, and still incurable neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as cognitive and motor disorders. Epidemiological data support an inverse relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) undertaken and the risk of developing these two diseases. Beyond this preventive role, exercise may also slow down their progression. Several mechanisms have been suggested for explaining the benefits of PA in the prevention of AD. Aerobic physical exercise (PE) activates the release of neurotrophic factors and promotes angiogenesis, thereby facilitating neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which in turn improve memory and cognitive functions. Research has shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms induced by PE are linked to an increased production of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and a reduction in the production of free radicals in brain areas such as the hippocampus, which is particularly involved in memory. Other mechanisms have also been reported in the prevention of PD. Exercise limits the alteration in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and contributes to optimal functioning of the basal ganglia involved in motor commands and control by adaptive mechanisms involving dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. AD and PD are expansive throughout our ageing society, and so even a small impact of nonpharmacological interventions, such as PA and exercise, may have a major impact on public health.

  16. The Role of Physical Activity and Physical Function on the Risk of Falls in Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between physical activity and physical function on the risk of falls over time in a cohort of Mexican-American adults aged 75 and older from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). Participants were divided into four groups according to their level of physical activity and physical function: low physical activity and low physical function (n = 453); low physical activity and high physical function (n = 54); high physical activity and low physical function (n = 307); and high physical activity and high physical function (n = 197). Using generalized linear equation estimation, we showed that participants with high physical activity and low physical function had a greater fall risk over time, followed by the high physical activity and high physical function group. Participants seldom took part in activities that improve physical function. To prevent falls, modifications to physical activity should be made for older Mexican Americans.

  17. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franco, Oscar H; de Laet, Chris; Peeters, Anna; Jonker, Jacqueline; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma

    2005-11-14

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical activity levels after age 50 years on total life expectancy and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. We constructed multistate life tables using data from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate the effects of 3 levels of physical activity (low, moderate, and high) among populations older than 50 years. For the life table calculations, we used hazard ratios for 3 transitions (healthy to death, healthy to disease, and disease to death) by levels of physical activity and adjusted for age, sex, smoking, any comorbidity (cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, diabetes, ankle edema, or pulmonary disease), and examination at start of follow-up period. Moderate and high physical activity levels led to 1.3 and 3.7 years more in total life expectancy and 1.1 and 3.2 more years lived without cardiovascular disease, respectively, for men aged 50 years or older compared with those who maintained a low physical activity level. For women the differences were 1.5 and 3.5 years in total life expectancy and 1.3 and 3.3 more years lived free of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle during adulthood not only prevents cardiovascular disease independently of other risk factors but also substantially expands the total life expectancy and the cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy for men and women. This effect is already seen at moderate levels of physical activity, and the gains in cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy are twice as large at higher activity levels.

  18. Functional neuroanatomy of intuitive physical inference

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, John G.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    To engage with the world—to understand the scene in front of us, plan actions, and predict what will happen next—we must have an intuitive grasp of the world’s physical structure and dynamics. How do the objects in front of us rest on and support each other, how much force would be required to move them, and how will they behave when they fall, roll, or collide? Despite the centrality of physical inferences in daily life, little is known about the brain mechanisms recruited to interpret the physical structure of a scene and predict how physical events will unfold. Here, in a series of fMRI experiments, we identified a set of cortical regions that are selectively engaged when people watch and predict the unfolding of physical events—a “physics engine” in the brain. These brain regions are selective to physical inferences relative to nonphysical but otherwise highly similar scenes and tasks. However, these regions are not exclusively engaged in physical inferences per se or, indeed, even in scene understanding; they overlap with the domain-general “multiple demand” system, especially the parts of that system involved in action planning and tool use, pointing to a close relationship between the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in parsing the physical content of a scene and preparing an appropriate action. PMID:27503892

  19. Functional neuroanatomy of intuitive physical inference.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jason; Mikhael, John G; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    To engage with the world-to understand the scene in front of us, plan actions, and predict what will happen next-we must have an intuitive grasp of the world's physical structure and dynamics. How do the objects in front of us rest on and support each other, how much force would be required to move them, and how will they behave when they fall, roll, or collide? Despite the centrality of physical inferences in daily life, little is known about the brain mechanisms recruited to interpret the physical structure of a scene and predict how physical events will unfold. Here, in a series of fMRI experiments, we identified a set of cortical regions that are selectively engaged when people watch and predict the unfolding of physical events-a "physics engine" in the brain. These brain regions are selective to physical inferences relative to nonphysical but otherwise highly similar scenes and tasks. However, these regions are not exclusively engaged in physical inferences per se or, indeed, even in scene understanding; they overlap with the domain-general "multiple demand" system, especially the parts of that system involved in action planning and tool use, pointing to a close relationship between the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in parsing the physical content of a scene and preparing an appropriate action.

  20. Inadequate cardiovascular disease prevention in women with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Health promotion and screening tests are important in persons with disability to avert secondary conditions that can lead to suboptimal functioning or premature death. Conversely, the existence of a primary disability can increase a person's susceptibility to secondary conditions. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence has been underinvestigated in persons with disability. This descriptive study used survey research to compare the risk of CVD in samples of 100 physically disabled women with 50 nondisabled women in the community. Participants, recruited from health fairs, completed questionnaires that explored the participants' knowledge of CVD risk factors, possession of specific CVD risk factors, and experience with CVD preventive screening procedures. Data revealed that compared with women without disability, women with disability were less knowledgeable about CVD risk factors and experienced marked deficiencies in CVD preventive screening. Body weight measurement, baseline electrocardiograms, family history, and smoking queries were performed less often in women with disabilities than in women without disabilities of similar age. Physical inactivity and postmenopausal status were specific CVD risk factors found to be more prevalent in the sample of women with disability. These findings suggest that risk of CVD is underrecognized and underassessed in women with a physical disability.

  1. Modern Physics Buildings, Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, R. Ronald; Rice, William Maxwell

    In order to serve college administrators, architects and physics educators, a collection was made of material reflecting the state-of-the-art of physics building design. This body of material, including drawings, diagrams, and photographs, resulted largely from extensive interviews with about 50 institutions who had recently built such facilities.…

  2. Physics Buildings Today. A Supplement to Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This supplement to "Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function" is intended as an aid to physics department faculties, administrators, and architects responsible for designing new science buildings. It provides descriptions of 26 new physics buildings and science buildings with physics facilities. Presented are (1) floor plans, (2)…

  3. Maintenance of physical function in frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carol E; Cordeiro, Maria; Perryman, Erica

    2014-06-01

    Inactivity leads to frailty and loss of function for older adults. Most older adults are sedentary. Participating in a regular routine of physical activity is recommended for maintaining physical function required to sustain quality of life and independence for older adults. Annual screening for level of physical activity is required to determine changes from year to year. Research shows older adults are more likely to initiate a regular routine of physical activity when a health care provider writes a prescription for physical activity including the type, frequency, and specific duration of physical activity sessions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Function and disease in manganese].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    Manganese is a metal that has been known named a Greek word "Magnesia" meaning magnesia nigra from Roman Empire. Manganese provide the wide range of metablic function and the multiple abnomalities from its deficiency or toxicity. In 1931, the essentiality of manganese was demonstrated with the authoritative poor growth and declined reproduction in its deficiency. Manganese deficiency has been recognized in a number of species and its signs are impaired growth, impaired reproduction, ataxia, skeletal abnormalities and disorders in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganese toxicity is also acknowledged as health hazard for animals and humans. Here manganese nutrition, metabolism and metabolic function are summarized.

  5. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a

  6. The Association between Belgian Older Adults' Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    PubMed

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults' physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults' physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No

  7. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  8. Feelings of well being in elderly people: relationship to physical activity and physical function.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Molinero, Olga; Martínez-García, Raquel; Jiménez-Jiménez, Rodrigo; González-Gallego, Javier; Márquez, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity and physical function are related to feelings of well being, and whether level of dependence is a moderator in the relation of well being, physical activity and physical function. The sample was a cohort of 151 elderly people (89 women and 62 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. Participants completed surveys including demographic characteristics, and measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), instrumental activities of daily living (Barthel Index, BI) and well being (Psychological Well Being Scale, from Spanish: Escala de Bienestar Psicológico=EBP). Components of the physical function were measured by the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Upper and lower body strength, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, self-reported weekly energy expenditure and physical activity total time were significantly correlated with both Material and Subjective well being. All components of physical function were significantly impaired in dependent subjects when compared to independent individuals of the same sex and physical activity category. Significant differences were also observed in Subjective well being among less active dependent or independent individuals. In conclusion, physical function and physical activity are related to feelings of well being, and results emphasize the positive functional and psychological effects of physical activity in dependent subjects.

  9. Physical Activity and Obesity in Endometrial Cancer Survivors: Associations with Pain, Fatigue, and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    BASEN-ENGQUIST, Karen; SCRUGGS, Stacie; JHINGRAN, Anuja; BODURKA, Diane C.; LU, Karen; RAMONDETTA, Lois; HUGHES, Daniel; TAYLOR, Cindy CARMACK

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to determine the prevalence of physical activity and obesity and their relationship to physical functioning, fatigue, and pain in endometrial cancer survivors. STUDY DESIGN Surveys were mailed to 200 survivors of endometrial cancer diagnosed within the last five years; 61% were returned. Surveys assessed physical activity, height and weight, comorbid health problems, physical functioning, fatigue, and pain. RESULTS Twenty-two percent exercised in the past month at the level of current public health recommendations; 41% reported no physical activity, and 38% reported some activity. Sixteen percent were overweight and 50% were obese. Both lower BMI and higher physical activity were related to better physical functioning. Higher physical activity was related to less fatigue, primarily for patients of normal BMI. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest endometrial cancer survivors’ obesity and inactivity contributes to poorer quality of life. This population could benefit from quality of life interventions incorporating physical activity. PMID:19110220

  10. Conventional chest physical therapy for obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    van der Schans, Cees P

    2007-09-01

    Chest physical therapy (CPT) is a widely used intervention for patients with airway diseases. The main goal is to facilitate secretion transport and thereby decrease secretion retention in the airways. Historically, conventional CPT has consisted of a combination of forced expirations (directed cough or huff), postural drainage, percussion, and/or shaking. CPT improves mucus transport, but it is not entirely clear which groups of patients benefit from which CPT modalities. In general, the patients who benefit most from CPT are those with airways disease and objective signs of secretion retention (eg, persistent rhonchi or decreased breath sounds) or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating sputum, and with progression of disease that might be due to secretion retention (eg, recurrent exacerbations, infections, or a fast decline in pulmonary function). The most effective and important part of conventional CPT is directed cough. The other components of conventional CPT add little if any benefit and should not be used routinely. Alternative airway clearance modalities (eg, high-frequency chest wall compression, vibratory positive expiratory pressure, and exercise) are not proven to be more effective than conventional CPT and usually add little benefit to conventional CPT. Only if cough and huff are insufficiently effective should other CPT modalities be considered. The choice between the CPT alternatives mainly depends on patient preference and the individual patient's response to treatment.

  11. Baseline Physical Performance, Health, and Functioning of Participants in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, George A.; Larive, Brett; Painter, Patricia; Craig, Alexander; Lindsay, Robert M.; Rocco, Michael V.; Daugirdas, John T.; Schulman, Gerald; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-reported physical health and functioning and direct measures of physical performance are decreased in hemodialysis patients and are associated with mortality and hospitalization. Study Design We determined baseline cross-sectional associations of physical performance, health, and functioning with demographics, clinical characteristics, nutritional indexes, laboratory benchmarks, and measures of body composition in participants in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial. Setting & Participants 375 persons enrolled in the FHN with data for physical performance, health, and functioning. Predictors Explanatory variables were categorized into fixed factors of age, race, comorbid conditions (diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease) and potentially modifiable factors of dialysis dose, phosphorus level, hemoglobin level, equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR), body composition, body mass index, phase angle, and ratio of intracellular water volume to body weight (calculated from bioelectrical impedance). Outcomes Scores on tests of physical performance, health, and functioning. Measurements Physical performance measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery, self-reported physical health and functioning using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Body composition (body mass index and bioimpedance analysis) and laboratory data were obtained from affiliated dialysis providers. Results Relative to population norms, scores for all 3 physicality metrics were low. Poorer scores on all 3 metrics were associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial disease. Poorer scores on the SF-36 Physical Functioning subscale and Short Physical Performance Battery also were associated with age, lower ratio of intracellular water volume to body weight, and lower enPCR. Black race was associated with poorer scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study of

  12. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  13. Disease management, coping, and functional disability in pediatric sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Carpenter, Gloria; Barach, Ilana; Crosby, Lori E; Valenzuela, Jessica; Mitchell, Monica J

    2011-02-01

    Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience chronic symptoms that significantly interfere with physical, academic, and social-emotional functioning. Thus, to effectively manage SCD, youth and caregivers must work collaboratively to ensure optimal functioning. The goal of the current study was to examine the level of involvement in disease management tasks for youth with SCD and their caregivers. The study also examined the relationship between involvement in disease management tasks, daily functioning, and coping skills. The study utilized collaborative care and disease management theoretical frameworks. Youth and caregivers participated in the study during an annual research and education day event. Forty-seven patients with SCD aged 6 to 18 years and their caregivers completed questionnaires examining level of involvement in disease management tasks, youth functional disability, and youth coping strategies. Caregivers also completed a demographic and medical history form. Parents and youth agreed that parents were significantly more involved in disease management tasks than youth, although level of involvement varied by task. Decreased parent involvement was related to greater coping strategies used by patients, including massage, prayer, and positive thinking. Higher functional disability (lower functioning) was related to greater parent involvement in disease management tasks, suggesting that greater impairment may encourage increased parent involvement. Health professionals working with families of youth with SCD should discuss with parents and youth how disease management tasks and roles will be shared and transferred during adolescence. Parents and youth may also benefit from a discussion of these issues within their own families.

  14. Disease Management, Coping, and Functional Disability in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliver-Carpenter, Gloria; Barach, Ilana; Crosby, Lori E.; Valenzuela, Jessica; Mitchell, Monica J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience chronic symptoms that significantly interfere with physical, academic, and social-emotional functioning. Thus, to effectively manage SCD, youth and caregivers must work collaboratively to ensure optimal functioning. The goal of the current study was to examine the level of involvement in disease management tasks for youth with SCD and their caregivers. The study also examined the relationship between involvement in disease management tasks, daily functioning, and coping skills. The study utilized collaborative care and disease management theoretical frameworks. Methods Youth and caregivers participated in the study during an annual research and education day event. Forty-seven patients with SCD aged 6 to 18 years and their caregivers completed questionnaires examining level of involvement in disease management tasks, youth functional disability and youth coping strategies. Caregivers also completed a demographic and medical history form. Results Parents and youth agreed that parents are significantly more involved in disease management tasks than youth, although level of involvement varied by task. Decreased parent involvement was related to greater coping strategies used by patients, including massage, prayer, and positive thinking. Higher functional disability (lower functioning) was related to greater parent involvement in disease management tasks, suggesting that greater impairment may encourage increased parent involvement. Conclusions Health professionals working with families of youth with SCD should discuss with parents and youth how disease management tasks and roles will be shared and transferred during adolescence. Parents and youth may also benefit from a discussion of these issues within their own families. PMID:21443065

  15. Tactile Teaching: Exploring Protein Structure/Function Using Physical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Tim; Morris, Jennifer; Colton, Shannon; Batiza, Ann; Patrick, Michael; Franzen, Margaret; Goodsell, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The technology now exists to construct physical models of proteins based on atomic coordinates of solved structures. We review here our recent experiences in using physical models to teach concepts of protein structure and function at both the high school and the undergraduate levels. At the high school level, physical models are used in a…

  16. Tactile Teaching: Exploring Protein Structure/Function Using Physical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Tim; Morris, Jennifer; Colton, Shannon; Batiza, Ann; Patrick, Michael; Franzen, Margaret; Goodsell, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The technology now exists to construct physical models of proteins based on atomic coordinates of solved structures. We review here our recent experiences in using physical models to teach concepts of protein structure and function at both the high school and the undergraduate levels. At the high school level, physical models are used in a…

  17. Predictors of Upper-Extremity Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hermanussen, Hugo H.; Menendez, Mariano E.; Chen, Neal C.; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of habitual participation in physical exercise and diet on upper-extremity physical function in older adults. To assess the relationship of general physical exercise and diet to upper-extremity physical function and pain intensity in older adults. Methods: A cohort of 111 patients 50 or older completed a sociodemographic survey, the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA), an 11-point ordinal pain intensity scale, a Mediterranean diet questionnaire, and three Patient- Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) based questionnaires: Pain Interference to measure inability to engage in activities due to pain, Upper-Extremity Physical Function, and Depression. Multivariable linear regression modeling was used to characterize the association of physical activity, diet, depression, and pain interference to pain intensity and upper-extremity function. Results: Higher general physical activity was associated with higher PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function and lower pain intensity in bivariate analyses. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not correlate with PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function or pain intensity in bivariate analysis. In multivariable analyses factors associated with higher PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function were male sex, non-traumatic diagnosis and PROMIS Pain Interference, with the latter accounting for most of the observed variability (37%). Factors associated with greater pain intensity in multivariable analyses included fewer years of education and higher PROMIS Pain Interference. Conclusions: General physical activity and diet do not seem to be as strongly or directly associated with upper-extremity physical function as pain interference. PMID:27847850

  18. Singular Function Integration in Computational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbun, Javier

    2009-03-01

    In teaching computational methods in the undergraduate physics curriculum, standard integration approaches taught include the rectangular, trapezoidal, Simpson, Romberg, and others. Over time, these techniques have proven to be invaluable and students are encouraged to employ the most efficient method that is expected to perform best when applied to a given problem. However, some physics research applications require techniques that can handle singularities. While decreasing the step size in traditional approaches is an alternative, this may not always work and repetitive processes make this route even more inefficient. Here, I present two existing integration rules designed to handle singular integrals. I compare them to traditional rules as well as to the exact analytic results. I suggest that it is perhaps time to include such approaches in the undergraduate computational physics course.

  19. Prospective study of physical activity and physical function in early old age.

    PubMed

    Hillsdon, Melvyn M; Brunner, Eric J; Guralnik, Jack M; Marmot, Michael G

    2005-04-01

    In the elderly, higher levels of physical function have consistently been associated with higher levels of physical activity. In this study, we test the hypothesis that physical activity earlier in the life course preserves high physical function over an extended period of time, before the onset of major age-related declines in physical function. A cohort study with an average of 8.8 years of follow-up (1991-1993 to 2001). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting for long-standing illness, baseline physical function, smoking, body mass index, and employment grade. Participants were 6398 London-based civil servants aged 39 to 63 years at baseline, 90% of whom were working. The main outcome measure was physical function measured by the Short Form (SF-36) General Health Survey. Relatively fit and healthy, mainly working, middle-aged men and women who were physically active at recommended levels, were more likely to report high physical function at follow-up, compared to their sedentary counterparts (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.32-2.00). The association between initial level of physical activity and high physical function at follow-up remained after adjustment for baseline level of physical function and the presence of long-standing illness. Participation in a physically active lifestyle during mid-life appears to be critical to the maintenance of high physical function in those who are fit and well enough to work and do or do not report any long-standing illness.

  20. Microfacet distribution function for physically based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, O. N.; Pavlov, S. V.; Dovhaliuk, R. Yu.; Babyuk, N. P.; Obidnyk, M. D.; Kisala, P.; Suleimenov, B.

    2013-01-01

    A microfacet distribution function is presented. This function can be used to calculate the microfacet distribution term in BRDF models. The function differs from other well-known microfacet distribution functions like Blinn or Beckmann distributions in that it doesn`t use special functions like acos, tan, exp, pow and thus has lower computational complexity.

  1. The importance of physical function to people with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, C; Bottomley, C; Shingler, S; Giangregorio, L; de Freitas, H M; Patel, C; Randall, S; Gold, D T

    2017-03-06

    There is increasing need to understand patient outcomes in osteoporosis. This article discusses that fracture in osteoporosis can lead to a cycle of impairment, driven by complex psychosocial factors, having a profound impact on physical function/activity which accumulates over time. More information is required on how treatments impact physical function.

  2. Effect of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Intervention on Improving Dementia Family Caregiver Physical Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Carol J; Etkin, Caryn D; Eisenstein, Amy; Paun, Olimpia; Rajan, Kumar B; Sweet, Cynthia M Castro; McCann, Judith J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Evans, Denis A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) affect more than five million Americans and their family caregivers. Caregiving creates challenges, may contribute to decreased caregiver health and is associated with $9.7 billion of caregiver health care costs. The purpose of this 12 month randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to examine if the Enhancing Physical Activity Intervention (EPAI), a moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) treatment group, versus the Caregiver Skill Building Intervention (CSBI) control, would have greater: (1) MVPA adherence; and (2) physical function. Methods Caregivers were randomly assigned to EPAI or CSBI (N=211). MVPA was assessed using a self-report measure; and physical function was objectively assessed using two measures. Intention-to-treat analyses used descriptive, categorical and generalized estimating equations (GEE), with an exchangeable working correlation matrix and a log link, to examine main effects and interactions in change of MVPA and physical function over time. Results At 12 months, EPAI significantly increased MVPA (p=<0.001) and number of steps (p=< .01); maintained stable caregiving hours and use of formal services; while CSBI increased hours of caregiving (p=<0.001) and used more formal services (p=<0.02). Qualitative physical function data indicated that approximately 50% of caregivers had difficulties completing physical function tests. Conclusion The EPAI had a stronger 12 month effect on caregiver MVPA and physical function, as well as maintaining stability of caregiving hours and formal service use; while CSBI increased caregiving hours and use of formal services. A study limitation included greater EPAI versus CSBI attrition. Future directions are proposed for dementia family caregiver physical activity research. PMID:28752016

  3. Physical activity and fatigue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - A population based study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mikael; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva; Lindberg, Anne; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-08-01

    In subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), symptoms of fatigue, concomitant heart disease and low physical activity levels are more frequently described than in subjects without COPD. However, there are no population-based studies addressing the relationship between physical activity, fatigue and heart disease in COPD. The aim was to compare physical activity levels among subjects with and without COPD in a population based study, and to evaluate if concomitant heart disease and fatigue was associated to physical activity. In this, 470 subjects with COPD and 659 subjects without COPD (non-COPD) participated in examinations including structured interview and spirometry. A ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/best of forced vital capacity (FVC) and vital capacity (VC) < 0.7 was used to define COPD. Physical activity was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue scale (FACIT-F). The prevalence of low physical activity was higher among subjects with FEV1 < 80% predicted compared to non-COPD subjects (22.4% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.041). The factors most strongly associated with low physical activity in subjects with COPD were older age, OR 1.52, (95% CI 1.12-2.06), a history of heart disease, OR 2.11 (1.10-4.08), and clinically significant fatigue, OR 2.33 (1.31-4.13); while obesity was the only significant factor among non-COPD subjects, OR 2.26 (1.17-4.35). Physical activity levels are reduced when lung function is decreased below 80% of predicted, and the factors associated with low physical activity are different among subject with and without COPD. We propose that the presence of fatigue and heart disease are useful to evaluate when identifying subjects for pulmonary rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Some physical applications of generalized Lambert functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mező, István; Keady, Grant

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show two applications for a generalization of the Lambert W function. Explicit calculations are given for the inverse Langevin function that plays an important role in the study of paramagnetic materials, and for the dispersion equations for water waves. After these examples we provide some additional knowledge on the generalized Lambert function as well as a review of former studies made towards this direction by other authors.

  5. Cognitive and psychological functioning in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C; Knopman, Alex A; Menzies, Graham C; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O

    2014-11-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity.

  6. Physical activity to prevent cardiovascular disease. How much is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Haennel, Robert G.; Lemire, Francine

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of physical activity in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases with particular attention to the intensity and amount of physical activity needed to benefit health. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched for articles published in the indexed English literature from January 1991 to December 2000 using key words related to physical activity (e.g., exercise, physical fitness), CV and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity). Findings were supplemented by consensus documents and other published literature. Most articles described prospective observational studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Clear evidence indicates an inverse linear dose response between amount of physical activity and all-cause mortality, total CV disease, and CAD incidence and mortality. The minimal effective dose is unclear, but physical activity that results in energy expenditure of approximately 4200 kJ.week-1 appears to be associated with substantial benefits. Physical activity need not be vigorous to benefit health. CONCLUSION: Moderate activity, such as brisk walking for 30 to 60 minutes a day most days of the week, is associated with significant reductions in the incidence and mortality of CV disease. PMID:11852614

  7. Physics of Cell Adhesion Failure and Human Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon

    Emergent phenomena in living systems, including your ability to read these lines, do not obviously follow as a consequence of the fundamental laws of physics. Understanding the physics of living systems clearly falls outside the conventional boundaries of scientific disciplines and requires a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach. Here I will discuss how theoretical and computational techniques from statistical physics can be used to make progress in explaining the physical mechanisms that underlie complex biological phenomena, including major diseases. In the specific cases of macular degeneration and cancer that we have studied recently, we find that the breakdown of the mechanical stability in the local tissue structure caused by weakening of the cell-cell adhesion plays a key role in the initiation and progression of the disease. This finding can help in the development of new therapies that would prevent or halt the initiation and progression of these diseases.

  8. PREFACE: Physics and biology of neurodegenerative diseases Physics and biology of neurodegenerative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    , about 15 years after the original reports, it is clear that amyloids are special structures that occur in nature under several different guises, some good, some evil [3]. The number of diseases associated with misfolding and fibrillogenesis has steadily increased. Examples of fairly common pathologies associated with fibre formation include Alzheimer's disease (currently one of the major threats for human health in our increasingly aging world), Parkinson's disease and several rare, but not less severe, pathologies. On the other hand, it is also clear that amyloid formation is a convenient mechanism for storing peptides and/or proteins in a compact and resistant way. The number of organisms/tissues in which amyloid deposits are found is thus increasing. It is also not too far-fetched to expect that the mechanical properties of amyloids could be used in biotechnology to design new materials. Because of the importance of this topic in so many scientific fields, we have dedicated this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter to the topic of protein aggregation and disease. In the following pages we have collected two reviews and five articles that explore new and interesting developments in the field. References [1] Olby R 1994 The Path of the Double Helix: The Discovery of DNA (New York: Dover) [2] Dobson C M 2004 Principles of protein folding, misfolding and aggregation Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 3-16 [3] Hammer N D, Wang X, McGuffie B A, Chapman M R 2008 Amyloids: friend or foe? J. Alzheimers Dis. 13 407-19 Physics and biology of neurodegenerative diseases contents Protein aggregation and misfolding: good or evil?Annalisa Pastore and Pierandrea Temussi Alzheimer's disease: biological aspects, therapeutic perspectives and diagnostic toolsM Di Carlo, D Giacomazza and P L San Biagio Entrapment of Aβ1-40 peptide in unstructured aggregatesC Corsale, R Carrotta, M R Mangione, S Vilasi, A Provenzano, G Cavallaro, D Bulone and P L San Biagio Elemental micro

  9. Physical functioning: effect of behavioral intervention for symptoms among individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    Doorenbos, Ardith; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles; Verbitsky, Natalya

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with cancer receiving chemotherapy suffer deterioration in physical functioning due to symptoms arising from the cancer disease process and its treatment. To determine if age, chronic health conditions (comorbidity), stage of cancer, depressive symptomatology, symptom limitations, sex, and site of cancer moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral intervention on physical function and to determine if symptom limitations mediate the effect of the intervention on physical functioning. Two hundred thirty-seven individuals with solid tumor cancer (118 experimental and 119 control group) participated in this 10-contact, 18-week randomized control trial. Cognitive behavioral theory guided the nurse-delivered problem-solving experimental intervention. The control group received conventional care. Interviews occurred at baseline and 10, 20, and 32 weeks. Women with breast cancer had significantly better physical functioning than women with lung cancer. Chronic health conditions, symptom limitation, and depressive symptomatology at baseline were found to moderate the effect of intervention on physical function. Symptom limitation, however, was not found to mediate the effect of intervention on physical functioning. The intervention was shown to affect physical function trajectories differently for individuals with different personal and health characteristics. Because poor physical functioning is strongly associated with mortality and poor quality of life, this information may be used by health professionals to target interventions to those who might be most responsive.

  10. Physical Functioning: Effect of Behavioral Intervention for Symptoms Among Individuals With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles; Verbitsky, Natalya

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals with cancer receiving chemotherapy suffer deterioration in physical functioning due to symptoms arising from the cancer disease process and its treatment. Objectives To determine if age, chronic health conditions (comorbidity), stage of cancer, depressive symptomatology, symptom limitations, sex, and site of cancer moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral intervention on physical function and to determine if symptom limitations mediate the effect of the intervention on physical functioning. Methods Two hundred thirty-seven individuals with solid tumor cancer (118 experimental and 119 control group) participated in this 10-contact, 18-week randomized control trial. Cognitive behavioral theory guided the nurse-delivered problem-solving experimental intervention. The control group received conventional care. Interviews occurred at baseline and 10, 20, and 32 weeks. Results Women with breast cancer had significantly better physical functioning than women with lung cancer. Chronic health conditions, symptom limitation, and depressive symptomatology at baseline were found to moderate the effect of intervention on physical function. Symptom limitation, however, was not found to mediate the effect of intervention on physical functioning. Discussion The intervention was shown to affect physical function trajectories differently for individuals with different personal and health characteristics. Because poor physical functioning is strongly associated with mortality and poor quality of life, this information may be used by health professionals to target interventions to those who might be most responsive. PMID:16708040

  11. [Assess of patients' functional condition with rheumatoid arthritis before and after physical therapy treatment].

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Kuncewicz, Elzbieta; Sobieska, Magdalena; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of duration of disease and age on the functional condition of patients and also healing effectiveness in different duration of disease and age. The study involved 31 patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 40-70 years, with duration of disease 5-20 years. In this group was used following physical therapy technique: cryotherapy, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy, electrical stimulation TENS, iontophoresis, diadynamic and magnetic therapy. Before and after the treatment motor capacity was estimated using Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The presented results indicate improvement of measured parameters and increasement of patients independence after therapy, especially with duration of disease 5-10 years aged 60-70 years. Susceptibility of anti pain treatment using physical therapy increase with increasing duration of disease. Therapy influence on functional condition of patient decreasing with duration of disease.

  12. Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (≥1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease. PMID

  13. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  14. Retirement community residents' physical activity, depressive symptoms, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N=38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Association between physical activity and kidney function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Sevick, Mary Ann; Richardson, Caroline R; Fried, Linda F; Arena, Vincent C; Kriska, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used. In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes. When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

  16. Five months of physical exercise in hemodialysis patients: effects on aerobic capacity, physical function and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Molsted, Stig; Eidemak, Inge; Sorensen, Helle Tauby; Kristensen, Jens Halkjaer

    2004-01-01

    The number of chronic renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis (HD) is continuously increasing. Most patients have reduced physical capacity and have a high risk of cardiac and vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 5 months physical exercise of HD patients' physical capacity, self-rated health and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. 33 HD patients were included in the study. HD for more than 3 months, age >18 years. Diabetes mellitus, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal limitations, severe peripheral polyneuropathy, inability to speak Danish or English, dementia or other mental disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n = 22) or a control group (CG, n = 11). Prior to randomization, baseline testing was performed. The effects were measured by aerobic capacity, '2-min stair climbing', 'squat test', self-rated health (SF36), blood pressure and lipids. All tests were carried out by blinded testers. The intervention consisted of 1 h of physical exercise twice a week for 5 months. 20 patients completed the intervention. Attendance was 74% of all sessions. There were no dropouts caused by complications related to the intervention. The EG had a significant increase in aerobic capacity, 'squat test' and Physical Function and Physical Component Scale (SF36). No significant changes were observed in any of the parameters in the CG. Physical exercise twice a week for 5 months increases physical function and aerobic capacity in HD patients. An exercise program with only two exercise sessions per week seems easy to implement in clinical practice with high attendance among participants. Further investigation is needed to determine the effects on blood pressure and lipids. There were no medical complications related to the exercise program. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Childhood physical activity, sports and exercise and noncommunicable disease: a special focus on India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Establishing the relationship between childhood physical inactivity and noncommunicable disease (NCD) is difficult, since chronic disease and mortality are not direct health outcomes of physical inactivity in children. Published literature explores the relationship of physical inactivity with appearance of early childhood disease risk markers, the adverse impact of which may take some time to appear. Promoting childhood physical activity has multiple benefits including delay in evolution of risk factors contributing to adult degenerative disease. It is clear from available literature that physical inactivity or its surrogates constitute an important independent risk factor for NCD. This is likely to be underestimated not only because of measurement issues, but also because physical inactivity may act through other risk factors for NCD. To recognize and intervene on the issue of physical inactivity in children is important not only for the benefit of the child but in the context of NCD in later life. Studies on physical inactivity and its functional correlates are limited in India and this would be an important area for future research.

