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Sample records for physical map based

  1. BAC-end sequence-based SNPs and Bin mapping for rapid integration of physical and genetic maps in apple.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuepeng; Chagné, David; Gasic, Ksenija; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Beever, Jonathan E; Gardiner, Susan E; Korban, Schuyler S

    2009-03-01

    A genome-wide BAC physical map of the apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., has been recently developed. Here, we report on integrating the physical and genetic maps of the apple using a SNP-based approach in conjunction with bin mapping. Briefly, BAC clones located at ends of BAC contigs were selected, and sequenced at both ends. The BAC end sequences (BESs) were used to identify candidate SNPs. Subsequently, these candidate SNPs were genetically mapped using a bin mapping strategy for the purpose of mapping the physical onto the genetic map. Using this approach, 52 (23%) out of 228 BESs tested were successfully exploited to develop SNPs. These SNPs anchored 51 contigs, spanning approximately 37 Mb in cumulative physical length, onto 14 linkage groups. The reliability of the integration of the physical and genetic maps using this SNP-based strategy is described, and the results confirm the feasibility of this approach to construct an integrated physical and genetic maps for apple.

  2. A high density physical map of chromosome 1BL supports evolutionary studies, map-based cloning and sequencing in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As for other major crops, achieving a complete wheat genome sequence is essential for the application of genomics to breeding new and improved varieties. To overcome the complexities of the large, highly repetitive and hexaploid wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium established a chromosome-based strategy that was validated by the construction of the physical map of chromosome 3B. Here, we present improved strategies for the construction of highly integrated and ordered wheat physical maps, using chromosome 1BL as a template, and illustrate their potential for evolutionary studies and map-based cloning. Results Using a combination of novel high throughput marker assays and an assembly program, we developed a high quality physical map representing 93% of wheat chromosome 1BL, anchored and ordered with 5,489 markers including 1,161 genes. Analysis of the gene space organization and evolution revealed that gene distribution and conservation along the chromosome results from the superimposition of the ancestral grass and recent wheat evolutionary patterns, leading to a peak of synteny in the central part of the chromosome arm and an increased density of non-collinear genes towards the telomere. With a density of about 11 markers per Mb, the 1BL physical map provides 916 markers, including 193 genes, for fine mapping the 40 QTLs mapped on this chromosome. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that high marker density physical maps can be developed in complex genomes such as wheat to accelerate map-based cloning, gain new insights into genome evolution, and provide a foundation for reference sequencing. PMID:23800011

  3. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the rainbow trout genome

    PubMed Central

    Palti, Yniv; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Hu, Yuqin; Genet, Carine; You, Frank M; Vallejo, Roger L; Thorgaard, Gary H; Wheeler, Paul A; Rexroad, Caird E

    2009-01-01

    Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. This resource will also facilitate efforts to obtain and assemble a whole-genome reference sequence for this species. Results The physical map was constructed from DNA fingerprinting of 192,096 BAC clones using the 4-color high-information content fingerprinting (HICF) method. The clones were assembled into physical map contigs using the finger-printing contig (FPC) program. The map is composed of 4,173 contigs and 9,379 singletons. The total number of unique fingerprinting fragments (consensus bands) in contigs is 1,185,157, which corresponds to an estimated physical length of 2.0 Gb. The map assembly was validated by 1) comparison with probe hybridization results and agarose gel fingerprinting contigs; and 2) anchoring large contigs to the microsatellite-based genetic linkage map. Conclusion The production and validation of the first BAC physical map of the rainbow trout genome is described in this paper. We are currently integrating this map with the NCCCWA genetic map using more than 200 microsatellites isolated from BAC end sequences and by identifying BACs that harbor more than 300 previously mapped markers. The availability of an integrated physical and genetic map will enable detailed comparative genome analyses, fine mapping of

  4. A third-generation microsatellite-based linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and its comparison with the sequence-based physical map.

    PubMed

    Solignac, Michel; Mougel, Florence; Vautrin, Dominique; Monnerot, Monique; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The honey bee is a key model for social behavior and this feature led to the selection of the species for genome sequencing. A genetic map is a necessary companion to the sequence. In addition, because there was originally no physical map for the honey bee genome project, a meiotic map was the only resource for organizing the sequence assembly on the chromosomes. We present the genetic (meiotic) map here and describe the main features that emerged from comparison with the sequence-based physical map. The genetic map of the honey bee is saturated and the chromosomes are oriented from the centromeric to the telomeric regions. The map is based on 2,008 markers and is about 40 Morgans (M) long, resulting in a marker density of one every 2.05 centiMorgans (cM). For the 186 megabases (Mb) of the genome mapped and assembled, this corresponds to a very high average recombination rate of 22.04 cM/Mb. Honey bee meiosis shows a relatively homogeneous recombination rate along and across chromosomes, as well as within and between individuals. Interference is higher than inferred from the Kosambi function of distance. In addition, numerous recombination hotspots are dispersed over the genome. The very large genetic length of the honey bee genome, its small physical size and an almost complete genome sequence with a relatively low number of genes suggest a very promising future for association mapping in the honey bee, particularly as the existence of haploid males allows easy bulk segregant analysis.

  5. Map of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Based on bibliometric data from information-services provider Thomson Reuters, this map reveals "core areas" of physics, shown as coloured circular nodes, and the relationship between these subdisciplines, shown as lines.

  6. A high-resolution physically-based global flood hazard map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaheil, Y.; Begnudelli, L.; McCollum, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results from a physically-based global flood hazard model. The model uses a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model is set up such that it allows the application of large-scale flood hazard through efficient use of parallel computing. For hydrology, we use the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model. HRR accounts for surface hydrology using Green-Ampt parameterization. The model is calibrated against observed discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) network, among other publicly-available datasets. The parallel-computing framework takes advantage of the river network structure to minimize cross-processor messages, and thus significantly increases computational efficiency. For inundation, we implemented a computationally-efficient 2D finite-volume model with wetting/drying. The approach consists of simulating flood along the river network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs simulated by HRR, and scaled up to certain return levels, e.g. 100 years. The model is distributed such that each available processor takes the next simulation. Given an approximate criterion, the simulations are ordered from most-demanding to least-demanding to ensure that all processors finalize almost simultaneously. Upon completing all simulations, the maximum envelope of flood depth is taken to generate the final map. The model is applied globally, with selected results shown from different continents and regions. The maps shown depict flood depth and extent at different return periods. These maps, which are currently available at 3 arc-sec resolution ( 90m) can be made available at higher resolutions where high resolution DEMs are available. The maps can be utilized by flood risk managers at the national, regional, and even local levels to further understand their flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual

  7. The Effects of Integrating Computer-Based Concept Mapping for Physics Learning in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Shih, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    It generally is accepted that concept mapping has a noticeable impact on learning. But literatures show the use of concept mapping is not benefit all learners. The present study explored the effects of incorporating computer-based concept mapping in physics instruction. A total of 61 9th-grade students participated in this study. By using a…

  8. Features of the organization of bread wheat chromosome 5BS based on physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Salina, Elena A; Nesterov, Mikhail A; Frenkel, Zeev; Kiseleva, Antonina A; Timonova, Ekaterina M; Magni, Federica; Vrána, Jan; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Korol, Abraham; Sergeeva, Ekaterina M

    2018-02-09

    The IWGSC strategy for construction of the reference sequence of the bread wheat genome is based on first obtaining physical maps of the individual chromosomes. Our aim is to develop and use the physical map for analysis of the organization of the short arm of wheat chromosome 5B (5BS) which bears a number of agronomically important genes, including genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases. A physical map of the 5BS arm (290 Mbp) was constructed using restriction fingerprinting and LTC software for contig assembly of 43,776 BAC clones. The resulting physical map covered ~ 99% of the 5BS chromosome arm (111 scaffolds, N50 = 3.078 Mb). SSR, ISBP and zipper markers were employed for anchoring the BAC clones, and from these 722 novel markers were developed based on previously obtained data from partial sequencing of 5BS. The markers were mapped using a set of Chinese Spring (CS) deletion lines, and F2 and RICL populations from a cross of CS and CS-5B dicoccoides. Three approaches have been used for anchoring BAC contigs on the 5BS chromosome, including clone-by-clone screening of BACs, GenomeZipper analysis, and comparison of BAC-fingerprints with in silico fingerprinting of 5B pseudomolecules of T. dicoccoides. These approaches allowed us to reach a high level of BAC contig anchoring: 96% of 5BS BAC contigs were located on 5BS. An interesting pattern was revealed in the distribution of contigs along the chromosome. Short contigs (200-999 kb) containing markers for the regions interrupted by tandem repeats, were mainly localized to the 5BS subtelomeric block; whereas the distribution of larger 1000-3500 kb contigs along the chromosome better correlated with the distribution of the regions syntenic to rice, Brachypodium, and sorghum, as detected by the Zipper approach. The high fingerprinting quality, LTC software and large number of BAC clones selected by the informative markers in screening of the 43,776 clones allowed us to significantly increase the

  9. Preduction of Vehicle Mobility on Large-Scale Soft-Soil Terrain Maps Using Physics-Based Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-02

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE MOBILITY ON LARGE-SCALE SOFT- SOIL TERRAIN MAPS USING PHYSICS-BASED SIMULATION Tamer M. Wasfy, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Dave...NRMM • Objectives • Soft Soils • Review of Physics-Based Soil Models • MBD/DEM Modeling Formulation – Joint & Contact Constraints – DEM Cohesive... Soil Model • Cone Penetrometer Experiment • Vehicle- Soil Model • Vehicle Mobility DOE Procedure • Simulation Results • Concluding Remarks 2UNCLASSIFIED

  10. Physical Webbing: Collaborative Kinesthetic Three-Dimensional Mind Maps[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian H.

    2012-01-01

    Mind Mapping has predominantly been used by individuals or collaboratively in groups as a paper-based or computer-generated learning strategy. In an effort to make Mind Mapping kinesthetic, collaborative, and three-dimensional, an innovative pedagogical strategy, termed Physical Webbing, was devised. In the Physical Web activity, groups…

  11. A High-throughput AFLP-based Method for Constructing Integrated Genetic and Physical Maps: Progress Toward a Sorghum Genome Map

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Patricia E.; Klein, Robert R.; Cartinhour, Samuel W.; Ulanch, Paul E.; Dong, Jianmin; Obert, Jacque A.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Schlueter, Shannon D.; Childs, Kevin L.; Ale, Melissa; Mullet, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Sorghum is an important target for plant genomic mapping because of its adaptation to harsh environments, diverse germplasm collection, and value for comparing the genomes of grass species such as corn and rice. The construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of the sorghum genome (750 Mbp) is a primary goal of our sorghum genome project. To help accomplish this task, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based method for building BAC contigs and locating BAC clones on the sorghum genetic map. This task involved pooling 24,576 sorghum BAC clones (∼4× genome equivalents) in six different matrices to create 184 pools of BAC DNA. DNA fragments from each pool were amplified using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology, resolved on a LI-COR dual-dye DNA sequencing system, and analyzed using Bionumerics software. On average, each set of AFLP primers amplified 28 single-copy DNA markers that were useful for identifying overlapping BAC clones. Data from 32 different AFLP primer combinations identified ∼2400 BACs and ordered ∼700 BAC contigs. Analysis of a sorghum RIL mapping population using the same primer pairs located ∼200 of the BAC contigs on the sorghum genetic map. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of the entire collection of sorghum BAC clones was applied to test and extend the contigs constructed using this PCR-based methodology. Analysis of the fingerprint data allowed for the identification of 3366 contigs each containing an average of 5 BACs. BACs in ∼65% of the contigs aligned by AFLP analysis had sufficient overlap to be confirmed by DNA fingerprint analysis. In addition, 30% of the overlapping BACs aligned by AFLP analysis provided information for merging contigs and singletons that could not be joined using fingerprint data alone. Thus, the combination of fingerprinting and AFLP-based contig assembly and mapping provides a reliable, high-throughput method for building an integrated genetic and physical map

  12. Reconstruction of an SSR-based Magnaporthe oryzae physical map to locate avirulence gene AvrPi12.

    PubMed

    Li, Tonghui; Wen, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yaling; Correll, James; Wang, Ling; Pan, Qinghua

    2018-05-31

    Pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes can evolve rapidly when challenged by the widespread deployment of host genes for resistance. They can be effectively isolated by positional cloning provided a robust and well-populated genetic map is available. An updated, SSR-based physical map of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (Mo) has been constructed based on 116 of the 120 SSRs used to assemble the last map, along with 18 newly developed ones. A comparison between the two versions of the map has revealed an altered marker content and order within most of the Mo chromosomes. The avirulence gene AvrPi12 was mapped in a population of 219 progeny derived from a cross between the two Mo isolates CHL42 and CHL357. A bulked segregant analysis indicated that the gene was located on chromosome 6, a conclusion borne out by an analysis of the pattern of segregation shown by individual isolates. Six additional PCR-based markers were developed to improve the map resolution in the key region. AvrPi12 was finally located within the sub-telomeric region of chromosome 6, distal to the SSR locus LSM6-5. The improved SSR-based linkage map should be useful as a platform for gene mapping and isolation in Mo. It was used to establish the location of AvrPi12, thereby providing a starting point for its positional cloning.

  13. Construction of a high-density, high-resolution genetic map and its integration with BAC-based physical map in channel catfish

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Qin, Zhenkui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Wang, Ruijia; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Danzmann, Roy G.; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Construction of genetic linkage map is essential for genetic and genomic studies. Recent advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies made it possible to generate high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage maps, especially for the organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present work, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic map for channel catfish with three large resource families genotyped using the catfish 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 54,342 SNPs were placed on the linkage map, which to our knowledge had the highest marker density among aquaculture species. The estimated genetic size was 3,505.4 cM with a resolution of 0.22 cM for sex-averaged genetic map. The sex-specific linkage maps spanned a total of 4,495.1 cM in females and 2,593.7 cM in males, presenting a ratio of 1.7 : 1 between female and male in recombination fraction. After integration with the previously established physical map, over 87% of physical map contigs were anchored to the linkage groups that covered a physical length of 867 Mb, accounting for ∼90% of the catfish genome. The integrated map provides a valuable tool for validating and improving the catfish whole-genome assembly and facilitates fine-scale QTL mapping and positional cloning of genes responsible for economically important traits. PMID:25428894

  14. A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH). Results First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.64 times longer than the 850 Mb potato genome. Genome heterozygosity and incomplete merging of BAC contigs are two factors that can explain this map inflation. The contig information of both physical maps was united in a single table that describes hybrid potato physical map. Conclusions The AFLP physical map has already been used by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium for sequencing 10% of the heterozygous genome of clone RH on a BAC-by-BAC basis. By layering a new WGP physical map on top of the AFLP physical map, a genetically anchored genome-wide framework of 322434 sequence tags has been created. This reference framework can be used for anchoring and ordering of genomic

  15. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  16. A Fine Physical Map of the Rice Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Zhukuan; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Shengyue; Feng, Qi; Huang, Yucheng; Li, Ying; Tang, Yesheng; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Zhehua; Yu, Shuliang; Zhu, Jingjie; Hu, Xin; Mu, Jie; Ying, Kai; Hao, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yiqi; Zhang, Lei S.; Liu, Yilei; Yu, Zhen; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Chen, Ling; Lu, Tingting; Liu, Xiaohui; Jia, Peixin; Sun, Tongguo; Wu, Yongrui; Zhang, Yujun; Lu, Ying; Li, Can; Wang, Rong; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tao; Hu, Hao; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Runquan; Guan, Jianping; Zhu, Jia; Fu, Gang; Gu, Minghong; Hong, Guofan; Xue, Yongbiao; Wing, Rod; Jiang, Jiming; Han, Bin

    2002-01-01

    As part of an international effort to completely sequence the rice genome, we have produced a fine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of the Oryza sativa japonica Nipponbare chromosome 4 through an integration of 114 sequenced BAC clones from a taxonomically related subspecies O. sativa indica Guangluai 4 and 182 RFLP and 407 expressed sequence tag (EST) markers with the fingerprinted data of the Nipponbare genome. The map consists of 11 contigs with a total length of 34.5 Mb covering 94% of the estimated chromosome size (36.8 Mb). BAC clones corresponding to telomeres, as well as to the centromere position, were determined by BAC-pachytene chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This gave rise to an estimated length ratio of 5.13 for the long arm and 2.9 for the short arm (on the basis of the physical map), which indicates that the short arm is a highly condensed one. The FISH analysis and physical mapping also showed that the short arm and the pericentromeric region of the long arm are rich in heterochromatin, which occupied 45% of the chromosome, indicating that this chromosome is likely very difficult to sequence. To our knowledge, this map provides the first example of a rapid and reliable physical mapping on the basis of the integration of the data from two taxonomically related subspecies. [The following individuals and institutions kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: S. McCouch, T. Sasaki, and Monsanto.] PMID:11997348

  17. High resolution physical mapping of single gene fragments on pachytene chromosome 4 and 7 of Rosa.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2015-07-02

    Rosaceae is a family containing many economically important fruit and ornamental species. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based physical mapping of plant genomes is a valuable tool for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, no studies using high resolution physical mapping have been performed in this family. Previously we proved that physical mapping of single-copy genes as small as 1.1 kb is possible on mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Rosa wichurana using Tyramide-FISH. In this study we aimed to further improve the physical map of Rosa wichurana by applying high resolution FISH to pachytene chromosomes. Using high resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH, 7 genes (1.7-3 kb) were successfully mapped on pachytene chromosomes 4 and 7 of Rosa wichurana. Additionally, by using multicolor Tyramide-FISH three closely located genes were simultaneously visualized on chromosome 7. A detailed map of heterochromatine/euchromatine patterns of chromosome 4 and 7 was developed with indication of the physical position of these 7 genes. Comparison of the gene order between Rosa wichurana and Fragaria vesca revealed a poor collinearity for chromosome 7, but a perfect collinearity for chromosome 4. High resolution physical mapping of short probes on pachytene chromosomes of Rosa wichurana was successfully performed for the first time. Application of Tyramide-FISH on pachytene chromosomes allowed the mapping resolution to be increased up to 20 times compared to mitotic metaphase chromosomes. High resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH might become useful tools for further physical mapping of single-copy genes and for the integration of physical and genetic maps of Rosa wichurana and other members of the Rosaceae.

  18. Comparative physical mapping between wheat chromosome arm 2BL and rice chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tong Geon; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2010-12-01

    Physical maps of chromosomes provide a framework for organizing and integrating diverse genetic information. DNA microarrays are a valuable technique for physical mapping and can also be used to facilitate the discovery of single feature polymorphisms (SFPs). Wheat chromosome arm 2BL was physically mapped using a Wheat Genome Array onto near-isogenic lines (NILs) with the aid of wheat-rice synteny and mapped wheat EST information. Using high variance probe set (HVP) analysis, 314 HVPs constituting genes present on 2BL were identified. The 314 HVPs were grouped into 3 categories: HVPs that match only rice chromosome 4 (298 HVPs), those that match only wheat ESTs mapped on 2BL (1), and those that match both rice chromosome 4 and wheat ESTs mapped on 2BL (15). All HVPs were converted into gene sets, which represented either unique rice gene models or mapped wheat ESTs that matched identified HVPs. Comparative physical maps were constructed for 16 wheat gene sets and 271 rice gene sets. Of the 271 rice gene sets, 257 were mapped to the 18-35 Mb regions on rice chromosome 4. Based on HVP analysis and sequence similarity between the gene models in the rice chromosomes and mapped wheat ESTs, the outermost rice gene model that limits the translocation breakpoint to orthologous regions was identified.