  18. Facilitators and barriers to using physical activity smartphone apps among Chinese patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liu; Wang, Yanling; Greene, Brian; Xiao, Qian; Jiao, Chen; Ji, Meihua; Wu, Ying

    2017-04-19

    Smartphones and their applications (apps) impact society and health care. With the growth of smartphone users and app downloads in China, patients with chronic diseases have access to a self-management strategy for physical activity. Although studies report physical activity apps improve the physical activity of patients, data is limited concerning their use of these apps. Therefore, this study investigated the current usage, willingness to use, and barriers to using physical activity apps of Chinese patients with chronic diseases. We designed a questionnaire to collect data from chronic disease patients in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, which was sent to 250 patients in four departments. Two hundred eighteen questionnaires were returned (87.2% response rate). Most (92.7%) respondents owned a smartphone, 34.9% had used a physical activity app, and 18.8% were current users. Additionally, 53.7% were willing to use a physical activity app designed for them. Respondents more likely to use physical activity apps were younger (i.e., ≤ 44 years), more educated, current smartphone users, and previous users of physical activity apps; moreover, they believed they needed exercise, their disease required exercise instruction and support, and their physical status needed monitored when exercising (p < 0.05). Main barriers to using apps reported were insufficient function, difficulty of use, extra cost, and security issues. Our results indicate sizeable smartphone ownership among Chinese patients with chronic diseases; moreover, over half of our participants report they would use a physical activity app designed for them. This information can be leveraged by healthcare workers managing patients with chronic diseases.

  19. Physical activity and cognitive function in bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Galioto, Rachel; King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in severe obesity. Lack of physical activity is a likely contributor to impairment in this population, as many obese persons are inactive and physical activity has been positively and independently associated with cognitive function in healthy and medically-ill samples. This study investigated whether physical activity, measured by self-report of aerobic physical activity in 85 bariatric surgery candidates, was associated with cognitive function. A subset of 31 participants also completed objective activity monitoring. Steps/d and high-cadence min/week, representative of ambulatory moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), were calculated. Approximately one quarter of participants self-reported at least 30 min/d of aerobic MVPA, at least 5 d/week. Median steps/d was 7949 (IQR = 4572) and median MVPA min/week was 105 (IQR = 123). Cognitive deficits were found in 32% of participants (29% memory, 10% executive function, 13% language, 10% attention). Controlling for demographic and medical factors, self-reported aerobic physical activity was weakly correlated with lower attention (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and executive function (r = -0.27, p < 0.01) and both self-reported aerobic physical activity and objectively-determined MVPA min/week were negatively correlated with memory (r = -0.20, p = 0.04; r = -0.46; p = 0.02, respectively). No other correlations between physical activity measures and cognitive function were significant. Contrary to expectations, greater levels of physical activity were not associated with better cognitive functioning. Such findings encourage future studies to clarify the association among cognitive function and physical activity in obese persons.

  20. Computational Physics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, J. Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This lecture will provide a general introduction to some of the ways that modern computational physics is contributing to the discovery of new pharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on drugs for infectious diseases. The basic sciences and computing technologies involved have advanced to the point that physics-based simulations of drug targets are now yielding truly valuable suggestions for new compounds. Supported in part by NSF, NIH, HHMI, CTBP, NBCR, and SDSC.

  1. Physical Activity, Daily Walking, and Lower Limb Lymphedema Associate with Physical Function among Uterine Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Lin, Lilie L.; Segal, Saya; Chu, Christina S.; Haggerty, Ashley E.; Ko, Emily M.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We sought to quantify the proportion of uterine cancer survivors who self-report poor physical function. We then sought to quantify the association of poor physical function with physical activity (PA), walking, and lower limb lymphedema (LLL), among women with a history of uterine cancer. Methods Physical function was quantified using the SF-12 questionnaire. PA, walking, and LLL were measured using self-report questionnaire. PA was calculated using metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs·wk−1), and walking was calculated using blocks per day (blocks·d−1). Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Among the 213 uterine cancer survivors in our survey (43% response rate), 35% self-reported poor physical function. Compared to participants who reported <3.0 MET-hrs·wk−1 of PA, participants who reported ≥18.0 MET-hrs·wk−1 of PA were less likely to have poor physical function (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.10; Ptrend<0.0001). Compared to participants who reported <4.0 blocks·d−1 of walking, participants who reported ≥12.0 blocks·d−1 of walking were less likely to have poor physical function (OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03–0.19; Ptrend<0.0001). Compared to participants who did not have LLL, participants with LLL were more likely to have poor physical function (OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 2.41–11.41; P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher levels of PA and walking associate with a lower likelihood of reporting poor physical function. The presence of LLL associates with a higher likelihood of reporting poor physical function. These findings are hypothesis-generating, and should be evaluated in future prospective studies. PMID:24906839

  2. Physical Activity as a Function of Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Đukanović, Nina; Mašić, Zoran; Kostovski, Žarko; Širić, Vesna; Blažević, Stipe

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity means any form of body movement that is associated with certain metabolic demands. At the same time, physical activity is one of the most important steps in the maintenance, protection and improvement of health. There is strong evidence to suggest that higher levels of physical activity are associated with numerous preventive effects and therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. Although they account for a larger portion of the population, physical inactivity is more often registered in women, which can be attributed to a variety of reasons--ranging from anatomical and physiological to the socio-psychological. The present paper discusses some of the most important benefits associated with physical activity in women, to encourage their greater participation in various forms of physical activity.

  3. [The communicative function of psychogenic physical disorders].

    PubMed

    Küchenhoff, J

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to give a classification of psychosomatic theories on symbolic body functioning by applying two modern semiotic theories (Peirce, de Saussure). Hysterical symptoms have been regarded since Freud as symbolizations through the body. Psychovegetative disorders are symbolic representations of pre-oedipal conflicts at the level of M. Balint's basic faults. Psychosomatic symptoms in alexithymic patients cannot be regarded as symbolic; these patients, however, exert a form of negative communication that can be understood as a last resort prior to (psychotic) decompensation. It therefore seems necessary to differentiate which patients can best be described by which semiotic model.

  4. Distances in spaces of physical models: partition functions versus spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, Gunther; Kontogeorgis, Aristides

    2017-01-01

    We study the relation between convergence of partition functions (seen as general Dirichlet series) and convergence of spectra and their multiplicities. We describe applications to convergence in physical models, e.g., related to topology change and averaging in cosmology.

  5. Functional chronic venous disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serra, Raffaele; Andreucci, Michele; De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Mastroroberto, Pasquale; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Functional chronic venous disease is an underestimated syndrome quite present in the general population. It affects up to 20% of the general population and is based on the presence of venous symptoms without instrumental evidence of anatomic and morphologic damage. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with the most updated information on this phenomenon. Methods Medline and Scopus databases were searched without time limit using the key-word: 'Functional chronic venous disease of legs', C0s patients. We decided to include all the studies conducted about functional chronic venous disease. Randomised trials, cohort studies and reviews were contemplated in order to give a breadth of clinical data. Only publications in English were considered. We excluded all the studies with insufficient statistical analysis, possible biases and contradictions, not clear end-points, inconsistent or arbitrary conclusions. Results Of the 326 records found, after removal of 68 duplicates, 143 matched our inclusion criteria. After reading the full-text articles, 133 manuscripts were excluded. Ten full text articles were assessed for eligibility and four studies were excluded because of the following reasons: (a) no specific or important content and (b) insufficient data; the final set included six articles. Conclusions Functional chronic venous disease is a complex syndrome and further evidences are needed in order to assess the pathophysiology, the morbidity and the correct treatment of this venous dysfunction.

  6. Depression, anxiety and physical function: exploring the strength of causality.

    PubMed

    Stegenga, Bauke T; Nazareth, Irwin; Torres-González, Francisco; Xavier, Miguel; Svab, Igor; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Bottomley, Christian; Marston, Louise; King, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Depression, anxiety and physical function may be bi-directionally related. We aim to estimate the strength of the longitudinal associations between depression, anxiety and physical function. Prospective cohort study of general practice attendees across Europe (N=4757) assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Main outcome measures were Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depression, Patient Health Questionnaire anxiety and Short Form 12 physical function. Complete-case analyses using random coefficient models and logistic regression models were performed. Those with depression (β=-1.90, 95% CI -3.42 to -0.39), anxiety (β=-4.12, 95% CI -5.39 to -2.86) or depression and anxiety (β=-5.74, 95% CI -7.38 to -4.10) had lower levels of physical function at baseline and over time compared with no diagnosis after adjustment for potential confounders. Physical function increased over time, but the rate of increase was not different between the groups. When compared with depression, those with anxiety (β=-2.22, 95% CI -4.08 to -0.36) or depression and anxiety (β=-3.83, 95% CI -5.95 to -1.71) had significantly lower levels of physical function at baseline. Lower levels of physical function at baseline were associated with onset of depression (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.10) but even stronger with anxiety (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.52 to 5.12) or depression and anxiety (OR 5.05, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.99) during 24 months compared with no dysfunction, after adjustment for potential confounders. It is essential to prevent lower levels of physical function as this is likely to lead to onset of depression and anxiety over time.

  7. Association of Physical Function and Physical Activity in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Sara R; Almeida, Gustavo J M; Wasko, Mary Chester M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between measures of physical activity (PA) and measures of physical function (PF) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We hypothesized that the strength of the associations between PA and PF would be moderate, and that after controlling for social and biomedical characteristics, the associations would decrease. Methods Forty seven women with RA participated in the cross-sectional analysis of this study (age 58 ± 6 years). Social and biomedical characteristics explored included age, ethnicity, disease duration, marital and educational status, height, weight, comorbidity, and disease activity. PF was measured by the self-reported Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and by a battery of performance-based measures that included the self-selected gait speed, the 5-chair rise test, and the single leg stance test. PA was measured by a portable activity monitor worn for 10 days, and was characterized in 2 ways: daily average number of steps, and daily energy expenditure during moderate levels of PA. Results Correlations between measures of PA and PF were small to moderate (zero-order correlations= .189 to .479). After controlling for social and biomedical characteristics, the correlations became smaller (semi-partial correlations= .095 to .277), and only HAQ remained significantly associated with PA. Conclusions Associations between measures of PA and measures of PF are explained, in part, by social and biomedical characteristics in women with RA. The results indicate that measures of PF and PA may represent different constructs and support the need to measure PA in rehabilitation research in RA. PMID:20235187

  8. Erectile function and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Glasser, Dale B; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Rimm, Eric B; Ascherio, Alberto

    2007-12-15

    Erectile dysfunction is common among individuals with Parkinson's disease, but it is unknown whether it precedes the onset of the classic features of Parkinson's disease. To address this question, the authors examined whether erectile dysfunction was associated with Parkinson's disease risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Analyses included 32,616 men free of Parkinson's disease at baseline in 1986 who in 2000 completed a retrospective questionnaire with questions on erectile dysfunction in different time periods. Relative risks were computed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, smoking, caffeine intake, history of diabetes, and other covariates. Among men who reported their erectile function before 1986, 200 were diagnosed with Parkinson's disease during 1986-2002. Men with erectile dysfunction before 1986 were 3.8 times more likely to develop Parkinson's disease during the follow-up than were those with very good erectile function (relative risk = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 6.0; p < 0.0001). Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of Parkinson's disease were 2.7, 3.7, and 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 11.1; p = 0.008) for participants with first onset of erectile dysfunction (before 1986) at 60 or more, 50-59, and less than 50 years of age, respectively, relative to those without erectile dysfunction. In conclusion, in this retrospective analysis in a large cohort of men, the authors observed that erectile dysfunction was associated with a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

  9. Physical activity, stress, disease activity, and quality of life in adults with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Crumbock, Sean C; Loeb, Susan J; Fick, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and stress reduction are recognized strategies for chronic disease management. They are recommended for people with a variety of diseases; however, little attention has been paid to the effects of regular physical activity and stress reduction in people with Crohn disease (CD). The aim of this pilot study was to examine the relationship that both physical activity and stress levels have with disease activity (a subscale of a quality of life [QOL] measure). A 2-pronged approach to sampling, using an online Crohn support forum and snowball sampling, was implemented over a period of 3 months to conduct this survey. Seventeen adults with CD completed 3 questionnaires measuring physical activity, stress levels, disease activity, and QOL. Although no significant correlations were found for disease activity with stress or physical activity, significant relationships were revealed for QOL with both stress and physical activity. The direct relationship between physical activity and QOL and the inverse relationship between stress and QOL are noteworthy for persons with CD, as well as their healthcare providers. Suggestions for important research design considerations are presented, along with future research needs.

  10. [Life style diseases and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    In Japan the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, the people interests in "food and health", and the movement of the food industry is actively to respond to it. Healthy life expectancy is essential for mitigation of social medical expenses and improvement of the personal QOL in the super-aged society. Daily diet becomes the nucleus of healthy life expectancy. Historically, the concept of "functional food" system was born in the mid-1980s in ahead of our country in the world. Administration as a response to it to allow on that review, "food for specified health uses" was born. Furthermore, foods with a prevention function of lifestyle-related diseases, such as "Foods with Function Claims" system have been developing from 2015. In this paper, we want to further describe these circumstances, the current situation and the outlook.

  11. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  12. Physical therapy in Huntington's disease--toward objective assessments?

    PubMed

    Bohlen, S; Ekwall, C; Hellström, K; Vesterlin, H; Björnefur, M; Wiklund, L; Reilmann, R

    2013-02-01

    Physical therapy is recommended for the treatment of Huntington's disease, but reliable studies investigating its efficacy are almost non-existent. This may in part be due to the lack of suitable outcome measures. Therefore, we investigated the applicability of novel quantitative and objective assessments of motor dysfunction in the evaluation of physical therapy interventions aimed at improving gait and posture. Twelve patients with Huntington disease received a predefined twice-weekly intervention focusing on posture and gait over 6 weeks. The GAITRite mat and a force plate were used for objective and quantitative assessments. The Unified Huntingtons Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score, the timed Up &Go test, and the Berg Balance Scale were used as clinical outcome measures. Significant improvements were seen in GAITRite measures after therapy. Improvements were also seen in the Up & Go test and Berg Balance Scale, whereas force plate measures and Total Motor Scores did not change. The results suggest that physical therapy has a positive effect on gait in Huntington's disease. The study shows that objective and quantitative measures of gait and posture may serve as endpoints in trials assessing the efficacy of physical therapy. They should be explored further in larger trials applying a randomized controlled setting. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  13. Algorithm for employing physical forces in metabolic bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Massari, Leo

    2011-04-01

    Metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach. The physical forces find a rationale in the treatment of local alterations in bone-cartilage metabolism. In integrated treatment of vertebral fractures caused by fragility, stimulation with electrical fields has been observed to be effective in reducing pain and improving patients' quality of life.

  14. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality.

  15. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  16. Physical Function and Physical Activity in Obese Adults After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Smith, Webb A; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; Mihalko, William M; Williams, Michael; Loftin, Mark; Gurney, James G

    2017-04-01

    Obese patients are more likely to have osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This investigation sought to evaluate physical function, activity level, and quality of life (QOL). Obese participants near 1-year postsurgical follow-up appointment were recruited. Evaluation included QOL and activity questionnaire, medical histories, anthropometrics, strength, and aerobic capacity. Sixty participants completed assessments. Obese TKA patients have physical performance limitations and low physical activity levels 1 year after surgery and completion of postoperative rehabilitation.

  17. Cognitive and Psychological Functioning in Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C.; Knopman, Alex A.; Menzies, Graham C.; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity. PMID:25319043

  18. Physical Activity, Diet, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Schupf, Nicole; Brickman, Adam M.; Cosentino, Stephanie; Tang, Ming X.; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Context Both higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and more physical activity have been independently associated with lower Alzheimer disease (AD) risk but their combined association has not been investigated. Objective To investigate the combined association of diet and physical activity with AD risk. Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective cohort study of 2 cohorts comprising 1880 community-dwelling elders without dementia living in New York, New York, with both diet and physical activity information available. Standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures were administered approximately every 1.5 years from 1992 through 2006. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (scale of 0–9; trichotomized into low, middle, or high; and dichotomized into low or high) and physical activity (sum of weekly participation in various physical activities, weighted by the type of physical activity [light, moderate, vigorous]; trichotomized into no physical activity, some, or much; and dichotomized into low or high), separately and combined, were the main predictors in Cox models. Models were adjusted for cohort, age, sex, ethnicity, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, caloric intake, body mass index, smoking status, depression, leisure activities, a comorbidity index, and baseline Clinical Dementia Rating score. Main Outcome Measure Time to incident AD. Results A total of 282 incident AD cases occurred during a mean (SD) of 5.4 (3.3) years of follow-up. When considered simultaneously, both Mediterranean-type diet adherence (compared with low diet score, hazard ratio [HR] for middle diet score was 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.72–1.33]; the HR for high diet score was 0.60 [95% CI, 0.42–0.87]; P = .008 for trend) and physical activity (compared with no physical activity, the HR for some physical activity was 0.75 [95% CI, 0.54–1.04]; the HR for much physical activity was 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47–0.95]; P = .03 for trend) were associated with lower AD

  19. Physical activity, diet, and risk of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A; Schupf, Nicole; Brickman, Adam M; Cosentino, Stephanie; Tang, Ming X; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-08-12

    Both higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and more physical activity have been independently associated with lower Alzheimer disease (AD) risk but their combined association has not been investigated. To investigate the combined association of diet and physical activity with AD risk. Prospective cohort study of 2 cohorts comprising 1880 community-dwelling elders without dementia living in New York, New York, with both diet and physical activity information available. Standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures were administered approximately every 1.5 years from 1992 through 2006. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (scale of 0-9; trichotomized into low, middle, or high; and dichotomized into low or high) and physical activity (sum of weekly participation in various physical activities, weighted by the type of physical activity [light, moderate, vigorous]; trichotomized into no physical activity, some, or much; and dichotomized into low or high), separately and combined, were the main predictors in Cox models. Models were adjusted for cohort, age, sex, ethnicity, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, caloric intake, body mass index, smoking status, depression, leisure activities, a comorbidity index, and baseline Clinical Dementia Rating score. Time to incident AD. A total of 282 incident AD cases occurred during a mean (SD) of 5.4 (3.3) years of follow-up. When considered simultaneously, both Mediterranean-type diet adherence (compared with low diet score, hazard ratio [HR] for middle diet score was 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.72-1.33]; the HR for high diet score was 0.60 [95% CI, 0.42-0.87]; P = .008 for trend) and physical activity (compared with no physical activity, the HR for some physical activity was 0.75 [95% CI, 0.54-1.04]; the HR for much physical activity was 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.95]; P = .03 for trend) were associated with lower AD risk. Compared with individuals neither adhering to the diet nor participating in

  20. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  1. Earliest functional declines in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Beglinger, Leigh J; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Wang, Chiachi; Langbehn, Douglas R; Duff, Kevin; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-07-30

    We examined the gold standard for Huntington disease (HD) functional assessment, the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS), in a group of at-risk participants not yet diagnosed but who later phenoconverted to manifest HD. We also sought to determine which skill domains first weaken and the clinical correlates of declines. Using the UHDRS Total Functional Capacity (TFC) and Functional Assessment Scale (FAS), we examined participants from Huntington Study Group clinics who were not diagnosed at their baseline visit but were diagnosed at a later visit (N=265). Occupational decline was the most common with 65.1% (TFC) and 55.6% (FAS) reporting some loss of ability to engage in their typical work. Inability to manage finances independently (TFC 49.2%, FAS 35.1%) and drive safely (FAS 33.5%) were also found. Functional decline was significantly predicted by motor, cognitive, and depressive symptoms. The UHDRS captured early functional losses in individuals with HD prior to formal diagnosis, however, fruitful areas for expanded assessment of early functional changes are performance at work, ability to manage finances, and driving. These are also important areas for clinical monitoring and treatment planning as up to 65% experienced loss in at least one area prior to diagnosis. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Claudia P.; de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide and it is associated with other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are not completely established and there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. In the gold standard treatment for NAFLD weight loss, dietary therapy, and physical activity are included. However, little scientific evidence is available on diet and/or physical activity and NAFLD specifically. Many dietary approaches such as Mediterranean and DASH diet are used for treatment of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but on the basis of its components their role in NAFLD has been discussed. In this review, the implications of current dietary and exercise approaches, including Brazilian and other guidelines, are discussed, with a focus on determining the optimal nonpharmacological treatment to prescribe for NAFLD. PMID:26770987

  3. Physical Fitness in Adolescence and Subsequent Inflammatory Bowel Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Melinder, Carren; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Hussein, Oula; Halfvarson, Jonas; Ekbom, Anders; Montgomery, Scott

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical fitness may reduce systemic inflammation levels relevant to the risk of symptomatic Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC); we assessed if fitness in adolescence is associated with subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk, independent of markers of risk and prodromal disease activity. METHODS: Swedish registers provided information on a cohort of 240,984 men (after exclusions) who underwent military conscription assessments in late adolescence (1969–1976). Follow-up started at least 4 years after the conscription assessment until 31 December 2009 (up to age 57 years). Cox's regression assessed the association of physical fitness with CD (n=986) and UC (n=1,878) in separate models, with adjustment including: socioeconomic conditions in childhood; physical fitness, height, body mass index, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in adolescence; and subsequent diagnoses of IBD. RESULTS: Low fitness was associated with a raised risk of IBD, with unadjusted hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.62 (1.31–2.00) for CD and 1.36 (1.17–1.59) for UC. The results were attenuated by adjustment, particularly for markers of prodromal disease activity to 1.32 (1.05–1.66) and 1.25 (1.06–1.48), respectively. Raised ESR in adolescence was associated with increased risks for subsequent CD (5.95 (4.47–7.92)) and UC (1.92 (1.46–2.52)). CONCLUSIONS: The inverse association of physical fitness with IBD risk is consistent with a protective role for exercise. However, evidence of disease activity before diagnosis was already present in adolescence, suggesting that some or all of the association between fitness and IBD may be due to prodromal disease activity reducing exercise capacity and therefore fitness. PMID:26540026

  4. Influence of fatigue on construction workers’ physical and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M.; Murphy, L. A.; Fang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite scientific evidence linking workers’ fatigue to occupational safety (due to impaired physical or cognitive function), little is known about this relationship in construction workers. Aims To assess the association between construction workers’ reported fatigue and their perceived difficulties with physical and cognitive functions. Methods Using data from a convenience sample of US construction workers participating in the 2010–11 National Health Interview Survey two multivariate weighted logistic regression models were built to predict difficulty with physical and with cognitive functions associated with workers’ reported fatigue, while controlling for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, sleep hygiene, psychological distress and arthritis status. Results Of 606 construction workers surveyed, 49% reported being ‘tired some days’ in the past 3 months and 10% reported ‘tired most days or every day’. Compared with those feeling ‘never tired’, workers who felt ‘tired some days’ were significantly more likely to report difficulty with physical function (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–3.51) and cognitive function (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.06–4.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Our results suggest an association between reported fatigue and experiencing difficulties with physical and cognitive functions in construction workers. PMID:25701835

  5. Design for diagnostics and prognostics: A physical-functional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, O.; Jennions, I. K.; Irving, P.

    This paper describes an end-to-end Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) development process with a strong emphasis on the COTS software tools employed for the implementation of this process. A mix of physical simulation and functional failure analysis was chosen as a route for early assessment of degradation in complex systems as capturing system failure modes and their symptoms facilitates the assessment of health management solutions for a complex asset. The method chosen for the IVHM development is closely correlated to the generic engineering cycle. The concepts employed by this method are further demonstrated on a laboratory fuel system test rig, but they can also be applied to both new and legacy hi-tech high-value systems. Another objective of the study is to identify the relations between the different types of knowledge supporting the health management development process when using together physical and functional models. The conclusion of this lead is that functional modeling and physical simulation should not be done in isolation. The functional model requires permanent feedback from a physical system simulator in order to be able to build a functional model that will accurately represent the real system. This paper will therefore also describe the steps required to correctly develop a functional model that will reflect the physical knowledge inherently known about a given system.

  6. Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Impaired Physical Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Ellen A; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; López-García, Esther

    2016-10-19

    Information about nutritional risk factors of functional limitation is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Mediterranean diet and risk of physical function impairment in older adults. We used data from 1,630 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥60 years. In 2008-2010, adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was measured with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Study participants were followed up through 2012 to assess incident impairment in agility and mobility as well as impairment in overall physical functioning, defined as a ≥5-point decrease from baseline to follow-up in the physical component summary of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we identified 343 individuals with agility limitation, 212 with mobility limitation, and 457 with decreased overall physical functioning. No association was found between the MDS score and the likelihood of impaired agility or mobility, although a 2-point increment in the MDS score was marginally associated with lower likelihood for decreased overall physical function. Compared to individuals in the lowest tertile of the MEDAS score, those in the highest tertile showed a lower odds of agility limitation (odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.48; 0.94, p trend = .02), mobility limitation (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.88, p trend = .01), and decreased overall physical functioning (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.45; 0.79, p trend < .001). In this prospective cohort study, a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, especially when measured with the MEDAS, was associated with a lower likelihood of physical function impairment in older adults.

  7. Physical comorbidities affect physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Renae J; McKeough, Zoe J; McKenzie, David K; Alison, Jennifer A

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of physical comorbidities such as obesity, musculoskeletal or neurological conditions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is high, yet little is known about the impact of these physical comorbidities on physical activity. The primary aim of the study was to compare the physical activity levels of people with COPD with physical comorbidities (COPD + PC) to people with COPD without physical comorbidities (COPD) and healthy age-matched volunteers (control group). Twenty-five people with COPD + PC (mean (standard deviation (SD)) age 73 (11) years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II-IV), 25 people with COPD (70 (8) years, GOLD stage II-IV) and 25 controls (70 (7) years) wore the SenseWear Pro3 Armband for 7 days. Engagement in light intensity physical activity (1.5-3.0 metabolic equivalents (MET)) (140 (76) minutes per day (min/day)) and moderate intensity physical activity (3.0-6.0 MET) (25 (35) min/day) in the COPD + PC group was significantly reduced compared with the COPD (231 (76) and 104 (106), respectively) and control group (259 (75) and 114 (57), respectively). In the 16 daytime hours between 6 am and 10 pm, people with COPD + PC spent a mean (SD) of 771 (98) min/day engaged in sedentary behaviour (<1.5 MET). This was significantly greater than the group with COPD (603 (148) min/day) and the control group (567 (76) min/day) (P < 0.001). People with COPD + PC had significantly lower daily physical activity levels compared with people with COPD without physical comorbidities and healthy people. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Measurement of Function Post Hip Fracture: Testing a Comprehensive Measurement Model of Physical Function.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Hicks, Gregory; Ostir, Glen; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Orwig, Denise; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of physical function post hip fracture has been conceptualized using multiple different measures. This study tested a comprehensive measurement model of physical function. This was a descriptive secondary data analysis including 168 men and 171 women post hip fracture. Using structural equation modeling, a measurement model of physical function which included grip strength, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and performance was tested for fit at 2 and 12 months post hip fracture, and among male and female participants. Validity of the measurement model of physical function was evaluated based on how well the model explained physical activity, exercise, and social activities post hip fracture. The measurement model of physical function fit the data. The amount of variance the model or individual factors of the model explained varied depending on the activity. Decisions about the ideal way in which to measure physical function should be based on outcomes considered and participants. The measurement model of physical function is a reliable and valid method to comprehensively measure physical function across the hip fracture recovery trajectory. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  9. Alzheimer Disease: Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Cognitive and Functional Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Ted; Dunay, Megan A; Boice, Jack L

    2017-06-15

    Alzheimer disease comprises a syndrome of progressive cognitive and functional decline. Treatments should target cognitive and functional symptoms. Cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and a combination of a cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine have produced statistically significant but clinically small delays in various domains of cognitive and functional decline in select patients with Alzheimer disease. Vitamin E has been shown to delay functional decline in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, especially when taken in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Structured programs of physical exercise improve physical function and reduce rates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild to severe Alzheimer disease. Cognitive stimulation programs show benefit in maintenance of cognitive function and improved self-reported quality of life in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.

  10. Maintaining well-being and selfhood through physical activity: experiences of people with mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cedervall, Ylva; Torres, Sandra; Åberg, Anna Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to furthering the understanding of how people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) reason about physical activity as part of everyday life, with a specific focus on the meanings attached to such activity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 individuals with mild AD. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed three sub-themes reflecting interrelated perspectives on how people with mild AD reason about physical activity: (1) striving to be physically active, mirrors the concrete approaches used for handling the consequences of having AD in relation to being active; (2) perceptions of physical activity, reflect how their thoughts and beliefs regarding written and tacit norms encouraged them to remain physically active, and (3) physical activity as a means to well-being, alludes to feelings and emotions related to the performance of physical activity. Interpretation of the underlying patterns in these sub-themes revealed one overarching theme: Physical activity as a means to selfhood maintenance, which suggests that physical activity can help to shift the focus from the dementia diagnosis (i.e. ill health) to a more healthy and able self. The findings suggest that physical activity, apart from maintaining body functions, can be a way to sustain well-being and selfhood in mild AD. This aspect of physical activity is important to consider in research, policy and practice when addressing the needs of people with dementia.

  11. Dopamine function in Lesch-Nyhan disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nyhan, W L

    2000-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease is a disorder of purine metabolism resulting from mutations in the gene for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase on the X chromosome. It is characterized by hyperuricemia and all of its consequences, as in gout; but in addition, patients have impressive disease of the central nervous system. This includes spasticity, involuntary movements, and retardation of motor development. The behavioral phenotype is best remembered by self-injurious biting behavior with attendant destruction of tissue. The connection between aberrant metabolism of purines and these neurologic and behavioral features of the disease is not clear. Increasing evidence points to imbalance of neurotransmitters. There is increased excretion of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the urine. There are decreased quantities and activities of a number of dopaminergic functions. Positron emission tomography scanning has indicated deficiency in the dopamine transporter. PMID:10852837

  12. Influence of racial origin and skeletal muscle properties on disease prevalence and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard R; Mattern, Craig O; Devor, Steven T

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal muscle properties are related to disease (e.g. obesity) and physical performance. For example, a predominance of type I muscle fibres is associated with better performance in endurance sports and a lower risk of obesity. Disease and physical performance also differ among certain racial groups. African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to develop obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Empirical studies indicate that aerobic capacity is lower in African Americans than Caucasians. Because genetics is a partial determinant of skeletal muscle properties, it is reasonable to assume that skeletal muscle properties vary as a function of race. As such, genetically determined and race-specific skeletal muscle properties may partially explain racial disparities in disease and physical performance. However, additional research is needed in this area to enable the development of more definitive conclusions.

  13. Haemostatic function in coronary artery disease (CAD).

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Sikka, M; Madan, N; Dwidedi, S; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1997-04-01

    Tests to evaluate haemostatic function bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT) partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTK), thrombin time (TT), platelet count, platelet function tests (platelet adhesiveness and microthrombus index) and plasma fibrinogen levels were performed in 30 patients of coronary artery disease (14 myocardial infarction, 16 angina pectoris) and 20 age and sex matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference in platelet adhesiveness and mean microthrombus index in patients and controls. The BT, PT, PTTK and TT were normal in all patients and controls. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that plasma fibrinogen was an independent risk factor in the production of CAD.

  14. Alzheimer's disease, oral function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Nordenram, G; Ryd-Kjellen, E; Johansson, G; Nordstrom, G; Winblad, B

    1996-07-01

    To study differences in nutritional, dental status and oral function between institutionalised patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively healthy elderly people living in the community. Comparison was made between two groups. Alzheimer's disease sufferers and healthy controls, using established criteria for anthropometric, mental and dental state. An institution and residential area in Stockholm, Sweden. Forty patients with Alzheimer's disease living in a nursing home and 40 age- and gender-matched control subjects living independently. Dental status and anthropometric variables. Overnutrition was less frequent among the demented than the controls and more demented were undernourished. Dental status was similar in the two groups with few edentulous subjects but only 2 of 7 edentulous subjects with Alzheimer's disease wore dentures. Having natural teeth and many functional oral zones is important for food consistency choice, but not for nutritional status. In the Alzheimer group, the stage of dementia has a strong association to the ability to eat unaided and an association with dental status. There are differences in nutritional status between Alzheimer's patients in institutions and cognitively healthy elderly living at home. The choice of food consistency is correlated to dental status but nutritional status is not shown to be influenced by dental status. However, the ability to eat unaided is strongly correlated to cognitive status.

  15. The effect of physical therapy on balance of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Ivona

    2004-03-01

    Physical therapy can improve performance of balance tests in patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurological disturbance with significant effect on movements, cognitive functions, autonomous systems and psychosocial activities. The effects of physical therapy are rarely reported and not sufficiently studied. This prospective study comprised 40 persons with stage III Parkinson's disease, according to aged over 50 years and 20 healthy controls of the same age. Patients were medically stable and had no other neurological deficits, postural hypotensia, visual disturbances or musculo-skeletal deficits. Balance tests before and after physical therapy were analysed according to. Balance tests in patients with Parkinson's disease resulted in significant differences of values for tandem stance, one leg stance, step test and external perturbation when compared to the controls, and between groups with and without falling tendency. Tandem stance, one leg stance, step test and external perturbation can be used for differentiation between groups with and without a tendency to fall. Physical therapy resulted in significant improvement of these tests in both the groups analysed. Systematic application of physical therapy, as part of team treatment, improves the balance of patients with Parkinson's disease.

  16. The effect of physical activity and motivation on function in ankylosing spondylitis: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Sinead; Cooksey, Roxanne; Davies, Helen; Dennis, Michael S.; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Siebert, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Exercise is reported to improve function for people with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but it is not clear if this effect is causal or if patients with milder disease find it easier to exercise. This study examines the effect of exercise and motivation to exercise on function, while controlling for disease severity. Methods Participants who were members of an existing AS cohort were asked about physical activity, motivation to exercise, function, and disease severity. Path analysis on STATA was used to examine the correlation between factors associated with function at time of exercise and with function after 3 months of follow-up. Results The response rate to the questionnaire was 88% (326/371). Improvement in function was greatest for people with higher physical activity levels and those who were more motivated to exercise—this was especially the case for patients with the most severe disease activity. The effect of motivation to exercise not only had a direct effect on function, but also an indirect effect of improving activity levels thereby improving both current and future function. People with high intrinsic motivation (driven by pleasure) had the greatest benefit to activity and function. Conclusions Exercise does improve function, especially for those with severe disease. In addition, motivation alone improves function as much as exercising itself. Therefore, interventions targeting motivation to exercise would have as much effect on improving function as interventions offering exercise opportunities. In addition, any intervention that both improves motivation and increases opportunities to exercise would have a 2-fold influence on function. PMID:23351615

  17. The effect of physical activity and motivation on function in ankylosing spondylitis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Sinead; Cooksey, Roxanne; Davies, Helen; Dennis, Michael S; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Siebert, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Exercise is reported to improve function for people with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but it is not clear if this effect is causal or if patients with milder disease find it easier to exercise. This study examines the effect of exercise and motivation to exercise on function, while controlling for disease severity. Participants who were members of an existing AS cohort were asked about physical activity, motivation to exercise, function, and disease severity. Path analysis on STATA was used to examine the correlation between factors associated with function at time of exercise and with function after 3 months of follow-up. The response rate to the questionnaire was 88% (326/371). Improvement in function was greatest for people with higher physical activity levels and those who were more motivated to exercise-this was especially the case for patients with the most severe disease activity. The effect of motivation to exercise not only had a direct effect on function, but also an indirect effect of improving activity levels thereby improving both current and future function. People with high intrinsic motivation (driven by pleasure) had the greatest benefit to activity and function. Exercise does improve function, especially for those with severe disease. In addition, motivation alone improves function as much as exercising itself. Therefore, interventions targeting motivation to exercise would have as much effect on improving function as interventions offering exercise opportunities. In addition, any intervention that both improves motivation and increases opportunities to exercise would have a 2-fold influence on function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Activity and Physical Function in Individuals Post-bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Josbeno, Deborah A.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Sparto, Patrick J.; Otto, Amy D.; Jakicic, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the physical activity behavior of individuals who undergo bariatric surgery will enable the development of effective post-surgical exercise guidelines and interventions to enhance weight loss outcomes. This study characterized the physical activity profile and physical function of 40 subjects 2–5 years post-bariatric surgery and examined the association between physical activity, physical function, and weight loss after surgery. Methods Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with the BodyMedia SenseWear® Pro (SWPro) armband, and physical function (PF) was measured using the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (SF-36PF). Height and weight were measured. Results Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was associated with MVPA (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and PF (r = 0.38, p = 0.02); MVPA was not associated with PF (r = 0.24, p = 0.14). Regression analysis demonstrated that MVPA was associated with %EWL (β = 0.38, t = 2.43, p = 0.02). Subjects who participated in ≥150 min/week of MVPA had a greater %EWL (68.2 ± 19, p = 0.01) than those who participated in <150 min/week (52.5 ± 17.4). Conclusions Results suggest that subjects are capable of performing most mobility activities. However, the lack of an association between PF and MVPA suggests that a higher level of PF does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of MVPA participation. Thus, the barriers to adoption of a more physically active lifestyle may not be fully explained by the subjects’ physical limitations. Further understanding of this relationship is needed for the development of post-surgical weight loss guidelines and interventions. PMID:21153567

  19. Munchausen syndrome mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jaime; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Xavier, Miguel; Gusmão, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is a disorder in which patients intentionally produce symptoms mimicking physical or psychiatric illnesses with the aim to assume the sick role and to gain medical attention. Once a patient receives a Munchausen syndrome diagnosis every complaint made thence tends to be regarded with scepticism by clinical staff. However, it is possible that a bona fide illness, which might be disregarded, may coexist in these patients. We report a case of MS mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine acute physical illness. Despite the initial doubts about the veracity of the latter, due to its prompt recognition, treatment was successful. PMID:22798096

  20. Is self-reported physical functioning associated with incident cardiometabolic abnormalities or the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Kelly R; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; McClure, Candace; El Khoudary, Samar R; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Sternfeld, Barbara; Harlow, Siobán D

    2016-05-01

    Physical functioning may be an important pre-clinical marker of chronic disease, used as a tool to identify patients at risk for future cardiometabolic abnormalities. This study evaluated if self-reported physical functioning was associated with the development of cardiometabolic abnormalities or their clustering (metabolic syndrome) over time. Participants (n = 2,254) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported physical functioning on the Short Form health survey and had a metabolic syndrome assessment (elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides and waist circumference; reduced HDL cholesterol) in 2000 were included. Discrete survival analysis was used to assess the 10-year risk of developing metabolic syndrome or a syndrome component through 2010. At baseline, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.0%. Women with substantial limitations (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.29) in physical functioning were significantly more likely to develop the metabolic syndrome compared with women reporting no limitations. Self-reported physical functioning was significantly associated with incident hypertension and increased waist circumference. Simple screening tools for cardiometabolic risk in clinical settings are needed. Self-reported physical functioning assessments are simple tools that may allow healthcare providers to more accurately predict the course of chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Physical inactivity: the "Cinderella" risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-08-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect pathways by which physical activity prevents many of the major noncommunicable diseases (NCD) responsible for premature death and disability. Physical inactivity was identified as the 4th leading risk factor for the prevention of NCD, preceded only by tobacco use, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels, and accounting for more than 3 million preventable deaths globally in 2010. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority but, in most countries, this has not yet resulted in widespread recognition nor specific physical activity-related policy action at the necessary scale. Instead, physical inactivity could be described as the Cinderella of NCD risk factors, defined as "poverty of policy attention and resourcing proportionate to its importance." The pressing question is "Why is this so?" The authors identify and discuss 8 possible explanations and the need for more effective communication on the importance of physical activity in the NCD prevention context. Although not all of the issues identified will be relevant for any 1 country, it is likely that at different times and in different combinations these 8 problems continue to delay national-level progress on addressing physical inactivity in many countries. The authors confirm that there is sufficient evidence to act, and that much better use of well-planned, coherent communication strategies are needed in most countries and at the international level. Significant opportunities exist. The Toronto Charter on Physical Activity and the Seven Investments that Work are 2 useful tools to support increased advocacy on physical activity within and beyond the context of the crucial 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs.

  2. Greater Depressive Symptoms and Higher Viral Load Are Associated with Poor Physical Function among Latino Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Lugo, Karen; Del Rio-Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Reisen, Carol; Poppen, Paul; Oursler, Krisann K; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    Physical function limitations have been associated with poor health outcomes, which have a negative impact on quality of life of older individuals. This study examined the association between depression, viral load, and acculturation with physical function among Latino men living with HIV. A secondary data analysis was performed using a cross-sectional data of 146 Latino immigrant men living with HIV in New York City and Washington, DC. Physical function was measured using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Uncontrolled HIV infection and depression were associated with worse physical function, thus implying the importance of adequate health care to address these conditions. Preserving physical function should start during middle adulthood, particularly among people living with HIV because of their greater risk of developing age-related challenges such as depression, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases among others. This study informs future interventions to preserve physical function and achieve the goal of successful aging.

  3. ESCRT functions in autophagy and associated disease.

    PubMed

    Rusten, Tor Erik; Simonsen, Anne

    2008-05-01

    Mutations in the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III subunit CHMP2B are associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both human neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins aggregates in affected neurons. The ESCRT proteins are known to be involved in diverse cellular processes such as mRNA transport, cytokinesis, transcriptional regulation and sorting of transmembrane proteins into the inner vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB) during endocytosis. It was until recently not clear how ESCRT function may be involved in neurodegeneration. New findings in mammalian cells and in Drosophila melanogaster show that functional ESCRTs are required for efficient fusion of autophagic vesicles with the endocytic pathway and for degradation of autophagic cargo. Moreover, defective ESCRT function led to the accumulation of cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing ubiquitin, p62/Sequestosome-1 and TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Using cellular and Drosophila models for Huntington's disease it was also shown that reduced ESCRT levels inhibit clearance of expanded polyglutamine aggregates and aggravate their neurotoxic effect. These data indicate that efficient autophagic degradation requires functional MVBs and provides a possible explanation to the observed neurodegenerative phenotype seen in patients with CHMP2B mutations.

  4. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 p<.001) and adherence to a healthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a

  5. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  6. Physical therapy in Parkinson's disease: evolution and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Keus, Samyra H J; Munneke, Marten; Nijkrake, Maarten J; Kwakkel, Gert; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2009-01-15

    Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are faced with progressively increasing mobility problems. For this reason, many patients require additional physical therapy. Here, we review the professional evolution and scientific validation of physical therapy in PD, and highlight several future challenges. To gain insight in ongoing, recently completed or published trials and systematic reviews, we performed a structured literature review and contacted experts in the field of physical therapy in PD. Following publication of the first controlled clinical trial in 1981, the quantity and quality of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of physical therapy in PD has evolved rapidly. In 2004 the first guideline on physical therapy in PD was published, providing recommendations for evidence-based interventions. Current research is aiming to gather additional evidence to support specific intervention strategies such as the prevention of falls, and to evaluate the implementation of evidence into clinical practice. Although research focused on physical therapy for PD is a relatively young field, high-quality supportive evidence is emerging for specific therapeutic strategies. We provide some recommendations for future research, and discuss innovative strategies to improve the organization of allied health care in PD, making evidence-based care available to all PD patients.

  7. Sexual function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Priya; Schmidt, Rebecca J

    2007-04-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and lead to sexual dysfunction, anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and altered mineral metabolism. Common clinical problems include disturbances in menstruation in women, erectile dysfunction in men, and decreased libido and infertility in both sexes. Organic factors tend to be prominent and are related to uremia and other comorbid illnesses. Psychological factors and depression may exacerbate the primary problem. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are seen early in CKD and tend to worsen after patients start dialysis. Hypogonadism plays a dominant role in male sexual function, whereas changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function predominate in female sexual dysfunction. In patients on dialysis, treatment strategies include optimizing dose of dialysis, correction of anemia with erythropoietin, and correction of hyperparathyroidism. Successful kidney transplantation may restore normal sexual function, especially in younger patients.

  8. Influence of physical exercise on neuroimmunological functioning and health: aging and stress.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Fredriksson, Anders; Schütz, Erica; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2011-07-01

    Chronic and acute stress, with associated pathophysiology, are implicated in a variety of disease states, with neuroimmunological dysregulation and inflammation as major hazards to health and functional sufficiency. Psychosocial stress and negative affect are linked to elevations in several inflammatory biomarkers. Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune competence observed in the aged aspect of the life span, linked to a dramatic rise in morbidity and susceptibility to diseases with fatal outcomes, alters neuroimmunological function and is particularly marked in the neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Parkinson's disease and diabetes. Physical exercise diminishes inflammation and elevates agents and factors involved in immunomodulatory function. Both the alleviatory effects of life-long physical activity upon multiple cancer forms and the palliative effects of physical activity for individuals afflicted by cancer offer advantages in health intervention. Chronic conditions of stress and affective dysregulation are associated with neuroimmunological insufficiency and inflammation, contributing to health risk and mortality. Physical exercise regimes have induced manifest anti-inflammatory benefits, mediated possibly by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The epidemic proportions of metabolic disorders, obesity, and diabetes demand attention; several variants of exercise regimes have been found repeatedly to induce both prevention and improvement under both laboratory and clinical conditions. Physical exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic intervention incorporating multiple activity regimes, e.g., endurance versus resistance exercise that may be adapted to conform to the particular demands of diagnosis, intervention and prognosis inherent to the staging of autoimmune disorders and related conditions.

  9. Physical properties of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent

    SciTech Connect

    Sklaviadis, T.K.; Manuelidis, L.; Manuelidis, E.E.

    1989-03-01

    In this report, the authors present the first physical characterization of the Creutzfeld-Jakob disease agent. Preparations with high yields of infectivity (assayed infectious units) were obtained by a novel, gentle procedure in which initially sedimenting Gp34 (prion protein) was disaggregated by a variety of criteria with no subsequent loss of infectivity. Studies with this preparation indicate that most of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent has both a viruslike size and density. In velocity sedimentation and isopycnic sucrose gradients, infectivity comigrated with nucleic acid-protein complexes of appreciable size.

  10. Physical Functioning Among Women Aged 80 Years and Older With Previous Fracture

    PubMed Central

    LaMonte, Michael J.; Snively, Beverly M.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Wallace, Robert; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Zhao; Robbins, John A.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background. The oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the elderly population. Little is known regarding the associations of fracture history with physical functioning assessed after age 80. Methods. Among 33,386 women surviving to age 80 years (mean ± SD years 84.6±3.4), we examined the relationship between history of incident fracture after entry into the Women’s Health Initiative (follow-up 15.2±1.3 years) and their physical functioning assessed using the RAND-36 instrument most proximal to 2012 end of follow-up. Results. Baseline mean (±SD) physical function score was 82 (±18). After adjustment for demographic and medical characteristics, fracture at each site, including hip, upper limb, lower limb, and central body, was associated with significantly lower subsequent physical functioning (all p < .001). Hip, upper leg, spine, and pelvis fractures were particularly related with lower physical functioning scores, 11.7 (95% CI: 10.3, 13.1), 10.5 (8.8, 12.3), 9.8 (8.9, 10.8), and 8.7 (7.2, 10.2) units lower, respectively, compared with women without fracture (each p < .0001). Compared with women without central site fracture, women with central site fractures also had lower physical functioning scores (10.0 [9.3, 10.8] units lower]; p < .0001). In case-only analysis of fractures, older age, less than 1 year since fracture, one or more additional sites fractured, history of cardiovascular disease or cancer, higher body mass index, and no alcohol intake in the past 3 months also were independent predictors of lower physical functioning score (all p < .05). Conclusions. Among women surviving to 80 years and older, prior fracture is associated with lower current physical functioning, regardless of anatomical site of fracture, independent of other major predictors of disability. PMID:26858323

  11. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2013-01-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  12. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical activity and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Friedman, Joseph H; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Desaulniers, Julie; Ing, Eileen; Saritelli, Jennifer; Riebe, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) such as fatigue, depression, and apathy are common and detract from quality of life. There is little published on the impact of physical activity on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PD. A convenience sample of 45 patients with PD (mean age = 66.1 years; 33% female) completed questionnaires on physical activity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and specific exercise preferences. Covarying for age and gender, higher levels of physical activity were associated with significantly less fatigue, as well as a trend for less apathy and depression and greater positive affect. Exercise preferences included moderate intensity (73%), at home (56%), in the morning (73%), scheduled (69%), options for varied activities (73%), and preference for both structured/supervised (50%), and unsupervised/self-paced (50%) programs. Preferred activities included the use of aerobic exercise equipment, resistance training, and yoga. Developing and tailoring exercise programs that incorporate specific preferences may result in more effective interventions for patients with PD.

  14. [Assessment of endothelial function in autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Y; Bellien, J; Armengol, G; Gomez, E; Richard, V; Lévesque, H; Joannidès, R

    2014-08-01

    Numerous autoimmune-inflammatory rheumatic diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis or other types of vasculopathy leading to an increase in cardiovascular disease incidence. In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial dysfunction is an important early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, contributing to plaque initiation and progression. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by a shift of the actions of the endothelium toward reduced vasodilation, a proinflammatory and a proadhesive state, and prothrombic properties. Therefore, assessment of endothelial dysfunction targets this vascular phenotype using several biological markers as indicators of endothelial dysfunction. Measurements of soluble adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin), pro-thrombotic factors (thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and inflammatory cytokines are most often performed. Regarding the functional assessment of the endothelium, the flow-mediated dilatation of conduit arteries is a non-invasive method widely used in pathophysiological and interventional studies. In this review, we will briefly review the most relevant information upon endothelial dysfunction mechanisms and explorations. We will summarize the similarities and differences in the biological and functional assessments of the endothelium in different autoimmune diseases.

  15. Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular intakes of fatty fish rich in the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids that compete with the more pervasive membrane fatty acid, arachidonic acid, disrupting the metabolic cascades that stimulate inflammation. Another effective dietary strategy is to consume less arachidonic acid by reducing beef, poultry, fish, and eggs from the diet (e.g., adopting a vegetarian-like diet). Since oxidative stress plays a prominent role in immune system activation, regular ingestion of ample amounts of fruits and vegetables (8+ servings/d) rich in antioxidant compounds, the polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C (e.g., citrus, tomatoes, berries, carrots, and greens), lowers inflammatory mediators and risk for chronic disease. Whole grains, legumes, and nuts have also been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively reduce inflammatory mediators and risk for CVD. Hence, as proclaimed in antiquity, ‘let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food’. PMID:20368755

  16. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  17. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  18. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Duncan S; Thomas, Non E; Baker, Julien S

    2012-02-17

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD.

  19. Left Atrial Enlargement and Reduced Physical Function During Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pellett, Andrew A.; Myers, Leann; Welsch, Michael; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Welsh, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Lou isiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62–101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (ρ = −0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals. PMID:23238083

  20. Left atrial enlargement and reduced physical function during aging.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Andrew A; Myers, Leann; Welsch, Michael; Jazwinski, S Michal; Welsh, David A

    2013-10-01

    Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62-101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (ρ = -0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals.

  1. Apolipoprotein E and measured physical and pulmonary function in older Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which has three common alleles (ϵ2, ϵ3, and ϵ4), has been linked to a number of health outcomes and longevity. The ϵ2 allele has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, whereas the ϵ4 allele has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease in various populations. The relationships between ApoE and mortality and ApoE and physical function, however, are not clear-cut. We used the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) to examine the relationship between ApoE polymorphisms and physical and pulmonary function in approximately 1,000 Taiwanese adults aged 53 years and older in 2006. In the 2006 SEBAS wave, measures of physical function included self-reported difficulties with respect to activities of daily living (ADLs) and other physical function indicators, as well as performance-based measures of grip strength (kg), walking speed (m/s) over a distance of 3 m, and chair stand speed (stand/s). Peak expiratory flow (PEF; L/min) rate was also examined as an indicator of pulmonary function. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between ApoE and inability to complete each of the tests of physical and pulmonary function. These models revealed no significant association between ApoE carrier status and any of the indicators of function. Among participants able to complete a given task, we next used linear regression models to examine self-reported limitations with ADLs and performance on the given test by ApoE carrier status. Similarly, there were no significant relationships between ApoE carrier status and the measures of function. Our estimates provide further confirmation that the ApoE gene may not be a risk factor for functional decline among older Taiwanese adults.

  2. Physical activity and memory functions: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, R; Willemer, C; Krüger, K; Duning, T; Warnecke, T; Sommer, J; Völker, K; Ho, H V; Mooren, F; Knecht, S; Flöel, A

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition. Here, we asked in an interventional approach if physical activity performed at different intensity levels would differentially affect episodic memory function. Additionally, we tried to identify mechanisms mediating these changes. Sixty-two healthy elderly individuals were assessed for level of physical activity, aerobic fitness, episodic memory score, neurotrophin and catecholamine levels, and received a magnetic resonance image of the brain at baseline and after a six months intervention of medium or low-intensity physical activity or control. Increase in total physical activity was positively associated with increase in memory score over the entire cohort, without significant differences between intensity groups. It was also positively associated with increases in local gray matter volume in prefrontal and cingulate cortex, and BDNF levels (trend). In conclusion, we showed that physical activity conveys the beneficial effects on memory function independently of its intensity, possibly mediated by local gray matter volume and neurotrophic factors. Our findings may carry significant implications for prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly.

  3. Targeting Functional Decline in Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Christopher M; Boustani, Malaz A; Schmid, Arlene A; LaMantia, Michael A; Austrom, Mary G; Miller, Douglas K; Gao, Sujuan; Ferguson, Denisha Y; Lane, Kathleen A; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2017-02-07

    Alzheimer disease results in progressive functional decline, leading to loss of independence. To determine whether collaborative care plus 2 years of home-based occupational therapy delays functional decline. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01314950). Urban public health system. 180 community-dwelling participants with Alzheimer disease and their informal caregivers. All participants received collaborative care for dementia. Patients in the intervention group also received in-home occupational therapy delivered in 24 sessions over 2 years. The primary outcome measure was the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS ADL); performance-based measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure (SPSM). At baseline, clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between groups; the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score for both groups was 19 (SD, 7). The intervention group received a median of 18 home visits from the study occupational therapists. In both groups, ADCS ADL scores declined over 24 months. At the primary end point of 24 months, ADCS ADL scores did not differ between groups (mean difference, 2.34 [95% CI, -5.27 to 9.96]). We also could not definitively demonstrate between-group differences in mean SPPB or SPSM values. The results of this trial are indeterminate and do not rule out potential clinically important effects of the intervention. The authors could not definitively demonstrate whether the addition of 2 years of in-home occupational therapy to a collaborative care management model slowed the rate of functional decline among persons with Alzheimer disease. This trial underscores the burden undertaken by caregivers as they provide care for family members with Alzheimer disease and the difficulty in slowing functional decline. National Institute on Aging.

  4. [Quality of life and physical activity of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agata; Kucio, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and comparison these results with control group. A group of 16 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and 13 healthy persons as a control group. In orderto estimate the quality of life, polish version of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) was used. The Second questionnaire that was used is WHOQOL-BREF (The World Health Organization Quality of Life). To assess the level of physical activity was applied the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ). All the results have been correlated to answer the question if there is any relationship between the quality of life and physical activity and if level of these parameters is different in control group. In the group of patients the lowest level of functioning were stated on bowel ailments field and emotional field. The most important roles in patients life are social relationship and sanity. The higher level of the caloric consumption was stated in the group of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in comparison to control group. There was no significant difference in caloric consumption related with the recreation and house works. Because of the fact that all of the patients were in the remission period, it was impossible to verify if there is any relationship between quality of life and the stage of disease. The results of researches have not proved relationship between the level of physical activity and the quality of life among the patients as well as in the control group.

  5. Correlation of pain relief with physical function in hand osteoarthritis: randomized controlled trial post hoc analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended for the relief of pain associated with hand osteoarthritis (OA) but do not alter the underlying structural changes that contribute to impaired physical function. The current analysis examined the relationship of pain relief with measures of function and global rating of disease in patients with hand OA. Methods This was a combined analysis of 2 prospective, randomized, double-blind, 8-week, multicenter, parallel-group studies comparing diclofenac sodium 1% gel with placebo gel (vehicle) in patients with radiographically confirmed mild to moderate hand OA. Patients (n = 783) aged ≥ 40 years applied diclofenac sodium 1% gel (2 g) or vehicle to each hand 4 times daily for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included pain intensity assessed on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS); the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) subscales for pain, stiffness, and physical function (100-mm VAS); and a global rating of disease (100-mm VAS). Change in VAS pain intensity from baseline to week 8 was categorized (<0%, 0%-<15%, 15%-<30%, 30%-<50%, 50%-<70%, and ≥ 70%) without regard to treatment and compared in each category with the mean change from baseline in each AUSCAN subindex and the global rating of disease. Pearson correlations between changes in outcome measures from baseline to week 8 were calculated. Results Changes in VAS pain intensity were accompanied by similar changes in AUSCAN scores and global rating of disease. Pearson correlations confirmed significant associations (P < 0.001) between change in VAS pain intensity and changes in AUSCAN pain (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.81), AUSCAN function (r = 0.75), AUSCAN stiffness (r = 0.66), and global rating of disease (r = 0.76). Conclusions Pain relief correlated with improvements in physical function, stiffness, and global rating of disease in patients with hand OA, irrespective of treatment. This suggests that pain or anticipation of pain

  6. TRPV1 function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    White, John P M; Urban, Laszlo; Nagy, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1) was identified as a receptor responsible for mediating the intense burning sensation following exposure to heat greater than approximately 43°C., or capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot chilli peppers. More importantly, however, it has been shown that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the development of the burning pain sensation associated with inflammation in peripheral tissues. More recently, there has been a virtual avalanche of sightings of TRPV1 on the anatomical landscape, coupled with association of TRPV1 with a wide range of non-pain-related physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we consider the continuously expanding set of functions in both health and disease which TRPV1 is understood to subserve at present. The widespread expression of TRPV1 in the human suggests that, in addition to the development of burning pain associated with acute exposure to heat or capsaicin, and with inflammation, TRPV1 may also be involved in an array of vitally important functions, such as those of the urinary tract, the respiratory and auditory systems. Moreover, TRPV1 could also be involved in the maintenance of body and cell homeostasis, metabolism, regulation of hair growth, and development of cancer. Thus, controlling TRPV1 function may possess the potential of providing exciting opportunities for therapeutic interventions. At the same time, however, the widespread distribution of these ion channels introduces a tremendous complication in developing a drug to serve in one disease context which may have profound implications for normal TRPV1 functioning in other non-pathological contexts.

  7. Physical Functioning and Mortality among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Insights from TRIAD

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Kelly R.; McEwen, Laura N.; Karter, Andrew; Lee, Pearl; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for mortality. Subjective health status, including self-reported physical functioning, may also be a marker for mortality. This study examined the association between self-reported physical functioning and mortality in people with diabetes, and determined if this association differed by race/ethnicity. We studied 7,894 type 2 diabetic patients who participated in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a prospective study of diabetes care in managed care. At baseline in 2000, participants completed a questionnaire and had a medical record review. Physical functioning was assessed with the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The National Death Index was searched annually for deaths over 10 years of follow-up (2000-2009). At baseline, mean age was 61.7 years, 50% were non-Hispanic white, 22% were black, and 16% of participants reported “good physical functioning” (better than norms for U.S. adults). Over 10 years, 28% of participants died (2,111/7,894); 39% (856/2,111) due to cardiovascular disease. Relative to those reporting good functioning, those reporting poor physical functioning had a 37% higher all-cause death rate, after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, smoking, and comorbidities (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15, 1.63). Similarly, those reporting poor physical functioning had a 42% higher adjusted cardiovascular death rate compared to those reporting good functioning (HR= 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). Although blacks were less likely than whites to report good functioning (p<0.01), the association between functioning and mortality was consistent across race/ethnicity. In this managed care population with diabetes, self-reported physical functioning was a robust predictor of mortality, in addition to traditional biological risk factors, for all race/ethnic groups. Physical functioning assessments are easy to perform and may be useful benchmarks for

  8. Statins, mood, sleep, and physical function: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Swiger, Kristopher J; Manalac, Raoul J; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of statins on mood, sleep, and physical function. We performed a systematic computer-aided search of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register and augmented this search by scrutinizing reference lists and making inquiries among colleagues and experts in the field. All patient populations and study types were considered. We selected studies of statin therapy compared with no statin or placebo. Outcome measures included mood, sleep, and physical function. Thirty-four studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Seven of eight (88 %) observational studies, 4/6 (66 %) randomized trials with mood as a primary endpoint (487 total participants; exposure 4 weeks to 1 year), and 3/3 (100 %) randomized trials with mood as a secondary endpoint (2,851 total participants; exposure 1-4 years) were not compatible with a negative mood effect of statins. Comparatively, fewer studies examined statin effects on sleep and physical function. Studies reporting negative effects contained potential sources of bias, including multiple testing or lack of adjustment for confounders in observational studies, and failure to prespecify outcomes or report blinding in trials. A limited body of available evidence is most compatible with no adverse effect of statins on quality of life measures, namely, mood, sleep, and physical function. Studies suggesting such effects suffer from an increased risk of bias. High-quality, prospective, and adequately powered studies are needed, especially in the domains of sleep and physical function, with careful attention to patients who may be most vulnerable to adverse effects.

  9. Phillips' Lambda function: Data summary and physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisov, V.; Plant, W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of Phillips' Lambda function describing the average length of breakers on the ocean per unit area at speed cb are summarized. An expression is developed that fits these data within reasonable bounds. A physical model for the Lambda function is derived based on the assumption that breaking occurs when the surface steepness exceeds a threshold value. The energy contained in the breaking region is related to the fifth power of the breaker speed, as Phillips showed, and from this the probability of finding a breaker with a speed cb may be determined from a simulation of the long-wave surface based on a linear superposition of Fourier components. This probability is directly related to the Lambda function so that a form for this function can be determined. The Lambda function so determined agrees in both shape and intensity with the fit to the measured Lambda functions.

  10. Associations of medical status and physical fitness with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Wakai, K; Kawamura, T; Umemura, O; Hara, Y; Machida, J; Anno, T; Ichihara, Y; Mizuno, Y; Tamakoshi, A; Lin, Y; Nakayama, T; Ohno, Y

    1999-10-01

    To determine the possible associations of medical status and physical fitness with periodontal disease, a cross-sectional study was conducted. The subjects were 517 males and 113 females aged 23 to 83 years who participated in a multiphasic health test at the Aichi Prefectural Center of Health Care, Japan, from 1992 to 1997. Their periodontal status was assessed by means of the CPITN scoring system. To assess the strength of associations between the examined factors and the score, odds ratios were computed using ordinal logistic models. Conventional risk factors such as old age, smoking habits, and higher fasting plasma glucose and simplified debris index increased the risk of periodontal disease. Hypertension, hematuria, leucocytosis or thrombocytosis, positive C-reactive protein and higher serum alkaline phosphatase were positively associated with the score, whereas higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was related to a lower risk. Poor physical fitness affecting aerobic capacity, foot balance and reaction was associated with a higher CPITN score. These associations were independent of the conventional risk factors. Although these new potential risk factors should be further investigated for their causal relationship, our findings suggested a close relationship of oral health to medical status and physical fitness.

  11. Perspective on Physical Therapist Management of Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    George, Susan E; Borello-France, Diane F

    2016-09-15

    Functional constipation is a common bowel disorder leading to activity restrictions and reduced health-related quality of life. Typically, this condition is initially managed with prescription of laxatives or fiber supplementation, or both. However, these interventions are often ineffective and fail to address the underlying pathophysiology and impairments contributing to this condition. Physical therapists possess the knowledge and skills to diagnose and manage a wide range of musculoskeletal and motor coordination impairments that may contribute to functional constipation. Relevant anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral contributors to functional constipation are discussed with regard to specific constipation diagnoses. A framework for physical therapist examination of impairments that can affect gastrointestinal function, including postural, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and behavioral impairments, is offered. Within the context of diagnostic-specific patient cases, multifaceted interventions are described as they relate to impairments underlying functional constipation type. The current state of evidence to support these interventions and patient recommendations is summarized. This perspective article aims not only to heighten physical therapists' awareness and management of this condition but also to stimulate clinical questioning that will open avenues for future research to improve patient care.