  19. An Integrated Physical, Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of Brachypodium distachyon, a Model System for Grass Research

    PubMed Central

    Febrer, Melanie; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wright, Jonathan; McKenzie, Neil; Song, Xiang; Lin, Jinke; Collura, Kristi; Wissotski, Marina; Yu, Yeisoo; Ammiraju, Jetty S. S.; Wolny, Elzbieta; Idziak, Dominika; Betekhtin, Alexander; Kudrna, Dave; Hasterok, Robert; Wing, Rod A.; Bevan, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The pooid subfamily of grasses includes some of the most important crop, forage and turf species, such as wheat, barley and Lolium. Developing genomic resources, such as whole-genome physical maps, for analysing the large and complex genomes of these crops and for facilitating biological research in grasses is an important goal in plant biology. We describe a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of the wild pooid grass Brachypodium distachyon and integrate this with whole genome shotgun sequence (WGS) assemblies using BAC end sequences (BES). The resulting physical map contains 26 contigs spanning the 272 Mb genome. BES from the physical map were also used to integrate a genetic map. This provides an independent vaildation and confirmation of the published WGS assembly. Mapped BACs were used in Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) experiments to align the integrated physical map and sequence assemblies to chromosomes with high resolution. The physical, genetic and cytogenetic maps, integrated with whole genome shotgun sequence assemblies, enhance the accuracy and durability of this important genome sequence and will directly facilitate gene isolation. PMID:20976139

  20. A cytological-physical map of 22q11

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Rizzu, P.; Gaddini, L.

    Our laboratory is involved in the construction of a cytological-physical map of 22q11 and isolation of expressed sequences from the region involved in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). One of the goals of the mapping is an understanding of the molecular mechanisms which generate the 22q11 microdeletions observed with high frequency in DGS and VCFS. Our of over 60 deleted patients studied in our laboratory, all but one were deleted for two loci approximately 1-2 Mb apart. There is evidence from patients with balanced and unbalanced translocations that deletion of the whole region is not necessary for determinationmore » of the clinical phenotype. Therefore, it is possible that deletion breakpoints occur as a consequence of structural characteristics of the DNA that predispose to rearrangements. A striking characteristic of the 22q11 region is the abundance of low copy repeat sequences. It is reasonable to think that recombination between these repeats may lead to microdeletions. However, a direct demonstration of such mechanism is not available yet. The presence of repeats makes standard physical mapping techniques based on hybridization or STS mapping often difficult to interpret. For example, we have found clones positive for the same STS that are located in different positions within 22q11. For this reason we have used high resolution cytological mapping as a supporting technique for map validation. We present the current status map which includes known polymorphic and non-polymorphic loci, newly isolated clones and chromosomal deletion breakpoints. The map extends from the loci D22S9/D22S24 to TOP1P2. Extended chromatin hybridization experiments visually demonstrate the presence of at least two repeat islands flanking (or at) the region where chromosomal breakpoints of the commonly deleted region occur.« less

  1. BioNano genome mapping of individual chromosomes supports physical mapping and sequence assembly in complex plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Staňková, Helena; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Vrána, Jan; Tulpová, Zuzana; Kubaláková, Marie; Visendi, Paul; Hayashi, Satomi; Luo, Mingcheng; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of a reference genome sequence of bread wheat is challenging due to its specific features such as the genome size of 17 Gbp, polyploid nature and prevalence of repetitive sequences. BAC-by-BAC sequencing based on chromosomal physical maps, adopted by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium as the key strategy, reduces problems caused by the genome complexity and polyploidy, but the repeat content still hampers the sequence assembly. Availability of a high-resolution genomic map to guide sequence scaffolding and validate physical map and sequence assemblies would be highly beneficial to obtaining an accurate and complete genome sequence. Here, we chose the short arm of chromosome 7D (7DS) as a model to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to couple chromosome flow sorting with genome mapping in nanochannel arrays and create a de novo genome map of a wheat chromosome. We constructed a high-resolution chromosome map composed of 371 contigs with an N50 of 1.3 Mb. Long DNA molecules achieved by our approach facilitated chromosome-scale analysis of repetitive sequences and revealed a ~800-kb array of tandem repeats intractable to current DNA sequencing technologies. Anchoring 7DS sequence assemblies obtained by clone-by-clone sequencing to the 7DS genome map provided a valuable tool to improve the BAC-contig physical map and validate sequence assembly on a chromosome-arm scale. Our results indicate that creating genome maps for the whole wheat genome in a chromosome-by-chromosome manner is feasible and that they will be an affordable tool to support the production of improved pseudomolecules. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High resolution global flood hazard map from physically-based hydrologic and hydraulic models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnudelli, L.; Kaheil, Y.; McCollum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global flood map published online at http://www.fmglobal.com/research-and-resources/global-flood-map at 90m resolution is being used worldwide to understand flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual risk financially through flood insurance programs. The modeling system is based on a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model can be applied to large-scale flood hazard mapping thanks to several solutions that maximize its efficiency and the use of parallel computing. The hydrologic component of the modeling system is the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model. HRR simulates hydrological processes using a Green-Ampt parameterization, and is calibrated against observed discharge data from several publicly-available datasets. For inundation mapping, we use a 2D Finite-Volume Shallow-Water model with wetting/drying. We introduce here a grid Up-Scaling Technique (UST) for hydraulic modeling to perform simulations at higher resolution at global scale with relatively short computational times. A 30m SRTM is now available worldwide along with higher accuracy and/or resolution local Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in many countries and regions. UST consists of aggregating computational cells, thus forming a coarser grid, while retaining the topographic information from the original full-resolution mesh. The full-resolution topography is used for building relationships between volume and free surface elevation inside cells and computing inter-cell fluxes. This approach almost achieves computational speed typical of the coarse grids while preserving, to a significant extent, the accuracy offered by the much higher resolution available DEM. The simulations are carried out along each river of the network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs generated by HRR. Hydrographs are scaled so that the peak

  3. The Implementation of Physics Problem Solving Strategy Combined with Concept Map in General Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to provide a description of the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps in General Physics learning at Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Padang. Action research has been conducted in two cycles where each end of the cycle is reflected and improved for the next cycle. Implementation of Physics Problem Solving strategy combined with concept map can increase student activity in solving general physics problem with an average increase of 15% and can improve student learning outcomes from 42,7 in the cycle I become 62,7 in cycle II in general physics at the Universitas Negeri Padang. In the future, the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps will need to be considered in Physics courses.

  4. Construction of an ultra-high density consensus genetic map, and enhancement of the physical map from genome sequencing in Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Jian, Jianbo; Wang, Penghao; Li, Chengdao; Tao, Ye; Li, Xuan; Renshaw, Daniel; Clements, Jonathan; Sweetingham, Mark; Yang, Huaan

    2018-01-01

    An ultra-high density genetic map containing 34,574 sequence-defined markers was developed in Lupinus angustifolius. Markers closely linked to nine genes of agronomic traits were identified. A physical map was improved to cover 560.5 Mb genome sequence. Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a recently domesticated legume grain crop. In this study, we applied the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) method to genotype an F 9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a wild type × domesticated cultivar (W × D) cross. A high density linkage map was developed based on the W × D population. By integrating sequence-defined DNA markers reported in previous mapping studies, we established an ultra-high density consensus genetic map, which contains 34,574 markers consisting of 3508 loci covering 2399 cM on 20 linkage groups. The largest gap in the entire consensus map was 4.73 cM. The high density W × D map and the consensus map were used to develop an improved physical map, which covered 560.5 Mb of genome sequence data. The ultra-high density consensus linkage map, the improved physical map and the markers linked to genes of breeding interest reported in this study provide a common tool for genome sequence assembly, structural genomics, comparative genomics, functional genomics, QTL mapping, and molecular plant breeding in lupin.

  5. Integrated physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS to facilitate gene cloning and comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Tulpová, Zuzana; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Toegelová, Helena; Visendi, Paul; Hayashi, Satomi; Vojta, Petr; Paux, Etienne; Kilian, Andrzej; Abrouk, Michaël; Bartoš, Jan; Hajdúch, Marián; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana

    2018-03-08

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning. As a part of a joint effort coordinated by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, we have constructed a BAC-based physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS consisting of 895 contigs and covering 94% of its estimated length. By anchoring BAC contigs to one radiation hybrid map and three high resolution genetic maps, we assigned 73% of the assembly to a distinct genomic position. This map integration, interconnecting a total of 1713 markers with ordered and sequenced BAC clones from a minimal tiling path, provides a tool to speed up gene cloning in wheat. The process of physical map assembly included the integration of the 7DS physical map with a whole-genome physical map of Aegilops tauschii and a 7DS Bionano genome map, which together enabled efficient scaffolding of physical-map contigs, even in the non-recombining region of the genetic centromere. Moreover, this approach facilitated a comparison of bread wheat and its ancestor at BAC-contig level and revealed a reconstructed region in the 7DS pericentromere. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. What Do Pre-Service Physics Teachers Know and Think about Concept Mapping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didis, Nilüfer; Özcan, Özgür; Azar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In order to use concept maps in physics classes effectively, teachers' knowledge and ideas about concept mapping are as important as the physics knowledge used in mapping. For this reason, we aimed to examine pre-service physics teachers' knowledge on concept mapping, their ideas about the implementation of concept mapping in physics…

  7. Localization of Allotetraploid Gossypium SNPs Using Physical Mapping Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent efforts in Gossypium SNP development have produced thousands of putative SNPs for G. barbadense, G. mustelinum, and G. tomentosum relative to G. hirsutum. Here we report on current efforts to localize putative SNPs using physical mapping resources. Recent advances in physical mapping resour...

  8. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.

  9. Learning about a Level Physics Students' Understandings of Particle Physics Using Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research using concept mapping to elicit A level students' understandings of particle physics. Fifty-nine year 12 (16- and 17 year-old) students from two London schools participated. The exercise took place during school physics lessons. Students were instructed how to make a concept map and were…

  10. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.

  11. Application of Intervention Mapping to the Development of a Complex Physical Therapist Intervention.

    PubMed

    Jones, Taryn M; Dear, Blake F; Hush, Julia M; Titov, Nickolai; Dean, Catherine M

    2016-12-01

    Physical therapist interventions, such as those designed to change physical activity behavior, are often complex and multifaceted. In order to facilitate rigorous evaluation and implementation of these complex interventions into clinical practice, the development process must be comprehensive, systematic, and transparent, with a sound theoretical basis. Intervention Mapping is designed to guide an iterative and problem-focused approach to the development of complex interventions. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the application of an Intervention Mapping approach to the development of a complex physical therapist intervention, a remote self-management program aimed at increasing physical activity after acquired brain injury. Intervention Mapping consists of 6 steps to guide the development of complex interventions: (1) needs assessment; (2) identification of outcomes, performance objectives, and change objectives; (3) selection of theory-based intervention methods and practical applications; (4) organization of methods and applications into an intervention program; (5) creation of an implementation plan; and (6) generation of an evaluation plan. The rationale and detailed description of this process are presented using an example of the development of a novel and complex physical therapist intervention, myMoves-a program designed to help individuals with an acquired brain injury to change their physical activity behavior. The Intervention Mapping framework may be useful in the development of complex physical therapist interventions, ensuring the development is comprehensive, systematic, and thorough, with a sound theoretical basis. This process facilitates translation into clinical practice and allows for greater confidence and transparency when the program efficacy is investigated. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  12. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-07-15

    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Correlation of physical and genetic maps of human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This project aimed to divide chromosome 16 into approximately 50 intervals of {approximately}2Mb in size by constructing a series of mouse/human somatic cell hybrids each containing a rearranged chromosome 16. Using these hybrids, DNA probes would be regionally mapped by Southern blot or PCR analysis. Preference would be given to mapping probes which demonstrated polymorphisms for which the CEPH panel of families had been typed. This would allow a correlation of the physical and linkage maps of this chromosome. The aims have been substantially achieved. 49 somatic cell hybrids have been constructed which have allowed definition of 46, and potentiallymore » 57, different physical intervals on the chromosome. 164 loci have been fully mapped into these intervals. A correlation of the physical and genetic maps of the chromosome is in an advanced stage of preparation. The somatic cell hybrids constructed have been widely distributed to groups working on chromosome 16 and other genome projects.« less

  14. Physics-based real time ground motion parameter maps: the Central Mexico example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Guzman, L.; Contreras Ruiz Esparza, M. G.; Quiroz Ramirez, A.; Carrillo Lucia, M. A.; Perez Yanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present the use of near real time ground motion simulations in the generation of ground motion parameter maps for Central Mexico. Simple algorithm approaches to predict ground motion parameters of civil protection and risk engineering interest are based on the use of observed instrumental values, reported macroseismic intensities and their correlations, and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). A remarkable example of the use of this approach is the worldwide Shakemap generation program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Nevertheless, simple approaches rely strongly on the availability of instrumental and macroseismic intensity reports, as well as the accuracy of the GMPEs and the site effect amplification calculation. In regions where information is scarce, the GMPEs, a reference value in a mean sense, provide most of the ground motion information together with site effects amplification using a simple parametric approaches (e.g. the use of Vs30), and have proven to be elusive. Here we propose an approach that includes physics-based ground motion predictions (PBGMP) corrected by instrumental information using a Bayesian Kriging approach (Kitanidis, 1983) and apply it to the central region of Mexico. The method assumes: 1) the availability of a large database of low and high frequency Green's functions developed for the region of interest, using fully three-dimensional and representative one-dimension models, 2) enough real time data to obtain the centroid moment tensor and a slip rate function, and 3) a computational infrastructure that can be used to compute the source parameters and generate broadband synthetics in near real time, which will be combined with recorded instrumental data. By using a recently developed velocity model of Central Mexico and an efficient finite element octree-based implementation we generate a database of source-receiver Green's functions, valid to 0.5 Hz, that covers 160 km x 300 km x 700 km of Mexico, including a

  15. A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF). A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT) and Vitis vinifera (VV) whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence. PMID:20569427

  16. Integrated consensus genetic and physical maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Ragupathy, Raja; Miranda, Evelyn; Radovanovic, Natasa; Reimer, Elsa; Walichnowski, Andrzej; Ward, Kerry; Rowland, Gordon; Duguid, Scott; Banik, Mitali

    2012-12-01

    Three linkage maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were constructed from populations CDC Bethune/Macbeth, E1747/Viking and SP2047/UGG5-5 containing between 385 and 469 mapped markers each. The first consensus map of flax was constructed incorporating 770 markers based on 371 shared markers including 114 that were shared by all three populations and 257 shared between any two populations. The 15 linkage group map corresponds to the haploid number of chromosomes of this species. The marker order of the consensus map was largely collinear in all three individual maps but a few local inversions and marker rearrangements spanning short intervals were observed. Segregation distortion was present in all linkage groups which contained 1-52 markers displaying non-Mendelian segregation. The total length of the consensus genetic map is 1,551 cM with a mean marker density of 2.0 cM. A total of 670 markers were anchored to 204 of the 416 fingerprinted contigs of the physical map corresponding to ~274 Mb or 74 % of the estimated flax genome size of 370 Mb. This high resolution consensus map will be a resource for comparative genomics, genome organization, evolution studies and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence.

  17. Predicting protein contact map using evolutionary and physical constraints by integer programming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Jinbo

    2013-07-01

    Protein contact map describes the pairwise spatial and functional relationship of residues in a protein and contains key information for protein 3D structure prediction. Although studied extensively, it remains challenging to predict contact map using only sequence information. Most existing methods predict the contact map matrix element-by-element, ignoring correlation among contacts and physical feasibility of the whole-contact map. A couple of recent methods predict contact map by using mutual information, taking into consideration contact correlation and enforcing a sparsity restraint, but these methods demand for a very large number of sequence homologs for the protein under consideration and the resultant contact map may be still physically infeasible. This article presents a novel method PhyCMAP for contact map prediction, integrating both evolutionary and physical restraints by machine learning and integer linear programming. The evolutionary restraints are much more informative than mutual information, and the physical restraints specify more concrete relationship among contacts than the sparsity restraint. As such, our method greatly reduces the solution space of the contact map matrix and, thus, significantly improves prediction accuracy. Experimental results confirm that PhyCMAP outperforms currently popular methods no matter how many sequence homologs are available for the protein under consideration. http://raptorx.uchicago.edu.