  12. Patterns of sedentary behavior and physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gennuso, Keith P; Thraen-Borowski, Keith M; Gangnon, Ronald E; Colbert, Lisa H

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between various objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) variables and physical function in older adults, examine the measurement properties of an SB questionnaire, and describe the domains of SB in our sample. Forty-four older adults (70 ± 8 years, 64 % female) had their SB measured via activPAL activity monitor and SB questionnaire for 1 week followed by performance-based tests of physical function. The pattern of SB was more important than total SB time. Where a gender by SB interaction was found, increasing time in SB and fewer breaks were associated with worse function in the males only. The SB questionnaire had acceptable test-retest reliability but poor validity compared to activPAL-measured SB. The majority of SB time was spent watching television, using the computer and reading. This study provides further evidence for the association between SB and physical function and describes where older adults are spending their sedentary time. This information can be used in the design of future intervention to reduce sedentary time and improve function in older adults.

  13. Physical functioning and rehabilitation for the cancer survivor.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Michael D; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ness, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    There are more than 13.8 million survivors of cancer living in the United States. Up to 20% of survivors of childhood-onset and 53% of survivors of adult-onset cancer have problems with physical function as a result of their cancer and or its treatment. These problems may be immediately apparent, during, or soon after initial cancer treatment, or may appear days, months, or years later as the cancer survivor ages. Unfortunately, rehabilitation services and providers are not easily or systematically accessible in today's healthcare system. Rehabilitation services that restore or ameliorate early functional loss or that protect against or minimize the impact of later-onset organ system dysfunction are available, at least in larger comprehensive cancer center settings. This report describes physical function, details the evolution of cancer rehabilitation, and identifies cancer survivors who may benefit from rehabilitation services. Additionally, the evidence for specific approaches to rehabilitation, intervention, and prevention of functional loss are reviewed. Finally, we summarize the mechanisms used to measure physical function and stress the need for additional research to support rehabilitation services for cancer survivors.

  14. The physical characteristics of human proteins in different biological functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tengjiao; Tang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of gene products are the foundation of their biological functions. In this study, we systematically explored relationships between physical properties and biological functions. The physical properties including origin time, evolution pressure, mRNA and protein stability, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, acidity/alkaline, amino acid compositions, and chromosome location. The biological functions are defined from 4 aspects: biological process, molecular function, cellular component and cell/tissue/organ expression. We found that the proteins associated with basic material and energy metabolism process originated earlier, while the proteins associated with immune, neurological system process etc. originated later. Tissues may have a strong influence on evolution pressure. The proteins associated with energy metabolism are double-stable. Immune and peripheral cell proteins tend to be mRNA stable/protein unstable. There are very few function items with double-unstable of mRNA and protein. The proteins involved in the cell adhesion tend to consist of large proteins with high proportion of small amino acids. The proteins of organic acid transport, neurological system process and amine transport have significantly high hydrophobicity. Interestingly, the proteins involved in olfactory receptor activity tend to have high frequency of aromatic, sulfuric and hydroxyl amino acids.

  15. Muscle Strength Predicts Changes in Physical Function in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, James S.; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Barton, Jennifer; Margaretten, Mary; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have observed that muscle weakness is associated with worse physical function among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examines whether reduced upper and lower extremity muscle strength predict declines in function over time among adult women with SLE. Methods One hundred forty-six women from a longitudinal SLE cohort participated in the study. All measures were collected during in-person research visits approximately 2 years apart. Upper extremity muscle strength was assessed by grip strength. Lower extremity muscle strength was assessed by peak knee torque of extension and flexion. Physical function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Regression analyses modeled associations of baseline upper and lower extremity muscle strength with follow-up SPPB scores controlling for baseline SPPB, age, SLE duration, SLE disease activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire [SLAQ]), physical activity level, prednisone use, body composition, and depression. Secondary analyses tested whether associations of baseline muscle strength with follow-up in SPPB scores differed between intervals of varying baseline muscle strength. Results Lower extremity muscle strength strongly predicted changes over 2 years in physical function even when controlling for covariates. The association of reduced lower extremity muscle strength with reduced future physical function was greatest among the weakest women. Conclusions Reduced lower extremity muscle strength predicted clinically significant declines in physical function, especially among the weakest women. Future studies should test whether therapies that promote preservation of lower extremity muscle strength may prevent declines in function among women with SLE. PMID:25623919

  16. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk-yu; Christie, Brian R.; So, Kwok-fai

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain. PMID:24818140

  17. Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

    2012-06-01

    Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min⁻¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings.

  18. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  20. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally.

  1. Assessing physical functioning in otolaryngology: feasibility of the Short Physical Performance Battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, David S; Blake, Caitlin R; Genther, Dane J; Li, Lingsheng; Lin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Objective measures of physical functioning and mobility are considered to be the strongest indicators of overall health and mortality risk in older adults. These measures are not routinely used in otolaryngology research. We investigated the feasibility of using a validated physical performance battery to assess the functioning of older adults seen in a tertiary care otolaryngology clinic. The Short Physical Performance Battery was performed on 22 individuals aged 50 years or older enrolled in the Studying Multiple Outcomes after Aural Rehabilitative Treatment (SMART) study at Johns Hopkins. We successfully administered the SPPB to 22 participants, and this testing resulted in minimal participant and provider burden with respect to time, training, and space requirements. The mean time to complete 5 chair stands was 13.0 ± 3.8 seconds. The mean times for the side-by-side, semi-tandem, and tandem stands were 10.0 ± 0.0, 9.5 ± 2.1, and 8.8 ± 3.2 seconds, respectively. Mean walking speed was 1.1 ± 0.3 meters per second, and composite SPPB scores ranged from 6 to 12 (mean = 10.45, S.D. = 1.6). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a standardized physical performance battery to assess physical functioning in a cohort of older adults seen in a tertiary otolaryngology clinic. We provide detailed instructions, references, and analytic methods for implementing the SPPB in future otolaryngology studies involving older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Home environmental problems and physical function in Taiwanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Wu, Shwu-Chong; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental hazards play an important role in the disablement process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between home environmental problems and personal physical function. Data were based on a two-stage nationwide survey and evaluation on the needs of long-term care in Taiwan. A total of 10,596 individuals aged 65 and over were included in this study. These participants were identified with physical or cognitive problems at the screening interview and further evaluated at the second interview on health condition, functional status, needs of long-term care, and home environmental problems. Six items of environmental hazards were assessed at the participants' homes with direct observation. The prevalence rates of home environmental problems were similar among older adults with different levels of physical function. No grab bars (79.6-85.1%) and no protections against slip (81.9-92.8%) in the bathroom were two commonly present hazards in older adults' homes. Older adults with a higher income (Odds ratio=OR=0.75), without income information (OR=0.78) or living with other persons (OR=0.74) were less likely to experience environmental problems at home. Results from this study revealed that home environment condition was associated with factors other than personal disabling conditions for the elderly. Modifying home environment, especially the bathroom, should be attached with great importance for physically disabled older adults.

  3. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  4. Chemical and Physical Sensors in the Regulation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the status of the volume and composition of the body fluid compartment, the kidney monitors a wide variety of chemical and physical parameters. It has recently become clear that the kidney’s sensory capacity extends well beyond its ability to sense ion concentrations in the forming urine. The kidney also keeps track of organic metabolites derived from a surprising variety of sources and uses a complex interplay of physical and chemical sensing mechanisms to measure the rate of fluid flow in the nephron. Recent research has provided new insights into the nature of these sensory mechanisms and their relevance to renal function. PMID:25280495

  5. Pituitary function and morphology in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luigi; Tortora, Fabio; Modica, Roberta; Ramundo, Valeria; Riccio, Eleonora; Daniele, Aurora; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Pisani, Antonio; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2015-11-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are known to affect patients with Fabry disease (FD). Pituitary gland theoretically represents an ideal target for FD because of high vascularization and low proliferation rate. We explored pituitary morphology and function in a cohort of FD patients through a prospectic, monocentric study at an Academic Tertiary Center. The study population included 28 FD patients and 42 sex and age-matched normal subjects. The protocol included a contrast enhancement pituitary MRI, the assessment of pituitary hormones, anti-pituitary, and anti-hypothalamus antibodies. At pituitary MRI, an empty sella was found in 11 (39%) FD patients, and in 2 (5%) controls (p < 0.001). Pituitary volume was significantly smaller in FD than in controls (p < 0.001). Determinants of pituitary volume were age and alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity. Both parameters resulted independently correlated at multivariate analysis. Pituitary function was substantially preserved in FD patients. Empty sella is a common finding in patients with FD. The major prevalence in the elderly supports the hypothesis of a progressive pituitary shrinkage overtime. Pituitary function seems not to be impaired in FD. An endocrine workup with pituitary hormone assessment should be periodically performed in FD patients, who are already at risk of cardiovascular complications.

  6. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Lindner, Reinhard; Draper, Brian; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wong, Christine; Wu, Jing; Duberstein, Paul; Wærn, Margda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. Method: Articles published through November 2014 were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities were included in the review. Results: Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including malignant diseases, neurological disorders, pain, COPD, liver disease, male genital disorders, and arthritis/arthrosis. Six qualitative studies from three continents contextualized these findings, providing insights into the subjective experiences of suicidal individuals. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed. Conclusion: Functional disability, as well as a number of specific physical illnesses, was shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour in older adults. We need to learn more about what at-risk, physically ill patients want, and need, to inform prevention efforts for older adults. PMID:26381843

  7. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Lindner, Reinhard; Draper, Brian; Gallo, Joseph J; Wong, Christine; Wu, Jing; Duberstein, Paul; Wærn, Margda

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. Articles published through November 2014 were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities were included in the review. Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including malignant diseases, neurological disorders, pain, COPD, liver disease, male genital disorders, and arthritis/arthrosis. Six qualitative studies from three continents contextualized these findings, providing insights into the subjective experiences of suicidal individuals. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed. Functional disability, as well as a number of specific physical illnesses, was shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour in older adults. We need to learn more about what at-risk, physically ill patients want, and need, to inform prevention efforts for older adults.

  8. Physical exercise associated with NO production: signaling pathways and significance in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Dyakova, Elena Y.; Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Shylko, Victor G.; Popov, Sergey V.; Anfinogenova, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Here we review available data on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling in skeletal muscle during physical exercise. Nitric oxide modulates skeletal myocyte function, hormone regulation, and local microcirculation. Nitric oxide underlies the therapeutic effects of physical activity whereas the pharmacological modulators of NO-mediated signaling are the promising therapeutic agents in different diseases. Nitric oxide production increases in skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. This molecule can alter energy supply in skeletal muscle through hormonal modulation. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue are highly abundant and play a pivotal role in metabolism. Considering NO a plausible regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis that directly affects cellular respiration, we discuss the mechanisms of NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle cells. We also review available data on myokines, the molecules that are expressed and released by the muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects. The article suggests the presence of putative interplay between NO-mediated signaling and myokines in skeletal muscle. Data demonstrate an important role of NO in various diseases and suggest that physical training may improve health of patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure, and even degenerative muscle diseases. We conclude that NO-associated signaling represents a promising target for the treatment of various diseases and for the achievement of better athletic performance. PMID:25883934

  9. Physical exercise associated with NO production: signaling pathways and significance in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Dyakova, Elena Y; Kapilevich, Leonid V; Shylko, Victor G; Popov, Sergey V; Anfinogenova, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Here we review available data on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling in skeletal muscle during physical exercise. Nitric oxide modulates skeletal myocyte function, hormone regulation, and local microcirculation. Nitric oxide underlies the therapeutic effects of physical activity whereas the pharmacological modulators of NO-mediated signaling are the promising therapeutic agents in different diseases. Nitric oxide production increases in skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. This molecule can alter energy supply in skeletal muscle through hormonal modulation. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue are highly abundant and play a pivotal role in metabolism. Considering NO a plausible regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis that directly affects cellular respiration, we discuss the mechanisms of NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle cells. We also review available data on myokines, the molecules that are expressed and released by the muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects. The article suggests the presence of putative interplay between NO-mediated signaling and myokines in skeletal muscle. Data demonstrate an important role of NO in various diseases and suggest that physical training may improve health of patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure, and even degenerative muscle diseases. We conclude that NO-associated signaling represents a promising target for the treatment of various diseases and for the achievement of better athletic performance.

  10. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carmen L.; Gawade, Prasad L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research. PMID:25692094

  11. Relationship Between Physical Functioning and Physical Activity in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P)

    PubMed Central

    Chalé-Rush, Angela; Guralnik, Jack M.; Walkup, Michael P.; Miller, Michael E.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Katula, Jeffrey A.; King, Abby C.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Manini, Todd M.; Blair, Steven N.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if participation in usual moderate-intensity or more vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify socio-demographic, psychosocial and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of baseline variables of randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING Four separate academic research centers. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred twenty-four older adults aged 70–89 years at risk for mobility-disability (scoring <10 on the Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPB) and able to complete the 400 m walk test within 15 minutes. MEASUREMENTS Minutes of MVPA (dichotomized according to above or below 150 min•wk−1 of MVPA) assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire, SPPB score, 400 M walk test, gender, body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms, age and number of medications. RESULTS The SPPB summary score was associated with minutes of MVPA (ρ = 0.16, P = 0.001). In multiple regression analyses, age, minutes of MVPA, number of medications and depressive symptoms were associated with performance on the composite SPPB (P < 0.05). There was an association between 400 m walk time and minutes of MVPA (ρ = −0.18; P = 0.0002). In multiple regression analyses, age, gender, minutes of MVPA, BMI and number of medications were associated with performance on the 400 m walk test (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Minutes of MVPA, gender, BMI, depressive symptoms, age, and number of medications are associated with physical function performance and all should be taken into consideration in the prevention of mobility-disability. PMID:20738437

  12. Early vestibular physical therapy rehabilitation for Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Gottshall, Kim R; Topp, Shelby G; Hoffer, Michael E

    2010-10-01

    Meniere disease includes symptoms of fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and subjective ear fullness accompanied by episodic vertigo. Along with these symptoms, patients with chronic Meniere often develop symptoms of disequilibrium and unsteadiness that extend beyond the episodic attacks and contribute to the total disability and reduced quality of life attributed to the disease. Vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy has been used only after vestibular ablation has stabilized the vestibular loss, and for patients stably managed on medical therapy who exhibit no fluctuation in symptoms. This article reviews the data substantiating current applications of vestibular therapy, including improvements in subjective and objective balance outcome measures, and explores the possible extension of vestibular rehabilitation to treatment of patients exhibiting continued fluctuating vestibular loss.

  13. Using special functions to model the propagation of airborne diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Some special functions of the mathematical physics are using to obtain a mathematical model of the propagation of airborne diseases. In particular we study the propagation of tuberculosis in closed rooms and we model the propagation using the error function and the Bessel function. In the model, infected individual emit pathogens to the environment and this infect others individuals who absorb it. The evolution in time of the concentration of pathogens in the environment is computed in terms of error functions. The evolution in time of the number of susceptible individuals is expressed by a differential equation that contains the error function and it is solved numerically for different parametric simulations. The evolution in time of the number of infected individuals is plotted for each numerical simulation. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of the pathogen around the source of infection is represented by the Bessel function K0. The spatial and temporal distribution of the number of infected individuals is computed and plotted for some numerical simulations. All computations were made using software Computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results that we obtained allow the design of treatment rooms and ventilation systems that reduce the risk of spread of tuberculosis.

  14. Self-efficacy: Implications for Physical Activity, Function, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Szabo, Amanda; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuating the physical decline and increases in disability associated with the aging process is an important public health priority. Evidence suggests that regular physical activity participation improves functional performance, such as walking, standing balance, flexibility, and getting up out of a chair, and also plays an important role in the disablement process by providing a protective effect against functional limitations. Whether these effects are direct or indirect has yet to be reliably established. In this review, the authors take the perspective that such relationships are indirect and operate through self-efficacy expectations. They first provide an introduction to social cognitive theory followed by an overview of self-efficacy's reciprocal relationship with physical activity. They then consider the literature that documents the effects of physical activity on functional performance and functional limitations in older adults and the extent to which self-efficacy might mediate these relationships. Furthermore, they also present evidence that suggests that self-efficacy plays a pivotal role in a model in which the protective effects conferred by physical activity on functional limitations operate through functional performance. The article concludes with a brief section making recommendations for the development of strategies within physical activity and rehabilitative programs for maximizing the major sources of efficacy information. PMID:24353482

  15. Physical Performance and Frailty in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Cappola, Anne R.; Shults, Justine; Townsend, Raymond R.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Anderson, Cheryl; Baker, Joshua F.; Carlow, Dean; Sulik, Michael J.; Lo, Joan C.; Go, Alan S.; Ky, Bonnie; Mariani, Laura; Feldman, Harold I.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor physical performance and frailty are associated with elevated risks of death and disability. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also strongly associated with these outcomes. The risks of poor physical performance and frailty among CKD patients, however, are not well established. Methods We measured the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, a summary test of gait speed, chair-raises and balance; range 0–12) and the five elements of frailty among 1111 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants. Adjusting for demographics and multiple comorbidities, we fit a linear regression model for the outcome of SPPB score and an ordinal logistic regression model for frailty status. Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 65 (57–71) years, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for non-dialysis patients was 49 (36–62) ml/min/1.73m2, and median SPPB score was 9 (7–10). Seven percent of participants were frail and 43% were pre-frail. Compared with the SPPB score for eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2, the SPPB was 0.51 points lower for eGFR 30 – 59; 0.61 points lower for eGFR 15 – 29; and 1.75 points lower for eGFR <15; (p<0.01 for all comparisons). eGFR 30 – 59 (OR 1.45; p=0.024), eGFR 15 – 29 (OR 2.02; p=0.002) and eGFR <15 (OR 4.83, p<0.001) were associated with worse frailty status compared with eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2. Conclusions CKD severity was associated with poor physical performance and frailty in a graded fashion. Future trials should determine if outcomes for CKD patients with frailty and poor physical performance are improved by targeted interventions. PMID:24107579

  16. Keratins in colorectal epithelial function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Debabrata; Tiernan, James P; Lobo, Alan J; Evans, Caroline A; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Keratins are the largest subgroup of intermediate filament proteins, which are an important constituent of the cellular cytoskeleton. The principally expressed keratins (K) of the intestinal epithelium are K8, K18 and K19. The specific keratin profile of a particular epithelium provides it with strength and integrity. In the colon, keratins have been shown to regulate electrolyte transport, likely by targeting ion transporters to their correct location in the colonocytes. Keratins are highly dynamic and are subject to post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation and glycosylation. These affect the filament dynamics and hence solubility of keratins and may contribute to protection against degradation. Keratin null mice (K8−/−) develop colitis, and abnormal keratin mutations have been shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Abnormal expression of K7 and K20 has been noted in colitis-associated dysplasia and cancers. In sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) may be useful in predicting tumour prognosis; a low K20 expression is noted in CRCs with high microsatellite instability; and keratins have been noted as dysregulated in peri-adenomatous fields. Caspase-cleaved fragment of K18 (M30) in the serum of patients with CRC has been used as a marker of cancer load and to assess response to therapy. These data suggest an emerging importance of keratins in maintaining normal function of the gastrointestinal epithelium as well as being a marker of various colorectal diseases. This review will primarily focus on the biology of these proteins, physiological functions and alterations in IBD and CRCs. PMID:22974212

  17. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  18. [Assessment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease in physical medicine and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Pelissier, J; Benaim, C; Bonin-Koang, K Y; Castelnovo, G; Perennou, D

    2005-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic disease associated with motor impairments (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural disorders), cognitive disorders and dysautonomia. Most symptoms are greatly improved by dopatherapy during the first stages, then signs of treatment ineffectiveness or intolerance occur that signal the beginning of motor and cognitive decline. This evolution signified the need to develop an effective tool to measure the effectiveness of drugs or surgery in PD and has had the Movement Disorder Society to propose 20 years ago a tool to assess such patients: the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). This scale has a good internal consistency and a good interrater reliability. Yet, some impairments, especially of cognitive origin, are evaluated too succinctly and need complementary scales. As well, other disorders such as bladder disorders are not included, nor is quality of life studied despite the impact of PD on daily life. Specific scales have been proposed. UPDRS may be well-adapted to PD follow-up in the physical medicine and rehabilitation context by measuring treatment effectiveness, detecting Dopa ineffectiveness or complications and assessing patients' handicap in daily activities. The evolution of UPDRS will improve the qualities of the scale and contribute to better determining the various stages of the disease.

  19. Precipitous Dehydroepiandrosterone Declines Reflect Decreased Physical Vitality and Function.

    PubMed

    Rendina, Danielle N; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2017-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form, DHEA-S, peak in young adulthood and then decrease dramatically with age. However, there is extensive variation in this age-related hormone decline, suggesting an early decrement may be associated with lower vitality and be prognostic of poor health in old age. To determine whether DHEA-S and DHEA are correlated with physical indices of vitality, hormone levels were analyzed with respect to clinical health histories, physical functioning including grip strength, gait speed and repetitive standing, and self-reported chronic pain. The participants (N = 1,214) were 35-86 years of age from a nationally representative survey, Midlife Development in the United States. DHEA-S and DHEA below age-expected levels were associated with more chronic illness conditions and self-reported persistent pain and pain sensitivity upon manual palpation. Additionally, lower DHEA-S and DHEA correlated with poorer performance on tests of physical functioning by middle age suggesting a more precipitous decline is already indicative of reduced vigor and physical strength. When considered with respect to age- and gender-typical norms, larger decrements in DHEA-S and DHEA may be causally related to the loss of physical vitality. Conversely, when hormone secretion is sustained in older adults, it conveys reduced risk for the physical weakness and ailments that precede frailty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Anthropometric, physical function and general health markers of Masters athletes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Climstein, Mike; Quilter, Clodagh; Buckley, Georgina; Henwood, Timothy; Grigg, Josie; Keogh, Justin W.L.

    2017-01-01

    Once the general decline in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance falls below specific thresholds, the middle aged or older adult will be diagnosed as having sarcopenia (a loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength). Sarcopenia contributes to a range of adverse events in older age including disability, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and falls. One potentially relevant but understudied population for sarcopenia researchers would be Masters athletes. Masters sport is becoming more common as it allows athletes (typically 40 years and older) the opportunity to participate in individual and/or team sports against individuals of similar age. This study examined a variety of measures of anthropometric, physical function and general health markers in the male and female Masters athletes who competed at the 2014 Pan Pacific Masters Games held on the Gold Coast, Australia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to collect body fat percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass; with body mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and sarcopenic status also recorded. Physical function was quantified by handgrip strength and habitual walking speed; with general health described by the number of chronic diseases and prescribed medications. Between group analyses utilised ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests to examine the effect of age group (40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and >70 years old) on the outcome measures for the entire sample as well as the male and female sub-groups. A total of 156 athletes (78 male, 78 female; mean 55.7 years) provided informed consent to participate in this study. These athletes possessed substantially better anthropometric, physical function and general health characteristics than the literature for their less physically active age-matched peers. No Masters athletes were categorised as being sarcopenic, although one participant had below normal physical performance and six participants had below normal muscle strength. In contrast, significant

  1. The effect of gas physics on the halo mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, R.; Rudd, D.; Evrard, A. E.

    2009-03-01

    Cosmological tests based on cluster counts require accurate calibration of the space density of massive haloes, but most calibrations to date have ignored complex gas physics associated with halo baryons. We explore the sensitivity of the halo mass function to baryon physics using two pairs of gas-dynamic simulations that are likely to bracket the true behaviour. Each pair consists of a baseline model involving only gravity and shock heating, and a refined physics model aimed at reproducing the observed scaling of the hot, intracluster gas phase. One pair consists of billion-particle resimulations of the original 500h-1Mpc Millennium Simulation of Springel et al., run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-2 and using a refined physics treatment approximated by pre-heating (PH) at high redshift. The other pair are high-resolution simulations from the adaptive-mesh refinement code ART, for which the refined treatment includes cooling, star formation and supernova feedback (CSF). We find that, although the mass functions of the gravity-only (GO) treatments are consistent with the recent calibration of Tinker et al. (2008), both pairs of simulations with refined baryon physics show significant deviations. Relative to the GO case, the masses of ~1014h-1Msolar haloes in the PH and CSF treatments are shifted by the averages of -15 +/- 1 and +16 +/- 2 per cent, respectively. These mass shifts cause ~30 per cent deviations in number density relative to the Tinker function, significantly larger than the 5 per cent statistical uncertainty of that calibration.

  2. Alcohol use, physical performance, and functional limitations in older men.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Fink, Howard A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Lewis, Cora E; Marshall, Lynn M; Orwoll, Eric S; Cummings, Steven R

    2007-02-01

    To describe associations between recent alcohol intake, physical performance, and functional limitations in older men. Cross-sectional study. Six U.S. clinical centers. Five thousand nine hundred sixty-two men aged 65 and older. Self-reported functional limitations; problem drinking history (>or=2 positive responses on the CAGE questionnaire); history of sustained excessive drinking (history of consumption of >or=5 drinks/day on most days); and alcohol intake categorized by drinks/week (0=abstainers, n=2,116; < 1=intermittent, n=739); 1 to <7= light, n=1,563; 7 to <14=low-moderate, n=848; 14 to <21 =high-moderate, n=459; and >or=21=heavy, n=237). Grip strength, leg power, chair stand, and walking tests were completed during a standard examination. After age adjustment, men with low-moderate or high-moderate intake generally performed 3% to 5% better on physical performance tests than abstainers; heavy drinkers performed similarly to abstainers. These associations lessened yet tended to remain significant after multivariate adjustment. Men with low-moderate alcohol intake had the lowest odds of reporting a limitation in instrumental activities of daily living (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.39-0.69) compared to abstainers; similar odds were seen for high-moderate and heavy use. The association between alcohol intake and self-reported physical limitation was U-shaped, with the highest odds of physical limitation in abstainers (OR=1.0, referent) and heavy users (OR=0.88, 95% CI=0.58-1.36) and the lowest odds in low-moderate users (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46-0.95). Moderate alcohol intake was associated with modestly better physical performance and lower odds of reporting a functional limitation in older men.

  3. Preoperative physical performance predictors of self-reported physical function and quality of life in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Chul Woong; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Sang Rim

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To determine the preoperative self-reported and performance-based physical function of patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis who awaited total knee arthroplasty. The preoperative physical performance factors that predicted self-reported physical function and quality of life were also identified. [Subjects and Methods] All adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, self-reported disease-specific physical function and self-reported pain were measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, self-reported quality of life was measured using the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire, and physical performance tests were performed, the 6 minute walk test, the timed up-and-go test, instrumental gait analysis, and measurement of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength of the surgical and nonsurgical knees. [Results] In total, 55 adults (49 females; 73.3 ± 6.1 years) were included. This study showed that several preoperative self-reported and physical performance factors were predictive of self-reported physical function and quality of life. [Conclusion] In patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, preoperative pain and dynamic balance ability were the most powerful predictors of self-reported physical function. Preoperative pain and exercise tolerance were the most powerful predictors of quality of life. Preoperative rehabilitation strategies that focus on dynamic balance, aerobic, and resistance exercises may improve surgical outcomes.

  4. Preoperative physical performance predictors of self-reported physical function and quality of life in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Chul Woong; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Sang Rim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the preoperative self-reported and performance-based physical function of patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis who awaited total knee arthroplasty. The preoperative physical performance factors that predicted self-reported physical function and quality of life were also identified. [Subjects and Methods] All adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, self-reported disease-specific physical function and self-reported pain were measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, self-reported quality of life was measured using the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire, and physical performance tests were performed, the 6 minute walk test, the timed up-and-go test, instrumental gait analysis, and measurement of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength of the surgical and nonsurgical knees. [Results] In total, 55 adults (49 females; 73.3 ± 6.1 years) were included. This study showed that several preoperative self-reported and physical performance factors were predictive of self-reported physical function and quality of life. [Conclusion] In patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, preoperative pain and dynamic balance ability were the most powerful predictors of self-reported physical function. Preoperative pain and exercise tolerance were the most powerful predictors of quality of life. Preoperative rehabilitation strategies that focus on dynamic balance, aerobic, and resistance exercises may improve surgical outcomes. PMID:27942153

  5. Energy and enthalpy distribution functions for a few physical systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, K L; Wei, J H; Lai, S K; Okabe, Y

    2007-08-02

    The present work is devoted to extracting the energy or enthalpy distribution function of a physical system from the moments of the distribution using the maximum entropy method. This distribution theory has the salient traits that it utilizes only the experimental thermodynamic data. The calculated distribution functions provide invaluable insight into the state or phase behavior of the physical systems under study. As concrete evidence, we demonstrate the elegance of the distribution theory by studying first a test case of a two-dimensional six-state Potts model for which simulation results are available for comparison, then the biphasic behavior of the binary alloy Na-K whose excess heat capacity, experimentally observed to fall in a narrow temperature range, has yet to be clarified theoretically, and finally, the thermally induced state behavior of a collection of 16 proteins.

  6. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RAPID DECLINE IN KIDNEY FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Katz, Ronit; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Dalrymple, Lorien S; de Boer, Ian; Sarnak, Mark; Shlipak, Mike; Siscovick, David; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity promotes diverse metabolic benefits that may moderate the long-term risk of progressive kidney dysfunction. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of rapid kidney function decline among a general population of older adults. DESIGN Prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older men and women. SETTING Community-based sample in 4 U.S. sites recruited from Medicare eligibility files. PARTICIPANTS A total of 5888 men and women aged 65 years or older participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants who did not complete at least two measurements of kidney function, those who were unable to complete basic household chores, and those with missing physical activity data were excluded, leaving 4011 participants for analysis. MAIN EXPOSURE MEASURE Physical activity score calculated by summation of leisure-time activity (ordinal score of 1–5 for quintiles of 105, 480, 1012.5, and 2089 kilocalories per week) and walking pace (ordinal score of 1–3 for categories of less than 2, 2–3, and greater than 3 miles per hour). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Rapid kidney function decline, defined by the loss of >3.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per year in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated using longitudinal serum measurements of cystatin C. RESULTS There were 958 participants (23.9%) with a rapid decline in kidney function, (4.1 events per 100 person-years). The estimated risk of rapid kidney function decline was 16% in the highest physical activity group and 30% in the lowest physical activity group. After full adjustment for demographics, clinical, and subclinical disease characteristics, the two highest physical activity groups were associated with a 28% lower (95% CI: 21% to 41% lower) risk of rapid kidney function decline, compared to the two lowest physical activity groups. Greater kilocalories of leisure time physical activity, walking pace, and exercise intensity were

  7. Patient-reported outcomes of pain and physical functioning in neurofibromatosis clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Martin, Staci; Merker, Vanessa L; Tonsgard, James H; Solomon, Sondra E; Baldwin, Andrea; Bergner, Amanda L; Walsh, Karin; Thompson, Heather L; Gardner, Kathy L; Hingtgen, Cynthia M; Schorry, Elizabeth; Dudley, William N; Franklin, Barbara

    2016-08-16

    Tumors and other disease complications of neurofibromatosis (NF) can cause pain and negatively affect physical functioning. To document the clinical benefit of treatment in NF trials targeting these manifestations, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessing pain and physical functioning should be included as study endpoints. Currently, there is no consensus on the selection and use of such measures in the NF population. This article presents the recommendations of the PRO group of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration for assessing the domains of pain and physical functioning for NF clinical trials. The REiNS PRO group reviewed and rated existing PRO measures assessing pain intensity, pain interference, and physical functioning using their systematic method. Final recommendations are based primarily on 4 main criteria: patient characteristics, item content, psychometric properties, and feasibility for clinical trials. The REiNS PRO group chose the Numeric Rating Scale-11 (≥8 years) to assess pain intensity, the Pain Interference Index (6-24 years) and the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Interference Scale (≥18 years) to evaluate pain interference, and the PROMIS Physical Functioning Scale to measure upper extremity function and mobility (≥5 years) for NF clinical trials. The REiNS Collaboration currently recommends these PRO measures to assess the domains of pain and physical functioning for NF clinical trials; however, further research is needed to evaluate their use in individuals with NF. A final consensus recommendation for the pain interference measure will be disseminated in a future publication based on findings from additional published research. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Instrument Assessing the Impact of Migraine on Physical Functioning: The Migraine Physical Function Impact Diary.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Ariane K; Hsieh, Ray; Bender, Randall; Shaffer, Shannon; Revicki, Dennis A; Bayliss, Martha; Buse, Dawn C; Desai, Pooja; Sapra, Sandhya; Ortmeier, Brian; Hareendran, Asha

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Migraine Physical Function Impact Diary (MPFID), a novel patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for assessing the impact of migraine on physical functioning. In a prospective, observational study, adults with episodic migraine (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) used an eDiary to complete the MPFID (assessing daily impacts of migraine on physical function) and a headache diary (capturing migraine days, migraine pain intensity, and migraine interference) each day, and other PRO instruments related to migraine. Item-level evaluation, item response theory (IRT), and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods were applied to identify domains, select final MPFID items, and develop scoring procedures. Psychometric properties of the final 13-item MPFID were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and tests of reliability (Cronbach's α for internal consistency and intra-class correlation [ICC] for test-retest) and validity (convergent and known-groups). The study enrolled 569 adults with chronic or episodic migraine, mean (SD) age 39.9 (12.0) years and 87.2% female. Item-level analyses based on interim data informed selection of a set of 13 items for the MPFID, through evaluation of floor/ceiling effects, item-to-item correlations, factor loadings, and IRT-based fit/misfit statistics. Two domain scores (EA: Impact on Everyday Activities; PI: Physical Impairment) and a global item score for impact on everyday activities were identified. EA and PI domains exhibited high internal consistency (α = 0.97; α = 0.93) and good test-retest reliability among stable subjects (ICCs = 0.74 and 0.77). Convergent validity was demonstrated by moderate correlations (r = ±0.50-0.68; P < .0001) between MPFID domain scores and number of migraine days, headache days, bed days, and other migraine-related PRO instruments. EA and PI scores differentiated between groups who varied by number of

  9. Renal function in cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Burlet, A; Drukker, A; Guignard, J P

    1999-01-01

    We performed renal function tests in 18 young patients, 1.8-14.6 years of age, with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Glomerular filtration rate was normal (116 +/- 4.5 ml/min/1.73 m2), and renal plasma flow was decreased (410 +/- 25 ml/min/1.73 m2) with a rise in the filtration fraction (29 +/- 1.1%). The suggested pathophysiologic explanation of these findings is that the blood hyperviscosity seen in patients with CCHD causes an overall increase in renal vascular resistance with a rise in intraglomerular blood pressure. Despite a sluggish flow of blood in the glomerular capillary bed, the effective filtration pressure was adjusted to conserve the glomerular filtration rate. In addition to these renal hemodynamic parameters, we also studied renal acidification and tubular sodium and water handling during a forced water diuresis. Our data indicate that children with CCHD have a mild to moderate normal ion gap metabolic acidosis due to a low proximal tubular threshold for bicarbonate. Proximal tubular sodium and water reabsorption under these conditions were somewhat increased, though not significantly, probably due to intrarenal hydrostatic forces, in particular the rise in the oncotic pressure in the postglomerular capillaries in patients with high hematocrit values. The distal tubular functions such as sodium handling and acidification were not affected.

  10. Additional applications of the Lambert W function in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houari, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, using the Lambert W function, I derive closed-form analytical expressions for the decay constant of an exponentially decaying process and the time constant of a process subject to a linear resistive force. Similarly, I derive closed-form analytical formulae for the electrical resistivity of a metal and the temperature of a thermionic emitter material. Besides their theoretical importance, the results obtained will be of interest to teachers involved in undergraduate physics experiments.

  11. Subsystem functional and the missing ingredient of confinement physics in density functionals.

    SciTech Connect

    Armiento, Rickard Roberto; Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Hao, Feng

    2010-08-01

    The subsystem functional scheme is a promising approach recently proposed for constructing exchange-correlation density functionals. In this scheme, the physics in each part of real materials is described by mapping to a characteristic model system. The 'confinement physics,' an essential physical ingredient that has been left out in present functionals, is studied by employing the harmonic-oscillator (HO) gas model. By performing the potential {yields} density and the density {yields} exchange energy per particle mappings based on two model systems characterizing the physics in the interior (uniform electron-gas model) and surface regions (Airy gas model) of materials for the HO gases, we show that the confinement physics emerges when only the lowest subband of the HO gas is occupied by electrons. We examine the approximations of the exchange energy by several state-of-the-art functionals for the HO gas, and none of them produces adequate accuracy in the confinement dominated cases. A generic functional that incorporates the description of the confinement physics is needed.

  12. Physical Activity and Alzheimer Disease: A Protective Association.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Quindós-Rubial, Miguel; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Emanuele, Enzo; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    To explore whether being physically active can decrease Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational cohort studies reporting the association between physical activity (PA) and incident AD. Relevant articles were identified by title and abstract in the electronic databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus using the keywords Alzheimer, Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer's, Alzheimer's disease, physical activity, sport, exercise, sedentary, fitness, and combinations thereof for articles published in any language up to February 15, 2016. Criteria for consideration included division of the study cohort by PA levels and sample size specification for each PA level group, quantification (number) of persons who had development of AD, and PA assessment during time off work (not just work time). We followed the MOOSE (Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) recommendations and used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for study quality assessment. Ten high-quality studies were included in meta-analysis I (23,345 participants). Follow-up ranged from 3.9 to 31 years, and the participants' age ranged from 70 to 80 years. The pooled odds ratio for development of AD in participants who were more vs less physically active was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.56-0.74; P<.001; no publication bias [P=.24] but with heterogeneity among studies [I(2)=31.32%]). We could identify participants' adherence to international PA recommendations in 5 studies, which constituted meta-analysis II (10,615 participants). The pooled odds ratio for development of AD in participants who were active vs those who were inactive was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.51-0.71; P<.001; no publication bias [P=.34] and no heterogeneity [I(2)=5.63%]). Although the limitations of self-reported PA data must be considered, regular PA performed by elderly people might play a certain protective role against AD. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  13. The physical performance test predicts aerobic capacity sufficient for independence in early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Vidoni, Eric D; Billinger, Sandra A; Lee, Charesa; Hamilton, Jenna; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Early identification of physical impairment related to Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasingly identified as an important aspect of diagnosis and care. Clinically accessible tools for evaluating physical capacity and impairment in AD have been developed but require further characterization for their effective use. To assess the utility of the Physical Performance Test (PPT) for identifying functionally limiting aerobic capacity in older adults with AD and without dementia. Secondary analysis of a dataset of community dwelling older adults, 70 without dementia and 60 with early-stage AD. Participants were administered the PPT and performed a graded maximal exercise test. The clinical utility of 2 versions of the PPT was described by determining sensitivity and specificity to functionally limiting aerobic capacity. The 9-item PPT is predictive of diminished aerobic capacity in older adults with AD. A score of 28 or less indicates likelihood of functionally limiting aerobic capacity that would limit independent function with 67% sensitivity and 67% specificity. The 4-item mini-PPT demonstrates improved capability for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity with 85% sensitivity and 62% specificity. The PPT was not useful for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity in older adults without dementia. The PPT, which incorporates basic and instrumental activities of daily living as test items, and the mini-PPT which focuses on basic activities of daily living and simple physical functions, are both clinically useful tool for the evaluation for individuals in the earliest stages of AD and both provide important information about functional performance. The mini-PPT additionally inform the clinician as to whether or not individual with early-stage AD is likely to have insufficient aerobic capacity to perform instrumental daily functions.

  14. Physical functioning four years after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vissers, M M; Bussmann, J B; de Groot, I B; Verhaar, J A N; Reijman, M

    2013-06-01

    Our previous study showed that 6 months after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA), patients reported having less difficulty with daily activities, showed better functional capacity, and performed activities in their natural environment faster compared to preoperatively. However, their actual daily activity level was not significantly improved. Six months is a rather short follow-up period and the discrepancy in recovery among different aspects of functioning might be explained by this limited duration of follow-up. The objective of the present study was to examine the recovery of different aspects of physical functioning at a follow-up nearly 4 years after THA/TKA. Special attention was given to the actual daily activity level, and whether it had increased 4 years after THA/TKA compared to 6 months postoperatively. Seventy-seven (35 hip, 42 knee) patients who were measured preoperatively and postoperatively (6 months after surgery) in a previous study were invited to participate; 44 patients (23 hip, 21 knee) agreed to participate. The 4-year follow-up data were compared with the preoperative and 6-month postoperative data. The daily activity level after 4 years was found to be actually lower than at 6 months post-surgery (128 min vs. 138 min activity per 24h; p-value 0.48). However, the patients continued to improve in other aspects of physical functioning. In conclusion, 4-year post-surgery patients continued to improve on perceived physical functioning, capacity, and performance of activities in daily life. However, even in this relatively healthy study population, patients did not adopt a more active lifestyle 4 years after surgery.

  15. Physical activity in advanced Parkinson's disease: impact of subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Daneault, Jean-François; Sadikot, Abbas F; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Jodoin, Nicolas; Panisset, Michel; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a physically active lifestyle promotes general health. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) fail to meet the suggested levels of physical activity and that targeted interventions do not always improve this behavior. One validated treatment for motor symptoms in PD is subthalamic stimulation (STN DBS). Assess whether motor symptom improvement following STN DBS translated into increased physical activity behavior. Twenty patients with PD scheduled for bilateral STN DBS filled-out the Phone-FITT physical activity questionnaire and the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire prior to surgery and 6 to 9 months postoperatively. Data were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate that PD patients' quality of life is significantly lower than healthy controls. While STN DBS improves motor symptoms in the intermediate term, it only improves some aspects of quality of life related to physical function. Furthermore, STN DBS does not modify physical activity behavior measured by the Phone-FITT, whether for household or recreational activities. The current study demonstrates that the motor improvements observed after STN DBS do not lead to systematic improvements in all aspects of quality of life or increased levels of physical activity. This highlights the need to develop and implement intervention strategies to promote an active lifestyle in this population, even if clinical improvement is evident following surgery.

  16. Simultaneous Physical and Mental Effort Alters Visual Function.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García, José Antonio; Cárdenas, David

    2017-08-01

    Perceptual processing is sensitive to physiological changes. Thus, the homeostatic disturbances during and after exercise may alter the visual function. Here, we investigated the effect of simultaneous physical effort and two levels of cognitive demand on skills related to the visuoperceptual and motor processing. Eighteen male regular exercisers performed 60 minutes of simultaneous physical exercise (cycling at 60 ± 5% of reserve heart rate) and cognitive effort (mental workload). The same protocol was performed with a mental workload and an oddball condition of this task on different days in a counterbalanced manner. We assessed the near point of convergence, near stereoacuity, accommodative facility (Hart Charts), and eye-hand coordination before and after the two dual-tasking sessions. Also, we calculated cognitive-performance scores and subjective measures of mental load. We found that the near point of convergence (break and recovery) is significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced after physical and mental effort independently of the mental level administered. Only the condition of mental workload with simultaneous constant-intensity cycling promoted a significant impairment in the near stereoacuity and the eye-hand coordination (P = .006 and P = .018, respectively); however, these two parameters did not significantly change under the oddball condition. The accommodative facility showed an improvement in the oddball and mental workload conditions (P < .001 and P = .006, respectively). Confirming a successful experimental manipulation, participants experienced higher mental demand and arousal and achieved lower scores on cognitive performance during the mental workload task (both P < .001). The visual function is affected by simultaneous physical and mental effort, the manipulation of mental-task complexity being an important modulator of this effect. Both dual tasks, physical with or without mental workload demands, may enhance or impair visual and motor processing

  17. Clinical relevance of the modified physical performance test versus the short physical performance battery for detecting mobility impairments in older men with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Addison, Odessa; Kundi, Rishi; Ryan, Alice S; Goldberg, Andrew P; Patel, Richa; Lal, Brajesh K; Prior, Steven J

    2017-08-23

    The study is to compare the Modified Physical Performance Test (MPPT) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) as metrics of mobility and function in older men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A total of 51 men (55-87 years) with PAD underwent functional testing including the SPPB, MPPT, Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ), stair ascent, and 6-min walk distance. Individuals were grouped according to SPPB and MPPT scores as not limited on either, limited only on the MPPT, or limited on both. The MPPT identified a higher proportion of patients as being functionally limited than the SPPB (p < 0.001). Men identified as limited only by the MPPT, and not the SPPB, were subsequently confirmed to have lower function on all measures compared to those not identified as limited by either the SPPB or the MPPT (p < 0.02). These findings suggest the MPPT is an appropriate measure to identify early declines in men with PAD and may identify global disability better than SPPB. Implications for rehabilitation Individuals with peripheral arterial disease have low activity levels and are at risk for a loss of independence and global disability. Early detection of decline in mobility and global function would allow for interventions before large changes in ambulatory ability or a loss of functional independence occur. This study shows the Modified Physical Performance Test may be an appropriate test to identify early decline in function in men with peripheral arterial disease.

  18. Diastolic Function in Steinert’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fayssoil, Abdallah; Nardi, Olivier; Annane, Djillali; Orlikowski, David

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD) is the most common autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in adults. Cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. We sought to assess diastolic function in MD patients. Echocardiography-Doppler was performed in Steinert’s patients and in a control group completed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Twenty-six patients with Steinert’s disease were included in the study and were compared to a control group. Mean age was similar in the 2 groups (45.1 years ±10.9 in Steinert’s patients vs 42.1 years ±11 in control group p 0.4). 6 /26 patients with Steinert’s disease disclosed a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <50%. Mean left atrial (LA) diameter was statistically different between Steinert’s patients and patients in group control (27.8 mm ±8.5 vs 19.7 mm ±4; P=0.0018). Mean peak E/A mitral ratio was 1.29±0.45 in Steinert’s patients vs 1.36±0.4 in control group (P=0.6). We found an increase of the mitral E deceleration time in Steinert’s patients in comparison with patients in control group (219 ms ±53 vs 176 ms ±29; P=0.013). Mean peak lateral early diastolic velocity Ea was similar in the 2 groups (12.3 cm/s ±3 vs 13.1 cm/s ±3.8; P=0.50). Mean peak septal early diastolic velocity was similar in the 2 groups (11.2 cm/s ±2 vs 10.4±2; P=0.51). We found an increase of the LA diameter and an increase of the mitral deceleration time in Steinert’s patients that suggest diastolic abnormalities. PMID:24744846

  19. [Predictors of mental and physical quality of life in Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Brugger, F; Hepperger, C; Hametner, E-M; Holl, A K; Painold, A; Schusterschitz, C; Bonelli, R; Holas, C; Wenning, G K; Poewe, W; Seppi, K

    2015-02-01

    The assessment of health-related quality of life (hrQoL) is an important tool in therapy studies and in the treatment of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). In the absence of causal interventions, HD therapy targets the alleviation of symptoms aiming to improve impaired hrQoL. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of disease characteristics on hrQoL in HD. A total of 80 genetically confirmed HD patients underwent an assessment using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Rating Scale and the SF-36, a scale for the assessment of physical and mental QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that health-related physical and mental QoL was considerably influenced by the functional capacity. The mental QoL also correlated with the degree of depressive symptoms, age and the number of CAG repeats. However, there was no statistical relation between QoL and motor and cognitive abilities. This study underlines the relationship between function capacity and depressive symptoms with mental and physical QoL. This is the first time that hrQoL has been investigated in a German speaking cohort. The results are in accordance with previous studies of hrQoL in HD.

  20. The effect of lower body burns on physical function.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Nicole C; Andersen, Clark R; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2015-12-01

    To attenuate burn-induced catabolism, patients are often enrolled in a resistance exercise program as part of their physical rehabilitation. This study assessed how lower body burn locations affected strength and cardiopulmonary function. Children enrolled in an exercise study between 2003 and 2013, were 7-18 years of age, and burned ≥30% of their total body surface area were included. Analysis of variance was used to model the relationship of lower body strength (PTW) and cardiopulmonary function (VO2peak) due to burns which traverse the subject's lower body joints. There was a significant relationship between PTW and burns at the hip and toe joints, showing a 26 N m/kg (p=0.010) and 33 N m/kg (p=0.013) decrease in peak torque, respectively. Burns at the hip joint corresponded to a significant decrease in VO2peak by 4.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (p=0.010) in peak cardiopulmonary function. Physical function and performance are detrimentally affected by burns that traverse specific lower body joints. The most significant relationship on exercise performance was that of hip joint burns as it affected both strength and cardiopulmonary measurements. Ultimately, burns at hip and toe joints need to be considered when interpreting exercise test results involving the lower body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Lower Body Burns on Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Nicole C.; Andersen, Clark R.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To attenuate burn-induced catabolism, patients are often enrolled in a resistance exercise program as part of their physical rehabilitation. This study assessed how lower body burn locations affected strength and cardiopulmonary function. Methods Children enrolled in an exercise study between 2003 and 2013, were 7–18 years of age, and burned ≥ 30% of their total body surface area were included. Analysis of variance was used to model the relationship of lower body strength (PTW) and cardiopulmonary function (VO2peak) due to burns which traverse the subject’s lower body joints. Results There was a significant relationship between PTW and burns at the hip and toe joints, showing a 26 Newton·meters/kilogram (p=0.010) and 33 Newton·meters/kilogram (p=0.013) decrease in peak torque, respectively. Burns at the hip joint corresponded to a significant decrease in VO2peak by 4.9 mL·kg−1·min−1 (p=0.010) in peak cardiopulmonary function. Conclusion Physical function and performance are detrimentally affected by burns that traverse specific lower body joints. The most significant relationship on exercise performance was that of hip joint burns as it affected both strength and cardiopulmonary measurements. Ultimately, burns at hip and toe joints need to be considered when interpreting exercise test results involving the lower body. PMID:26421695

  2. Muscle function in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kröönström, Linda Ashman; Johansson, Linda; Zetterström, Anna-Klara; Dellborg, Mikael; Eriksson, Peter; Cider, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess muscle function in a sample of Swedish adult men and women with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to compare the results with published reference values in healthy adults. From April 2009 to December 2010, 762 adult outpatients were assessed for their suitability and individual need for tests of physical fitness. The patients performed five muscle function tests, two isotonic tests and three isometric tests. Of the 762 patients, 315 (41.3%) patients performed the tests. Patients with ACHD had lower isotonic muscle function compared to healthy reference values. In the heel lift test, men with ACHD performed at 63% and women at 58% of the healthy reference values and in the shoulder flexion test the corresponding performance level was 60% for men with ACHD and 85% for the women. Multiple regression analyses showed that NYHA class II-IV was a significant predictor for a lower isotonic muscle function i.e. heel lift in women (p<0.001) and men (p=0.05) and in shoulder flexion (p<0.001) in women, as well as in isometric knee extension (p=0.04) and isometric shoulder abduction (p<0.001) in women. This is the first report of muscle function in a broad and unselected group of patients with ACHD. Our data shows that patients with ACHD have lower isotonic muscle function. The impacts of low muscle function in activities of daily living and the question of whether muscle function could be improved with exercise training need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease classified as physically active and inactive according to different thresholds of physical activity in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, Karina C.; Pinto, Isabela F. S.; Sant’Anna, Thais; Hernandes, Nidia A.; Pitta, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the profiles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) considered physically active or inactive according to different classifications of the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL). Method Pulmonary function, dyspnea, functional status, body composition, exercise capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, and presence of comorbidities were assessed in 104 patients with COPD. The level of PADL was quantified with a SenseWear Armband activity monitor. Three classifications were used to classify the patients as physically active or inactive: 30 minutes of activity/day with intensity >3.2 METs, if age ≥65 years, and >4 METs, if age <65 years; 30 minutes of activity/day with intensity >3.0 METs, regardless of patient age; and 80 minutes of activity/day with intensity >3.0 METs, regardless of patient age. Results In all classifications, when compared with the inactive group, the physically active group had better values of anthropometric variables (higher fat-free mass, lower body weight, body mass index and fat percentage), exercise capacity (6-minute walking distance), lung function (forced vital capacity) and functional status (personal care domain of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living). Furthermore, patients classified as physically active in two classifications also had better peripheral and expiratory muscle strength, airflow obstruction, functional status, and quality of life, as well as lower prevalence of heart disease and mortality risk. Conclusion In all classification methods, physically active patients with COPD have better exercise capacity, lung function, body composition, and functional status compared to physically inactive patients. PMID:27683835

  4. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis; (2) to determine any differences between manual and mechanical techniques for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy. The study design was a systematic review of the literature that used an exhaustive search for trials and review methods prescribed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Randomized controlled trials examined patient groups, interventions, and dependent variables. Patients included those with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (emphysema or chronic bronchitis) or bronchiectasis. Any of the following interventions or combinations thereof were included: manual interventions, such as postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing, or forced exhalation technique. Controls of the study were as follows: no intervention; placebo; coughing; and mechanical interventions, such as mechanical vibration. The search identified 99 potential trials; inclusion or exclusion analysis left 7, which examined a total of 126 patients. Mean score on trial quality was 1.4 (5 = greatest). Three separate trials (N = 51) found statistically significant effects for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on sputum production and radioaerosol clearance. No trials (N = 126) found statistically significant effects on pulmonary function variables or differences between manual and mechanical techniques. Considering the small sizes, low quality, and mixed results from the trials, the research on bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is inconclusive. There is a need for adequately sized, high-quality, randomized controlled trials with uniform patient populations to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy.

  5. Paid Work and Physical Activity Preserve Functional Capacity in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Lariane Mortean; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Confortin, Susana Cararo; d’Orsi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and association between functional disability and health conditions in elderly people. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,705 elderly residents in urban region of Florianópolis, Brazil, from September 2009 to July 2010. The functional disability was classified according to the difficulty in accomplishing six basic activities of daily living. The crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors. Results: The prevalence of mild functional disability was 38.9%, and it was positively associated with being female, older age, reporting four or more chronic diseases, overweight, and negative self-perception of health. High education and income, having paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities reduced the chance of presenting it. The prevalence of moderate/severe disability was 11.7% and positively associated with older age, presence of depressive symptoms, four or more chronic diseases, and negative self-perception of health. High education, paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities also reduced the chance of presenting moderate/severe disability. Conclusion: Being gainfully employed, having a high level of education, and being physically active in their leisure time reduced the chance of presenting disability. The negative self-perception of health was the factor that most increased the chance of presenting functional disability. PMID:28138470

  6. Milk powders ageing: effect on physical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie E C; Scher, Joël; Desobry-Banon, Sylvie; Desobry, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    Milk powders are now considered as food ingredients, mainly because of the functional properties of milk proteins. During the storage of milk powders, many physicochemical damages, mainly dependent on lactose glass transition occur. They have important consequences on physical (flowability) and functional properties (solubility, emulsifying, and foaming properties) of milk powders. First, lactose crystallization modifies the microstructure and chemical composition of the surface of powder particles. Thus, milk powders flowability is decreased. Since the structure of milk proteins is destabilized, its solubility is damaged. Moreover, particle collapse and caking occur and mainly decrease the physical properties of milk powders (density and flowability). The mechanical stresses involved may also enhance proteins unfolding, which is detrimental to solubility. Finally, molecular mobility is favored upon ageing, and both chemical (Maillard reaction) and enzymatic reactions occur. Maillard reaction and oxidation enhance protein interactions and aggregations, which mainly lessen milk powders solubility. Maillard reaction also decreases emulsifying and foaming properties. Storage temperature and relative humidity have been considered as the predominant factors involved, but time, milk components, and their physical state also have been implied.

  7. Texercise Effectiveness: Impacts on Physical Functioning and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee; Jiang, Luohua; Howell, Doris; Chen, Shuai; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Stevens, Alan B

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of Texercise Select, a 12-week lifestyle program to improve physical functioning (as measured by gait speed) and quality of life. Baseline and 12-week follow-up assessments were collected from 220 enrollees who were older (mean = 75 years), predominantly female (85%), White (82%), and experiencing multiple comorbidities (mean = 2.4). Linear mixed-models were fitted for continuous outcome variables and GEE models with logit link function for binary outcome variables. At baseline, over 52% of participants had Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test times of 12 s or more, which indicates below-normal performance. On average, participants showed significant reductions in TUG test scores at the postintervention (11% reduction, p < .001). Participants also showed significant improvements in general health status (p = .002), unhealthy physical days (p = .032), combined unhealthy physical and mental days (p = .006), and days limited from usual activity (p = .045). Findings suggest that performance indicators can be objectively collected and integrated into evaluation designs of community-based, activity-rich lifestyle programs.

  8. [Physical rehabilitation of inpatients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Chursina, T V; Shcherbatykh, S I; Tarasov, K M; Molchanov, A V

    2008-01-01

    In modern physical rehabilitation of IHD patients the main tendencies are early activation and elaboration of new safe programs of physical trainings (PhT) improving the hemodynamic indices and increasing physical rehabilitation (PhR) of patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bicycle exercise (BE) in the free-load bicycle exercise (FBE) on central hemodynamics and PhR of inpatients with different clinical forms of IHD. 185 patients (99 males and 86 females) aged 46-76 years (mean age of 68.4 +/- 1.6 years), with different clinical forms of IHD, were been examined. The inclusion of IHD cases into complex management is been followed by significant improvement of cardiac pump function--increase of stroke index, ejection fraction (EF) and rise in PhR in all clinical groups. The use of traditional therapy only in management is been followed by merely significant rise in EF (mean--by 19%) and total amount of performed work and microcirculation indices in patients with paroxysmal arrhythmia and stenocardia, less evident than in use of FBE. The absence of complications in our patients permit to recommend the application of this method in IHD inpatients.

  9. [Effect of physical exercise on endothelial function, indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Madry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-02-01

    Endothelium plays an important role in regulation of the activity of inflammation and oxidative stress. Numerous studies have shown that physical training affects endothelial function. It is proven that regular physical activity reduces the seventy of inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular events. Changes observed in effect of physical activity include increase in production of nitric oxide (NO), a decrease of plaque volume, a decrease in vascular wall viscosity and an increase in diastolic coronary perfusion. It has been shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in subjects with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and hypertension, as well as in healthy people. In above populations the benefits result from improved endothelial function. It has been proven that regular physical activity improves enzymatic antioxidant systems and the immune response. It is a result of the stimulating effect of muscle tissue micro-injuries and recruitment of various cell types of the inflammatory response and their migration deeper into the tissues. The biggest changes in the immune response are observed in prolonged aerobic exercise. Physical activity has a significant impact on endothelial function, intensity of inflammatory processes and exponents of oxidative stress. There is a need for further researches, in particular in order to determine the optimal model of training.

  10. Many-body Green functions in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, J.; Lyutorovich, N.

    Many-body Green functions are a very efficient formulation of the many-body problem. We review the application of this method to nuclear physics problems. The formulas which can be derived are of general applicability, e.g., in self-consistent as well as in nonself-consistent calculations. With the help of the Landau renormalization, one obtains relations without any approximations. This allows to apply conservation laws which lead to important general relations. We investigate the one-body and two-body Green functions as well as the three-body Green function and discuss their connection to nuclear observables. The generalization to systems with pair correlations are also presented. Numerical examples are compared with experimental data.

  11. Functional illness in primary care: dysfunction versus disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nefyn; Wilkinson, Clare; Stott, Nigel; Menkes, David B

    2008-05-15

    The Biopsychosocial Model aims to integrate the biological, psychological and social components of illness, but integration is difficult in practice, particularly when patients consult with medically unexplained physical symptoms or functional illness. This Biopsychosocial Model was developed from General Systems Theory, which describes nature as a dynamic order of interacting parts and processes, from molecular to societal. Despite such conceptual progress, the biological, psychological, social and spiritual components of illness are seldom managed as an integrated whole in conventional medical practice. This is because the biomedical model can be easier to use, clinicians often have difficulty relinquishing a disease-centred approach to diagnosis, and either dismiss illness when pathology has been excluded, or explain all undifferentiated illness in terms of psychosocial factors. By contrast, traditional and complementary treatment systems describe reversible functional disturbances, and appear better at integrating the different components of illness. Conventional medicine retains the advantage of scientific method and an expanding evidence base, but needs to more effectively integrate psychosocial factors into assessment and management, notably of 'functional' illness. As an aid to integration, pathology characterised by structural change in tissues and organs is contrasted with dysfunction arising from disordered physiology or psychology that may occur independent of pathological change. We propose a classification of illness that includes orthogonal dimensions of pathology and dysfunction to support a broadly based clinical approach to patients; adoption of which may lead to fewer inappropriate investigations and secondary care referrals and greater use of cognitive behavioural techniques, particularly when managing functional illness.

  12. Area-efficient physically unclonable function circuit architecture

    DOEpatents

    Gurrieri, Thomas; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2015-04-28

    Generating a physically a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit value includes comparing each of first identification components in a first bank to each of second identification components in a second bank. A given first identification component in the first bank is not compared to another first identification component in the first bank and a given second identification component in the second bank is not compared to another second identification component in the second bank. A digital bit value is generated for each comparison made while comparing each of the first identification components to each of the second identification components. A PUF circuit value is generated from the digital bit values from each comparison made.

  13. Physical, occupational, speech and swallowing therapies and physical exercise in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ransmayr, G

    2011-05-01

    Former studies on the effects of physical exercise, physical and occupational therapy (PT, OT) and speech and swallowing therapy (ST, SwT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have demonstrated little or uncertain effects. New pathophysiological concepts have been developed. Recent controlled high-level studies demonstrate improvement of mobility and balance after training of muscular strength and endurance, trunk control, and amplitude and rhythmicity of movements (treadmill). Attentional and cognitive strategies were found to enforce body awareness and improve movement sequences. Dance, sensory (auditory, visual, tactile) and cognitive cueing are effective for problems of gait and balance. Whether PT and OT reduce the risk of falls remains uncertain. ST including Lee Silverman Voice Treatment has been shown to relieve speech problems. SwT and OT are frequently applied, however, further studies are necessary. Therapeutic interventions need to be evaluated with regard to consistency, intensity, frequency, duration, side effects, home versus institution based and standardized versus individualized training, quality standards, practicability in real life, and cost-effectiveness. Parkinson patients should resume or continue physical exercise as long as possible. There is hope that regular sport may modify PD risk and progression.

  14. The Effects of Aquatic Exercises on Physical Fitness and Muscle Function in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Bulińska, Katarzyna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Grochola, Monika; Markowska, Dominika; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 3-month physical training program, conducted in an aquatic environment with end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD), on the physical fitness and functional parameters of the knee joint muscles. Patients and Methods. The study included 20 ESDR patients with mean age 64.2 ± 13.1 y. treated with hemodialysis in Dialysis Center of the University Hospital in Wroclaw. Before and 3 months after the physical training in water, a test was performed to evaluate the physical fitness of each patient; additionally, a measurement was taken of force-velocity parameters. The 3-month training program took place on nonhemodialysis days, in the recreational pool of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw. Results. After aquatic training cycle, an improvement was observed in all parameters measured using the Fullerton test. The value of peak torque and its relation to body mass increased in the movement of flexors and extensors of left and right lower extremities in all tested velocities. Conclusions. In assessing the physical fitness of studied women, the biggest improvement was achieved in tests assessing the strength of upper and lower extremities as well as lower body flexibility. Higher values of force-velocity parameters are conducive to women achieving better physical fitness test results. PMID:26161421

  15. The Effects of Aquatic Exercises on Physical Fitness and Muscle Function in Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Bulińska, Katarzyna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Grochola, Monika; Markowska, Dominika; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 3-month physical training program, conducted in an aquatic environment with end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD), on the physical fitness and functional parameters of the knee joint muscles. The study included 20 ESDR patients with mean age 64.2 ± 13.1 y. treated with hemodialysis in Dialysis Center of the University Hospital in Wroclaw. Before and 3 months after the physical training in water, a test was performed to evaluate the physical fitness of each patient; additionally, a measurement was taken of force-velocity parameters. The 3-month training program took place on nonhemodialysis days, in the recreational pool of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw. After aquatic training cycle, an improvement was observed in all parameters measured using the Fullerton test. The value of peak torque and its relation to body mass increased in the movement of flexors and extensors of left and right lower extremities in all tested velocities. In assessing the physical fitness of studied women, the biggest improvement was achieved in tests assessing the strength of upper and lower extremities as well as lower body flexibility. Higher values of force-velocity parameters are conducive to women achieving better physical fitness test results.