  18. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and chicken (Gallus gallus) genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage) from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and model species. PMID:21906286

  19. Integration of hybridization-based markers (overgos) into physical maps for comparative and evolutionary explorations in the genus Oryza and in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Hass-Jacobus, Barbara L; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Westerman, Rick; Goicoechea, Jose-Luis; Stein, Joshua; Klein, Patricia; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Zhou, Bin; Rakhshan, Fariborz; Sanyal, Abhijit; Gill, Navdeep; Lin, Jer-Young; Walling, Jason G; Luo, Mei Zhong; Ammiraju, Jetty Siva S; Kudrna, Dave; Kim, Hye Ran; Ware, Doreen; Wing, Rod A; Miguel, Phillip San; Jackson, Scott A

    2006-01-01

    Background With the completion of the genome sequence for rice (Oryza sativa L.), the focus of rice genomics research has shifted to the comparison of the rice genome with genomes of other species for gene cloning, breeding, and evolutionary studies. The genus Oryza includes 23 species that shared a common ancestor 8–10 million years ago making this an ideal model for investigations into the processes underlying domestication, as many of the Oryza species are still undergoing domestication. This study integrates high-throughput, hybridization-based markers with BAC end sequence and fingerprint data to construct physical maps of rice chromosome 1 orthologues in two wild Oryza species. Similar studies were undertaken in Sorghum bicolor, a species which diverged from cultivated rice 40–50 million years ago. Results Overgo markers, in conjunction with fingerprint and BAC end sequence data, were used to build sequence-ready BAC contigs for two wild Oryza species. The markers drove contig merges to construct physical maps syntenic to rice chromosome 1 in the wild species and provided evidence for at least one rearrangement on chromosome 1 of the O. sativa versus Oryza officinalis comparative map. When rice overgos were aligned to available S. bicolor sequence, 29% of the overgos aligned with three or fewer mismatches; of these, 41% gave positive hybridization signals. Overgo hybridization patterns supported colinearity of loci in regions of sorghum chromosome 3 and rice chromosome 1 and suggested that a possible genomic inversion occurred in this syntenic region in one of the two genomes after the divergence of S. bicolor and O. sativa. Conclusion The results of this study emphasize the importance of identifying conserved sequences in the reference sequence when designing overgo probes in order for those probes to hybridize successfully in distantly related species. As interspecific markers, overgos can be used successfully to construct physical maps in species which

  20. Crowdsourcing Physical Network Topology Mapping With Net.Tagger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    backend server infrastructure . This in- cludes a full security audit, better web services handling, and integration with the OSM stack and dataset to...a novel approach to network infrastructure mapping that combines smartphone apps with crowdsourced collection to gather data for offline aggregation...and analysis. The project aims to build a map of physical network infrastructure such as fiber-optic cables, facilities, and access points. The

  1. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  2. Mapping the literature of physical therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wakiji, E M

    1997-01-01

    Physical therapy is a fast growing profession because of the aging population, medical advances, and the public's interest in health promotion. This study is part of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's project to map the allied health literature. It identifies the core journals in physical therapy by analyzing the cited references of articles in two established physical therapy journals, Physical Therapy and Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, during the period 1991 through 1993. This bibliometric analysis also determines the extent to which these journals are covered by the primary indexing sources, Allied and Alternative Medicine (AMED), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. In this study, fourteen journals were found to supply one-third of all references studied. Ninety-five journals provided an additional third of the references. MEDLINE rated the highest as the indexing tool of choice for these 109 journals. The study results can assist in collection development decisions, advise physical therapists as to the best access to their core literature, and influence database producers to increase their coverage of the literature important to physical therapy. PMID:9285129

  3. Global Genomic Diversity of Oryza sativa Varieties Revealed by Comparative Physical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kudrna, David A.; Pan, Yonglong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lin; Lin, Haiyan; Zhang, Jianwei; Song, Xiang; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A.; Zhang, Qifa; Luo, Meizhong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical maps embedding a large number of BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated for Oryza sativa ssp. indica varieties Minghui 63 (MH63) and Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and were compared with the genome sequences of O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Nipponbare and O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11. The comparisons exhibited substantial diversities in terms of large structural variations and small substitutions and indels. Genome-wide BAC-sized and contig-sized structural variations were detected, and the shared variations were analyzed. In the expansion regions of the Nipponbare reference sequence, in comparison to the MH63 and ZS97 physical maps, as well as to the previously constructed 93-11 physical map, the amounts and types of the repeat contents, and the outputs of gene ontology analysis, were significantly different from those of the whole genome. Using the physical maps of four wild Oryza species from OMAP (http://www.omap.org) as a control, we detected many conserved and divergent regions related to the evolution process of O. sativa. Between the BESs of MH63 and ZS97 and the two reference sequences, a total of 1532 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 71,383 SNPs, 1767 multiple nucleotide polymorphisms, 6340 insertions, and 9137 deletions were identified. This study provides independent whole-genome resources for intra- and intersubspecies comparisons and functional genomics studies in O. sativa. Both the comparative physical maps and the GBrowse, which integrated the QTL and molecular markers from GRAMENE (http://www.gramene.org) with our physical maps and analysis results, are open to the public through our Web site (http://gresource.hzau.edu.cn/resource/resource.html). PMID:24424778

  4. Genomic Characterization of DArT Markers Based on High-Density Linkage Analysis and Physical Mapping to the Eucalyptus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Petroli, César D.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Carling, Jason; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Myburg, Alexander A.; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Kilian, Andrzej; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a robust, high throughput, cost-effective method to query thousands of sequence polymorphisms in a single assay. Despite the extensive use of this genotyping platform for numerous plant species, little is known regarding the sequence attributes and genome-wide distribution of DArT markers. We investigated the genomic properties of the 7,680 DArT marker probes of a Eucalyptus array, by sequencing them, constructing a high density linkage map and carrying out detailed physical mapping analyses to the Eucalyptus grandis reference genome. A consensus linkage map with 2,274 DArT markers anchored to 210 microsatellites and a framework map, with improved support for ordering, displayed extensive collinearity with the genome sequence. Only 1.4 Mbp of the 75 Mbp of still unplaced scaffold sequence was captured by 45 linkage mapped but physically unaligned markers to the 11 main Eucalyptus pseudochromosomes, providing compelling evidence for the quality and completeness of the current Eucalyptus genome assembly. A highly significant correspondence was found between the locations of DArT markers and predicted gene models, while most of the 89 DArT probes unaligned to the genome correspond to sequences likely absent in E. grandis, consistent with the pan-genomic feature of this multi-Eucalyptus species DArT array. These comprehensive linkage-to-physical mapping analyses provide novel data regarding the genomic attributes of DArT markers in plant genomes in general and for Eucalyptus in particular. DArT markers preferentially target the gene space and display a largely homogeneous distribution across the genome, thereby providing superb coverage for mapping and genome-wide applications in breeding and diversity studies. Data reported on these ubiquitous properties of DArT markers will be particularly valuable to researchers working on less-studied crop species who already count on DArT genotyping arrays but for which no reference

  5. Physical Maps for Genome Analysis of Serotype A and D Strains of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tangen, Kristin L.; Chiu, Readman; Shin, Heesun; Lengeler, Klaus B.; MacDonald, William Kim; Bosdet, Ian; Heitman, Joseph; Jones, Steven J.M.; Marra, Marco A.; Kronstad, James W.

    2002-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen of humans that poses a significant threat to immunocompromised individuals. Isolates of C. neoformans are classified into serotypes (A, B, C, D, and AD) based on antigenic differences in the polysaccharide capsule that surrounds the fungal cells. Genomic and EST sequencing projects are underway for the serotype D strain JEC21 and the serotype A strain H99. As part of a genomics program for C. neoformans, we have constructed fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone physical maps for strains H99 and JEC21 to support the genomic sequencing efforts and to provide an initial comparison of the two genomes. The BAC clones represented an estimated 10-fold redundant coverage of the genomes of each serotype and allowed the assembly of 20 contigs each for H99 and JEC21. We found that the genomes of the two strains are sufficiently distinct to prevent coassembly of the two maps when combined fingerprint data are used to construct contigs. Hybridization experiments placed 82 markers on the JEC21 map and 102 markers on the H99 map, enabling contigs to be linked with specific chromosomes identified by electrophoretic karyotyping. These markers revealed both extensive similarity in gene order (conservation of synteny) between JEC21 and H99 as well as examples of chromosomal rearrangements including inversions and translocations. Sequencing reads were generated from the ends of the BAC clones to allow correlation of genomic shotgun sequence data with physical map contigs. The BAC maps therefore represent a valuable resource for the generation, assembly, and finishing of the genomic sequence of both JEC21 and H99. The physical maps also serve as a link between map-based and sequence-based data, providing a powerful resource for continued genomic studies. [This paper is dedicated to the memory of Michael Smith, Founding Director of the Biotechnology Laboratory and the BC Cancer

  6. Physical Mapping in a Triplicated Genome: Mapping the Downy Mildew Resistance Locus Pp523 in Brassica oleracea L.

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Jorge D.; Alabaça, Claudia S.; Sousa, Nelson H.; Coelho, Paula S.; Monteiro, António A.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Leitão, José M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the construction of a BAC contig and identification of a minimal tiling path that encompass the dominant and monogenically inherited downy mildew resistance locus Pp523 of Brassica oleracea L. The selection of BAC clones for construction of the physical map was carried out by screening gridded BAC libraries with DNA overgo probes derived from both genetically mapped DNA markers flanking the locus of interest and BAC-end sequences that align to Arabidopsis thaliana sequences within the previously identified syntenic region. The selected BAC clones consistently mapped to three different genomic regions of B. oleracea. Although 83 BAC clones were accurately mapped within a ∼4.6 cM region surrounding the downy mildew resistance locus Pp523, a subset of 33 BAC clones mapped to another region on chromosome C8 that was ∼60 cM away from the resistance gene, and a subset of 63 BAC clones mapped to chromosome C5. These results reflect the triplication of the Brassica genomes since their divergence from a common ancestor shared with A. thaliana, and they are consonant with recent analyses of the C genome of Brassica napus. The assembly of a minimal tiling path constituted by 13 (BoT01) BAC clones that span the Pp523 locus sets the stage for map-based cloning of this resistance gene. PMID:22384370

  7. Meeting the Demands of Professional Education: A Study of Mind Mapping in a Professional Doctoral Physical Therapy Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Elicia L.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate whether the quiz scores of physical therapy students who integrated mind mapping in their learning strategies are significantly different than the quiz scores of students who did not use mind mapping to learn in a lecture-based research course and examine the students' perceptions of mind mapping as a…

  8. High-throughput physical mapping of chromosomes using automated in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    George, Phillip; Sharakhova, Maria V; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2012-06-28

    Projects to obtain whole-genome sequences for 10,000 vertebrate species and for 5,000 insect and related arthropod species are expected to take place over the next 5 years. For example, the sequencing of the genomes for 15 malaria mosquitospecies is currently being done using an Illumina platform. This Anopheles species cluster includes both vectors and non-vectors of malaria. When the genome assemblies become available, researchers will have the unique opportunity to perform comparative analysis for inferring evolutionary changes relevant to vector ability. However, it has proven difficult to use next-generation sequencing reads to generate high-quality de novo genome assemblies. Moreover, the existing genome assemblies for Anopheles gambiae, although obtained using the Sanger method, are gapped or fragmented. Success of comparative genomic analyses will be limited if researchers deal with numerous sequencing contigs, rather than with chromosome-based genome assemblies. Fragmented, unmapped sequences create problems for genomic analyses because: (i) unidentified gaps cause incorrect or incomplete annotation of genomic sequences; (ii) unmapped sequences lead to confusion between paralogous genes and genes from different haplotypes; and (iii) the lack of chromosome assignment and orientation of the sequencing contigs does not allow for reconstructing rearrangement phylogeny and studying chromosome evolution. Developing high-resolution physical maps for species with newly sequenced genomes is a timely and cost-effective investment that will facilitate genome annotation, evolutionary analysis, and re-sequencing of individual genomes from natural populations. Here, we present innovative approaches to chromosome preparation, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and imaging that facilitate rapid development of physical maps. Using An. gambiae as an example, we demonstrate that the development of physical chromosome maps can potentially improve genome assemblies and

  9. A Radio-Map Automatic Construction Algorithm Based on Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Xiao, Chenxian; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional radio-map-based localization methods need to sample a large number of location fingerprints offline, which requires huge amount of human and material resources. To solve the high sampling cost problem, an automatic radio-map construction algorithm based on crowdsourcing is proposed. The algorithm employs the crowd-sourced information provided by a large number of users when they are walking in the buildings as the source of location fingerprint data. Through the variation characteristics of users’ smartphone sensors, the indoor anchors (doors) are identified and their locations are regarded as reference positions of the whole radio-map. The AP-Cluster method is used to cluster the crowdsourced fingerprints to acquire the representative fingerprints. According to the reference positions and the similarity between fingerprints, the representative fingerprints are linked to their corresponding physical locations and the radio-map is generated. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces the cost of fingerprint sampling and radio-map construction and guarantees the localization accuracy. The proposed method does not require users’ explicit participation, which effectively solves the resource-consumption problem when a location fingerprint database is established. PMID:27070623

  10. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G. B.; Agliardi, F.

    Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  11. A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

  12. Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating the Potato Genome with Genetic and Physical Maps

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D’Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S.; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A.; Hamilton, John P.; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J.; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E.; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E.; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M. E.; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker−based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal “pseudomolecules”. PMID:24062527

  13. Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.J.; Page, R.E. Jr.

    A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an average of about 2.8 loci mapped for each 10-nucleotide primer that was used in polymerase chain reactions. The mean interval size between markers on the map was 9.1 cM. The map covered 3110 cM of linked markers on 26 linkagemore » groups. We estimate the total genome size to be {approximately}3450 cM. The size of the map indicated a very high recombination rate for the honey bee. The relationship of physical to genetic distance was estimated at 52 kb/cM, suggesting that map-based cloning of genes will be feasible for this species. 71 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    DOE PAGES

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; ...

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtimemore » variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.« less

  15. The physical map of wheat chromosome 1BS provides insights into its gene space organization and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The wheat genome sequence is an essential tool for advanced genomic research and improvements. The generation of a high-quality wheat genome sequence is challenging due to its complex 17 Gb polyploid genome. To overcome these difficulties, sequencing through the construction of BAC-based physical maps of individual chromosomes is employed by the wheat genomics community. Here, we present the construction of the first comprehensive physical map of chromosome 1BS, and illustrate its unique gene space organization and evolution. Results Fingerprinted BAC clones were assembled into 57 long scaffolds, anchored and ordered with 2,438 markers, covering 83% of chromosome 1BS. The BAC-based chromosome 1BS physical map and gene order of the orthologous regions of model grass species were consistent, providing strong support for the reliability of the chromosome 1BS assembly. The gene space for chromosome 1BS spans the entire length of the chromosome arm, with 76% of the genes organized in small gene islands, accompanied by a two-fold increase in gene density from the centromere to the telomere. Conclusions This study provides new evidence on common and chromosome-specific features in the organization and evolution of the wheat genome, including a non-uniform distribution of gene density along the centromere-telomere axis, abundance of non-syntenic genes, the degree of colinearity with other grass genomes and a non-uniform size expansion along the centromere-telomere axis compared with other model cereal genomes. The high-quality physical map constructed in this study provides a solid basis for the assembly of a reference sequence of chromosome 1BS and for breeding applications. PMID:24359668

  16. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, Rosemary RC; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009. PMID:18808709

  17. Comparing the performance of various digital soil mapping approaches to map physical soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Spatial information on physical soil properties is intensely expected, in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. One of the most widely used properties to characterize soils physically is particle size distribution (PSD), which determines soil water management and cultivability. According to their size, different particles can be categorized as clay, silt, or sand. The size intervals are defined by national or international textural classification systems. The relative percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil constitutes textural classes, which are also specified miscellaneously in various national and/or specialty systems. The most commonly used is the classification system of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Soil texture information is essential input data in meteorological, hydrological and agricultural prediction modelling. Although Hungary has a great deal of legacy soil maps and other relevant soil information, it often occurs, that maps do not exist on a certain characteristic with the required thematic and/or spatial representation. The recent developments in digital soil mapping (DSM), however, provide wide opportunities for the elaboration of object specific soil maps (OSSM) with predefined parameters (resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.). Due to the simultaneous richness of available Hungarian legacy soil data, spatial inference methods and auxiliary environmental information, there is a high versatility of possible approaches for the compilation of a given soil map. This suggests the opportunity of optimization. For the creation of an OSSM one might intend to identify the optimum set of soil data, method and auxiliary co-variables optimized for the resources (data costs, computation requirements etc.). We started comprehensive analysis of the effects of the various DSM components on the accuracy of the output maps on pilot areas. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate different

  18. Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Na, Jong-Kuk; Wang, Jianping; Murray, Jan E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Zhang, Wenli; Yu, Qingyi; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F Alex; Chen, Cuixia; Kubat, Zdenek; Moore, Paul H; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2012-05-08

    Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male), XYh (hermaphrodite), and XX (female). The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY) is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460 F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5 Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4 Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5 Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5 Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4 Mb (89%) DNA sequence expansion. The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2-3 million years ago. The genetically defined borders coincide with the common

  19. Methodologies For A Physically Based Rockfall Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Guzzetti, F.; Marian, M.

    Rockfall hazard assessment is an important land planning tool in alpine areas, where settlements progressively expand across rockfall prone areas, rising the vulnerability of the elements at risk, the worth of potential losses and the restoration costs. Nev- ertheless, hazard definition is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. In addition, the high mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope insta- bilities for which runout is minimal. When coping with rockfalls, hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". The local occurrence probability must derive from the combination of the triggering probability (related to the geomechanical susceptibility of rock masses to fail) and the transit or impact probability at a given location (related to the motion of falling blocks). The intensity (or magnitude) of a rockfall is a complex function of mass, velocity and fly height of involved blocks that can be defined in many different ways depending on the adopted physical description and "destructiveness" criterion. This work is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of numerical modelling performed by an original 3D rockfall simulation program. This is based on a kinematic algorithm and allows the spatially distributed simulation of rockfall motions on a three-dimensional topography described by a DTM. The code provides raster maps portraying the max- imum frequency of transit, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. The results of some three dimensional rockfall models, performed at both regional and lo- cal scale in areas where rockfall related problems are well known, have been used to assess rockfall hazard, by adopting an objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing a positional

  20. Physical mapping of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Evans, G.A.

    1993-06-15

    A method for the simultaneous identification of overlapping cosmid clones among multiple cosmid clones and the use of the method for mapping complex genomes are provided. A library of cosmid clones that contains the DNA to be mapped is constructed and arranged in a manner such that individual clones can be identified and replicas of the arranged clones prepared. In preferred embodiments, the clones are arranged in a two dimensional matrix. In such embodiments, the cosmid clones in a row are pooled, mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts in the pooled clones are synthesized, hybridized to a first replica of the library. Hybridizing clones, which include the pooled row, are identified. A second portion of clones is prepared by pooling cosmid clones that correspond to a column in the matrix. The second pool thereby includes one clone from the first portion pooled clones. This common clone is located on the replica at the intersection of the column and row. Mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts in the second pooled portion of clones are prepared and hybridized to a second replica of the library. The hybridization pattern on the first and second replicas of the library are compared and cross-hybridizing clones, other than the clones in the pooled column and row, that hybridize to identical clones in the first and second replicas are identified. These clones necessarily include DNA inserts that overlap with the DNA insert in the common clone located at the intersection of the pooled row and pooled column. The DNA in the entire library may be mapped by pooling the clones in each of the rows and columns of the matrix, preparing mixed end-specific probes and hybridizing the probes from each row or column to a replica of the library. Since all clones in the library are located at the intersection of a column and a row, the overlapping clones for all clones in the library may be identified and a physical map constructed.

  1. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    PubMed

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2018-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8), "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11) and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39). The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  2. CrowdMapping: A Crowdsourcing-Based Terminology Mapping Method for Medical Data Standardization.

    PubMed

    Mao, Huajian; Chi, Chenyang; Huang, Boyu; Meng, Haibin; Yu, Jinghui; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology is the prerequisite of data exchange in analysis of clinical processes. However, data from different electronic health record systems are based on idiosyncratic terminology systems, especially when the data is from different hospitals and healthcare organizations. Terminology standardization is necessary for the medical data analysis. We propose a crowdsourcing-based terminology mapping method, CrowdMapping, to standardize the terminology in medical data. CrowdMapping uses a confidential model to determine how terminologies are mapped to a standard system, like ICD-10. The model uses mappings from different health care organizations and evaluates the diversity of the mapping to determine a more sophisticated mapping rule. Further, the CrowdMapping model enables users to rate the mapping result and interact with the model evaluation. CrowdMapping is a work-in-progress system, we present initial results mapping terminologies.