  16. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Jones, A P; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to July 1997. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  17. WITHDRAWN: Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Arthur P; Rowe, Brian H

    2011-07-06

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to January 2007. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. An update search carried out in January 2007 did not identify any new studies for inclusion. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  18. Auditory function in children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; Ryan, Monique M; Bayliss, Kristen; Gill, Kathryn; O'Sullivan, Caitlin; Whitechurch, Marny

    2012-05-01

    The peripheral manifestations of the inherited neuropathies are increasingly well characterized, but their effects upon cranial nerve function are not well understood. Hearing loss is recognized in a minority of children with this condition, but has not previously been systemically studied. A clear understanding of the prevalence and degree of auditory difficulties in this population is important as hearing impairment can impact upon speech/language development, social interaction ability and educational progress. The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function, speech perception ability and everyday listening and communication in a group of school-aged children with inherited neuropathies. Twenty-six children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease confirmed by genetic testing and physical examination participated. Eighteen had demyelinating neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1) and eight had the axonal form (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2). While each subject had normal or near-normal sound detection, individuals in both disease groups showed electrophysiological evidence of auditory neuropathy with delayed or low amplitude auditory brainstem responses. Auditory perception was also affected, with >60% of subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 and >85% of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 suffering impaired processing of auditory temporal (timing) cues and/or abnormal speech understanding in everyday listening conditions.

  19. Measures of physical and cognitive function and work status among individuals with multiple sclerosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pompeii, Lisa A; Moon, Samuel D; McCrory, Douglas C

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the multiple sclerosis (MS) literature that has examined physical and cognitive function in relation to ability to work. Although numerous factors may be considered when determining work ability, physical and/or cognitive functional limitations associated with MS are presumably the primary determinants of work capacity. An exhaustive search of the literature produced 20 research articles that described 18 studies. Findings from these studies support that limitations in physical or cognitive function can hinder one's ability to work; however, ability to work could not be based solely on these measures of function. Work ability among individuals extended beyond measures of impairment to include level of education, job characteristics, and disease symptoms such as fatigue. In summary, measures of physical and cognitive function can guide physicians when clinically evaluating an individual with MS, but are poor indicators for precluding an individual from working.

  20. Neural Correlates of Impaired Functional Independence in Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive and physical decline are important predictors of functional independence in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known about AD-related neural change leading to decreased independence. We hypothesized that regional gray matter atrophy, including the medial frontal cortex, would be related to cognition, physical function, and functional independence. Individuals without dementia (n = 56) and subjects with early-stage AD (n = 58) underwent MRI and a comprehensive cognitive and physical function evaluation. The relationship of cognitive and physical function measures and independence performing complex daily activities was explored using correlation and mediation analysis. These results suggest that cognition had both a strong direct effect and mediated the influence of physical function on independence for those with AD. We followed this with a voxel-based morphometric global conjunction analysis of imaging data within each group to identify neural substrates common to our function measures. Imaging evidence supported our mediation analysis results. Imaging evidence revealed that in AD, regional gray matter atrophy measures in medial frontal and temporo-parietal areas were related to decreased cognition, physical function, and independence. Loss of independence in early AD is closely related to impaired cognition associated with performing complex behaviors. People with early AD may have decreased gray matter volume in the medial frontal and temporal-parietal cortices that is associated with loss of independence in activities of daily living. These results are the first to identify regionally specific brain volume changes that may be related to functional dependence seen in early AD. PMID:20110598

  1. Physical functioning in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: comparing approaches of experienced ability with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Simon; van den Borne, Carlie; Geusens, Piet; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies; Plasqui, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Physical functioning can be assessed by different approaches that are characterized by increasing levels of individual appraisal. There is insufficient insight into which approach is the most informative in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with control subjects. The objective of this study was to compare patients with AS and control subjects regarding 3 approaches of functioning: experienced ability to perform activities (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]), self-reported amount of physical activity (PA) (Baecke questionnaire), and the objectively measured amount of PA (triaxial accelerometer). This case-control study included 24 AS patients and 24 control subjects (matched for age, gender, and body mass index). Subjects completed the BASFI and Baecke questionnaire and wore a triaxial accelerometer. Subjects also completed other self-reported measures on disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and overall health (EuroQol visual analog scale). Both groups included 14 men (58%), and the mean age was 48 years. Patients scored significantly worse on the BASFI (3.9 vs 0.2) than their healthy peers, whereas PA assessed by Baecke and the accelerometer did not differ between groups. Correlations between approaches of physical functioning were low to moderate. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was associated with disease activity (r = 0.49) and physical fatigue (0.73) and Baecke with physical and activity related fatigue (r = 0.54 and r = 0.54), but total PA assessed by accelerometer was not associated with any of these experience-based health outcomes. Different approaches of the concept physical functioning in patients with AS provide different information. Compared with matched control subjects, patients with AS report more difficulties but report and objectively perform the same amount of PA.

  2. The Effects of Physical Activity in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lauzé, Martine; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is increasingly advocated as an adjunct intervention for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the specific benefits of PA on the wide variety of impairments observed in patients with PD has yet to be clearly identified. Objective: Highlight health parameters that are most likely to improve as a result of PA interventions in patients with PD. Methods: We compiled results obtained from studies examining a PA intervention in patients with PD and who provided statistical analyses of their results. 868 outcome measures were extracted from 106 papers published from 1981 to 2015. The results were classified as having a statistically significant positive effect or no effect. Then, outcome measures were grouped into four main categories and further divided into sub-categories. Results: Our review shows that PA seems most effective in improving Physical capacities and Physical and cognitive functional capacities. On the other hand, PA seems less efficient at improving Clinical symptoms of PD and Psychosocial aspects of life, with only 50% or less of results reporting positive effects. The impact of PA on Cognitive functions and Depression also appears weaker, but few studies have examined these outcomes. Discussion: Our results indicate that PA interventions have a positive impact on physical capacities and functional capacities. However, the effect of PA on symptoms of the disease and psychosocial aspects of life are moderate and show more variability. This review also highlights the need for more research on the effects of PA on cognitive functions, depression as well as specific symptoms of PD. PMID:27567884

  3. A Classification System to Guide Physical Therapy Management in Huntington Disease: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Nora E; Busse, Monica; Jones, Karen; Khalil, Hanan; Quinn, Lori

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with Huntington disease (HD), a rare neurological disease, experience impairments in mobility and cognition throughout their disease course. The Medical Research Council framework provides a schema that can be applied to the development and evaluation of complex interventions, such as those provided by physical therapists. Treatment-based classifications, based on expert consensus and available literature, are helpful in guiding physical therapy management across the stages of HD. Such classifications also contribute to the development and further evaluation of well-defined complex interventions in this highly variable and complex neurodegenerative disease. The purpose of this case series was to illustrate the use of these classifications in the management of 2 individuals with late-stage HD. Two females, 40 and 55 years of age, with late-stage HD participated in this case series. Both experienced progressive declines in ambulatory function and balance as well as falls or fear of falling. Both individuals received daily care in the home for activities of daily living. Physical therapy Treatment-Based Classifications for HD guided the interventions and outcomes. Eight weeks of in-home balance training, strength training, task-specific practice of functional activities including transfers and walking tasks, and family/carer education were provided. Both individuals demonstrated improvements that met or exceeded the established minimal detectible change values for gait speed and Timed Up and Go performance. Both also demonstrated improvements on Berg Balance Scale and Physical Performance Test performance, with 1 of the 2 individuals exceeding the established minimal detectible changes for both tests. Reductions in fall risk were evident in both cases. These cases provide proof-of-principle to support use of treatment-based classifications for physical therapy management in individuals with HD. Traditional classification of early-, mid-, and late

  4. Handgrip strength in cardiac rehabilitation: normative values, interaction with physical function, and response to training.

    PubMed

    Mroszczyk-McDonald, Alex; Savage, Patrick D; Ades, Philip A

    2007-01-01

    To determine normative values for handgrip (HG) strength at entry into cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to examine the relationship of HG strength with self-reported physical function and the response of HG strength to exercise training. HG strength was measured in 1,960 patients with coronary heart disease. Other measures obtained included oxygen consumption/ unit time (peak VO2), body composition, physical function and depression questionnaires, and assessment of comorbid conditions. Subsequently, HG strength and other measures were obtained in 666 participants who completed 36 sessions of CR exercise training. HG strength was significantly greater in men than in women (40.6 +/- 10.1 kg vs 22.6 +/- 6.5 kg, P < .0001), but diminished with age in both men and women from the third to the eight decade. Factors most strongly correlated with HG strength were gender (r = 0.40, P < .0001), height (r = 0.37, P < .0001), peak VO2 (r = 0.32, P < .0001), and age (r = -0.23, P < .0001). Baseline HG strength was correlated with physical function capacity in patients older than 65 years but not in younger patients. Following CR, HG strength increased overall by 4.6% in comparison with baseline values (34.9 +/- 11.4 to 36.5 +/- 11.6 kg, P < .0001). For the entire cohort, the increase in HG strength was associated with an increase in physical function score (P < .05). In patients with coronary heart disease, HG strength decreases with age and is lower in women, patients with diabetes, and patients with lower peak Vo2. It remains to be determined whether a training protocol that specifically focuses on increasing HG strength would have a greater impact on overall functional status.

  5. Fluids of the ocular surface: concepts, functions and physics.

    PubMed

    Cher, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    General adoption of the ocular surface (OS) concept has advanced the therapy of the external eye. Fresh physical findings have prompted new concepts; examples taken from each section of the text are: (i) ever-present lipid sealant bridges the palpebral fissure capping the three-dimensional 'OS' sac. The muco-aqueous pool (MAP) is thus enclosed, secluded from atmosphere, evaporation mitigated. Hence, the OS is conceptually, a compartment. The term 'dacruon' (otherwise 'tear film') has been coined for the combined fluids of the OS, viz. lipid film and MAP. (ii) Investigative techniques of physics yield data on (say) surface tension and viscosity, and on functions such as anchorage of dacruon base to the varied mucosae of the OS, lubrication, renovation of intermarginal fluid layers as the eye opens after each blink, and refinement of optics and vision by the fluids attached to the cornea. (iii) Physical events in the opening eye produce the unique 'black line' phenomenon in which capillary force induces subsurface flows into thirsty menisci, bringing about parameniscal dark grooves, pupil-ward of each meniscus. Attenuation of fluorescein in the shallowed fluid gaps behind each groove makes the dye appear unilluminated ('black lines') relative to adjacent full-thickness MAP fluid glowing under cobalt-blue illumination. Isolated from cornea by grooves and gaps, the meniscal fluid cannot pass freely over the cornea. It therefore streams through the menisci to nasolacrimal outflow. © 2012 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Does the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life Differ Based on Generic Versus Disease-Targeted Instruments?

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Snook, Erin M.; Gliottoni, Rachael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in the study of physical activity and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic disease conditions. The investigations have used either generic or disease-targeted instruments for measuring QOL and HRQL, but have not examined differences in the associations as a function of the types of instruments. Purpose The present study examined the associations among physical activity, QOL, and HRQL using generic and disease-targeted instruments in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Participants were 292 individuals with MS who wore an accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29), Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale (LMSQOL), Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12), and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Results Accelerometer counts and GLTEQ scores had similarly sized correlations with scores from generic (SF-12) and the disease-specific (MSIS-29)measures of HRQL and generic (SWLS) and the disease-specific (LMSQOL) measures of QOL. Path analysis indicated a similar pattern of directional relationships between accelerometer counts and GLTEQ scores with physical and mental HRQL and, in turn, physical and mental HRQL with QOL using generic and disease-targeted instruments. Conclusions Our results suggest that in cross-sectional analysis, physical activity is similarly related with QOL and HRQL using generic and disease-targeted instruments in persons with MS. PMID:18719976

  7. Pain extent and function in youth with physical disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Jordi; de la Vega, Rocío; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Elisabet; Castarlenas, Elena; Jensen, Mark P; Engel, Joyce M

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the role that spatial qualities of pain (location and extent) play in functioning, among youths with disabilities and chronic pain. Methods One-hundred and fifteen youths (mean age 14.4 years; SD ±3.3 years) with physical disabilities and chronic pain were interviewed and were asked to provide information about pain locations and their average pain intensity in the past week, and to complete measures of pain interference, psychological function and disability. Most of the participants in this sample were males (56%), Caucasian (68%), and had a cerebral palsy (34%) or muscular dystrophy (25%) problem. Most participants did not report high levels of disability ( X¯=12.7, SD ±9.5, range 0–60) or global pain intensity ( X¯=3.2, SD ±2.4, range 0–10). Results Pain at more than one body site was experienced by 91% of participants. There were positive associations between pain extent with pain interference (r = 0.30) and disability (r = 0.30), and a negative association with psychological function (r = –0.38), over and above average pain intensity. Additionally, pain intensity in the back (as opposed to other locations) was associated with more pain interference (r = 0.29), whereas pain intensity in the shoulders was associated with less psychological function (r = –0.18), and pain intensity in the bottom or hips was associated with more disability (r = 0.29). Conclusion The findings support the need to take into account pain extent in the assessment and treatment of youths with physical disabilities and chronic pain, call our attention about the need to identify potential risk factors of pain extent, and develop and evaluate the benefits of treatments that could reduce pain extent and target pain at specific sites. PMID:28115871

  8. Longitudinal evaluation of economic and physical impact of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schenkman, M; Wei Zhu, C; Cutson, T M; Whetten-Goldstein, K

    2001-09-01

    The cost of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unknown although clinical experience suggests that the impact of this disease is substantial. Longitudinal data is presented for health status, disease symptoms, functional status, and financial costs for 70 participants with PD or parkinsonism. The sample was dichotomized into those rating their health as excellent, good, or very good ('good health') and those rating their health as fair or poor ('poor health'). The 'poor health' group were significantly more disabled at baseline. Symptoms increased between year 1 and 3 with greatest increases in fatigue, pain, and depression for the 'good health' group. At year 1, total direct cost/capita was about dollars 5000/year for both groups; indirect costs were dollars 5000 for the 'good health' group and dollars 15,000/year for the 'poor health' group. By year 3, total expenditures increased over 25% for the 'good health' group and nearly doubled for the 'poor health' group, while percent costs that were compensated declined for groups. Out of pocket, expenses were as high as dollars 3000/year for the 'poor health' group by year 3. Through analysis of the broad impact of PD, including non-neurological symptoms and economic ramifications, it is possible to better appreciate the impact of this chronic condition on overall quality of life.

  9. Chronology of Onset of Mental Disorders and Physical Diseases in Mental-Physical Comorbidity - A National Representative Survey of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tegethoff, Marion; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. Methods This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13–18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report. Onset of lifetime medical conditions and doctor-diagnosed diseases was assessed by self-report. Results The most substantial temporal associations with onset of mental disorders preceding onset of physical diseases included those between affective disorders and arthritis (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.36, 95%-confidence interval (CI) = 1.95 to 5.77) and diseases of the digestive system (HR = 3.39, CI = 2.30 to 5.00), between anxiety disorders and skin diseases (HR = 1.53, CI = 1.21 to 1.94), and between substance use disorders and seasonal allergies (HR = 0.33, CI = 0.17 to 0.63). The most substantial temporal associations with physical diseases preceding mental disorders included those between heart diseases and anxiety disorders (HR = 1.89, CI = 1.41 to 2.52), epilepsy and eating disorders (HR = 6.27, CI = 1.58 to 24.96), and heart diseases and any mental disorder (HR = 1.39, CI = 1.11 to 1.74). Conclusions Findings suggest that mental disorders are antecedent risk factors of certain physical diseases in early life, but also vice versa. Our results expand the relevance of mental disorders beyond mental to physical health care, and vice versa, supporting the concept of a more integrated mental-physical health care approach, and open new starting points for early disease prevention and better treatments, with relevance for various medical disciplines. PMID:27768751

  10. Guideline-Recommended Medications and Physical Function in Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    McAvay, Gail; Allore, Heather G; Cohen, Andrew B; Gnjidic, Danijela; Murphy, Terrence E; Tinetti, Mary E

    2017-09-14

    The benefit or harm of a single medication recommended for one specific condition can be difficult to determine in individuals with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy. There is limited information on the associations between guideline-recommended medications and physical function in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the beneficial or harmful associations between guideline-recommended medications and decline in physical function in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. Prospective observational cohort. National. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey study (N = 3,273). Participants with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, depression, diabetes mellitus, or heart failure were included. Self-reported decline in physical function; guideline-recommended medications; polypharmacy (taking <7 vs ≥7 concomitant medications); chronic conditions; and sociodemographic, behavioral, and health risk factors. The risk of decline in function in the overall sample was highest in participants with heart failure (35.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 26.3-44.5) and lowest for those with atrial fibrillation (20.6%, 95% CI = 14.9-26.2). In the overall sample, none of the six guideline-recommended medications was associated with decline in physical function across the five study conditions, although in the group with low polypharmacy exposure, there was lower risk of decline in those with heart failure taking renin angiotensin system blockers (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.16-0.99) and greater risk of decline in physical function for participants with diabetes mellitus taking statins (HR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.39-3.69). In older adults with multiple chronic conditions, guideline-recommended medications for atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, depression, diabetes mellitus, and heart failure were largely not associated with self

  11. White matter predicts functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Peter; Gregory, Sarah; Razi, Adeel; Seunarine, Kiran K; Gargouri, Fatma; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Leavitt, Blair R; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Rees, Geraint; Coleman, A; Decolongon, J; Fan, M; Petkau, T; Jauffret, C; Justo, D; Lehericy, S; Nigaud, K; Valabrègue, R; Choonderbeek, A; Hart, E P T; Hensman Moss, D J; Crawford, H; Johnson, E; Papoutsi, M; Berna, C; Reilmann, R; Weber, N; Stout, J; Labuschagne, I; Landwehrmeyer, B; Orth, M; Johnson, H

    2017-02-01

    The distribution of pathology in neurodegenerative disease can be predicted by the organizational characteristics of white matter in healthy brains. However, we have very little evidence for the impact these pathological changes have on brain function. Understanding any such link between structure and function is critical for understanding how underlying brain pathology influences the progressive behavioral changes associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate such a link between structure and function in individuals with premanifest Huntington's. Using diffusion tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize white matter organization and functional connectivity, we investigate whether characteristic patterns of white matter organization in the healthy human brain shape the changes in functional coupling between brain regions in premanifest Huntington's disease. We find changes in functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease that link directly to underlying patterns of white matter organization in healthy brains. Specifically, brain areas with strong structural connectivity show decreases in functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease relative to controls, while regions with weak structural connectivity show increases in functional connectivity. Furthermore, we identify a pattern of dissociation in the strongest functional connections between anterior and posterior brain regions such that anterior functional connectivity increases in strength in premanifest Huntington's disease, while posterior functional connectivity decreases. Our findings demonstrate that organizational principles of white matter underlie changes in functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate functional antero-posterior dissociation that is in keeping with the caudo-rostral gradient of striatal pathology in HD.

  12. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  13. Associations of specific phobia and its subtypes with physical diseases: an adult community study.

    PubMed

    Witthauer, Cornelia; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Preisig, Martin; Lieb, Roselind

    2016-05-21

    Specific phobia is the most prevalent anxiety disorder in the community and is associated with substantial impairment. Comorbidity with physical diseases is assumed and has important implications for etiology, treatment, or prevention of the comorbid conditions. However, due to methodological issues data are limited and subtypes of specific phobia have not been investigated yet. We examined the association of specific phobia and its subtypes with physical diseases in a representative community sample with physician-diagnosed physical diseases and diagnostic criteria of specific phobia. Data of the German Mental Health Survey from 4181 subjects aged 18-65 years were used. Specific phobia was diagnosed using M-CIDI/DIA-X interview; physical diseases were assessed through a self-report questionnaire and a medical interview. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex were calculated. Specific phobia was associated with cardiac diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory diseases, arthritic conditions, migraine, and thyroid diseases (odds ratios between 1.49 and 2.53). Among the subtypes, different patterns of associations with physical diseases were established. The findings were partially replicated in the Swiss PsyCoLaus Study. Our analyses show that subjects with specific phobia have an increased probability for specific physical diseases. From these analyses etiological mechanisms of specific phobia and physical disease can be deduced. As subtypes differed in their patterns of associations with physical diseases, different etiological mechanisms may play a role. The findings are highly relevant for public health in terms of prevention and therapy of the comorbid conditions.

  14. Associations between chronic disease, age and physical and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Hopman, W M; Harrison, M B; Coo, H; Friedberg, E; Buchanan, M; VanDenKerkhof, E G

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between chronic disease, age, and physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL), using data collected in 10 studies representing five chronic conditions. HRQOL was measured using the SF-36 or the shorter subset, SF-12. Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were graphed by condition in age increments of 10 years, and compared to age- and sex-adjusted normative data. Linear regression models for the PCS and MCS were controlled for available confounders. The sample size of 2418 participants included 129 with renal failure, 366 with osteoarthritis (OA), 487 with heart failure, 1160 with chronic wound (leg ulcer) and 276 with multiple sclerosis (MS). For the PCS, there were large differences between the normative data and the mean scores of those with chronic diseases, but small differences for the MCS. Female gender and comorbid conditions were associated with poorer HRQOL; increased age was associated with poorer PCS and better MCS. This study provided additional evidence that, while physical function could be severely and negatively affected by both chronic disease and advanced age, mental health remained relatively high and stable.

  15. Balance impairment, physical ability, and its link with disease severity in patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Risha A; Mockford, Katherine A; Mazari, Fayyaz; Khan, Junaid; Vanicek, Natalie; Chetter, Ian C; Coughlin, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether increasing claudication severity is associated with impaired balance and physical functional ability. A prospective observational study in claudicants was performed. Disease severity was determined according to Rutherford's criteria. Patient's balance was assessed objectively using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP-Sensory Organization Test [SOT]; NeuroCom). "Bedside" assessment of balance was performed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (dynamic balance) and the Full Tandem Stance test (static balance). Physical function was assessed using the Summary Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. 185 claudicants were assessed (median age of 69 [IQR 63-74] years; 137 [74.1%] men). Fourteen claudicants were classified as Rutherford grade 0, 26 as grade I, 76 as grade II, and 69 as grade III. All Rutherford groups were comparable for age, gender, BMI, and comorbidities. Increasing Rutherford grade was associated with a significant deterioration in objective balance as determined by a failed SOT test: 3 (21.4%) in grade 0; 9 (34.6%) in grade I; 39 (52.7%) in grade II; and 41 (59.4%) in grade III (chi-squared 9.693, df 3, P = 0.021). A significant difference was also found with dynamic balance (TUG test), but not static balance (full tandem stance). Increasing claudication severity was also associated with significantly worse physical function: SPPB score. Specific objective tests demonstrate impaired balance and physical function are common in claudicants and become more frequent with increasing severity of claudication. Simple "bedside" measures may be sufficiently sensitive to detect this. Copyright © 2013 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men.

    PubMed

    Morie, Marina; Reid, Kieran F; Miciek, Renee; Lajevardi, Newsha; Choong, Karen; Krasnoff, Joanne B; Storer, Thomas W; Fielding, Roger A; Bhasin, Shalender; Lebrasseur, Nathan K

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with physical function and mobility in older men. Cross-sectional. Academic research center. Eighty-two community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with self-reported mobility limitations were divided into a low-activity and a high-activity group based on the median average daily physical activity counts of the whole sample. Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest press maximal strength and peak power. Older men with higher physical activity levels had a 1.4-point higher mean SPPB score and a 0.35-m/s faster walking speed than those with lower physical activity levels. They also climbed a standard flight of stairs 1.85 seconds faster and completed 60% more shelves in a lift-and-lower task (all P<.01); muscle strength and power measures were not significantly different between the low- and high-activity groups. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models showed that physical activity is positively associated with all physical function and mobility measures, leg press strength, and VO(2) max. Older men with higher physical activity levels demonstrate better physical function and mobility than their less-active peers. Moreover, physical activity levels are predictive of performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Future work is needed to determine whether modifications in physical activity levels can improve or preserve physical performance in later life. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest pr...

  18. Immunological Cells and Functions in Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The macrophage (MΦ) has been the focus of causality, research, and therapy of Gaucher disease, but recent evidence casts doubt its solitary role in the disease pathogenesis. The excess of glucosylceramide (GC) in such cells accounts for some of the disease manifestations. Evidence of increased expression of C-C and C-X-C chemokines (i.e., CCL2,CXCL1, CXCL8) in Gaucher disease could be critical for monocytes (MOs) transformation to inflammatory subsets of (MΦs) and dendritic cells (DCs) as well as neutrophil (PMNs) recruitment to visceral organs. These immune responses could be essential for activation of T- and B-cell subsets, and the induction of numerous cytokines and chemokines that participate in the initiation and propagation of the molecular pathogenesis of Gaucher disease. The association of Gaucher disease with a variety of cellular and humoral immune responses is reviewed here to provide a potential foundation for expanding the complex pathophysiology of Gaucher disease. PMID:23510064

  19. Recreational physical activity and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Evan L; Chen, Honglei; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. We prospectively followed 143,325 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2001 (mean age at baseline = 63). Recreational physical activity was estimated at baseline from the reported number of hours per week on average spent performing light intensity activities (walking, dancing) and moderate to vigorous intensity activities (jogging/running, lap swimming, tennis/racquetball, bicycling/stationary bike, aerobics/calisthenics). Incident cases of PD (n = 413) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. Risk of PD declined in the highest categories of baseline recreational activity. The RR comparing the highest category of total recreational activity (men > or = 23 metabolic equivalent task-hours/week [MET-h/wk], women > or = 18.5 MET-h/wk) to no activity was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.2; P trend = 0.07). When light activity and moderate to vigorous activity were examined separately, only the latter was found to be associated with PD risk. The RR comparing the highest category of moderate to vigorous activity (men > or = 16 MET-h/wk, women > or = 11.5 MET-h/wk) to the lowest (0 MET-h/wk) was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.0; P trend = 0.02). These results did not differ significantly by gender. The results were similar when we excluded cases with symptom onset in the first 4 years of follow-up. Our results may be explained either by a reduction in PD risk through moderate to vigorous activity, or by decreased baseline recreational activity due to preclinical PD.

  20. Nutritional deficiency, immunologic function, and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Good, R. A.; Fernandes, G.; Yunis, E. J.; Cooper, W. C.; Jose, D. C.; Kramer, T. R.; Hansen, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Several experiments conducted by our group over a period of 6 years have shown that nutritional stress, especially protein and/or calorie deprivation, leads to many, often dramatic, changes in the immune responses of mice, rats, and guinea pigs. Chronic protein deprivation (CPD) has been shown to create an enhancing effect on the cell-mediated immune responses of these animals. Humoral responses under CPD conditions were most often found to be depressed, but sometimes were unaffected, depending on the nature of the antigen employed. Chronic protein deprivation, consistent with the pattern just mentioned, improved tumor immunity by depressing production of B-cell blocking factors, and, in at least one instance, resistance to development of mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice was associated with evidence of increased numbers of T suppressor cells. Profound nutritional deficits (less than 5% protein per total daily food intake) depressed both cellular and humoral immunity. Early, though temporary, protein deprivation caused a long-term depression of both cellular and humoral immunity also, with the humoral component being the first to recover. Manipulation of protein and calories was found to have a profound effect on certain autoimmune conditions. Diets high in fat and low in protein favored reproduction but shortened the life of NZB mice, whereas diets high in protein and low in fat inhibited development of autoimmunity and prolonged life. Chronic moderate protein restriction permitted NZB mice to maintain their normally waning immunologic functions much longer than mice fed a normal protein intake. Further, the low-protein diet was associated with a delay in development of manifestations of autoimmunity. Decreasing dietary calories by a reduction of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins more than doubled the average life span of (NZB X NZW)F1 mice, a strain prone to early death from autoimmune disease. Histopathologic studies using immunofluorescent microscopy revealed

  1. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  2. A study design to investigate the effect of short-form Sun-style Tai Chi in improving functional exercise capacity, physical performance, balance and health related quality of life in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Leung, R W M; Alison, J A; McKeough, Z J; Peters, M J

    2011-03-01

    The effectiveness of exercise training in people with COPD is well established. However, alternative methods of training such as Tai Chi have not been widely evaluated. This paper describes the study design of a clinical trial which aims to determine if short form Sun-style Tai Chi improves exercise capacity and quality of life in people with COPD. This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment. Participants will be recruited from Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney. After baseline measurement, participants will be randomised into either a Tai Chi Group or a Control Group. Participants in the Tai Chi Group will undergo supervised training twice weekly for twelve weeks. Participants in the Control Group will undergo usual medical care. Measurements will be taken at baseline (week 0) and after the study period (week 12). The primary outcome measurement is endurance walking capacity assessed by the endurance shuttle walk test. Secondary outcomes include measures related to peak walking capacity, physical performance, balance, muscle strength and quality of life. Details of the physiological responses during Tai Chi will be collected in a small cohort to determine the training intensity of Sun-style Tai Chi. If short form Sun-style Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, physical performance and quality of life in people with COPD, this would provide an alternate form of exercise training which does not require exercise equipment thus making effective exercise training more accessible for the large numbers of people with COPD. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hippocampal shape analysis in Alzheimer's disease using functional data analysis.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Irene; Ventura-Campos, Noelia

    2014-02-28

    The hippocampus is one of the first affected regions in Alzheimer's disease. The left hippocampi of control subjects, patients with mild cognitive impairment and patients with Alzheimer's disease are represented by spherical harmonics. Functional data analysis is used in the hippocampal shape analysis. Functional principal component analysis and functional independent component analysis are defined for multivariate functions with two arguments. A functional linear discriminant function is also defined. Comparisons with other approaches are carried out. Our functional approach gives promising results, especially in shape classification.

  4. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  5. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Snider, Jonathan; Müller, Martijn L T M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J H; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n = 48 (40 M); 69.4 ± 7.4 (56-84) years old; 8.4 ± 4.2 (2.5-20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7-53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22-30) underwent [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R = -0.37, P = 0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R = -0.05, P = 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F = 6.15, P = 0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F = 4.93, P = 0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F = 1.07, P = 0.31), age (F = 4.37, P = 0.043) and duration of disease (F = 1.46, P = 0.23; total model (F = 5.76, P = 0.0004). Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The impact of pain control on physical and psychiatric functions of cancer patients: a nation-wide survey in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Kun-Ming; Chen, Jen-Shi; Wu, Hung-Bo; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Huang, Ming-Lih; Wang, Cyuan-Jheng; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Hwang, Wen-Li; Lu, Yin-Che; Chan, Chung-Huang; Hsieh, Ruey Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of pain in cancer patients at different disease statuses, the impact of pain on physical and psychiatric functions of patients and the satisfaction of pain control of patients at outpatient clinic department in Taiwan. Methods Short form of the Brief Pain Inventory was used as the outcome questionnaire. Unselected patients of different cancers and different disease statuses at outpatient clinic department were included. The impacts of their current pain control on physical function, psychiatric function and the satisfaction of doctors were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate whether the interference scale performed identically in the different analgesic ladders. The dependent variables were satisfaction toward physician and treatment. Results A total of 14 sites enrolled 2075 patients in the study. One thousand and fifty-one patients reported pain within the last 1 week. In patients whose diseases deteriorated, >60% of them need analgesics for pain control. Pain influenced physical and psychiatric functions of patients, especially in the deteriorated status. More than 80% of patients were satisfied about current pain control, satisfaction rate related to disease status, pain intensities and treatments for pain. Conclusion Our study found that different cancers at different statuses had pain at variable severity. Pain can influence physical and psychological functions significantly. More than 75% of subjects reported satisfaction over physician and pain management in outpatient clinic department patients with cancer pain in Taiwan. PMID:26292698

  7. Pancreatic function in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Angelini, G; Cavallini, G; Bovo, P; Brocco, G; Castagnini, A; Lavarini, E; Merigo, F; Tallon, N; Scuro, L A

    1988-03-01

    This study was prospectively carried out to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of pancreatic impairment in the course of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). Twenty-seven patients affected by ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease were submitted to a secretin-cerulein test, oral glucose test (OGT) and to indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) for detection of autoantibodies against exocrine and endocrine tissue. A bicarbonate plus enzyme or only an enzyme insufficiency was found in 11/27 patients, whereas isolated lipase decrease was observed in 18 subjects. In the results of the OGT and the indirect IFL test there was no difference between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that pancreatic impairment is a far more frequent occurrence than generally recognized in clinical practice. The decrease of lipase secretion could worsen the consequences of malabsorption in Crohn's disease of the small intestine. Therefore we think that a pancreatic assessment is advisable, at least in Crohn's disease patients with steatorrhea.

  8. Functional strength training: Seated machine vs standing cable training to improve physical function in elderly.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Anoop; Martins, Maria M; De Faveri, Frederico G; Alan, Ozgur; Cetinkaya, Funda; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-09-01

    The majority of the strength training studies in older adults have incorporated fixed-form exercises using seated resistance training machines. In light of the modest improvements in physical function shown in these studies, functional or task-specific exercises, involving movement patterns that mimic daily activities, have been studied. Free-form exercises, using free-weights or cable, is another form of functional strength training. Currently, no intervention studies exist comparing free-form exercises, using cable machines, and fixed-form exercises, using seated machines in older adults. A total of 29 independently-living older adults, 65years or older, were randomized into two groups, seated machine (SM, n=10) and standing cable (SC, n=12). After 12weeks of training twice per week, groups were compared. The primary outcome was the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), a measure of physical function. Secondary outcomes were lower and upper body strength and power, activities of daily living evaluated by multiple tests including: Physical Performance Test (PPT), pan carry and gallon jug transfers, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-reported function using Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Outcome assessors were blinded to participants' intervention assignments. The PPB (SC=0.23 points; SM=0.15 points) showed clinical and significant improvements, but there was no significant difference between the groups (g=0.2, 95% CI (-0.6, 1.0). For secondary outcomes, chair stand (g=0.7, 95% CI (0.2, 1.6), p=0.03) and pan carry (g=0.8, 95% CI (0.07, 1.07), p=0.04) favored SC, while chest press 1RM (g=0.2, 95% CI (0.06, 1.1), p=0.02) favored SM. There were no statistically significant group differences between PPB, gallon jug transfer, leg press 1RM, power, RPE or self-reported function. Standing cable training was not superior to seated machine training in improving physical performance in older adults. However, both training

  9. Physical-chemical principles underlying RTK activation, and their implications for human disease

    PubMed Central

    He, Lijuan; Hristova, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    RTKs, the second largest family of membrane receptors, exert control over cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In recent years, our understanding of RTK structure and activation in health and disease has skyrocketed. Here we describe experimental approaches used to interrogate RTKs, and we review the quantitative biophysical frameworks and structural considerations that shape our understanding of RTK function. We discuss current knowledge about RTK interactions, focusing on the role of different domains in RTK homodimerization, and on the importance and challenges in RTK heterodimerization studies. We also review our understanding of pathogenic RTK mutations, and the underlying physical-chemical causes for the pathologies. PMID:21840295

  10. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  11. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  12. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  13. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23802624

  14. Sensorimotor Peripheral Nerve Function and Physical Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Newman, Anne B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Jakicic, John M.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Zivkovic, Sasa; Dam, Tien; Caserotti, Paolo; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n=328, age 78.8±4.7 years), conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction (latencies, amplitudes: CMAP and SNAP for motor and sensory amplitude, respectively), 1.4g/10g monofilament (dorsum of the great toe), and neuropathy symptoms. ANOVA and multivariate linear regression modeled PN associations with PA (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and SenseWear Armband). After multivariable adjustment, better motor latency was associated with higher PASE scores (160.5±4.8 vs 135.6±6.7, p<0.01). Those without vs. with neuropathy symptoms had higher PASE scores (157.6±5.3 vs 132.9±7.1, p<0.01). Better vs. worse SNAP was associated with slightly more daily vigorous activity (9.5±0.8 vs. 7.3±0.7, p=0.05). Other PN measures were not associated with PA. Certain PN measures were associated with lower PA, suggesting a potential pathway for disability. PMID:26964668

  15. Memristive crypto primitive for building highly secure physical unclonable functions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yansong; Ranasinghe, Damith C; Al-Sarawi, Said F; Kavehei, Omid; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-04

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) exploit the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of physical systems to generate secret information. The advantage is that PUFs have the potential to provide fundamentally higher security than traditional cryptographic methods by preventing the cloning of devices and the extraction of secret keys. Most PUF designs focus on exploiting process variations in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In recent years, progress in nanoelectronic devices such as memristors has demonstrated the prevalence of process variations in scaling electronics down to the nano region. In this paper, we exploit the extremely large information density available in nanocrossbar architectures and the significant resistance variations of memristors to develop an on-chip memristive device based strong PUF (mrSPUF). Our novel architecture demonstrates desirable characteristics of PUFs, including uniqueness, reliability, and large number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) and desirable characteristics of strong PUFs. More significantly, in contrast to most existing PUFs, our PUF can act as a reconfigurable PUF (rPUF) without additional hardware and is of benefit to applications needing revocation or update of secure key information.

  16. Memristive crypto primitive for building highly secure physical unclonable functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yansong; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Kavehei, Omid; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) exploit the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of physical systems to generate secret information. The advantage is that PUFs have the potential to provide fundamentally higher security than traditional cryptographic methods by preventing the cloning of devices and the extraction of secret keys. Most PUF designs focus on exploiting process variations in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In recent years, progress in nanoelectronic devices such as memristors has demonstrated the prevalence of process variations in scaling electronics down to the nano region. In this paper, we exploit the extremely large information density available in nanocrossbar architectures and the significant resistance variations of memristors to develop an on-chip memristive device based strong PUF (mrSPUF). Our novel architecture demonstrates desirable characteristics of PUFs, including uniqueness, reliability, and large number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) and desirable characteristics of strong PUFs. More significantly, in contrast to most existing PUFs, our PUF can act as a reconfigurable PUF (rPUF) without additional hardware and is of benefit to applications needing revocation or update of secure key information.

  17. Memristive crypto primitive for building highly secure physical unclonable functions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yansong; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Kavehei, Omid; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) exploit the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of physical systems to generate secret information. The advantage is that PUFs have the potential to provide fundamentally higher security than traditional cryptographic methods by preventing the cloning of devices and the extraction of secret keys. Most PUF designs focus on exploiting process variations in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In recent years, progress in nanoelectronic devices such as memristors has demonstrated the prevalence of process variations in scaling electronics down to the nano region. In this paper, we exploit the extremely large information density available in nanocrossbar architectures and the significant resistance variations of memristors to develop an on-chip memristive device based strong PUF (mrSPUF). Our novel architecture demonstrates desirable characteristics of PUFs, including uniqueness, reliability, and large number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) and desirable characteristics of strong PUFs. More significantly, in contrast to most existing PUFs, our PUF can act as a reconfigurable PUF (rPUF) without additional hardware and is of benefit to applications needing revocation or update of secure key information. PMID:26239669

  18. Renal Function and Transplantation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Foley, David; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Kidney injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Since the introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease for the allocation of organs for liver transplantation in 2002, the heavy weighting of serum creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease score has significantly increased the incidence of renal dysfunction seen among patients undergoing liver transplantation. As a result, the frequency of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation compared to liver transplantation alone (LTA) has also increased. The decision to perform SLK rather than LTA is an important one because the benefits to the liver transplant recipient receiving a kidney transplant must be balanced with the benefits of using that organ for a patient with end-stage renal disease. However, predicting whether or not a patient with liver failure has reversible kidney disease, and therefore does not also need a kidney transplant, is difficult. The severity and duration of pretransplant renal dysfunction, hepatitis c, diabetes, and other risk factors for kidney disease are associated with an increased risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease. However, there are currently no clinical findings that accurately predict renal recovery post liver transplant. As a result, the rate of SLK versus LTA differs significantly between transplant centers. To increase consistency across centers, multiple guidelines have been proposed to guide the decision between SLK and LTA, but their poor predictive value has limited their uniform adoption. Nevertheless, adoption of uniform rules for the allocation of kidneys would reduce the variability between centers in rates of SLK transplant.

  19. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Eden; Park, Jin Gyu; Paravastu, Anant; Lopes, Elsa Branco; Brooks, James S; Englander, Ongi; Siegrist, Theo; Kaner, Papatya; Alamo, Rufina G

    2011-01-01

    This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline) and amorphous (helical) structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size), on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates) and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain). The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating) motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof-of-concept applications of

  20. Bingo vs. physical intervention in stimulating short-term cognition in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sobel, B P

    2001-01-01

    Past research has shown that pharmacological measures can enhance cognitive and functional capacities for patients with Alzheimer's disease, but may result in unacceptable side effects. Investigations using nonpharmacological treatments are limited. This study evaluates the therapeutic effect of the game of Bingo as cognitive stimulation, versus daily physical activity, on short-term memory, concentration, word retrieval, and word recognition. Informed consent was obtained from the designated representatives of 50 subjects from six community adult day care centers on Long Island. The results show that cognitive stimulation enhanced performance on the Boston Naming Test and a Word List Recognition Task; physical intervention, however, did not reach statistical significance. Thus, a simple cognitive activity such as Bingo can be of great value to the daily management of Alzheimer's patients.

  1. Item response theory methods can improve the measurement of physical function by combining the modified health assessment questionnaire and the SF-36 physical function scale.

    PubMed

    Martin, Marie; Kosinski, Mark; Bjorner, Jakob B; Ware, John E; Maclean, Ross; Li, Tracy

    2007-05-01

    To compare the measurement properties of the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire [MHAQ], the SF-36((R)) Health Survey 10 item Physical Functioning scale [PF10], and scores from an item response theory (IRT) based scale combining the two measures. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 339) enrolled in a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial completed the MHAQ and the SF-36 pre- and post-treatment. Psychometric analyses used confirmatory factor analysis and IRT models. Analyses of variance were used to assess sensitivity to changes in disease severity (defined by the American College of Rheumatism (ACR)) using change scores in MHAQ, PF10, and IRT scales. Analyses of covariance were used to assess treatment responsiveness. For the entire score range, the 95% confidence interval around individual patient scores was smaller for the combined (total) IRT based scale than for other measures. The MHAQ and PF10 were about 70% and 50% as efficient as the total IRT score of physical functioning in discriminating among ACR groups, respectively. The MHAQ and PF10 were also less efficient than the total IRT score in discriminating among treatment groups. Combining scales from the two short forms yields a more powerful tool with greater sensitivity to treatment response.

  2. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.R.; Crawley, J.C.W.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 9/-9..mu..Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity - TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p<0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  3. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  4. Physical exercise and Parkinson's disease: influence on symptoms, disease course and prevention.

    PubMed

    Grazina, Rita; Massano, João

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, disabling, neurodegenerative condition, and the disease prevalence is expected to increase worldwide in the next few decades. Symptomatic therapy remains unsatisfactory, and greatly needed neuroprotective therapies have not been successfully developed so far. Physical exercise (PE) has been associated with a lower risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease. The literature has been searched, and results have been systematized and interpreted with regard to the effects of PE in PD. Published data show the following: 1) PE has been associated with a lower risk of developing PD; 2) PE has been shown to improve disease symptoms, mobility, balance, gait and quality of life (in this regard, walking training, tai-chi and tango dancing have demonstrated the highest level of evidence of efficacy); and 3) neuroprotective effects from PE could be expected in PD, although this has been suggested in animal studies only. Further research on this topic should be encouraged. Multidisciplinary cooperation between neurologists, sports physicians and researchers is paramount.

  5. Association of frailty and physical function in patients with non-dialysis CKD: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Frailty is a condition characterized by a decline in physical function and functional capacity. Common symptoms of frailty, such as weakness and exhaustion, are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increased vulnerability of frail patients with coexisting CKD may place them at a heightened risk of encountering additional health complications. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the link between frailty, CKD and clinical outcomes. Methods We searched for cross sectional and prospective studies in the general population and in the CKD population indexed in EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane and Ageline examining the association between frailty and CKD and those relating frailty in patients with CKD to clinical outcomes. Results We screened 5,066 abstracts and retrieved 108 studies for full text review. We identified 7 studies associating frailty or physical function to CKD. From the 7 studies, we identified only two studies that related frailty in patients with CKD to a clinical outcome. CKD was consistently associated with increasing frailty or reduced physical function [odds ratios (OR) 1.30 to 3.12]. In patients with CKD, frailty was associated with a greater than two-fold higher risk of dialysis and/or death [OR from 2.0 to 5.88]. Conclusions CKD is associated with a higher risk of frailty or diminished physical function. Furthermore, the presence of frailty in patients with CKD may lead to a higher risk of mortality. Further research must be conducted to understand the mechanisms of frailty in CKD and to confirm its association with clinical outcomes. PMID:24148266

  6. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis: hot topics in the preservation of physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-12-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point of their lives, emphasising the importance of rehabilitation in order to maintain quality of life. An important aspect of multiple sclerosis rehabilitation is the preservation of physical functioning. Hot topics in the rehabilitation of physical function include (1) exercise therapy, (2) robot-assisted training and (3) pharmacological interventions. Exercise therapy has for many years been a controversial issue in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation and the advice generally given to patients was not to participate in physical exercise, since it was thought to lead to a worsening of symptoms or fatigue. However, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies that have evaluated these is limited, although some promising results have been reported. Finally, recent studies have shown that certain pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve functional capacity substantially, with the potassium channel blocker fampridine being one of the most promising. This drug has been shown to improve walking ability in some patients with multiple sclerosis, associated with a reduction of patients' self-reported ambulatory disability. Rehabilitation strategies involving these different approaches, or combinations of them, may be of great use in improving everyday functioning and quality of life in patients with MS.

  7. Different physical therapy interventions on daily physical activities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Marrara, Kamilla Tays; Marino, Diego Marmorato; de Held, Priscila Antonichelli; de Oliveira Junior, Antônio Delfino; Jamami, Maurício; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires

    2008-04-01

    To verify the outcome of different physical therapy interventions in activities of daily living of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-two COPD individuals were randomly divided into three groups: the Lower Limb Training Group (LLTG, n=8) performed treadmill exercise, Upper Limb Training Group (ULTG, n=8) performed upper limb (UL) training, and Control Group (CG, n=6) underwent bronchial hygiene therapy for 6 weeks, three times per week. The following were simulated in the activities of the daily living test: blackboard erasing, weight lifting exercise, stair climbing and treadmill walking. The duration of these tasks was 5 min of blackboard erasing and weight lifting, and 6 min of stair climbing and treadmill walking. Intragroup analysis presented a significant post-treatment ventilatory demand (V(E)/MVV) decrease for the LLTG during basal conditions and walking, and significant decrease during blackboard erasing and walking for the ULTG, with similar metabolic demand (VO(2)/VO(2)max) for both groups. Dyspnoea decreased significantly in the LLTG during post-treatment walking and increased for CG. The number of stairs climbed decreased significantly for the CG and increased for LLTG and ULTG post treatment, along with the walked distance for LLTG. The intergroup analysis presented significant differences in post-treatment dyspnoea with greater values observed for the CG during walking. The different protocols utilized promoted benefits towards physical exercise tolerance, particularly in the ULTG that presented better performance in sustained UL tasks, which may suggest better conditioning and coordination of the muscles involved in UL elevation.

  8. Exercise therapy and other types of physical therapy for patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cup, Edith H; Pieterse, Allan J; Ten Broek-Pastoor, Jessica M; Munneke, Marten; van Engelen, Baziel G; Hendricks, Henk T; van der Wilt, Gert J; Oostendorp, Rob A

    2007-11-01

    To summarize and critically appraise the available evidence on exercise therapy and other types of physical therapies for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE (Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine), and reference lists of reviews and articles. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and other designs were included. Study participants had to have any of the following types of NMD: motoneuron diseases, disorders of the motor nerve roots or peripheral nerves, neuromuscular transmission disorders, or muscle diseases. All types of exercise therapy and other physical therapy modalities were included. Outcome measures had to be at the level of body functions, activities, or participation according to the definitions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Two reviewers independently decided on inclusion or exclusion of articles and rated the methodologic quality of the studies included. All RCTs, CCTs, and other designs only if of sufficient methodologic quality were included in a best evidence synthesis. A level of evidence was attributed for each subgroup of NMD and each type of intervention. Initially 58 studies were included: 12 RCTs, 5 CCTs, and 41 other designs. After methodologic assessment, 19 other designs were excluded from further analysis. There is level II evidence ("likely to be effective") for strengthening exercises in combination with aerobic exercises for patients with muscle disorders. Level III evidence ("indications of effectiveness") was found for aerobic exercises in patients with muscle disorders and for the combination of muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises in a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Finally, there is level III evidence for breathing exercises for patients with myasthenia gravis and for patients with myotonic muscular dystrophy

  9. Exercise is brain food: the effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, Michelle

    2008-07-01

    This commentary reviews selected biomedical and clinical research examining the relationship between physical exercise and cognitive function especially in youth with disability. Youth with physical disability may not benefit from the effects of exercise on cardiovascular fitness and brain health since they are less active than their non-disabled peers. In animal models, physical activity enhances memory and learning, promotes neurogenesis and protects the nervous system from injury and neurodegenerative disease. Neurotrophins, endogenous proteins that support brain plasticity likely mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on the brain. In clinical studies, exercise increases brain volume in areas implicated in executive processing, improves cognition in children with cerebral palsy and enhances phonemic skill in school children with reading difficulty. Studies examining the intensity of exercise required to optimize neurotrophins suggest that moderation is important. Sustained increases in neurotrophin levels occur with prolonged low intensity exercise, while higher intensity exercise, in a rat model of brain injury, elevates the stress hormone, corticosterone. Clearly, moderate physical activity is important for youth whose brains are highly plastic and perhaps even more critical for young people with physical disability.

  10. Loss of brain function - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be made by the body, such as ammonia. Or they may be substances that you take ... MRI EEG Liver function tests Prothrombin time Serum ammonia level Sodium level in the blood Potassium level ...

  11. Influence of urban neighbourhood environment on physical activity and obesity-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Kang, H-M; Ko, Y-J; Kim, H-S; Kim, Y-J; Bae, W K; Park, S; Cho, B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of characteristics of neighbourhood environment on physical activity and obesity-related diseases is still the subject of debate. This study aimed to explore the impact of urban neighbourhood environment on physical activity and obesity-related diseases. Cross-sectional study. Individuals who participated in the 2009 national health-screening programme, submitted all necessary information, and had lived in Community 1 (Haengdang) or Community 2 (Ilsan) for at least 2 years (n = 16,178) were selected for inclusion in this study. Anthropometric measures were taken and physical activity was assessed using a short questionnaire. No significant difference in the trigger factors for walking, including the amount of neighbourhood park space, number of shopping malls, and distance between the community and shopping malls, was found between the two communities. However, Community 2 had a better street environment than Community 1. Participants who lived in Community 2 were more physically active [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.48] and walked more regularly (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17) than participants who lived in Community 1, and were less likely to have abdominal obesity (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.91), hypertension (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97) and diabetes (adjusted OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). However, the risk of dyslipidaemia, especially in terms of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, was higher in Community 2. These results suggest that a walkable environment has a positive influence on hypertension and diabetes, and physical activity is the possible mechanism for this association. A walkable environment may function as an important tool for health promotion in urban areas. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology. PMID:24006360

  13. Physical Activity and Hemodynamic Reactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Light, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an elevated cardiovascular risk. This study was designed to understand better the presence and strength of the relationship between physical activity and BP and to explore determinants of hemodynamic reactivity. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Twenty-four patients with CKD (mean age 69.5 yr; 3.1 antihypertensive drugs; estimated GFR 47 ml/min per 1.73 m2, albumin/creatinine ratio 403 mg/g) were studied on three occasions during a 6-wk period with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and simultaneous activity monitoring with wrist actigraphy. Results: Nondippers were found have a greater level of sleep activity compared with dippers, although the awake activity level was similar (7.06 versus 6.73) between groups (P = 0.042 for interaction). In 3587 BP activity pairs, hemodynamic reactivity was variable between individuals (systolic BP reactivity 1.06 [SD 10.50]; diastolic BP reactivity 0.89 [SD 7.80] heart rate reactivity 1.18 [SD 11.00]); those who were more sedentary had a greater increment in systolic BP compared with those who were less sedentary. Antihypertensive drugs blunted hemodynamic reactivity. Hemodynamic reactivity was greatest between 12 a.m. and 8 a.m., making this a vulnerable period for cardiovascular events. Conclusions: Greater hemodynamic reactivity in sedentary people with CKD offers a possible and thus far unrecognized mechanism of cardiovascular damage. Besides reducing BP, antihypertensive drugs reduce hemodynamic reactivity, which offers another plausible mechanism of cardiovascular protection with their use. PMID:18922983

  14. Occupational and recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate

    2017-03-20

    Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.

  15. Anxiety, panic disorder and coronary artery disease: issues concerning physical exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline; Araújo, Claudio Gil S; Soares-Filho, Gastão Luis Fonseca; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-02-01

    Psychological factors such as stress and depression have already been established as primary and secondary cardiovascular risk factors. More recently, the role of anxiety in increasing cardiac risk has also been studied. The underlying mechanisms of increased cardiac risk in panic disorder patients seem to reflect the direct and indirect effects of autonomic dysfunction, as well as behavioral risk factors associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. Implications of the comorbidity between panic and cardiovascular disease include higher morbidity, functional deficits, increased cardiovascular risk, and poor adherence to cardiac rehabilitation or exercise programs. This article probes the most recent evidence on the association between coronary artery disease, anxiety and panic disorder, and discusses the potential role of incorporating regular physical exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of this condition.

  16. Profile of the elderly in physical therapy and its relation to functional disability.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ana L S; Pereira, Vanessa S; Driusso, Patrícia; Rebelatto, José R; Ricci, Natalia A

    2013-01-01

    As the population ages, changes occur in the epidemiological profile towards the current predominance of chronic degenerative diseases which, when untreated, lead to loss of functional capacity and require long-term assistance. To describe the profile of the elderly attending the geriatric physical therapy service and to identify factors associated with functional disability. A cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted. The medical records of elderly individuals were analyzed using the first physical therapy assessment, which included sociodemographic, clinical and mobility data. To determine the degree of disability (mild/moderate), the Brazilian Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire (BOMFAQ) was used. Descriptive analysis and univariate logistic regression were performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression. The sample comprised 130 elderly patients with a mean age of 73.3 [standar deviation (SD)=7.2] years-old, predominantly female (63.9%), sedentary (71.5%) and presenting three to four diseases (47.7%). The mean of activities with difficulty in the BOMFAQ was 6.7 (SD=4.8), 35 (26.9%) individuals presented mild disability and 95 (73.1%) moderate. The participant characteristic that presented a greatest risk of disability was self-reporting of poor health (OR=12.4). The factors identified, which together can determine functional decline, were sedentary lifestyle, presence of dizziness, polypharmacy and high pain intensity. Elderly individuals attended by the geriatric physical therapy service showed a profile associated with disability, characterized by potentially modifiable factors. This profile also reinforces the demand for long-term care for this population.

  17. The Link Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Cristy; Baktir, Mehmet Akif; Das, Devsmita; Lin, Bill; Salehi, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a primary cause of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly population worldwide. Despite the allocation of enormous amounts of funding and resources to studying this brain disorder, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for reducing the severity of pathology and restoring cognitive function in affected people. Recent reports on the failure of multiple clinical trials for AD have highlighted the need to diversify further the search for new therapeutic strategies for cognitive dysfunction. Thus, studies detailing the neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) on the brain in AD were reviewed, and mechanisms by which PA might mitigate AD-related cognitive decline were explored. A MEDLINE database search was used to generate a list of studies conducted between January 2007 and September 2014 (n=394). These studies, along with key references, were screened to identify those that assessed the effects of PA on AD-related biomarkers and cognitive function. The search was not limited on the basis of intensity, frequency, duration, or mode of activity. However, studies in which PA was combined with another intervention (eg, diet, pharmacotherapeutics, ovariectomy, cognitive training, behavioral therapy), and studies not written in English were excluded. Thirty-eight animal and human studies met entry criteria. Most of the studies suggested that PA attenuates neuropathology and positively affects cognitive function in AD. Although the literature lacked sufficient evidence to support precise PA guidelines, convergent evidence does suggest that the incorporation of regular PA into daily routines mitigates AD-related symptoms, especially when deployed earlier in the disease process. Here the protocols used to alter the progression of AD-related neuropathology and cognitive decline are highlighted, and the implications for physical therapist practice are discussed. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. Human monogenic disease genes have frequently functionally redundant paralogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Xing-Ming; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Mendelian disorders are often caused by mutations in genes that are not lethal but induce functional distortions leading to diseases. Here we study the extent of gene duplicates that might compensate genes causing monogenic diseases. We provide evidence for pervasive functional redundancy of human monogenic disease genes (MDs) by duplicates by manifesting 1) genes involved in human genetic disorders are enriched in duplicates and 2) duplicated disease genes tend to have higher functional similarities with their closest paralogs in contrast to duplicated non-disease genes of similar age. We propose that functional compensation by duplication of genes masks the phenotypic effects of deleterious mutations and reduces the probability of purging the defective genes from the human population; this functional compensation could be further enhanced by higher purification selection between disease genes and their duplicates as well as their orthologous counterpart compared to non-disease genes. However, due to the intrinsic expression stochasticity among individuals, the deleterious mutations could still be present as genetic diseases in some subpopulations where the duplicate copies are expressed at low abundances. Consequently the defective genes are linked to genetic disorders while they continue propagating within the population. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis underlying the spreading of duplicated disease genes.

  19. Human Monogenic Disease Genes Have Frequently Functionally Redundant Paralogs

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Mendelian disorders are often caused by mutations in genes that are not lethal but induce functional distortions leading to diseases. Here we study the extent of gene duplicates that might compensate genes causing monogenic diseases. We provide evidence for pervasive functional redundancy of human monogenic disease genes (MDs) by duplicates by manifesting 1) genes involved in human genetic disorders are enriched in duplicates and 2) duplicated disease genes tend to have higher functional similarities with their closest paralogs in contrast to duplicated non-disease genes of similar age. We propose that functional compensation by duplication of genes masks the phenotypic effects of deleterious mutations and reduces the probability of purging the defective genes from the human population; this functional compensation could be further enhanced by higher purification selection between disease genes and their duplicates as well as their orthologous counterpart compared to non-disease genes. However, due to the intrinsic expression stochasticity among individuals, the deleterious mutations could still be present as genetic diseases in some subpopulations where the duplicate copies are expressed at low abundances. Consequently the defective genes are linked to genetic disorders while they continue propagating within the population. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis underlying the spreading of duplicated disease genes. PMID:23696728

  20. [Biological functions of tin and disease].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Tomiyama, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    Tin generates a wide variety of biological functions due to its chemical character. In this article, the modes of the biological functions of tin(especially organotin compounds) are reviewed, with special emphasis on the connection with the immune system, brain nervous system and endocrine system, on the basis of our data. To sum up this article, the biological functions of organotin compounds appear to be due to the following several processes: (1) their incorporation into the cells in vesicle form through fusion or in a similar manner to their incorporation in cationic form; (2) transport to and accumulation in the regions of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but not to or in the plasma membrane or nucleus because of their hydrophobicity; (3) inhibition of intracellular phospholipid transport between organelles due to impairment of the structures and functions of the Golgi apparatus and ER; (4) inhibition of the membrane-mediated signal transduction system leading to DNA synthesis via phospholipid turnover and Ca2+ mobilization, as in cell proliferation systems; (5) disturbance of the trace element balance and the localization of certain elements; (6) disorders of membrane-mediated Ca2+ homeostasis via various channel functions including Zn modulation on the plasma and organelle membranes, and protein phosphorylation, as in the signal transduction systems of memory and olfaction; (7) necrosis or apoptosis in vivo or toxic cell death in vitro.

  1. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Sadowsky, Cristina L; Hammond, Edward R; Strohl, Adam B; Commean, Paul K; Eby, Sarah A; Damiano, Diane L; Wingert, Jason R; Bae, Kyongtae T; McDonald, John W

    2013-11-01

    To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor-sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ≥ 1 point improvement. FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life.

  2. Assessment of Diastolic Function in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Dilveer Kaur; Burch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Diastolic function is an important component of left ventricular (LV) function which is often overlooked. It can cause symptoms of heart failure in patients even in the presence of normal systolic function. The parameters used to assess diastolic function often measure flow and are affected by the loading conditions of the heart. The interpretation of diastolic function in the context of congenital heart disease requires some understanding of the effects of the lesions themselves on these parameters. Individual congenital lesions will be discussed in this paper. Recently, load-independent techniques have led to more accurate measurements of ventricular compliance and remodeling in heart disease. The combination of inflow velocities and tissue Doppler measurements can be used to estimate diastolic function and LV filling pressures. This review focuses on diastolic function and assessment in congenital heart disease. PMID:28261582

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Wasserman, Marlene; Weidner, Wolfgang; Richardson, Daniel; Goldmeier, David

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for state-of-the-art information in the area of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in relation to sexual function. There are an estimated 60 million people living with and 340 million with treatable STIs. Surveys show sexual problems to be as high as 35% for men and 55% for women; however, there is little research directly assessing relationships between infection and sexual function. To show that STIs are associated with (and may cause) sexual dysfunction. Conversely, sexual dysfunction can increase patients' risk of STI acquisition. In men, erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with condom use may lead to unsafe sexual practices and, hence, STI acquisition. The role of various therapies including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of ED in positive men taking social drugs will be explored. To provide state-of-the-art knowledge concerning sexual function and STIs, representing the opinions of five experts from four countries developed in a consensus process and encompassing a detailed literature review over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on the grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. This article highlights major factors causing the spread of STIs and suggests management interventions to prevent further spread of HIV/STIs, focusing on the juxtaposition between STIs and sexual functioning. Women's unique vulnerabilities to HIV/STIs (biological and physiological issues, gender-based violence, gender inequity) and their impact on women's sexual function are reviewed. Similarly, men's unique vulnerabilities to HIV/STIs including condom use, disclosure, voluntary counseling and testing, multiple concurrent sexual partners, and recreational drug use--particularly in homosexual men--are explored, as is the association of prostatitis and sexual function. Lastly, the article reviews the relationship between circumcision and sexual dysfunction. A

  4. Divers' lung function: small airways disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Kambestad, B; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 152 professional saturation divers and in a matched control group of 106 subjects. Static lung volumes, dynamic lung volumes and flows, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), transfer volume per unit alveolar volume (KCO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured and compared with reference values from recent Scandinavian studies, British submariners, and the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) recommended reference values. Diving exposure was assessed as years of diving experience, total number of days in saturation and depth, and as the product of days in saturation and mean depth. Divers had significantly lower values for forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, FEF25-75%, FEF75-85%, FEF50%, FEF75%, T1CO, and KCO compared with the controls and a significantly higher CV. There was a positive correlation between diving exposure and CV, whereas the other variables had negative correlations with diving exposure. Values for the control group were not different from the predictive values of Scandinavian reference studies or British submariners, although the ECCS standard predicted significantly lower values for the lung function variables both in divers and the control group. The pattern of the differences in lung function variables between the divers and controls is consistent with small airways dysfunction and with the transient changes in lung function found immediately after a single saturation dive. The association between reduced pulmonary function and previous diving exposure further indicates the presence of cumulative long term effects of diving on pulmonary function. PMID:2393630

  5. Gene-disease network analysis reveals functional modules in mendelian, complex and environmental diseases.

    PubMed

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Bundschus, Markus; Rautschka, Michael; Mayer, Miguel A; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have been trying to understand the molecular mechanisms of diseases to design preventive and therapeutic strategies for a long time. For some diseases, it has become evident that it is not enough to obtain a catalogue of the disease-related genes but to uncover how disruptions of molecular networks in the cell give rise to disease phenotypes. Moreover, with the unprecedented wealth of information available, even obtaining such catalogue is extremely difficult. We developed a comprehensive gene-disease association database by integrating associations from several sources that cover different biomedical aspects of diseases. In particular, we focus on the current knowledge of human genetic diseases including mendelian, complex and environmental diseases. To assess the concept of modularity of human diseases, we performed a systematic study of the emergent properties of human gene-disease networks by means of network topology and functional annotation analysis. The results indicate a highly shared genetic origin of human diseases and show that for most diseases, including mendelian, complex and environmental diseases, functional modules exist. Moreover, a core set of biological pathways is found to be associated with most human diseases. We obtained similar results when studying clusters of diseases, suggesting that related diseases might arise due to dysfunction of common biological processes in the cell. For the first time, we include mendelian, complex and environmental diseases in an integrated gene-disease association database and show that the concept of modularity applies for all of them. We furthermore provide a functional analysis of disease-related modules providing important new biological insights, which might not be discovered when considering each of the gene-disease association repositories independently. Hence, we present a suitable framework for the study of how genetic and environmental factors, such as drugs, contribute to diseases. The

  6. Physical function continues to improve when clinical remission is sustained in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Radner, Helga; Alasti, Farideh; Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel

    2015-08-11

    To investigate the course of functional status assessed by health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with sustained clinical remission (REM). In recent RA clinical trials, we identified patients with subsequent visits of ≥24 weeks in clinical REM according to the disease activity score using 28-joint counts including C-reactive protein (DAS28) (≤2.6), or simplified disease activity index (SDAI) (≤3.3). Area under the curve (AUC) and mean HAQ scores throughout the time in sustained REM were compared using t test, analyses of variance (ANOVA) and adjusted general linear modeling (GLM) with repeated measures. In Cox regression analyses, the time to regain full physical function was modeled. Sensitivity analyses were performed in patients of sustained SDAI low disease activity (LDA; SDAI ≤11). A total of 610 out of 4364 patients achieved sustained DAS28 REM (14%) and 252 SDAI REM (5.8%). ANOVA testing for linear trend showed significant decrease of mean HAQ from week 0 (start of REM) to week 24, regardless of REM criteria used. AUC of HAQ throughout 24 weeks of REM was higher in DAS28 compared to SDAI REM (p ≤0.01). GLM adjusting for covariates showed significant decrease of monthly HAQ scores from week 0 to 24 (DAS28: 0.276, 0.243, 0.229, 0.222, 0.219, 0.209 to 0.199; p = 0.0001; SDAI: 0.147, 0.142, 0.149, 0.129, 0.123, 0.117 to 0.114; p = 0.029). Similarly, a decrease of HAQ over time was found in patients of sustained SDAI LDA. In DAS28 REM, the chance of regaining full physical function was higher for female (hazard ratio HR [95% confidence interval]: 1.41 [1.13-1.76]) and early RA patients (disease duration ≤2 years: HR 1.29 [1.01-1.65]); in SDAI REM no significant differences were found. Physical function continues to improve if the target of REM or LDA is sustained. The stringency of the remission criteria determines achievement of the best possible functional improvement.