  3. Vision-based mapping with cooperative robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, James J.; Jennings, Cullen; Murray, Don

    1998-10-01

    Two stereo-vision-based mobile robots navigate and autonomously explore their environment safely while building occupancy grid maps of the environment. The robots maintain position estimates within a global coordinate frame using landmark recognition. This allows them to build a common map by sharing position information and stereo data. Stereo vision processing and map updates are done at 3 Hz and the robots move at speeds of 200 cm/s. Cooperative mapping is achieved through autonomous exploration of unstructured and dynamic environments. The map is constructed conservatively, so as to be useful for collision-free path planning. Each robot maintains a separate copy of a shared map, and then posts updates to the common map when it returns to observe a landmark at home base. Issues include synchronization, mutual localization, navigation, exploration, registration of maps, merging repeated views (fusion), centralized vs decentralized maps.

  4. Self-Organizing Maps-based ocean currents forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Kalinić, Hrvoje; Cosoli, Simone; Janeković, Ivica; Žagar, Nedjeljka; Jesenko, Blaž; Tudor, Martina; Dadić, Vlado; Ivanković, Damir

    2016-03-16

    An ocean surface currents forecasting system, based on a Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) neural network algorithm, high-frequency (HF) ocean radar measurements and numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, has been developed for a coastal area of the northern Adriatic and compared with operational ROMS-derived surface currents. The two systems differ significantly in architecture and algorithms, being based on either unsupervised learning techniques or ocean physics. To compare performance of the two methods, their forecasting skills were tested on independent datasets. The SOM-based forecasting system has a slightly better forecasting skill, especially during strong wind conditions, with potential for further improvement when data sets of higher quality and longer duration are used for training.

  5. Self-Organizing Maps-based ocean currents forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Kalinić, Hrvoje; Cosoli, Simone; Janeković, Ivica; Žagar, Nedjeljka; Jesenko, Blaž; Tudor, Martina; Dadić, Vlado; Ivanković, Damir

    2016-01-01

    An ocean surface currents forecasting system, based on a Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) neural network algorithm, high-frequency (HF) ocean radar measurements and numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, has been developed for a coastal area of the northern Adriatic and compared with operational ROMS-derived surface currents. The two systems differ significantly in architecture and algorithms, being based on either unsupervised learning techniques or ocean physics. To compare performance of the two methods, their forecasting skills were tested on independent datasets. The SOM-based forecasting system has a slightly better forecasting skill, especially during strong wind conditions, with potential for further improvement when data sets of higher quality and longer duration are used for training. PMID:26979129

  6. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Background Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. Materials and methods A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including “CDC Redberry” x “ILL7502” (LR8), “ILL8006” x “CDC Milestone” (LR11) and “PI320937” x “Eston” (LR39). Results The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. Conclusion This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data. PMID:29351563

  7. Combination of statistical and physically based methods to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Zêzere, José L.; Lajas, Sara; Melo, Raquel

    2017-07-01

    Approaches used to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistical or physically based methods. The former are based on the assumption that the same causes are more likely to produce the same effects, whereas the latter are based on the comparison between forces which tend to promote movement along the slope and the counteracting forces that are resistant to motion. Within this general framework, this work tests two hypotheses: (i) although conceptually and methodologically distinct, the statistical and deterministic methods generate similar shallow slide susceptibility results regarding the model's predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii) the combination of shallow slide susceptibility maps obtained with statistical and physically based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow slide occurrence. These hypotheses were tested at a small test site (13.9 km2) located north of Lisbon (Portugal), using a statistical method (the information value method, IV) and a physically based method (the infinite slope method, IS). The landslide susceptibility maps produced with the statistical and deterministic methods were combined into a new landslide susceptibility map. The latter was based on a set of integration rules defined by the cross tabulation of the susceptibility classes of both maps and analysis of the corresponding contingency tables. The results demonstrate a higher predictive capacity of the new shallow slide susceptibility map, which combines the independent results obtained with statistical and physically based models. Moreover, the combination of the two models allowed the identification of areas where the results of the information value and the infinite slope methods are contradictory. Thus, these areas were classified as uncertain and deserve additional investigation at a more detailed scale.

  8. GRAD-MAP: A Joint Physics and Astronomy Diversity Initiative at the University of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Amy; Smith, Robyn; Wilkins, Ashlee; Jameson, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Graduate Resources for Advancing Diversity with Maryland’s Astronomy and Physics (GRAD-MAP), builds connections between UMD and mid-Atlantic HBCUs, Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs), and community colleges. We use seminars, forums, and workshops to foster a diverse community of undergraduates prepared to succeed in graduate school, inclusion-minded graduate student mentors, and faculty versed in the experiences of students at MSIs and the need for changes in the fields of physics and astronomy. Now in its fifth year, GRAD-MAP remains a graduate-student-powered initiative with a three-pronged approach: 1) Fall Collaborative Seminars, 2) A Winter Workshop, and 3) A Summer Scholars Program. This coherent set of programming allows GRAD-MAP to do more than just increase the numbers of minority students participating in astronomy and physics research (or worse, simply shuffle around students who already are or would be active in research). GRAD-MAP is committed to identifying students who are otherwise underserved or overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline, not only to get them on the path to be successful undergraduate researchers and eventual graduate applicants, but also to make substantial, sustainable efforts toward making the climate of academic physics and astronomy more inclusive to them and all other underrepresented minority students. We will describe the key elements of our program, highlight successes and lessons learned, and describe future directions for program elements. GRAD-MAP can serve as a model for other universities committed to diversity and inclusion.

  9. Machine learning-based dual-energy CT parametric mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Kuan-Hao; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Jordan, David W.; Van Hedent, Steven; Klahr, Paul; Wei, Zhouping; Helo, Rose Al; Liang, Fan; Qian, Pengjiang; Pereira, Gisele C.; Rassouli, Negin; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Traughber, Bryan J.; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.

    2018-06-01

    The aim is to develop and evaluate machine learning methods for generating quantitative parametric maps of effective atomic number (Zeff), relative electron density (ρ e), mean excitation energy (I x ), and relative stopping power (RSP) from clinical dual-energy CT data. The maps could be used for material identification and radiation dose calculation. Machine learning methods of historical centroid (HC), random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to learn the relationship between dual-energy CT input data and ideal output parametric maps calculated for phantoms from the known compositions of 13 tissue substitutes. After training and model selection steps, the machine learning predictors were used to generate parametric maps from independent phantom and patient input data. Precision and accuracy were evaluated using the ideal maps. This process was repeated for a range of exposure doses, and performance was compared to that of the clinically-used dual-energy, physics-based method which served as the reference. The machine learning methods generated more accurate and precise parametric maps than those obtained using the reference method. Their performance advantage was particularly evident when using data from the lowest exposure, one-fifth of a typical clinical abdomen CT acquisition. The RF method achieved the greatest accuracy. In comparison, the ANN method was only 1% less accurate but had much better computational efficiency than RF, being able to produce parametric maps in 15 s. Machine learning methods outperformed the reference method in terms of accuracy and noise tolerance when generating parametric maps, encouraging further exploration of the techniques. Among the methods we evaluated, ANN is the most suitable for clinical use due to its combination of accuracy, excellent low-noise performance, and computational efficiency.

  10. Machine learning-based dual-energy CT parametric mapping.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Hao; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Jordan, David W; Van Hedent, Steven; Klahr, Paul; Wei, Zhouping; Al Helo, Rose; Liang, Fan; Qian, Pengjiang; Pereira, Gisele C; Rassouli, Negin; Gilkeson, Robert C; Traughber, Bryan J; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Muzic, Raymond F

    2018-06-08

    The aim is to develop and evaluate machine learning methods for generating quantitative parametric maps of effective atomic number (Z eff ), relative electron density (ρ e ), mean excitation energy (I x ), and relative stopping power (RSP) from clinical dual-energy CT data. The maps could be used for material identification and radiation dose calculation. Machine learning methods of historical centroid (HC), random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to learn the relationship between dual-energy CT input data and ideal output parametric maps calculated for phantoms from the known compositions of 13 tissue substitutes. After training and model selection steps, the machine learning predictors were used to generate parametric maps from independent phantom and patient input data. Precision and accuracy were evaluated using the ideal maps. This process was repeated for a range of exposure doses, and performance was compared to that of the clinically-used dual-energy, physics-based method which served as the reference. The machine learning methods generated more accurate and precise parametric maps than those obtained using the reference method. Their performance advantage was particularly evident when using data from the lowest exposure, one-fifth of a typical clinical abdomen CT acquisition. The RF method achieved the greatest accuracy. In comparison, the ANN method was only 1% less accurate but had much better computational efficiency than RF, being able to produce parametric maps in 15 s. Machine learning methods outperformed the reference method in terms of accuracy and noise tolerance when generating parametric maps, encouraging further exploration of the techniques. Among the methods we evaluated, ANN is the most suitable for clinical use due to its combination of accuracy, excellent low-noise performance, and computational efficiency.

  11. Measurable realistic image-based 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Ding, W.; Almagbile, A.

    2011-12-01

    Maps with 3D visual models are becoming a remarkable feature of 3D map services. High-resolution image data is obtained for the construction of 3D visualized models.The3D map not only provides the capabilities of 3D measurements and knowledge mining, but also provides the virtual experienceof places of interest, such as demonstrated in the Google Earth. Applications of 3D maps are expanding into the areas of architecture, property management, and urban environment monitoring. However, the reconstruction of high quality 3D models is time consuming, and requires robust hardware and powerful software to handle the enormous amount of data. This is especially for automatic implementation of 3D models and the representation of complicated surfacesthat still need improvements with in the visualisation techniques. The shortcoming of 3D model-based maps is the limitation of detailed coverage since a user can only view and measure objects that are already modelled in the virtual environment. This paper proposes and demonstrates a 3D map concept that is realistic and image-based, that enables geometric measurements and geo-location services. Additionally, image-based 3D maps provide more detailed information of the real world than 3D model-based maps. The image-based 3D maps use geo-referenced stereo images or panoramic images. The geometric relationships between objects in the images can be resolved from the geometric model of stereo images. The panoramic function makes 3D maps more interactive with users but also creates an interesting immersive circumstance. Actually, unmeasurable image-based 3D maps already exist, such as Google street view, but only provide virtual experiences in terms of photos. The topographic and terrain attributes, such as shapes and heights though are omitted. This paper also discusses the potential for using a low cost land Mobile Mapping System (MMS) to implement realistic image 3D mapping, and evaluates the positioning accuracy that a measureable

  12. Spectroscopic mapping of the physical properties of supernova remnant N 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauletti, D.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Physical conditions inside a supernova remnant can vary significantly between different positions. However, typical observational data of supernova remnants are integrated data or contemplate specific portions of the remnant. Aims: We study the spatial variation in the physical properties of the N 49 supernova remnant based on a spectroscopic mapping of the whole nebula. Methods: Long-slit spectra were obtained with the slit (~4' × 1.03″) aligned along the east-west direction from 29 different positions spaced by 2″ in declination. A total of 3248 1D spectra were extracted from sections of 2″ of the 2D spectra. More than 60 emission lines in the range 3550 Å to 8920 Å were measured in these spectra. Maps of the fluxes and of intensity ratios of these emission lines were built with a spatial resolution of 2″ × 2″. Results: An electron density map has been obtained using the [S II] λ6716 /λ6731 line ratio. Values vary from ~500 cm-3 at the northeast region to more than 3500 cm-3 at the southeast border. We calculated the electron temperature using line ratio sensors for the ions S+, O++, O+, and N+. Values are about 3.6 × 104 K for the O++ sensor and about 1.1 × 104 K for other sensors. The Hα/Hβ ratio map presents a ring structure with higher values that may result from collisional excitation of hydrogen. We detected an area with high values of [N II] λ6583/Hα extending from the remnant center to its northeastern border, which may be indicating an overabundance of nitrogen in the area due to contamination by the progenitor star. We found a radial dependence in many line intensity ratio maps. We observed an increase toward the remnant borders of the intensity ratio of any two lines in which the numerator comes before in the sequence [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ4363, [Ar III] λ7136, [Ne III] λ3869, [O II] λ7325, [O II] λ3727, He II λ4686, Hβ λ4861, [N II] λ6583, He I λ6678, [S II] λ6731, [S II] λ6716, [O I] λ6300, [Ca II]

  13. A Concept Hierarchy Based Ontology Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Weiru; Bell, David

    Ontology mapping is one of the most important tasks for ontology interoperability and its main aim is to find semantic relationships between entities (i.e. concept, attribute, and relation) of two ontologies. However, most of the current methods only consider one to one (1:1) mappings. In this paper we propose a new approach (CHM: Concept Hierarchy based Mapping approach) which can find simple (1:1) mappings and complex (m:1 or 1:m) mappings simultaneously. First, we propose a new method to represent the concept names of entities. This method is based on the hierarchical structure of an ontology such that each concept name of entity in the ontology is included in a set. The parent-child relationship in the hierarchical structure of an ontology is then extended as a set-inclusion relationship between the sets for the parent and the child. Second, we compute the similarities between entities based on the new representation of entities in ontologies. Third, after generating the mapping candidates, we select the best mapping result for each source entity. We design a new algorithm based on the Apriori algorithm for selecting the mapping results. Finally, we obtain simple (1:1) and complex (m:1 or 1:m) mappings. Our experimental results and comparisons with related work indicate that utilizing this method in dealing with ontology mapping is a promising way to improve the overall mapping results.

  14. Mental and Physical (MAP) Training: a neurogenesis-inspired intervention that enhances health in humans.

    PubMed

    Shors, Tracey J; Olson, Ryan L; Bates, Marsha E; Selby, Edward A; Alderman, Brandon L

    2014-11-01

    New neurons are generated in the hippocampus each day and their survival is greatly enhanced through effortful learning (Shors, 2014). The numbers of cells produced can be increased by physical exercise (van Praag, Kempermann, & Gage, 1999). These findings inspired us to develop a clinical intervention for humans known as Mental and Physical Training, or MAP Training. Each session consists of 30min of mental training with focused attention meditation (20min sitting and 10min walking). Meditation is an effortful training practice that involves learning about the transient nature of thoughts and thought patterns, and acquiring skills to recognize them without necessarily attaching meaning and/or emotions to them. The mental training component is followed by physical training with 30min of aerobic exercise performed at moderate intensity. During this component, participants learn choreographed dance routines while engaging in aerobic exercise. In a pilot "proof-of-concept" study, we provided supervised MAP Training (2 sessions per week for 8weeks) to a group of young mothers in the local community who were recently homeless, most of them having previously suffered from physical and sexual abuse, addiction, and depression. Preliminary data suggest that MAP Training improves dependent measures of aerobic fitness (as assessed by maximal rate of oxygen consumed) while decreasing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Similar changes were not observed in a group of recently homeless women who did not participate in MAP Training. It is not currently possible to determine whether new neurons in the human brain increase in number as a result of MAP Training. Rather these preliminary results of MAP Training illustrate how neuroscientific research can be translated into novel clinical interventions that benefit human health and wellness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GRAD-MAP: A Joint Physics and Astronomy Diversity Initiative at the University of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Jameson, Katherine; Taylor, Corbin James; Anderson, Neil; Megson, Peter; Roberg-Clark, Gareth; Sheppard, Kyle; Uher, Tim; Hammer, Donna; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate Resources for Advancing Diversity with Maryland's Astronomy and Physics (GRAD-MAP), builds connections between UMD and mid-Atlantic HBCUs, Minority-Serving Institutions, and community colleges, and uses seminars, forums, and workshops to foster a diverse community of undergraduates prepared to succeed in graduate school, and is now in its third year. GRAD-MAP launched with a three-pronged approach: 1) Collaborative Seminars, 2) A Winter Workshop, and 3) A Spring Symposium. This program allows GRAD-MAP to do more than just increase the numbers of minority students participating in astronomy and physics research (or, worse, simply shuffle around students who already are or would be); it is committed to identifying students who are otherwise underserved or overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline, not only to get them on the path to be successful undergraduate researchers and eventual graduate applicants, but also to make the climate of academic physics and astronomy more inclusive to them and all other underrepresented minority students. Our poster describes the key elements of our program, and highlights successes and lessons learned; GRAD-MAP can serve as a model for other universities committed to diversity and inclusion.

  16. Physical mapping of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.

    1993-01-01

    Method for simultaneous identification of overlapping cosmid clones among multiple cosmid clones and the use of the method for mapping complex genomes are provided. A library of cosmid clones that contains the DNA to be mapped is constructed and arranged in a manner such that individual clones can be identified and replicas of the arranged clones prepared. In preferred embodiments, the clones are arranged in a two dimensional matrix. In such embodiments, the cosmid clones in a row are pooled, mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts int he pooled clones are synthesized, hybridized to a first replica of the library. Hybridizing clones, which include the pooled row, are identified. A second portion of clones is prepared by pooling cosmid clones that correspond to a column in the matrix. The second pool thereby includes one clone from the first portion pooled clones. This common clone is located on the replica at the intersection of the column and row. Mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts in the second pooled portion of clones are prepared and hybridized to a second replica of the library. The hybridization pattern on the first and second replicas of the library are compared and cross-hybridizing clones, other than the clones in the pooled column and row, that hybridize to identical clones in the first and second replicas are identified. These clones necessarily include DNA inserts that overlap with the DNA insert int he common clone located at the intersection of the pooled row and pooled column. The DNA in the entire library may be mapped by pooling the clones in each of the rows and columns of the matrix, preparing mixed end-specific probes and hybridizing the probes from each row or column to a replica of the library. Since all clones in the library are located at the intersection of a column and a row, the overlapping clones for all clones in the library may be identified and a physical map constructed. In other preferred

  17. Integrating physical and genetic maps: from genomes to interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Andreas; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ideker, Trey

    2009-01-01

    Physical and genetic mapping data have become as important to network biology as they once were to the Human Genome Project. Integrating physical and genetic networks currently faces several challenges: increasing the coverage of each type of network; establishing methods to assemble individual interaction measurements into contiguous pathway models; and annotating these pathways with detailed functional information. A particular challenge involves reconciling the wide variety of interaction types that are currently available. For this purpose, recent studies have sought to classify genetic and physical interactions along several complementary dimensions, such as ordered versus unordered, alleviating versus aggravating, and first versus second degree. PMID:17703239

  18. Construction of a map-based reference genome sequence for barley, Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Colmsee, Christian; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Zhang, Qisen; Li, Lin; Bayer, Micha; Bolser, Daniel; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Felder, Marius; Hastie, Alex; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, Saki; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Ounit, Rachid; Wanamaker, Steve; Schmutzer, Thomas; Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Grasso, Stefano; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Sampath, Dharanya; Heavens, Darren; Cao, Sujie; Chapman, Brett; Dai, Fei; Han, Yong; Li, Hua; Li, Xuan; Lin, Chongyun; McCooke, John K.; Tan, Cong; Wang, Songbo; Yin, Shuya; Zhou, Gaofeng; Poland, Jesse A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Houben, Andreas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, Sarah; Lonardi, Stefano; Langridge, Peter; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Kersey, Paul; Clark, Matthew D.; Caccamo, Mario; Schulman, Alan H.; Platzer, Matthias; Close, Timothy J.; Hansson, Mats; Zhang, Guoping; Braumann, Ilka; Li, Chengdao; Waugh, Robbie; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Mascher, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. The map-based reference genome sequence of barley cv. ‘Morex’ was constructed by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC) using hierarchical shotgun sequencing. Here, we report the experimental and computational procedures to (i) sequence and assemble more than 80,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones along the minimum tiling path of a genome-wide physical map, (ii) find and validate overlaps between adjacent BACs, (iii) construct 4,265 non-redundant sequence scaffolds representing clusters of overlapping BACs, and (iv) order and orient these BAC clusters along the seven barley chromosomes using positional information provided by dense genetic maps, an optical map and chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C). Integrative access to these sequence and mapping resources is provided by the barley genome explorer (BARLEX). PMID:28448065

  19. Mapping the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity in U.S. States, 1984-2015.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Xiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Yan; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. This study aimed to map the prevalence of physical inactivity across U.S. states over the past three decades, and estimate the over-time adjusted changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity in each state. Individual-level data (N = 6,701,954) were taken from the 1984-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of state-representative adult population. Prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical inactivity was estimated by state and survey year, accounting for the BRFSS sampling design. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity over the study period for each state, adjusting for individual characteristics including sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity varied substantially across states and survey years. In general, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity gradually declined over the past three decades in a majority of states. However, a substantial proportion of American adults remain physically inactive. Among the 50 states and District of Columbia, 45 had over a fifth of their adult population without any leisure-time physical activity, and 8 had over 30% without physical activity in 2015. Moreover, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity in several states (Arizona, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming) remained largely unchanged or even increased (Minnesota and Ohio) over the study period. Although the prevalence of physical inactivity declined over the past three decades in a majority of states, the rates remain substantially high and vary considerably across states. Closely monitoring and tracking physical activity level using the state physical activity maps can help guide policy and program

  20. A Bayesian and Physics-Based Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Quiroz, A.; Sandoval, H.; Perez-Yanez, C.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macias, M. A.; Alcántara, L.

    2014-12-01

    We present the Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation (GMPMG) system developed by the Institute of Engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The system delivers estimates of information associated with the social impact of earthquakes, engineering ground motion parameters (gmp), and macroseismic intensity maps. The gmp calculated are peak ground acceleration and velocity (pga and pgv) and response spectral acceleration (SA). The GMPMG relies on real-time data received from strong ground motion stations belonging to UNAM's networks throughout Mexico. Data are gathered via satellite and internet service providers, and managed with the data acquisition software Earthworm. The system is self-contained and can perform all calculations required for estimating gmp and intensity maps due to earthquakes, automatically or manually. An initial data processing, by baseline correcting and removing records containing glitches or low signal-to-noise ratio, is performed. The system then assigns a hypocentral location using first arrivals and a simplified 3D model, followed by a moment tensor inversion, which is performed using a pre-calculated Receiver Green's Tensors (RGT) database for a realistic 3D model of Mexico. A backup system to compute epicentral location and magnitude is in place. A Bayesian Kriging is employed to combine recorded values with grids of computed gmp. The latter are obtained by using appropriate ground motion prediction equations (for pgv, pga and SA with T=0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 s ) and numerical simulations performed in real time, using the aforementioned RGT database (for SA with T=2, 2.5 and 3 s). Estimated intensity maps are then computed using SA(T=2S) to Modified Mercalli Intensity correlations derived for central Mexico. The maps are made available to the institutions in charge of the disaster prevention systems. In order to analyze the accuracy of the maps, we compare them against observations not considered in the

  1. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes.

  2. Building a base map with AutoCAD

    SciTech Connect

    Flarity, S.J.

    1989-12-01

    The fundamental step in the exploration process is building a base map. Consequently, any serious computer exploration program should be capable of providing base maps. Data used in constructing base maps are available from commercial sources such as Tobin. and Petroleum Information. These data sets include line and well data, the line data being latitude longitude vectors, and the ell data any identifying text information for well and their locations. AutoCAD is a commercial program useful in building base maps. Its features include infinite zoom and pan capability, layering, block definition, text dialog boxes, and a command language, AutoLisp. AutoLispmore » provides more power by allowing the geologist to modify the way the program works. Three AutoLisp routines presented here allow geologists to construct a geologic base map from raw Tobin data. The first program, WELLS.LSP, sets up the map environment for the subsequent programs, WELLADD.LSP and LINEADD.LSP. Welladd.lisp reads the Tobin data and spots the well symbols and the identifying information. Lineadd.lsp performs the same task on line and textural information contained within the data set.« less

  3. GRAD-MAP: A Physics and Astronomy Diversity Initiative at the University of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robyn; Rogoszinski, Zeeve; Sheppard, Kyle; Taylor, Corbin; Wilkins, Ashlee; Vogel, Stuart; Rolston, Steve; Hammer, Donna; Gezari, Suvi; Williams, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Graduate Resources for Advancing Diversity with Maryland's Astronomy and Physics (GRAD-MAP) builds connections with mid-Atlantic HBCUs, Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs), and community colleges using seminars, forums, and workshops to foster a diverse community: undergraduates prepared to succeed in graduate school, inclusion-minded graduate student mentors, and faculty versed in the experiences of students at MSIs. In its fourth year, GRAD-MAP remains a graduate-student-powered initiative with a four-pronged approach: 1) Fall Collaborative Seminars, 2) Winter Workshop, 3) Spring Symposium, and 4) Summer Scholars Program. This coherent programming allows GRAD-MAP to do more than just increase the number of minority students or simply shuffle around students who already are, or would be, active in research. GRAD-MAP is committed to identifying students who are underserved or overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline. Our goal is not only to get them on the path to be successful undergraduate researchers and eventual graduate applicants, but also to make substantial, sustainable efforts toward a more inclusive climate in physics and astronomy. We will describe the key elements of our program, highlight successes and lessons learned, and describe formal evaluation currently underway with the intent that GRAD-MAP could serve as a model for other universities committed to diversity and inclusion.

  4. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA) Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Yurkevich, Olga Y; Kirov, Ilya V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Rachinskaya, Olga A; Grushetskaya, Zoya E; Zoschuk, Svyatoslav A; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Bogdanova, Marina V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Amosova, Alexandra V; Muravenko, Olga V

    2017-01-01

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase ( CesA ) multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1), 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum . Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG) 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  5. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA) Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yurkevich, Olga Y.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Rachinskaya, Olga A.; Grushetskaya, Zoya E.; Zoschuk, Svyatoslav A.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Bogdanova, Marina V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Muravenko, Olga V.

    2017-01-01

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA) multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1), 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG) 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding. PMID:28878799

  6. A constraint optimization based virtual network mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoling; Guo, Changguo; Wang, Huaimin; Li, Zhendong; Yang, Zhiwen

    2013-03-01

    Virtual network mapping problem, maps different virtual networks onto the substrate network is an extremely challenging work. This paper proposes a constraint optimization based mapping method for solving virtual network mapping problem. This method divides the problem into two phases, node mapping phase and link mapping phase, which are all NP-hard problems. Node mapping algorithm and link mapping algorithm are proposed for solving node mapping phase and link mapping phase, respectively. Node mapping algorithm adopts the thinking of greedy algorithm, mainly considers two factors, available resources which are supplied by the nodes and distance between the nodes. Link mapping algorithm is based on the result of node mapping phase, adopts the thinking of distributed constraint optimization method, which can guarantee to obtain the optimal mapping with the minimum network cost. Finally, simulation experiments are used to validate the method, and results show that the method performs very well.

  7. The influence of HOPE VI neighborhood revitalization on neighborhood-based physical activity: A mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Clay, Olivio; Whittaker, Shannon; Hannon, Lonnie; Adams, Ingrid K; Rogers, Michelle; Gans, Kim

    2015-08-01

    This study uses a mixed methods approach to 1) identify surrounding residents' perceived expectations for Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) policy on physical activity outcomes and to 2) quantitatively examine the odds of neighborhood-based physical activity pre-/post-HOPE VI in a low socioeconomic status, predominantly African American community in Birmingham, Alabama. To address aim one, we used group concept mapping which is a structured approach for data collection and analyses that produces pictures/maps of ideas. Fifty-eight residents developed statements about potential influences of HOPE VI on neighborhood-based physical activity. In the quantitative study, we examined whether these potential influences increased the odds of neighborhood walking/jogging. We computed block entry logistic regression models with a larger cohort of residents at baseline (n = 184) and six-months (n = 142, 77% retention; n = 120 for all informative variables). We examined perceived neighborhood disorder (perceived neighborhood disorder scale), walkability and aesthetics (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale) and HOPE VI-related community safety and safety for physical activity as predictors. During concept mapping, residents generated statements that clustered into three distinct concepts, "Increased Leisure Physical Activity," "Safe Play Areas," and "Generating Health Promoting Resources." The quantitative analyses indicated that changes in neighborhood walkability increased the odds of neighborhood-based physical activity (p = 0.04). When HOPE VI-related safety for physical activity was entered into the model, it was associated with increased odds of physical activity (p = 0.04). Walkability was no longer statistically significant. These results suggest that housing policies that create walkable neighborhoods and that improve perceptions of safety for physical activity may increase neighborhood-based physical activity. However, the longer

  8. Multiresolution saliency map based object segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Xin; Dai, ZhenYou

    2015-11-01

    Salient objects' detection and segmentation are gaining increasing research interest in recent years. A saliency map can be obtained from different models presented in previous studies. Based on this saliency map, the most salient region (MSR) in an image can be extracted. This MSR, generally a rectangle, can be used as the initial parameters for object segmentation algorithms. However, to our knowledge, all of those saliency maps are represented in a unitary resolution although some models have even introduced multiscale principles in the calculation process. Furthermore, some segmentation methods, such as the well-known GrabCut algorithm, need more iteration time or additional interactions to get more precise results without predefined pixel types. A concept of a multiresolution saliency map is introduced. This saliency map is provided in a multiresolution format, which naturally follows the principle of the human visual mechanism. Moreover, the points in this map can be utilized to initialize parameters for GrabCut segmentation by labeling the feature pixels automatically. Both the computing speed and segmentation precision are evaluated. The results imply that this multiresolution saliency map-based object segmentation method is simple and efficient.

  9. First-generation physical map of the Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) genome.

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, R A; Brown, S E; McHolland, L E; Tabachnick, W J; Knudson, D L

    1999-11-01

    Recombinant cosmids labeled with biotin-11-dUTP or digoxigenin by nick translation were used as in situ hybridization probes to metaphase chromosomes of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett). Paired fluorescent signals were detected on each arm of sister chromatids and were ordered along the 3 chromosomes. Thirty-three unique probes were mapped to the 3 chromosomes of C. variipennis (2n = 6): 7 to chromosome 1, 20 to chromosome 2, and 6 to chromosome 3. This work represents the first stage in generating a physical map of the genome of C. variipennis.

  10. Accurate Mobile Urban Mapping via Digital Map-Based SLAM †

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyunchul; Jeong, Jinyong; Cho, Younggun; Kim, Ayoung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents accurate urban map generation using digital map-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Throughout this work, our main objective is generating a 3D and lane map aiming for sub-meter accuracy. In conventional mapping approaches, achieving extremely high accuracy was performed by either (i) exploiting costly airborne sensors or (ii) surveying with a static mapping system in a stationary platform. Mobile scanning systems recently have gathered popularity but are mostly limited by the availability of the Global Positioning System (GPS). We focus on the fact that the availability of GPS and urban structures are both sporadic but complementary. By modeling both GPS and digital map data as measurements and integrating them with other sensor measurements, we leverage SLAM for an accurate mobile mapping system. Our proposed algorithm generates an efficient graph SLAM and achieves a framework running in real-time and targeting sub-meter accuracy with a mobile platform. Integrated with the SLAM framework, we implement a motion-adaptive model for the Inverse Perspective Mapping (IPM). Using motion estimation derived from SLAM, the experimental results show that the proposed approaches provide stable bird’s-eye view images, even with significant motion during the drive. Our real-time map generation framework is validated via a long-distance urban test and evaluated at randomly sampled points using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)-GPS. PMID:27548175

  11. Conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices using expert informed concept mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Mâsse, Louise C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-14

    Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children's participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items) aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US)) sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures) and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert's sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure). The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child's physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices and identified key constructs to include in

  12. Mapping the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity in U.S. States, 1984-2015

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Yan; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. This study aimed to map the prevalence of physical inactivity across U.S. states over the past three decades, and estimate the over-time adjusted changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity in each state. Methods Individual-level data (N = 6,701,954) were taken from the 1984–2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of state-representative adult population. Prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical inactivity was estimated by state and survey year, accounting for the BRFSS sampling design. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity over the study period for each state, adjusting for individual characteristics including sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. Results The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity varied substantially across states and survey years. In general, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity gradually declined over the past three decades in a majority of states. However, a substantial proportion of American adults remain physically inactive. Among the 50 states and District of Columbia, 45 had over a fifth of their adult population without any leisure-time physical activity, and 8 had over 30% without physical activity in 2015. Moreover, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity in several states (Arizona, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming) remained largely unchanged or even increased (Minnesota and Ohio) over the study period. Conclusions Although the prevalence of physical inactivity declined over the past three decades in a majority of states, the rates remain substantially high and vary considerably across states. Closely monitoring and tracking physical activity level using the state physical activity

  13. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement between predicted susceptibility and the landslide scar's map. Most of the studies in Brazil applied SHALSTAB, SINMAP and to a lesser extent the TRIGRS model. The majority researches are concentrated in the Serra do Mar mountain range, that is a system of escarpments and rugged mountains that extends more than 1,500 km along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, and regularly affected by heavy rainfall that generates widespread mass movements. Most part of these studies used conventional topographic maps with scales ranging from 1:2000 to 1:50000 and DEM-grid resolution between 2 and 20m. Regarding the Geotechnical and hydrological values, a few studies use field collected data which could produce more efficient results, as indicated by international literature. Therefore, even though they have enormous potential in the susceptibility mapping, even for comparison

  14. A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the

  15. A physically based criterion for hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Petrucci, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Hydraulic hazard maps are widely used for land use and emergency planning. Due to their practical consequences, it is important that their meaning is effectively transferred and shared by the stakeholders; to this purpose maps should communicate hazard levels moving from the potential consequences on specified targets. For these reasons flood maps showing only the extension of the inundated areas or flow features as depth and/or velocity may reveal themselves as ineffective instruments. The selection of the specific target to analyse must, in our opinion, be site-specific and reflect land use and/or the hydraulics features of the phenomenon. In case of sudden processes, such as torrential floods or debris flows, hazard levels should be referred to human life, because emergency plans may not mitigate risk; on the contrary, when the time scale of the flood wave propagation is sufficiently larger than the warning system one, the focus might move to the economic value of properties, since human-focused criteria may result in too severe land planning restrictions. This contribution starts exploring, from a theoretical point of view, human hazard levels as drowning, toppling and friction stability limits, which are the main failure mechanisms of human stability in flows. The proposed approach considers the human body, set on a slope and hit by a current of known density, as a combination of cylinders with different dimensions. The drowning threshold is identified through a limiting water depth, while toppling and translation are studied respectively through a moment and momentum balance. The involved forces are the friction at the bottom, the destabilizing drag force exerted by the current, the human weight and buoyancy. Several threshold curves on the velocity-depth plane can be identified as a function of different masses and heights for children and adults. Because of its dependence from the fluid density, this methodology may be applied also to define hazard

  16. Comparative visualization of genetic and physical maps with Strudel.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Micha; Milne, Iain; Stephen, Gordon; Shaw, Paul; Cardle, Linda; Wright, Frank; Marshall, David

    2011-05-01

    Data visualization can play a key role in comparative genomics, for example, underpinning the investigation of conserved synteny patterns. Strudel is a desktop application that allows users to easily compare both genetic and physical maps interactively and efficiently. It can handle large datasets from several genomes simultaneously, and allows all-by-all comparisons between these. Installers for Strudel are available for Windows, Linux, Solaris and Mac OS X at http://bioinf.scri.ac.uk/strudel/.

  17. Construction of an interspecific genetic map based on InDel and SSR for mapping the QTLs affecting the initiation of flower primordia in pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu; Cheng, Jiao-Wen; Zhang, Li; Qin, Cheng; Nong, Ding-Guo; Li, Wei-Peng; Tang, Xin; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Kai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Re-sequencing permits the mining of genome-wide variations on a large scale and provides excellent resources for the research community. To accelerate the development and application of molecular markers and identify the QTLs affecting the flowering time-related trait in pepper, a total of 1,038 pairs of InDel and 674 SSR primers from different sources were used for genetic mapping using the F2 population (n = 154) derived from a cross between BA3 (C. annuum) and YNXML (C. frutescens). Of these, a total of 224 simple PCR-based markers, including 129 InDels and 95 SSRs, were validated and integrated into a map, which was designated as the BY map. The BY map consisted of 13 linkage groups (LGs) and spanned a total genetic distance of 1,249.77 cM with an average marker distance of 5.60 cM. Comparative analysis of the genetic and physical map based on the anchored markers showed that the BY map covered nearly the whole pepper genome. Based on the BY map, one major and five minor QTLs affecting the number of leaves on the primary axis (Nle) were detected on chromosomes P2, P7, P10 and P11 in 2012. The major QTL on P2 was confirmed based on another subset of the same F2 population (n = 147) in 2014 with selective genotyping of markers from the BY map. With the accomplishment of pepper whole genome sequencing and annotations (release 2.0), 153 candidate genes were predicted to embed in the Nle2.2 region, of which 12 important flowering related genes were obtained. The InDel/SSR-based interspecific genetic map, QTLs and candidate genes obtained by the present study will be useful for the downstream isolation of flowering time-related gene and other genetic applications for pepper.

  18. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  19. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W; Grahn, Robert A; Zimin, Aleksey V; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O'Brien, Stephen J; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Warren, Wesley C; Murphy, William J

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location. Copyright © 2016 Li et al.