  7. Could occupational physical activity mitigate the link between moderate kidney dysfunction and coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Esquirol, Yolande; Tully, Mark; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Fogarty, Damian; Ferrieres, Jean; Quinn, Michael; Hughes, Maria; Kee, Frank

    2014-12-20

    Chronic kidney disease is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of occupational or non-occupational physical activity (PA) on moderate decreases of renal function is uncertain. We aimed to identify the potential association of PA (occupational and leisure-time) on early decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine the potential mediating effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease. From the PRIME study analyses were conducted in 1058 employed men. Energy expended during leisure, work and commuting was calculated. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the link between types of PA and moderate decrements of eGFR determined with the KDIGO guideline at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to explore the potential effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease, ascertained during follow-up over 10 years. For these employed men, and after adjustment for known confounders of GFR change, more time spent sitting at work was associated with increased risk of moderate decline in kidney function, while carrying objects or being active at work was associated with decreased risk. In contrast, no significant link with leisure PA was apparent. No potential mediating effect of occupational PA was found for the relationship between eGFR and coronary heart disease. Occupational PA (potential modifiable factors) could provide a dual role on early impairment of renal function, without influence on the relationship between early decrease of e-GFR and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    PubMed

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  9. Sport for All: Physical Activity and the Prevention of Disease. Facts and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reville, Ph.

    The material presented in this booklet is concerned with the impact of physical activity practiced by the general public, irrespective of age and sex, of various North American and European countries. Major emphasis is on the individual's physical health and susceptibility to disease. Chapter one discusses diseases which occur most frequently in…

  10. Nutrition and function, with emphasis on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Torun, B; Viteri, F E

    1993-01-01

    Consumption of insufficient quantities of food would result to energy deficiency in children, and this can be prevented by early assessment of changes in physical activity. This paper focuses on the effects of general undernutrition on physical activity and on growth, behavior, and cognitive development in Mexico, Uganda, Colombia, and Guatemala. The paper contains studies investigating the influence of undernutrition on physical activity; total energy expenditure; level of physical fitness; influence of physical activity and growth; and relationship of physical activity with behavior and cognitive development. The level of energy expenditure between nutritional groups could be accounted for the smaller size of the body among undernourished children. On the other hand, physiological potential to physically perform work can be maintained by children with mild or moderate malnutrition, but their smaller size limits their output. Lastly, increased physical activity of children receiving food supplementation was associated with exploratory and behavioral differences compared with nonsupplemented children.

  11. The role of partnership status on late-life physical function.

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning, including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function.

  12. The Role of Partnership Status on Late-Life Physical Function*

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function. PMID:25222477

  13. Social class differences in physical functions in middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen; Christensen, Ulla; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Molbo, Drude; Lund, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women. This study used traditionally used physical performance tests and we added several tests of vigorous physical functioning (trunk muscle strength and power and sagittal flexibility). We measured reaction time, one-legged balance, sagittal flexibility, jump height, chair rise ability, trunk muscle- and handgrip strength in 5,412 participants aged 50 to 60 years (68.5% men). We found gender differences and social class gradients for all physical performance tests. We did not find an interaction between social class and gender, indicating that the social gradient in physical functions did not differ between men and women. Including measures of vigorous physical functioning may add to the existing knowledge on development of functional limitation and poorer functional health later in life.

  14. Role of Gut Barrier Function in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xin; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease, and its incidence is increasing year by year. Many efforts have been made to investigate the pathogenesis of this disease. Since 1998 when Marshall proposed the conception of “gut-liver axis,” more and more researchers have paid close attention to the role of gut barrier function in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The four aspects of gut barrier function, including physical, chemical, biological, and immunological barriers, are interrelated closely and related to NAFLD. In this paper, we present a summary of research findings on the relationship between gut barrier dysfunction and the development of NAFLD, aiming at illustrating the role of gut barrier function in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25945084

  15. Ligand Similarity Complements Sequence, Physical Interaction, and Co-Expression for Gene Function Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Shoichet, Brian K.; Gillis, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of protein-ligand annotation databases has enabled large-scale networking of proteins by ligand similarity. These ligand-based protein networks, which implicitly predict the ability of neighboring proteins to bind related ligands, may complement biologically-oriented gene networks, which are used to predict functional or disease relevance. To quantify the degree to which such ligand-based protein associations might complement functional genomic associations, including sequence similarity, physical protein-protein interactions, co-expression, and disease gene annotations, we calculated a network based on the Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA: sea.docking.org), where protein neighbors reflect the similarity of their ligands. We also measured the similarity with functional genomic networks over a common set of 1,131 genes, and found that the networks had only small overlaps, which were significant only due to the large scale of the data. Consistent with the view that the networks contain different information, combining them substantially improved Molecular Function prediction within GO (from AUROC~0.63–0.75 for the individual data modalities to AUROC~0.8 in the aggregate). We investigated the boost in guilt-by-association gene function prediction when the networks are combined and describe underlying properties that can be further exploited. PMID:27467773

  16. Disparity between Physical Capacity and Participation in Seniors with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Eng, Janice J.; Miller, William C.; Soon, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Consistently low rates of physical activity are reported for older adults and there is even lower participation if a chronic disease is present. Purpose To explore the predictors of physical capacity and participation in older community-dwelling individuals living with multiple chronic diseases. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation of physical capacity (physiological potential) and physical activity participation (recorded engagement in physical activity). Multiple regression and odds ratios were used to investigate determinants of physical capacity (6 Minute Walk Test) and physical activity participation (Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities Questionnaire; pedometer steps/day). Results 200 community dwelling ambulatory participants living with 2 or more chronic disease were assessed. Sixty-five percent (65%) were women and the mean age was 74 ± 6 years (range 65–90 years). Mobility (Timed Up and Go) was a consistent determinant across all 3 primary outcomes. For the Six Minute Walk Test, determinants included mobility, BMI, grip strength, number of medications, leg strength, balance and Chronic Disease Management Self Efficacy Scale (r2=0.58; P=.000). The determinants for the self-reported participation measure (Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities Questionnaire) was mobility (r2=0.04; P=.007). For the mean daily pedometer steps, the determinants included mobility, body mass index (BMI), age and Chronic Disease Management Self-Efficacy Scale (r2=0.27; P=.000). There were higher risks for inactivity associated with impairments compared with the presence of a chronic disease. In addition, over 1/3 of participants had sufficient physical capacity, but did not meet minimal recommendations of physical activity. Conclusion This study suggests that it is easier to predict an individual’s physical capacity than their actual physical participation. PMID:17596782

  17. Disease avoidance as a functional basis for stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is characterized by chronic social and physical avoidance of a person(s) by other people. Infectious disease may produce an apparently similar form of isolation—disease avoidance—but on symptom remission this often abates. We propose that many forms of stigmatization reflect the activation of this disease-avoidance system, which is prone to respond to visible signs and labels that connote disease, irrespective of their accuracy. A model of this system is presented, which includes an emotional component, whereby visible disease cues directly activate disgust and contamination, motivating avoidance, and a cognitive component, whereby disease labels bring to mind disease cues, indirectly activating disgust and contamination. The unique predictions of this model are then examined, notably that people who are stigmatized evoke disgust and are contaminating. That animals too show avoidance of diseased conspecifics, and that disease-related stigma targets are avoided in most cultures, also supports this evolutionary account. The more general implications of this approach are then examined, notably how it can be used to good (e.g. improving hygiene) or bad (e.g. racial vilification) ends, by yoking particular labels with cues that connote disease and disgust. This broadening of the model allows for stigmatization of groups with little apparent connection to disease. PMID:22042920

  18. Effect of diagnosis with a chronic disease on physical activity behavior in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Dontje, Manon L; Krijnen, Wim P; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Peeters, Geeske G M E E; Stolk, Ronald P; van der Schans, Cees P; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    Although regular physical activity is an effective secondary prevention strategy for patients with a chronic disease, it is unclear whether patients change their daily physical activity after being diagnosed. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) describe changes in levels of physical activity in middle-aged women before and after diagnosis with a chronic disease (heart disease, diabetes, asthma, breast cancer, arthritis, depression); and to (2) examine whether diagnosis with a chronic disease affects levels of physical activity in these women. Data from 5 surveys (1998-2010) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were used. Participants (N=4840, born 1946-1951) completed surveys every three years, with questions about diseases and leisure time physical activity. The main outcome measure was physical activity, categorized as: nil/sedentary, low active, moderately active, highly active. At each survey approximately half the middle-aged women did not meet the recommended level of physical activity. Between consecutive surveys, 41%-46% of the women did not change, 24%-30% decreased, and 24%-31% increased their physical activity level. These proportions of change were similar directly after diagnosis with a chronic disease, and in the years before or after diagnosis. Generalized estimating equations showed that there was no statistically significant effect of diagnosis with a chronic disease on levels of physical activity in women. Despite the importance of physical activity for the management of chronic diseases, most women did not increase their physical activity after diagnosis. This illustrates a need for tailored interventions to enhance physical activity in newly diagnosed patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CARNITINE HOMEOSTASIS, MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION, AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Black, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Carnitines are involved in mitochondrial transport of fatty acids and are of critical importance for maintaining normal mitochondrial function. This review summarizes recent experimental and clinical studies showing that mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to a disruption of carnitine homeostasis may play a role in decreased NO signaling and the development of endothelial dysfunction. Future challenges include development of agents that can positively modulate L-carnitine homeostasis which may have high therapeutic potential. PMID:20648231

  20. Effects of age and physical fitness on microcirculatory function.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Ferdinando; Galetta, Fabio; Morizzo, Carmela; Lubrano, Valter; Palombo, Carlo; Santoro, Gino; Ferrannini, Eleuterio; Quiñones-Galvan, Alfredo

    2004-03-01

    Sedentary aging is associated with endothelial dysfunction and nitric oxide (NO) impairment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of regular physical exercise on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentrations and microcirculatory function in older men compared with young individuals. We measured NOx plasma concentrations and baseline and stimulated skin blood flow (SBF) by laser Doppler flowmetry in 39 male athletes [range, 22-72 years; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 60.0 +/- 4.7 ml.min(-1).kg of body weight(-1) (mean +/- S.D.)] and 45 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls (VO2max, 38.0 +/- 7.1 ml.min(-1).kg of body weight(-1)). NOx concentrations were higher in athletes than in controls (50.4 +/- 16.3 compared with 39.0 +/- 15.4 micromol/l; P<0.005), whereas baseline SBF was comparable. Hand SBF after heating and ischaemia and foot SBF after heating were higher in athletes (P<0.0001) than in controls. By comparing the lowest and the highest tertile of age, sedentary young subjects had higher NOx concentrations than sedentary older subjects (43.3 +/- 13.4 compared with 31.8 +/- 12.2 micromol/l respectively; P<0.05). Exercise abolished this difference (49.1 +/- 9.6 micromol/l for young subjects and 52.1 +/- 11.5 micromol/l for older subjects; not significant). Resting SBF was similar in all the subgroups, but stimulated SBFs were lower in both subgroups of untrained compared with trained subjects. NOx concentrations were positively correlated with VO2max (r=0.46, P<0.001). Stimulated SBFs were correlated with NOx (r>0.30, P<0.05). These findings show that chronic exercise may improve endothelial function in older (and young) men, probably by increasing NO availability.

  1. PINK1 function in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W

    2009-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) has been debated for a little over 20 years since the description of complex I deficiency in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD patients. However, the identification of recessive pathogenic mutations in the pink1 gene in familial PD cases firmly re-ignited interest in the pathophysiology of mitochondria in PD. PINK1 is a putative mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which protects cells against oxidative stress induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which this is achieved and the effect of the pathogenic mutations has been an area of intensive research over the past five years. Significant progress has been made and, in this review, we summarize the physiological roles that have been assigned to PINK1 and the potential mechanisms behind pathogenesis. PMID:20049715

  2. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  3. alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrerova, N; Petrucelli, L; Farrer, M; Mehta, N; Choi, P; Hardy, J; Wolozin, B

    1999-07-15

    alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in alpha-synuclein cause some cases of familial PD (Polymeropoulos et al., 1997; Kruger et al., 1998). In addition, many neurodegenerative diseases show accumulation of alpha-synuclein in dystrophic neurites and in Lewy bodies (Spillantini et al., 1998). Here, we show that alpha-synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins, which are a family of ubiquitous cytoplasmic chaperones. Regions of alpha-synuclein and 14-3-3 proteins share over 40% homology. In addition, alpha-synuclein binds to 14-3-3 proteins, as well as some proteins known to associate with 14-3-3, including protein kinase C, BAD, and extracellular regulated kinase, but not Raf-1. We also show that overexpression of alpha-synuclein inhibits protein kinase C activity. The association of alpha-synuclein with BAD and inhibition of protein kinase C suggests that increased expression of alpha-synuclein could be harmful. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein is toxic, and overexpression of alpha-synuclein containing the A53T or A30P mutations exhibits even greater toxicity. The activity and binding profile of alpha-synuclein suggests that it might act as a protein chaperone and that accumulation of alpha-synuclein could contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function by nuclear receptors: implications for health and disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Philp, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal muscle metabolism is highly dependent on mitochondrial function, with impaired mitochondrial biogenesis associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondria display substantial plasticity in skeletal muscle, and are highly sensitive to levels of physical activity. It is thought that physical activity promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle through increased expression of genes encoded in both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome; however, how this process is co-ordinated at the cellular level is poorly understood. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key signalling proteins capable of integrating environmental factors and mitochondrial function, thereby providing a potential link between exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the function of NRs in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and discuss the therapeutic potential of NRs for the management and treatment of chronic metabolic disease.

  5. Long-Term Effects of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Physical Fitness and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…

  6. Long-Term Effects of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Physical Fitness and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…

  7. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Academic research center. Participants: Eighty-two community-dwelling men >/= 65 years of age with self-report...

  8. Systematic Review: Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Management of Paediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Blumfield, Michelle L; Truby, Helen; Hart, Kathryn H; Moore, J Bernadette

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of nutrition and physical activity interventions in the clinical management of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease continues to rise alongside childhood obesity. Weight loss through lifestyle modification is currently first-line treatment, although supplementation of specific dietary components may be beneficial. Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials assessing nutritional and physical activity interventions. Primary outcome measures were changes to liver biomarkers assessed by imaging, histology, or serum liver function tests. Study quality was evaluated using the American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. Fifteen articles met eligibility criteria investigating nutritional supplementation (vitamin E [n = 6], probiotics [n = 2], omega-3 fatty acids [n = 5]), dietary modification (low glycaemic load [n = 1] and reducing fructose intake [n = 1]). No randomized controlled trials examining physical activity interventions were identified. Vitamin E was ineffective at improving alanine transaminase levels, whereas omega-3 fatty acids decreased hepatic fat content. Probiotics gave mixed results, whereas reduced fructose consumption did not improve primary outcome measures. A low glycaemic load diet and a low-fat diet appeared equally effective in decreasing hepatic fat content and transaminases. Most studies were deemed neutral as assessed by the American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. The limited evidence base inhibits the prescription of specific dietary and/or lifestyle strategies for clinical practice. General healthy eating and physical activity guidelines, promoting weight loss, should remain first-line treatment until high-quality evidence emerges that support specific interventions that offer additional clinical

  9. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  10. Physical activity in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Overview updated

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Alberto J; Viana, João L; Cavalcante, Suiane L; Oliveira, Nórton L; Duarte, José A; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, José; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the observed progress in the cardiovascular disease treatment, the incidence of new and recurrent coronary artery disease remains elevated and constitutes the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Three-quarters of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases could be prevented with adequate changes in lifestyle, including increased daily physical activity. New evidence confirms that there is an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. However, participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity may not fully attenuate the independent effect of sedentary activities on increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity also plays an important role in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing the impact of the disease, slowing its progress and preventing recurrence. Nonetheless, most of eligible cardiovascular patients still do not benefit from secondary prevention/cardiac rehabilitation programs. The present review draws attention to the importance of physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It also addresses the mechanisms by which physical activity and regular exercise can improve cardiovascular health and reduce the burden of the disease. PMID:27847558

  11. Physical Activity, Central Adiposity, and Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Germain, Cassandra M; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Batsis, John A

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are independently associated with physical and functional limitations in older adults. The current study examines the impact of physical activity on odds of physical and functional limitations in older adults with central and general obesity. Data from 6279 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or more from the Health and Retirement Study 2006 and 2008 waves were used to calculate prevalence and odds of physical and functional limitation among obese older adults with high waist circumference (waist circumference ≥88 cm in females and ≥102 cm in males) who were physically active versus inactive (engaging in moderate/vigorous activity less than once per week). Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, body mass index, and number of comorbidities. Physical activity was associated with lower odds of physical and functional limitations among older adults with high waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.68, for physical limitations; OR, 0.52; CI, 0.44-0.62, for activities of daily living; and OR, 0.44; CI, 0.39-0.50, for instrumental activities of daily living). Physical activity is associated with significantly lower odds of physical and functional limitations in obese older adults regardless of how obesity is classified. Additional research is needed to determine whether physical activity moderates long-term physical and functional limitations.

  12. Physical Activity, Central Adiposity and Functional Limitations in Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Batsis, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Obesity and physical inactivity are independently associated with declines in physical and functional limitations in older adults. The current study examines the impact of physical activity on odds of physical and functional limitations in older adults with central and general obesity. Methods Data from 6,279 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years from the Health and Retirement Study 2006 and 2008 waves were used to calculate prevalence and odds of physical and functional limitation among obese older adults with high waist circumference (WC) (WC ≥ 88cm in females and ≥ 102cm in males) who were physically active vs. inactive (engaging in moderate/vigorous activity less than once per week). Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and number of comorbidities. Results Physical activity was associated with lower odds of physical and functional limitations among older adults with high WC odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were OR 0.59 (CI: 0.52–0.68) for physical limitations, OR 0.52 (CI: .44–.62) for activities of daily living and OR 0.44 (CI: 0.39–0.50) for instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusion Physical activity is associated with significantly lower odds of physical and functional limitations in obese older adults regardless of how obesity is classified. Additional research is needed to determine whether physical activity moderates long-term physical and functional limitations. PMID:25794309

  13. Physical activity and mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Cox, Kay; Kurz, Alexander F

    2010-09-01

    Regular physical activity undoubtedly has many health benefits for all age groups. In the past decade, researchers and clinicians have begun to focus their attention on whether physical activity also can improve health outcomes of older adults who experience mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This ongoing question is gaining relevance in light of the aging of the world population and with it the rise of age-related conditions, such as cognitive impairment. Not surprisingly, physical activity is among the potential protective lifestyle factors mentioned when strategies to delay or prevent dementia are discussed. The first large-scale multidomain intervention trials are under way to put this to the test. This review aims to give an overview of recent trials of physical activity in patients with MCI or dementia.

  14. Applications of Resting-State Functional Connectivity to Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Liu, Siwei; Ng, Kwun Kei; Wang, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases target specific large-scale neuronal networks, leading to distinct behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMR imaging)-based functional connectivity method maps symptoms-associated functional network deterioration in vivo. This article summarizes accumulating functional connectivity findings supporting the network-based neurodegeneration hypothesis. Understanding of disease mechanism can further guide early detection and predictions of disease progression and inform development of more effective treatment. With better clinical phenotyping and larger samples across multiple sites, we discuss several possible future directions to further develop rsfMR imaging-based functional connectivity methods into scientifically and clinically useful assays for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical and Functional HAT/HDAC Interplay Regulates Protein Acetylation Balance

    PubMed Central

    Peserico, Alessia; Simone, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    The balance between protein acetylation and deacetylation controls several physiological and pathological cellular processes, and the enzymes involved in the maintenance of this equilibrium—acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs)—have been widely studied. Presently, the evidences obtained in this field suggest that the dynamic acetylation equilibrium is mostly maintained through the physical and functional interplay between HAT and HDAC activities. This model overcomes the classical vision in which the epigenetic marks of acetylation have only an activating function whereas deacetylation marks have a repressing activity. Given the existence of several players involved in the preservation of this equilibrium, the identification of these complex networks of interacting proteins will likely foster our understanding of how cells regulate intracellular processes and respond to the extracellular environment and will offer the rationale for new therapeutic approaches based on epigenetic drugs in human diseases. PMID:21151613

  16. Supervised physical exercise improves endothelial function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    dos Reis-Neto, Edgard Torres; da Silva, Aline Evelyn; Monteiro, Carlos Manoel de Castro; de Camargo, Luciano Monteiro; Sato, Emilia Inoue

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supervised physical exercise on endothelial function, ergospirometric test variables and disease activity in SLE patients. We conducted a prospective study in which women with SLE who were available to perform physical exercise were allocated to the exercise group (EG) to practise supervised physical exercise for 1 h three times per week for 16 weeks. Those who were not available for this activity were allocated to the control group (CG). Intervention consisted of walking at a heart rate corresponding to the ventilatory 1 threshold obtained from ergospirometry and monitored by a frequency meter. At baseline (T0) and after 16 weeks (T16), patients were assessed for endothelial function by brachial artery (flow-mediated dilation), ergospirometry and disease activity (SLEDAI). Statistical analysis was performed through normality tests, Student's t-test and non-parametric tests for data with non-normal distribution. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Eighteen patients were allocated in the EG and 20 in the CG. After 16 weeks there was an increase in FMD in the EG [6.3 (6.7)% vs 14.1 (9.1)%, P = 0.006] without a change in the CG [8.4 (8.2)% vs 9.4 (5.7)%, P = 0.598]. Regarding the ergospirometric test, we found improvement in exercise tolerance [12.3 (2.4) vs 13.4 (2.6) min, P = 0.027], maximum speed [7.7 (1.0) vs 8.3 (1.2) km/h, P = 0.027] and threshold speed [5.6 (0.7) vs 6.1 (0.9) km/h, P = 0.005] in the EG without a difference in the CG. There was no difference in the SLEDAI score in both groups. Physical exercise is a useful strategy to improve endothelial function and aerobic capacity without worsening disease activity in SLE patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION; ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), NCT01712529.

  17. Understanding and optimizing health-related quality of life and physical functional capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Amy L; Brown, Kevin K; Swigris, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive pulmonary disease characterized by the insidious onset of shortness of breath due to parenchymal scarring. As IPF progresses, breathlessness worsens, physical functional capacity declines, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) – the impact of health or disease on a person’s satisfaction with their overall station in life – deteriorates. These two inextricably linked variables – breathlessness and physical functional capacity – are strong drivers of HRQL. With the emergence of new and prospective therapies for IPF, it is more important than ever to be able to accurately and reliably assess how IPF patients feel and function. Doing so will promote the development of novel interventions to target impairments in these areas and ensure that the field is capable of assessing the effect of therapeutics interventions on these critically important patient-centered outcomes. PMID:27274328

  18. Lower levels of physical functioning are associated with higher body weight among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Coakley, E H; Kawachi, I; Manson, J E; Speizer, F E; Willet, W C; Colditz, G A

    1998-10-01

    To compare levels of physical function, across levels of body mass index (BMI), among middle- to older-aged women. Cross-sectional study. Physical function, body weight and other covariates were measured in 1992. 56510 women aged 45-71 y, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, participating in the Nurses' Health Study. The four physical function scores on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form-36 (SF36) Health Survey: physical functioning, vitality, bodily pain and role limitations. After adjusting for age, race, smoking status, menopausal status, physical activity and alcohol consumption, there was a significant dose-response gradient between increasing levels of BMI in 1992 and reduced function. For example, women with a BMI between 30-34.9 kg/m2 averaged: 9.0 point lower physical functioning score (95% Confidence interval (CI) -9.5, -8.5), 5.6 point lower vitality score (95% CI: -6.1, -5.1), and 7.0 point lower freedom from pain score (95% CI: -7.6, -6.4). These declines represent an approximate 10% loss of function compared to the reference category of women with BMIs ranging from 22.0-23.9 kg/m2. For the same BMI comparison, heavier women were at 66% increased risk of limitations in ability to work or perform other roles (RR = 1.66; 95% odds ratio (OR) CI: 1.56, 1.76). These findings were replicated when the sample was restricted to women who had maintained their BMI over a ten year period. In addition to increasing risk of chronic health conditions, greater adiposity is associated with lower every day physical functioning, such as climbing stairs or other moderate activities, as well as lower feelings of well-being and greater burden of pain.

  19. Psychological and Physical Functioning Difficulties Associated with Complex Activity Limitations among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Mitchell; Jonas, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited research that assesses psychological functioning categorically as a predictor of complex activity limitations either alone or in conjunction with physical functioning. Objectives This paper assesses the impact of psychological and/or physical functioning difficulties as predictors of complex activity limitations among U.S. adults, using data from a national survey. Methods Data come from the 2006–2010 National Health Interview Survey among U.S. adults 18 or older (n=124,337). We developed a combined physical/psychological exposure variable with six categories: 1) no/low psychological distress (LPD) and absence of physical functioning difficulties, 2) moderate psychological distress (MPD) only, 3) serious psychological distress (SPD) only, 4) physical functioning difficulty only, 5) MPD and physical functioning difficulties, and 6) SPD and physical functioning difficulties. Selected complex activity limitations include daily living, social and work limitations. Results Compared to adults with LPD and absence of physical functioning difficulties, the results demonstrated a clear and significant gradient of increasing risk of complex activity limitations beginning with MPD only, SPD only, physical functioning difficulty only, both MPD and physical functioning difficulties, and SPD and physical functioning difficulties. Conclusions The data suggest a stronger risk of complex activity limitations when increasing psychological functioning difficulties coexist with physical functioning difficulties, leading to potential interference with a person’s ability to accomplish major life activities measured in this study. The sizeable contribution of psychological distress to the prevalence of basic actions difficulty implies that the mental health component of functional limitations is important in the overall assessment of health and well-being. PMID:25239646

  20. Psychological and physical functioning difficulties associated with complex activity limitations among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Mitchell; Jonas, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research that assesses psychological functioning categorically as a predictor of complex activity limitations either alone or in conjunction with physical functioning. This paper assesses the impact of psychological and/or physical functioning difficulties as predictors of complex activity limitations among U.S. adults, using data from a national survey. Data come from the 2006-2010 National Health Interview Survey among U.S. adults 18 or older (n = 124,337). We developed a combined physical/psychological exposure variable with six categories: 1) no/low psychological distress (LPD) and absence of physical functioning difficulties, 2) moderate psychological distress (MPD) only, 3) serious psychological distress (SPD) only, 4) physical functioning difficulty only, 5) MPD and physical functioning difficulties, and 6) SPD and physical functioning difficulties. Selected complex activity limitations include daily living, social and work limitations. Compared to adults with LPD and absence of physical functioning difficulties, the results demonstrated a clear and significant gradient of increasing risk of complex activity limitations beginning with MPD only, SPD only, physical functioning difficulty only, both MPD and physical functioning difficulties, and SPD and physical functioning difficulties. The data suggest a stronger risk of complex activity limitations when increasing psychological functioning difficulties coexist with physical functioning difficulties, leading to potential interference with a person's ability to accomplish major life activities measured in this study. The sizeable contribution of psychological distress to the prevalence of basic actions difficulty implies that the mental health component of functional limitations is important in the overall assessment of health and well-being. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowsky, Cristina L.; Hammond, Edward R.; Strohl, Adam B.; Commean, Paul K.; Eby, Sarah A.; Damiano, Diane L.; Wingert, Jason R.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; McDonald, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Setting Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Participants Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Intervention Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Main outcome measure Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor–sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ≥1 point improvement. Results FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. Conclusion FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life. PMID:24094120

  2. Parkinson's disease: disturbed vestibular function and levodopa.

    PubMed

    Lithgow, Brian J; Shoushtarian, Mehrnaz

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates Levodopa effects central postural control. As electrophysiological postural control biomarkers, sensory oto-acoustic features were extracted from Electrovestibulography (EVestG) data to identify 20 healthy age and gender matched individuals as Controls from 20 PD subjects before (PDlowmed) and 18 after (PDmed) morning doses of Levodopa. EVestG data was collected using a single tilt stimulus applied in the pitch plane. The extracted features were based on the measured firing pattern, interval histogram and the shape of the average field potential response. An unbiased cross validated classification accuracy of 88%, 88% and 79% was achieved using combinations of 2 features for separating PDlowmed from control, control from PD (combined PDlowmed and PDmed), and PDlowmed from PDmed groups respectively. One feature showed significant correlations (p<0.05) with the Modified Hoehn and Yahr PD staging scale. The results indicate disturbed vestibular function is observed in both the PDmed and PDlowmed conditions, and these are separable. The implication is that Levodopa may also affect peripheral as well as central postural control.

  3. A Tandem Cycling Program: Feasibility and Physical Performance Outcomes in People With Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    McGough, Ellen L; Robinson, Cynthia A; Nelson, Mark D; Houle, Raymond; Fraser, Gabriell; Handley, Leslie; Jones, Emilie R; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kelly, Valerie E

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) have motor and nonmotor impairments that interfere with exercise participation. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and physical performance outcomes of a community-based indoor tandem cycling program that was designed to facilitate a higher cadence, consistency, and intensity of training. Forty-one participants with mild to moderate PD were enrolled. A high-cadence cycling protocol using mechanically augmented (or forced) exercise on a tandem bicycle was adapted for our program. Participants cycled 3 times per week for 10 weeks. Feasibility measures included program retention, attendance, and adverse events, as well as the ability to reach training goals for heart rate (HR) and cadence. Physical performance outcomes included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand (FTSTS) Test, Timed Up and Go (TUG), and gait parameters during usual and fast-paced walking. Program feasibility was demonstrated with a high attendance rate (96%) and retention rate (100%). There were no adverse events. The majority of participants reached their exercise training goals for target HR (87%) and cadence (95%). Statistically significant physical performance improvement (P < 0.05) was observed across domains of gait, balance, and mobility, suggesting a slowing or reversal of functional decline as a result of this cycling program. Program feasibility and improved physical performance outcomes were demonstrated in individuals with mild to moderate PD participating in a community-based indoor tandem cycling program.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A146).

  4. Effects of interactive physical-activity video-game training on physical and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors developed an active video game training program using a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 × 1 hr of training) with a control group without treatment. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, assessing execut