  20. Using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to develop effective argumentation skills in high school advanced placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heglund, Brian

    Educators recognize the importance of reasoning ability for development of critical thinking skills, conceptual change, metacognition, and participation in 21st century society. There is a recognized need for students to improve their skills of argumentation, however, argumentation is not explicitly taught outside logic and philosophy---subjects that are not part of the K-12 curriculum. One potential way of supporting the development of argumentation skills in the K-12 context is through incorporating Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to evaluate arguments. This quasi-experimental study tested the effects of such argument mapping software and was informed by the following two research questions: 1. To what extent does the collaborative use of Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate competing theories influence the critical thinking skill of argument evaluation, metacognitive awareness, and conceptual knowledge acquisition in high school Advanced Placement physics, compared to the more traditional method of text tables that does not employ Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping? 2. What are the student perceptions of the pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment? This study examined changes in critical thinking skills, including argumentation evaluation skills, as well as metacognitive awareness and conceptual knowledge, in two groups: a treatment group using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate physics arguments, and a comparison group using text tables to evaluate physics arguments. Quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to answer the research questions. Quantitative data indicated no significant difference between the experimental groups, and qualitative data suggested students perceived pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment, such as self-reported sense of improvement in argument

  1. I Move: systematic development of a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on motivational interviewing and self-determination theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article describes the systematic development of the I Move intervention: a web-based computer tailored physical activity promotion intervention, aimed at increasing and maintaining physical activity among adults. This intervention is based on the theoretical insights and practical applications of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. Methods/design Since developing interventions in a systemically planned way increases the likelihood of effectiveness, we used the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop the I Move intervention. In this article, we first describe how we proceeded through each of the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. After that, we describe the content of the I Move intervention and elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial. Discussion By integrating self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in web-based computer tailoring, the I Move intervention introduces a more participant-centered approach than traditional tailored interventions. Adopting this approach might enhance computer tailored physical activity interventions both in terms of intervention effectiveness and user appreciation. We will evaluate this in an randomized controlled trial, by comparing the I Move intervention to a more traditional web-based computer tailored intervention. Trial registration NTR4129 PMID:24580802

  2. Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The aim of this study was to perform a visual analysis of this relationship with self-organizing maps and to monitor the subject's evolution during the 4 years of secondary school. Four hundred and forty-four students participated in the study. The physical activity and physical fitness of the participants were measured, and the participants' grade point averages were obtained from the five participant institutions. Four main clusters representing two primary student profiles with few differences between boys and girls were observed. The clustering demonstrated that students with higher energy expenditure and better physical fitness exhibited lower body mass index (BMI) and higher academic performance, whereas those adolescents with lower energy expenditure exhibited worse physical fitness, higher BMI and lower academic performance. With respect to the evolution of the students during the 4 years, ∼25% of the students originally clustered in a negative profile moved to a positive profile, and there was no movement in the opposite direction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. ActionMap: A web-based software that automates loci assignments to framework maps.

    PubMed

    Albini, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Joets, Johann

    2003-07-01

    Genetic linkage computation may be a repetitive and time consuming task, especially when numerous loci are assigned to a framework map. We thus developed ActionMap, a web-based software that automates genetic mapping on a fixed framework map without adding the new markers to the map. Using this tool, hundreds of loci may be automatically assigned to the framework in a single process. ActionMap was initially developed to map numerous ESTs with a small plant mapping population and is limited to inbred lines and backcrosses. ActionMap is highly configurable and consists of Perl and PHP scripts that automate command steps for the MapMaker program. A set of web forms were designed for data import and mapping settings. Results of automatic mapping can be displayed as tables or drawings of maps and may be exported. The user may create personal access-restricted projects to store raw data, settings and mapping results. All data may be edited, updated or deleted. ActionMap may be used either online or downloaded for free (http://moulon.inra.fr/~bioinfo/).

  4. ActionMap: a web-based software that automates loci assignments to framework maps

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Joets, Johann

    2003-01-01

    Genetic linkage computation may be a repetitive and time consuming task, especially when numerous loci are assigned to a framework map. We thus developed ActionMap, a web-based software that automates genetic mapping on a fixed framework map without adding the new markers to the map. Using this tool, hundreds of loci may be automatically assigned to the framework in a single process. ActionMap was initially developed to map numerous ESTs with a small plant mapping population and is limited to inbred lines and backcrosses. ActionMap is highly configurable and consists of Perl and PHP scripts that automate command steps for the MapMaker program. A set of web forms were designed for data import and mapping settings. Results of automatic mapping can be displayed as tables or drawings of maps and may be exported. The user may create personal access-restricted projects to store raw data, settings and mapping results. All data may be edited, updated or deleted. ActionMap may be used either online or downloaded for free (http://moulon.inra.fr/~bioinfo/). PMID:12824426

  5. Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of closely related genomes in polyploid species makes the assembly of total genomic sequence from shotgun sequence reads produced by the current sequencing platforms exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. Genomes of polyploid species could be sequenced following the ordered-clone sequencing approach employing contigs of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and BAC-based physical maps. Although BAC contigs can currently be constructed for virtually any diploid organism with the SNaPshot high-information-content-fingerprinting (HICF) technology, it is currently unknown if this is also true for polyploid species. It is possible that BAC clones from orthologous regions of homoeologous chromosomes would share numerous restriction fragments and be therefore included into common contigs. Because of this and other concerns, physical mapping utilizing the SNaPshot HICF of BAC libraries of polyploid species has not been pursued and the possibility of doing so has not been assessed. The sole exception has been in common wheat, an allohexaploid in which it is possible to construct single-chromosome or single-chromosome-arm BAC libraries from DNA of flow-sorted chromosomes and bypass the obstacles created by polyploidy. Results The potential of the SNaPshot HICF technology for physical mapping of polyploid plants utilizing global BAC libraries was evaluated by assembling contigs of fingerprinted clones in an in silico merged BAC library composed of single-chromosome libraries of two wheat homoeologous chromosome arms, 3AS and 3DS, and complete chromosome 3B. Because the chromosome arm origin of each clone was known, it was possible to estimate the fidelity of contig assembly. On average 97.78% or more clones, depending on the library, were from a single chromosome arm. A large portion of the remaining clones was shown to be library contamination from other chromosomes, a feature that is unavoidable during the construction of single

  6. An effective XML based name mapping mechanism within StoRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso, E.; Forti, A.; Ghiselli, A.; Magnoni, L.; Zappi, R.

    2008-07-01

    In a Grid environment the naming capability allows users to refer to specific data resources in a physical storage system using a high level logical identifier. This logical identifier is typically organized in a file system like structure, a hierarchical tree of names. Storage Resource Manager (SRM) services map the logical identifier to the physical location of data evaluating a set of parameters as the desired quality of services and the VOMS attributes specified in the requests. StoRM is a SRM service developed by INFN and ICTP-EGRID to manage file and space on standard POSIX and high performing parallel and cluster file systems. An upcoming requirement in the Grid data scenario is the orthogonality of the logical name and the physical location of data, in order to refer, with the same identifier, to different copies of data archived in various storage areas with different quality of service. The mapping mechanism proposed in StoRM is based on a XML document that represents the different storage components managed by the service, the storage areas defined by the site administrator, the quality of service they provide and the Virtual Organization that want to use the storage area. An appropriate directory tree is realized in each storage component reflecting the XML schema. In this scenario StoRM is able to identify the physical location of a requested data evaluating the logical identifier and the specified attributes following the XML schema, without querying any database service. This paper presents the namespace schema defined, the different entities represented and the technical details of the StoRM implementation.

  7. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  8. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  9. Correlation of physical and genetic maps of human chromosome 16. Annual progress report, October 1, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G.R.

    1991-12-31

    This project aimed to divide chromosome 16 into approximately 50 intervals of {approximately}2Mb in size by constructing a series of mouse/human somatic cell hybrids each containing a rearranged chromosome 16. Using these hybrids, DNA probes would be regionally mapped by Southern blot or PCR analysis. Preference would be given to mapping probes which demonstrated polymorphisms for which the CEPH panel of families had been typed. This would allow a correlation of the physical and linkage maps of this chromosome. The aims have been substantially achieved. 49 somatic cell hybrids have been constructed which have allowed definition of 46, and potentiallymore » 57, different physical intervals on the chromosome. 164 loci have been fully mapped into these intervals. A correlation of the physical and genetic maps of the chromosome is in an advanced stage of preparation. The somatic cell hybrids constructed have been widely distributed to groups working on chromosome 16 and other genome projects.« less

  10. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123

  11. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  12. MareyMap Online: A User-Friendly Web Application and Database Service for Estimating Recombination Rates Using Physical and Genetic Maps.

    PubMed

    Siberchicot, Aurélie; Bessy, Adrien; Guéguen, Laurent; Marais, Gabriel A B

    2017-10-01

    Given the importance of meiotic recombination in biology, there is a need to develop robust methods to estimate meiotic recombination rates. A popular approach, called the Marey map approach, relies on comparing genetic and physical maps of a chromosome to estimate local recombination rates. In the past, we have implemented this approach in an R package called MareyMap, which includes many functionalities useful to get reliable recombination rate estimates in a semi-automated way. MareyMap has been used repeatedly in studies looking at the effect of recombination on genome evolution. Here, we propose a simpler user-friendly web service version of MareyMap, called MareyMap Online, which allows a user to get recombination rates from her/his own data or from a publicly available database that we offer in a few clicks. When the analysis is done, the user is asked whether her/his curated data can be placed in the database and shared with other users, which we hope will make meta-analysis on recombination rates including many species easy in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Event-Based Tone Mapping for Asynchronous Time-Based Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Simon Chane, Camille; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Posch, Christoph; Benosman, Ryad B.

    2016-01-01

    The asynchronous time-based neuromorphic image sensor ATIS is an array of autonomously operating pixels able to encode luminance information with an exceptionally high dynamic range (>143 dB). This paper introduces an event-based methodology to display data from this type of event-based imagers, taking into account the large dynamic range and high temporal accuracy that go beyond available mainstream display technologies. We introduce an event-based tone mapping methodology for asynchronously acquired time encoded gray-level data. A global and a local tone mapping operator are proposed. Both are designed to operate on a stream of incoming events rather than on time frame windows. Experimental results on real outdoor scenes are presented to evaluate the performance of the tone mapping operators in terms of quality, temporal stability, adaptation capability, and computational time. PMID:27642275

  14. Fingerprinting: Modelling and mapping physical top soil properties with the Mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, Eddie; van Egmond, Fenny

    2010-05-01

    The Mole is a passive gamma ray soil sensor system. It is designed for the mobile collection of radioactive energy stemming from soil. As the system is passive, it only measures energy that reaches the surface of soil. In general, this energy comes from upto 30 to 40 cm deep, which can be considered topsoil. The gathered energy spectra are logged every second, are processed with the method of Full Spectrum Analysis. This method uses all available spectral data and processes it with a Chi square optimalisation using a set of standard spectra into individual nuclide point data. A standard spectrum is the measured full spectrum of a specific detector derived when exposed to 1 Bq/kg of a nuclide. With this method the outcome of the surveys become quantitative.The outcome of a field survey with the Mole results in a data file containing point information of position, Total Counts and the decay products of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs. Five elements are therefor available for the modelling of soil properties. There are several ways for the modelling of soil properties with sensor derived gamma ray data. The Mole generates ratio scale output. For modelling a quantitative deterministic approach is used based on sample locations. This process is called fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is a comparison of the concentration of the radioactive trace elements and the lab results (pH, clay content, etc.) by regression analysis. This results in a mathematical formula describing the relationship between a dependent and independent property. The results of the sensor readings are interpolated into a nuclide map with GIS software. With the derived formula a soil property map is composed. The principle of fingerprinting can be applied on large geographical areas for physical soil properties such as clay, loam or sand (50 micron), grain size and organic matter. Collected sample data of previous field surveys within the same region can be used for the prediction of soil properties elsewhere

  15. Simulation of seagrass bed mapping by satellite images based on the radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Tatsuyuki; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Seagrass and seaweed beds play important roles in coastal marine ecosystems. They are food sources and habitats for many marine organisms, and influence the physical, chemical, and biological environment. They are sensitive to human impacts such as reclamation and pollution. Therefore, their management and preservation are necessary for a healthy coastal environment. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for mapping and monitoring seagrass beds. The efficiency of seagrass mapping, seagrass bed classification in particular, has been evaluated by mapping accuracy using an error matrix. However, mapping accuracies are influenced by coastal environments such as seawater transparency, bathymetry, and substrate type. Coastal management requires sufficient accuracy and an understanding of mapping limitations for monitoring coastal habitats including seagrass beds. Previous studies are mainly based on case studies in specific regions and seasons. Extensive data are required to generalise assessments of classification accuracy from case studies, which has proven difficult. This study aims to build a simulator based on a radiative transfer model to produce modelled satellite images and assess the visual detectability of seagrass beds under different transparencies and seagrass coverages, as well as to examine mapping limitations and classification accuracy. Our simulations led to the development of a model of water transparency and the mapping of depth limits and indicated the possibility for seagrass density mapping under certain ideal conditions. The results show that modelling satellite images is useful in evaluating the accuracy of classification and that establishing seagrass bed monitoring by remote sensing is a reliable tool.

  16. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Integration of data-driven and physically-based methods to assess shallow landslides susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajas, Sara; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Zêzere, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    Approaches used to assess shallow landslides susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistic or deterministic methods. The data-driven methods are sustained in the assumption that the same causes are likely to produce the same effects and for that reason a present/past landslide inventory and a dataset of factors assumed as predisposing factors are crucial for the landslide susceptibility assessment. The physically-based methods are based on a system controlled by physical laws and soil mechanics, where the forces which tend to promote movement are compared with forces that tend to promote resistance to movement. In this case, the evaluation of susceptibility is supported by the calculation of the Factor of safety (FoS), and dependent of the availability of detailed data related with the slope geometry and hydrological and geotechnical properties of the soils and rocks. Within this framework, this work aims to test two hypothesis: (i) although conceptually distinct and based on contrasting procedures, statistic and deterministic methods generate similar shallow landslides susceptibility results regarding the predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii) the integration of the shallow landslides susceptibility maps obtained with data-driven and physically-based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow landslides occurrence. To evaluate these two hypotheses, we select the Information Value data-driven method and the physically-based Infinite Slope model to evaluate shallow landslides in the study area of Monfalim and Louriceira basins (13.9 km2), which is located in the north of Lisbon region (Portugal). The landslide inventory is composed by 111 shallow landslides and was divide in two independent groups based on temporal criteria (age ≤ 1983 and age > 1983): (i) the modelling group (51 cases) was used to define the weights for each predisposing factor

  18. From printed geological maps to web-based service oriented data products - strategies, foundations and problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, M.; Schiegl, M.; Stöckl, W.; Heger, H.

    2012-04-01

    . This two-step transformation is necessary since a direct mapping to international standards is not possible for traditional map-based data. Controlled vocabularies provide the foundation of a semantic harmonization. For the encoding of the vocabularies we build upon the W3C standard SKOS (=Simple Knowledge Organisation System), a thesaurus specification for the semantic web, which is itself based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and RDF Schema and added some DublinCore and VoID for the metadata of our vocabularies and resources. For the development of these thesauri we use the commercial software PoolParty, which is a tool specially build to develop, manage and publish multilingual thesauri. The corporate thesauri of the Austrian Geological Survey are exposed via a web-service that is conformant with the linked data principles. This web-service gives access to a (1) RDF/HTML representation of the resources via a simple, robust and thus persistent http URIs (2) a download of the complete vocabularies in RDF-format (3) a full-fledged SPARQL-Endpoint to query the thesaurus. With the development of physical data-models (based on preexisting conceptual models) one must dismiss the classical schemes of map-based portrayal of data. E.g. for individual Geological units on traditional geological maps usually a single age range is given (e.g. formation age). But one might want to attribute several geologic ages (formation age, metamorphic age, cooling ages etc.) to individual units. Such issues have to be taken into account when developing robust physical data-models. Based on our experience we are convinced that individual institutions need to develop their own controlled vocabularies and individual data-models that fit the specific needs on an organizational level. If externally developed vocabularies and data-models are introduced to established workflows newly generated and existing data may be diverging and it will be hard to achieve or maintain a common standard

  19. Mapping from Space - Ontology Based Map Production Using Satellite Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefpour Vakilian, A.; Momeni, M.

    2013-09-01

    Determination of the maximum ability for feature extraction from satellite imageries based on ontology procedure using cartographic feature determination is the main objective of this research. Therefore, a special ontology has been developed to extract maximum volume of information available in different high resolution satellite imageries and compare them to the map information layers required in each specific scale due to unified specification for surveying and mapping. ontology seeks to provide an explicit and comprehensive classification of entities in all sphere of being. This study proposes a new method for automatic maximum map feature extraction and reconstruction of high resolution satellite images. For example, in order to extract building blocks to produce 1 : 5000 scale and smaller maps, the road networks located around the building blocks should be determined. Thus, a new building index has been developed based on concepts obtained from ontology. Building blocks have been extracted with completeness about 83%. Then, road networks have been extracted and reconstructed to create a uniform network with less discontinuity on it. In this case, building blocks have been extracted with proper performance and the false positive value from confusion matrix was reduced by about 7%. Results showed that vegetation cover and water features have been extracted completely (100%) and about 71% of limits have been extracted. Also, the proposed method in this article had the ability to produce a map with largest scale possible from any multi spectral high resolution satellite imagery equal to or smaller than 1 : 5000.

  20. Mapping from Space - Ontology Based Map Production Using Satellite Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefpour Vakilian, A.; Momeni, M.

    2013-09-01

    Determination of the maximum ability for feature extraction from satellite imageries based on ontology procedure using cartographic feature determination is the main objective of this research. Therefore, a special ontology has been developed to extract maximum volume of information available in different high resolution satellite imageries and compare them to the map information layers required in each specific scale due to unified specification for surveying and mapping. ontology seeks to provide an explicit and comprehensive classification of entities in all sphere of being. This study proposes a new method for automatic maximum map feature extraction and reconstruction of high resolution satellite images. For example, in order to extract building blocks to produce 1 : 5000 scale and smaller maps, the road networks located around the building blocks should be determined. Thus, a new building index has been developed based on concepts obtained from ontology. Building blocks have been extracted with completeness about 83 %. Then, road networks have been extracted and reconstructed to create a uniform network with less discontinuity on it. In this case, building blocks have been extracted with proper performance and the false positive value from confusion matrix was reduced by about 7 %. Results showed that vegetation cover and water features have been extracted completely (100 %) and about 71 % of limits have been extracted. Also, the proposed method in this article had the ability to produce a map with largest scale possible from any multi spectral high resolution satellite imagery equal to or smaller than 1 : 5000.

  1. Object-based Landslide Mapping: Examples, Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Friedl, Barbara; Chang, Kang-Tsung; Tsai, Tsai-Tsung; Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen, Gro; Betts, Harley; Cigna, Francesca; Chiang, Shou-Hao; Aubrey Robson, Benjamin; Bianchini, Silvia; Füreder, Petra; Albrecht, Florian; Spiekermann, Raphael; Weinke, Elisabeth; Blaschke, Thomas; Phillips, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, object-based image analysis (OBIA) has been increasingly used for mapping landslides that occur after triggering events such as heavy rainfall. The increasing availability and quality of Earth Observation (EO) data in terms of temporal, spatial and spectral resolution allows for comprehensive mapping of landslides at multiple scales. Most often very high resolution (VHR) or high resolution (HR) optical satellite images are used in combination with a digital elevation model (DEM) and its products such as slope and curvature. Semi-automated object-based mapping makes use of various characteristics of image objects that are derived through segmentation. OBIA enables numerous spectral, spatial, contextual and textural image object properties to be applied during an analysis. This is especially useful when mapping complex natural features such as landslides and constitutes an advantage over pixel-based image analysis. However, several drawbacks in the process of object-based landslide mapping have not been overcome yet. The developed classification routines are often rather complex and limited regarding their transferability across areas and sensors. There is still more research needed to further improve present approaches and to fully exploit the capabilities of OBIA for landslide mapping. In this study several examples of object-based landslide mapping from various geographical regions with different characteristics are presented. Examples from the Austrian and Italian Alps are shown, whereby one challenge lies in the detection of small-scale landslides on steep slopes while preventing the classification of false positives with similar spectral properties (construction areas, utilized land, etc.). Further examples feature landslides mapped in Iceland, where the differentiation of landslides from other landscape-altering processes in a highly dynamic volcanic landscape poses a very distinct challenge, and in Norway, which is exposed to multiple

  2. Swarm based mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS) for solving economic dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa, T. H.; Vasant, P. M.; Singh, M. S. Balbir; Dieu, V. N.

    2014-10-01

    The economic dispatch (ED) is an essential optimization task in the power generation system. It is defined as the process of allocating the real power output of generation units to meet required load demand so as their total operating cost is minimized while satisfying all physical and operational constraints. This paper introduces a novel optimization which named as Swarm based Mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS). The technique is the extension of the original single particle mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMO). Its features make it potentially attractive algorithm for solving optimization problems. The proposed method is implemented for three test power systems, including 3, 13 and 20 thermal generation units with quadratic cost function and the obtained results are compared with many other methods available in the literature. Test results have indicated that the proposed method can efficiently implement for solving economic dispatch.

  3. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: The MAPS statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication. A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user friendly 23 item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time.

  4. Preferred Reporting Items for Studies Mapping onto Preference-Based Outcome Measures: The MAPS Statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-10-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite the publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication. A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprising six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user-friendly 23-item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (1) title and abstract; (2) introduction; (3) methods; (4) results; (5) discussion; and (6) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality-of-life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in 5 years' time.

  5. Comparative visualization of genetic and physical maps with Strudel

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Micha; Milne, Iain; Stephen, Gordon; Shaw, Paul; Cardle, Linda; Wright, Frank; Marshall, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Data visualization can play a key role in comparative genomics, for example, underpinning the investigation of conserved synteny patterns. Strudel is a desktop application that allows users to easily compare both genetic and physical maps interactively and efficiently. It can handle large datasets from several genomes simultaneously, and allows all-by-all comparisons between these. Availability and implementation: Installers for Strudel are available for Windows, Linux, Solaris and Mac OS X at http://bioinf.scri.ac.uk/strudel/. Contact: strudel@scri.ac.uk; micha.bayer@scri.ac.uk PMID:21372085

  6. Contribution of streetscape audits to explanation of physical activity in four age groups based on the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS).

    PubMed

    Cain, Kelli L; Millstein, Rachel A; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Gavand, Kavita A; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Geremia, Carrie M; Chapman, James; Adams, Marc A; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C

    2014-09-01

    Ecological models of physical activity emphasize the effects of environmental influences. "Microscale" streetscape features that may affect pedestrian experience have received less research attention than macroscale walkability (e.g., residential density). The Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measures street design, transit stops, sidewalk qualities, street crossing amenities, and features impacting aesthetics. The present study examined associations of microscale attributes with multiple physical activity (PA) measures across four age groups. Areas in the San Diego, Seattle, and the Baltimore metropolitan areas, USA, were selected that varied on macro-level walkability and neighborhood income. Participants (n = 3677) represented four age groups (children, adolescents, adults, older adults). MAPS audits were conducted along a 0.25 mile route along the street network from participant residences toward the nearest non-residential destination. MAPS data were collected in 2009-2010. Subscale and overall summary scores were created. Walking/biking for transportation and leisure/neighborhood PA were measured with age-appropriate surveys. Objective PA was measured with accelerometers. Mixed linear regression analyses were adjusted for macro-level walkability. Across all age groups 51.2%, 22.1%, and 15.7% of all MAPS scores were significantly associated with walking/biking for transport, leisure/neighborhood PA, and objectively-measured PA, respectively. Supporting the ecological model principle of behavioral specificity, destinations and land use, streetscape, street segment, and intersection variables were more related to transport walking/biking, while aesthetic variables were related to leisure/neighborhood PA. The overall score was related to objective PA in children and older adults. Present findings provide strong evidence that microscale environment attributes are related to PA across the lifespan. Improving microscale features may be a feasible

  7. Contribution of Streetscape Audits to Explanation of Physical Activity in Four Age Groups Based on the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Kelli L.; Millstein, Rachel A.; Sallis, James F.; Conway, Terry L.; Gavand, Kavita A.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Geremia, Carrie M.; Chapman, James; Adams, Marc A.; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological models of physical activity emphasize the effects of environmental influences. “Microscale” streetscape features that may affect pedestrian experience have received less research attention than macroscale walkability (e.g., residential density). The Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measures street design, transit stops, sidewalk qualities, street crossing amenities, and features impacting aesthetics. The present study examined associations of microscale attributes with multiple physical activity (PA) measures across four age groups. Areas in the San Diego, Seattle, and the Baltimore metropolitan areas, USA, were selected that varied on macro-level walkability and neighborhood income. Participants (n=3677) represented four age groups (children, adolescents, adults, older adults). MAPS audits were conducted along a 0.25 mile route along the street network from participant residences toward the nearest non-residential destination. MAPS data were collected in 2009–2010. Subscale and overall summary scores were created. Walking/biking for transportation and leisure/neighborhood PA were measured with age-appropriate surveys. Objective PA was measured with accelerometers. Mixed linear regression analyses were adjusted for macro-level walkability. Across all age groups 51.2%, 22.1%, and 15.7% of all MAPS scores were significantly associated with walking/biking for transport, leisure/neighborhood PA, and objectively-measured PA, respectively. Supporting the ecological model principle of behavioral specificity, destinations and land use, streetscape, street segment, and intersection variables were more related to transport walking/biking, while aesthetic variables were related to leisure/neighborhood PA. The overall score was related to objective PA in children and older adults. Present findings provide strong evidence that microscale environment attributes are related to PA across the lifespan. Improving microscale features may be a

  8. Preferred Reporting Items for Studies Mapping onto Preference-Based Outcome Measures: The MAPS Statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-10-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. In the absence of previously published reporting checklists or reporting guidance documents, a de novo list of reporting items was created by a working group comprising six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. A two-round, modified Delphi survey, with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, was used to identify a list of essential reporting items from this larger list. From the initial de novo list of 29 candidate items, a set of 23 essential reporting items was developed. The items are presented numerically and categorized within six sections: (1) title and abstract; (2) introduction; (3) methods; (4) results; (5) discussion; and (6) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS Explanation and Elaboration paper. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of the reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality-of-life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in 5 years' time.

  9. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: the MAPS statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2016-02-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards (MAPS) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. In the absence of previously published reporting checklists or reporting guidance documents, a de novo list of reporting items was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. A two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community was used to identify a list of essential reporting items from this larger list. From the initial de novo list of 29 candidate items, a set of 23 essential reporting items was developed. The items are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely (1) title and abstract; (2) introduction; (3) methods; (4) results; (5) discussion; and (6) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in 5 years' time.

  10. PREFERRED REPORTING ITEMS FOR STUDIES MAPPING ONTO PREFERENCE-BASED OUTCOME MEASURES: THE MAPS STATEMENT.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    "Mapping" onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. In the absence of previously published reporting checklists or reporting guidance documents, a de novo list of reporting items was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. A two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies, and the biomedical journal editorial community was used to identify a list of essential reporting items from this larger list. From the initial de novo list of twenty-nine candidate items, a set of twenty-three essential reporting items was developed. The items are presented numerically and categorized within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract, (ii) introduction, (iii) methods, (iv) results, (v) discussion, and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency. and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time.

  11. Preferred Reporting Items for Studies Mapping onto Preference-Based Outcome Measures: The MAPS Statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-08-01

    "Mapping" onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite the publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist that aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. In the absence of previously published reporting checklists or reporting guidance documents, a de novo list of reporting items was created by a working group comprised of 6 health economists and 1 Delphi methodologist. A 2-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies, and the biomedical journal editorial community was used to identify a list of essential reporting items from this larger list. From the initial de novo list of 29 candidate items, a set of 23 essential reporting items was developed. The items are presented numerically and categorized within 6 sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency, and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by 7 health economics and quality-of-life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in 5 years.

  12. Multidimensional, mapping-based complex wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Felix C A; van Spaendonck, Rutger L C; Burrus, C Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Although the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a powerful tool for signal and image processing, it has three serious disadvantages: shift sensitivity, poor directionality, and lack of phase information. To overcome these disadvantages, we introduce multidimensional, mapping-based, complex wavelet transforms that consist of a mapping onto a complex function space followed by a DWT of the complex mapping. Unlike other popular transforms that also mitigate DWT shortcomings, the decoupled implementation of our transforms has two important advantages. First, the controllable redundancy of the mapping stage offers a balance between degree of shift sensitivity and transform redundancy. This allows us to create a directional, nonredundant, complex wavelet transform with potential benefits for image coding systems. To the best of our knowledge, no other complex wavelet transform is simultaneously directional and nonredundant. The second advantage of our approach is the flexibility to use any DWT in the transform implementation. As an example, we exploit this flexibility to create the complex double-density DWT: a shift-insensitive, directional, complex wavelet transform with a low redundancy of (3M - 1)/(2M - 1) in M dimensions. No other transform achieves all these properties at a lower redundancy, to the best of our knowledge. By exploiting the advantages of our multidimensional, mapping-based complex wavelet transforms in seismic signal-processing applications, we have demonstrated state-of-the-art results.

  13. Construction of the physical map for three loci in chromosome band 13q14: comparison to the genetic map.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, M J; Turmel, C; Noolandi, J; Neumann, P E; Lalande, M

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and deletion mapping are being used to construct a physical map of the long arm of human chromosome 13. The present study reports a 2700-kilobase (kb) Not I long-range restriction map encompassing the 13q14-specific loci D13S10, D13S21, and D13S22, which are detected by the cloned DNA markers p7D2, pG24E2.4, and pG14E1.9, respectively. Analysis of a panel of seven cell lines that showed differential methylation at a Not I site between D13S10 and D13S21 proved physical linkage of the two loci to the same 875-kb Not I fragment. D13S22 mapped to a different Not I fragment, precluding the possibility that D13S22 is located between D13S10 and D13S21. PFGE analysis of Not I partial digests placed the 1850-kb Not I fragment containing D13S22 immediately adjacent to the 875-kb fragment containing the other two loci. The proximal rearrangement breakpoint in a cell line carrying a del13(q14.1q21.2) was detected by D13S21 but not by D13S10, demonstrating that D13S21 lies proximal to D13S10. Quantitative analysis of hybridization signals of the three DNA probes to DNA from the same cell line indicated that only D13S10 was deleted, establishing the order of these loci to be cen-D13S22-D13S21-D13S10-tel. Surprisingly, this order was estimated to be 35,000 times less likely than that favored by genetic linkage analysis. Images PMID:1970636

  14. Construction of a high-density high-resolution genetic map and its integration with BAC-based physical map in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Construction of genetic linkage map is essential for genetic and genomic studies. Recent advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies made it possible to generate high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage maps, especially for the organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the pre...

  15. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: The MAPS statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-08-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication.A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user friendly 23 item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document.It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by eight health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time.This statement was published jointly in Applied Health Economics

  16. Automated clustering of probe molecules from solvent mapping of protein surfaces: new algorithms applied to hot-spot mapping and structure-based drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Michael G.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Carlson, Heather A.

    2008-10-01

    Use of solvent mapping, based on multiple-copy minimization (MCM) techniques, is common in structure-based drug discovery. The minima of small-molecule probes define locations for complementary interactions within a binding pocket. Here, we present improved methods for MCM. In particular, a Jarvis-Patrick (JP) method is outlined for grouping the final locations of minimized probes into physical clusters. This algorithm has been tested through a study of protein-protein interfaces, showing the process to be robust, deterministic, and fast in the mapping of protein "hot spots." Improvements in the initial placement of probe molecules are also described. A final application to HIV-1 protease shows how our automated technique can be used to partition data too complicated to analyze by hand. These new automated methods may be easily and quickly extended to other protein systems, and our clustering methodology may be readily incorporated into other clustering packages.

  17. A physical map of the bovine genome

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hobbs, Matthew; Abbey, Colette A; Adelson, David L; Aerts, Jan; Bennett, Gary L; Bosdet, Ian E; Boussaha, Mekki; Brauning, Rudiger; Caetano, Alexandre R; Costa, Marcos M; Crawford, Allan M; Dalrymple, Brian P; Eggen, André; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Floriot, Sandrine; Gautier, Mathieu; Gill, Clare A; Green, Ronnie D; Holt, Robert; Jann, Oliver; Jones, Steven JM; Kappes, Steven M; Keele, John W; de Jong, Pieter J; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A; McEwan, John C; McKay, Stephanie; Marra, Marco A; Mathewson, Carrie A; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Moore, Stephen S; Murdoch, Brenda; Nicholas, Frank W; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Roy, Alice; Salih, Hanni; Schibler, Laurent; Schnabel, Robert D; Silveri, Licia; Skow, Loren C; Smith, Timothy PL; Sonstegard, Tad S; Taylor, Jeremy F; Tellam, Ross; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Williams, John L; Womack, James E; Wye, Natasja H; Yang, George; Zhao, Shaying

    2007-01-01

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project. Results A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly. Conclusion Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans. PMID:17697342

  18. Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...

  19. Creation of BAC genomic resources for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) for physical mapping of RGA containing BAC clones.

    PubMed

    Clément, D; Lanaud, C; Sabau, X; Fouet, O; Le Cunff, L; Ruiz, E; Risterucci, A M; Glaszmann, J C; Piffanelli, P

    2004-05-01

    We have constructed and validated the first cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) BAC library, with the aim of developing molecular resources to study the structure and evolution of the genome of this perennial crop. This library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 120 kb, representing approximately ten haploid genome equivalents. It was constructed from the genotype Scavina-6 (Sca-6), a Forastero clone highly resistant to cocoa pathogens and a parent of existing mapping populations. Validation of the BAC library was carried out with a set of 13 genetically-anchored single copy and one duplicated markers. An average of nine BAC clones per probe was identified, giving an initial experimental estimation of the genome coverage represented in the library. Screening of the library with a set of resistance gene analogues (RGAs), previously mapped in cocoa and co-localizing with QTL for resistance to Phytophthora traits, confirmed at the physical level the tight clustering of RGAs in the cocoa genome and provided the first insights into the relationships between genetic and physical distances in the cocoa genome. This library represents an available BAC resource for structural genomic studies or map-based cloning of genes corresponding to important QTLs for agronomic traits such as resistance genes to major cocoa pathogens like Phytophthora spp ( palmivora and megakarya), Crinipellis perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri.

  20. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN) was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES) from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. Results The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb). The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%), followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. Conclusion The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable elements was low. The SSRs

  1. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Raja; Rathinavelu, Rajkumar; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-05-09

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN) was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES) from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb). The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%), followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable elements was low. The SSRs identified from BES will be

  2. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  3. A physical map, including a BAC/PAC clone contig, of the Williams-Beuren syndrome--deletion region at 7q11.23.

    PubMed

    Peoples, R; Franke, Y; Wang, Y K; Pérez-Jurado, L; Paperna, T; Cisco, M; Francke, U

    2000-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder caused by haploinsufficiency for genes in a 2-cM region of chromosome band 7q11.23. With the exception of vascular stenoses due to deletion of the elastin gene, the various features of WBS have not yet been attributed to specific genes. Although >/=16 genes have been identified within the WBS deletion, completion of a physical map of the region has been difficult because of the large duplicated regions flanking the deletion. We present a physical map of the WBS deletion and flanking regions, based on assembly of a bacterial artificial chromosome/P1-derived artificial chromosome contig, analysis of high-throughput genome-sequence data, and long-range restriction mapping of genomic and cloned DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our map encompasses 3 Mb, including 1.6 Mb within the deletion. Two large duplicons, flanking the deletion, of >/=320 kb contain unique sequence elements from the internal border regions of the deletion, such as sequences from GTF2I (telomeric) and FKBP6 (centromeric). A third copy of this duplicon exists in inverted orientation distal to the telomeric flanking one. These duplicons show stronger sequence conservation with regard to each other than to the presumptive ancestral loci within the common deletion region. Sequence elements originating from beyond 7q11.23 are also present in these duplicons. Although the duplicons are not present in mice, the order of the single-copy genes in the conserved syntenic region of mouse chromosome 5 is inverted relative to the human map. A model is presented for a mechanism of WBS-deletion formation, based on the orientation of duplicons' components relative to each other and to the ancestral elements within the deletion region.

  4. A Physical Map, Including a BAC/PAC Clone Contig, of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome–Deletion Region at 7q11.23

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, Risa; Franke, Yvonne; Wang, Yu-Ker; Pérez-Jurado, Luis; Paperna, Tamar; Cisco, Michael; Francke, Uta

    2000-01-01

    Summary Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder caused by haploinsufficiency for genes in a 2-cM region of chromosome band 7q11.23. With the exception of vascular stenoses due to deletion of the elastin gene, the various features of WBS have not yet been attributed to specific genes. Although ⩾16 genes have been identified within the WBS deletion, completion of a physical map of the region has been difficult because of the large duplicated regions flanking the deletion. We present a physical map of the WBS deletion and flanking regions, based on assembly of a bacterial artificial chromosome/P1-derived artificial chromosome contig, analysis of high-throughput genome-sequence data, and long-range restriction mapping of genomic and cloned DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our map encompasses 3 Mb, including 1.6 Mb within the deletion. Two large duplicons, flanking the deletion, of ⩾320 kb contain unique sequence elements from the internal border regions of the deletion, such as sequences from GTF2I (telomeric) and FKBP6 (centromeric). A third copy of this duplicon exists in inverted orientation distal to the telomeric flanking one. These duplicons show stronger sequence conservation with regard to each other than to the presumptive ancestral loci within the common deletion region. Sequence elements originating from beyond 7q11.23 are also present in these duplicons. Although the duplicons are not present in mice, the order of the single-copy genes in the conserved syntenic region of mouse chromosome 5 is inverted relative to the human map. A model is presented for a mechanism of WBS-deletion formation, based on the orientation of duplicons' components relative to each other and to the ancestral elements within the deletion region. PMID:10631136

  5. Fine Structure Genetic and Physical Map of the Gene 3 to 10 Region of the Bacteriophage P22 Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, S.; Eppler, K.; Sampson, L.; Parr, R.; Wyckoff, E.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism by which dsDNA is packaged by viruses is not yet understood in any system. Bacteriophage P22 has been a productive system in which to study the molecular genetics of virus particle assembly and DNA packaging. Only five phage encoded proteins, the products of genes 3, 2, 1, 8 and 5, are required for packaging the virus chromosome inside the coat protein shell. We report here the construction of a detailed genetic and physical map of these genes, the neighboring gene 4 and a portion of gene 10, in which 289 conditional lethal amber, opal, temperature sensitive and cold sensitive mutations are mapped into 44 small (several hundred base pair) intervals of known sequence. Knowledge of missense mutant phenotypes and information on the location of these mutations allows us to begin the assignment of partial protein functions to portions of these genes. The map and mapping strains will be of use in the further genetic dissection of the P22 DNA packaging and prohead assembly processes. PMID:2029965

  6. ASCA Temperature Maps for Merging and Relaxed Clusters and Physics of the Cluster Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, M.; Sarazin, C.; Nevalainen, J.; Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W.

    1999-01-01

    ASCA temperature maps for several galaxy clusters undergoing strong mergers will be presented. From these maps, it is possible to estimate velocities of the colliding subclusters. I will discuss several interesting implications of these estimates for the physics of the cluster gas and the shape of the gravitational potential. I will also present temperature maps and profiles for several relaxed clusters selected for X-ray mass determination, and present the mass values derived without the assumption of isothermality. The accurate mass-temperature and luminosity-temperature relations will be discussed. This talk will review how AXAF will revolutionize X-ray astronomy through its radically better imaging and spectroscopic resolution. Examples from many fields of astrophysics will be given.

  7. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete Triticeae genome. This study

  8. Using bedrock geology for making ecological base maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Solli, Arne; Torgersen, Espen

    2017-04-01

    For preparing for a sustainable future land use planning, a more holistic approach to nature management is important. This will imply more multidisciplinary research and cooperation across professional borders. In particular, the integration of knowledge about the geosphere and biosphere is needed. As the biosphere produces ecosystem services to us, the geosphere provides "geo-system" services or "Underground" services. In Norway, we have tried to investigate the connection between ecosystems and bedrock geology. The aim was to create various ecological base maps that can be used for improving mapping and investigations of biodiversity. By using geochemical analyses and linking the results to bedrock maps, we managed to get a rather realistic picture of the mineral content of soils formed by the chemical weathering of rocks. This made it possible to make the first national map of Ca-content in the bedrock. In addition, we can construct maps of anomal soil composition (such as high P, Mg and K). The presentation will outline the methodology for such ecological base maps, and discuss problems, challenges and further research.

  9. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved with and without Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Perez, Angel Luis; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a…

  10. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (< 0.001 mm) and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) contents. The models for each day were used to estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data. PMID:26090852

  11. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (< 0.001 mm) and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) contents. The models for each day were used to estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.

  12. Neural network-based multiple robot simultaneous localization and mapping.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Sajad; Paull, Liam; Trentini, Michael; Li, Howard

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a decentralized platform for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with multiple robots is developed. Each robot performs single robot view-based SLAM using an extended Kalman filter to fuse data from two encoders and a laser ranger. To extend this approach to multiple robot SLAM, a novel occupancy grid map fusion algorithm is proposed. Map fusion is achieved through a multistep process that includes image preprocessing, map learning (clustering) using neural networks, relative orientation extraction using norm histogram cross correlation and a Radon transform, relative translation extraction using matching norm vectors, and then verification of the results. The proposed map learning method is a process based on the self-organizing map. In the learning phase, the obstacles of the map are learned by clustering the occupied cells of the map into clusters. The learning is an unsupervised process which can be done on the fly without any need to have output training patterns. The clusters represent the spatial form of the map and make further analyses of the map easier and faster. Also, clusters can be interpreted as features extracted from the occupancy grid map so the map fusion problem becomes a task of matching features. Results of the experiments from tests performed on a real environment with multiple robots prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  13. Expert system-based mineral mapping using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Dietz, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated analysis of imaging spectrometer data and field spectral measurements were used in conjunction with conventional geologic field mapping to characterize bedrock and surficial geology at the northern end of Death Valley, California and Nevada. A knowledge-based expert system was used to automatically produce image maps from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data showing the principal surface mineralogy. The imaging spectrometer data show the spatial distribution of spectrally distinct minerals occurring both as primary rock-forming minerals and as alteration and weathering products. Field spectral measurements were used to verify the mineral maps and field mapping was used to extend the remote sensing results. Geographically referenced image-maps produced from these data form new base maps from which to develop improved understanding of the processes of deposition and erosion affecting the present land surface. The 'northern Grapevine Mountains' (NGM) study area was reported on in numerous papers. This area is an unnamed northwestward extension of the range. Most of the research here has concentrated on mapping of Jurassic-age plutons and associated hydrothermal alteration, however, the nature and scope of these studies is much broader, pertaining to the geologic history and development of the entire Death Valley region. AVIRIS data for the NGM site were obtained during May 1989. Additional AVIRIS data were acquired during September 1989 as part of the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE). The area covered by these data overlaps slightly with the May 1989 data. Three and one-half AVIRIS scenes total were analyzed.

  14. Using Content Maps to Measure Content Development in Physical Education: Validation and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Dervent, Fatih; Lee, Yun Soo; Ko, Bomna; Kim, Insook; Tao, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.…

  15. 24 CFR 200.1530 - Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. 200.1530 Section 200.1530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1530 Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. It is HUD...

  16. 24 CFR 200.1530 - Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. 200.1530 Section 200.1530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1530 Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. It is HUD...

  17. 24 CFR 200.1530 - Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. 200.1530 Section 200.1530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1530 Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. It is HUD...

  18. 24 CFR 200.1530 - Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. 200.1530 Section 200.1530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1530 Bases for sanctioning a MAP lender. It is HUD...

  19. A Web-Based Interactive Mapping System of State Wide School Performance: Integrating Google Maps API Technology into Educational Achievement Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kening; Mulvenon, Sean W.; Stegman, Charles; Anderson, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Google Maps API (Application Programming Interface), released in late June 2005 by Google, is an amazing technology that allows users to embed Google Maps in their own Web pages with JavaScript. Google Maps API has accelerated the development of new Google Maps based applications. This article reports a Web-based interactive mapping system…

  20. GIS-based realization of international standards for digital geological mapping - developments in planetary mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance and the European Planetary Network are research communities with different main topics. One of the main research topics which are shared by these communities is the question about the geomorphological evolutions of planetary surfaces as well as the geological context of life. This research contains questions like "Is there volcanic activity on a planet?" or "Where are possible landing sites?". In order to help answering such questions, analyses of surface features and morphometric measurements need to be performed. This ultimately leads to the generation of thematic maps (e.g. geological and geomorphologic maps) as a basis for the further studies. By using modern GIS techniques the comparative work and generalisation during mapping processes results in new information. These insights are crucial for subsequent investigations. Therefore, the aim is to make these results available to the research community as a secondary data basis. In order to obtain a common and interoperable data collection results of different mapping projects have to follow a standardised data-infrastructure, metadata definition and map layout. Therefore, we are currently focussing on the generation of a database model arranging all data and processes in a uniform mapping schema. With the help of such a schema, the mapper will be able to utilise a predefined (but customisable) GIS environment with individual tool items as well as a standardised symbolisation and a metadata environment. This environment is based on a data model which is currently on a conceptual level and provides the layout of the data infrastructure including relations and topologies. One of the first tasks towards this data model is the definition of a consistent basis of symbolisation standards developed for planetary mapping. The mapper/geologist will be able to access the pre-built signatures and utilise these in scale dependence within the mapping project. The symbolisation will be related to the

  1. Preliminary surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30x60 minute quadrangle presents characteristics of surficial materials for an area approximately 5,000 km2 in the eastern Mojave Desert of California. This map consists of new surficial mapping conducted between 2000 and 2005, as well as compilations of previous surficial mapping. Surficial geology units are mapped and described based on depositional process and age categories that reflect the mode of deposition, pedogenic effects occurring post-deposition, and, where appropriate, the lithologic nature of the material. The physical properties recorded in the database focus on those that drive hydrologic, biologic, and physical processes such as particle size distribution (PSD) and bulk density. This version of the database is distributed with point data representing locations of samples for both laboratory determined physical properties and semi-quantitative field-based information. Future publications will include the field and laboratory data as well as maps of distributed physical properties across the landscape tied to physical process models where appropriate. The database is distributed in three parts: documentation, spatial map-based data, and printable map graphics of the database. Documentation includes this file, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and describes the format and content of the map data, a database 'readme' file, which describes the database contents, and FGDC metadata for the spatial map information. Spatial data are distributed as Arc/Info coverage in ESRI interchange (e00) format, or as tabular data in the form of DBF3-file (.DBF) file formats. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files, and are appropriate for representing a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  2. A Physics-Based Deep Learning Approach to Shadow Invariant Representations of Hyperspectral Images.

    PubMed

    Windrim, Lloyd; Ramakrishnan, Rishi; Melkumyan, Arman; Murphy, Richard J

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the Relit Spectral Angle-Stacked Autoencoder, a novel unsupervised feature learning approach for mapping pixel reflectances to illumination invariant encodings. This work extends the Spectral Angle-Stacked Autoencoder so that it can learn a shadow-invariant mapping. The method is inspired by a deep learning technique, Denoising Autoencoders, with the incorporation of a physics-based model for illumination such that the algorithm learns a shadow invariant mapping without the need for any labelled training data, additional sensors, a priori knowledge of the scene or the assumption of Planckian illumination. The method is evaluated using datasets captured from several different cameras, with experiments to demonstrate the illumination invariance of the features and how they can be used practically to improve the performance of high-level perception algorithms that operate on images acquired outdoors.

  3. GIS walking maps to promote physical activity in low-income public housing communities: a qualitative examination.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Lorna H; Emmons, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Walking is the most commonly reported leisure-time activity. Members of racial/ethnic minority groups and people of low socioeconomic status disproportionately live in urban environments that are perceived to be unsafe, thereby reducing opportunities for engaging in walking. We examined the use of walking maps for increasing physical activity (PA) among low-income residents of public housing sites in Boston, Massachusetts. PA facilities, local businesses, and destinations in a walkable half-mile radius of the housing community were identified and plotted on maps by using geographic information systems technology. Four focus groups (n = 24) were conducted to learn how the walking maps were used by the residents and to understand map features that promoted use. Maps were used by participants to increase their PA, and use of the maps increased participants' awareness of community resources. Maps changed participants' perception of distances and were discussed as a means of fostering a sense of community. Use of the maps also increased participants' awareness of neighborhood incivilities. Barriers to map use were difficulty in interpreting the maps and lack of access to the maps. Walking maps that display PA opportunities and resources may be useful in increasing walking among residents of public housing sites.

  4. A terracing operator for physical property mapping with potential field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.; McCafferty, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The terracing operator works iteratively on gravity or magnetic data, using the sense of the measured field's local curvature, to produce a field comprised of uniform domains separated by abrupt domain boundaries. The result is crudely proportional to a physical-property function defined in one (profile case) or two (map case) horizontal dimensions. This result can be extended to a physical-property model if its behavior in the third (vertical) dimension is defined, either arbitrarily or on the basis of the local geologic situation. The terracing algorithm is computationally fast and appropriate to use with very large digital data sets. The terracing operator was applied separately to aeromagnetic and gravity data from a 136km x 123km area in eastern Kansas. Results provide a reasonable good physical representation of both the gravity and the aeromagnetic data. Superposition of the results from the two data sets shows many areas of agreement that can be referenced to geologic features within the buried Precambrian crystalline basement. -from Authors

  5. Physical and transcriptional map in the CMT 1A region

    SciTech Connect

    Chevillard, C.; Passage, E.; Cudrey, C.

    1994-09-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) has been mapped to the proximal short arm of chromosome 17. CMT1A is the most frequent of the motor and sensory peripheral neuropathies and is associated with a duplication of a 1.5 Mb fragment in proximal 17p12. Several groups have proposed that the gene coding for peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) as the candidate gene for CMT1A. We have recently published a {open_quote}MegaYAC{close_quote} contig of 6 Mb which covers the CMT1A critical region. In order to isolate new genes localized in this region, we used a {open_quote}physical trapping {close_quote} strategy derived from the direct cDNAmore » selection technique developed by Parimoo et al. This approach has allowed us to construct cDNA {open_quotes}minilibraries{close_quotes} using YAC DNA from the CMT1A region. One of the clones in these minilibraries has been mapped back to the CMT1A duplication. Other potentially interesting clones are in the process of further characterization. Furthermore, we have mapped several Genethon microsatellites in the 6 Mb YAC contig and some are located in the CMT1A duplicated region. These highly polymorphic markers should prove useful for diagnostic testing in CMT1A.« less

  6. Mapping the Physical and Chemical Conditions of the Ring Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Gaughan, Andrea; Ladjal, Djazia; Ueta, Toshiya; Kerber, Samuel; Conn, Blair; Gardiner, Rhiannon; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-10-01

    We observed the Planetary Nebula NGC 6720 with the Gemini Telescope and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs. We obtained spatial maps of 36 emission-lines in the wavelength range between 3600 Å and 9400 Å. We derived maps of c(Hβ), electronic densities, electronic temperatures, ionic and elemental abundances, and Ionization Correction Factors (ICFs) in the source and investigated the mass-loss history of the progenitor. The elemental abundance results indicate the need for ICFs based on three-dimensional photoionization models.

  7. Susceptibility-based functional brain mapping by 3D deconvolution of an MR-phase activation map.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zikuan; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-05-30

    The underlying source of T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI) for brain imaging is magnetic susceptibility (denoted by χ). T2*MRI outputs a complex-valued MR image consisting of magnitude and phase information. Recent research has shown that both the magnitude and the phase images are morphologically different from the source χ, primarily due to 3D convolution, and that the source χ can be reconstructed from complex MR images by computed inverse MRI (CIMRI). Thus, we can obtain a 4D χ dataset from a complex 4D MR dataset acquired from a brain functional MRI study by repeating CIMRI to reconstruct 3D χ volumes at each timepoint. Because the reconstructed χ is a more direct representation of neuronal activity than the MR image, we propose a method for χ-based functional brain mapping, which is numerically characterised by a temporal correlation map of χ responses to a stimulant task. Under the linear imaging conditions used for T2*MRI, we show that the χ activation map can be calculated from the MR phase map by CIMRI. We validate our approach using numerical simulations and Gd-phantom experiments. We also analyse real data from a finger-tapping visuomotor experiment and show that the χ-based functional mapping provides additional activation details (in the form of positive and negative correlation patterns) beyond those generated by conventional MR-magnitude-based mapping. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperspectral feature mapping classification based on mathematical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Junwei; Wang, Guangping; Wu, Jingli

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposed a hyperspectral feature mapping classification algorithm based on mathematical morphology. Without the priori information such as spectral library etc., the spectral and spatial information can be used to realize the hyperspectral feature mapping classification. The mathematical morphological erosion and dilation operations are performed respectively to extract endmembers. The spectral feature mapping algorithm is used to carry on hyperspectral image classification. The hyperspectral image collected by AVIRIS is applied to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with minimum Euclidean distance mapping algorithm, minimum Mahalanobis distance mapping algorithm, SAM algorithm and binary encoding mapping algorithm. From the results of the experiments, it is illuminated that the proposed algorithm's performance is better than that of the other algorithms under the same condition and has higher classification accuracy.

  9. Voxel-based lesion mapping of meningioma: a comprehensive lesion location mapping of 260 lesions.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Arita, Hideyuki; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE In the present study the authors aimed to determine preferred locations of meningiomas by avoiding descriptive analysis and instead using voxel-based lesion mapping and 3D image-rendering techniques. METHODS Magnetic resonance images obtained in 248 treatment-naïve meningioma patients with 260 lesions were retrospectively and consecutively collected. All images were registered to a 1-mm isotropic, high-resolution, T1-weighted brain atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (the MNI152), and a lesion frequency map was created, followed by 3D volume rendering to visualize the preferred locations of meningiomas in 3D. RESULTS The 3D lesion frequency map clearly showed that skull base structures such as parasellar, sphenoid wing, and petroclival regions were commonly affected by the tumor. The middle one-third of the superior sagittal sinus was most commonly affected in parasagittal tumors. Substantial lesion accumulation was observed around the leptomeninges covering the central sulcus and the sylvian fissure, with very few lesions observed at the frontal, parietal, and occipital convexities. CONCLUSIONS Using an objective visualization method, meningiomas were shown to be located around the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus, the perisylvian convexity, and the skull base. These observations, which are in line with previous descriptive analyses, justify further use of voxel-based lesion mapping techniques to help understand the biological nature of this disease.

  10. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFaden, Sean W.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Royar, Anna R.; Lu, Jacqueline W. T.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban tree canopy is widely believed to have myriad environmental, social, and human-health benefits, but a lack of precise canopy estimates has hindered quantification of these benefits in many municipalities. This problem was addressed for New York City using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to develop a comprehensive land-cover map, including tree canopy to the scale of individual trees. Mapping was performed using a rule-based expert system that relied primarily on high-resolution LIDAR, specifically its capacity for evaluating the height and texture of aboveground features. Multispectral imagery was also used, but shadowing and varying temporal conditions limited its utility. Contextual analysis was a key part of classification, distinguishing trees according to their physical and spectral properties as well as their relationships to adjacent, nonvegetated features. The automated product was extensively reviewed and edited via manual interpretation, and overall per-pixel accuracy of the final map was 96%. Although manual editing had only a marginal effect on accuracy despite requiring a majority of project effort, it maximized aesthetic quality and ensured the capture of small, isolated trees. Converting high-resolution LIDAR and imagery into usable information is a nontrivial exercise, requiring significant processing time and labor, but an expert system-based combination of OBIA and manual review was an effective method for fine-scale canopy mapping in a complex urban environment.

  11. Physical Model of the Genotype-to-Phenotype Map of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlusty, Tsvi; Libchaber, Albert; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    How DNA is mapped to functional proteins is a basic question of living matter. We introduce and study a physical model of protein evolution which suggests a mechanical basis for this map. Many proteins rely on large-scale motion to function. We therefore treat protein as learning amorphous matter that evolves towards such a mechanical function: Genes are binary sequences that encode the connectivity of the amino acid network that makes a protein. The gene is evolved until the network forms a shear band across the protein, which allows for long-range, soft modes required for protein function. The evolution reduces the high-dimensional sequence space to a low-dimensional space of mechanical modes, in accord with the observed dimensional reduction between genotype and phenotype of proteins. Spectral analysis of the space of 1 06 solutions shows a strong correspondence between localization around the shear band of both mechanical modes and the sequence structure. Specifically, our model shows how mutations are correlated among amino acids whose interactions determine the functional mode.

  12. Physical and genetic mapping of the dipeptidase gene DPEP1 to 16q24. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Austruy, E.; Jeanpierre, C.; Junien, C.

    1993-03-01

    The authors report the subregional physical and genetic mapping on chromosome 16q of a cDNA clone selected as a potential tumor/growth suppressor sequence. By DNA sequencing and RNA expression pattern, this clone was identified as part of the renal dipeptidase gene (DPEP1). Using somatic cell hybrids carrying either different human chromosomes or chromosome 16 segments, they confirm and refine the physical mapping of DPEP1 to the chromosome 16 subregion q24.3. Two RFLPs, a biallelic polymorphism detected by TaqI and a VNTR detected by BamHI, EcoRI, and BglII, are described. Using the VNTR polymorphism, DPEP1 was shown to be linked tomore » D16S7 with a maximum lod score of 5.8 at a recombination fraction of 0.03. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  13. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: Elementary Health/Physical Education, Released Items, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document presents 10 released items from the Health/Physical Education Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) test given in the spring of 2000 to fifth graders. Items from the test sessions include: selected-response (multiple choice), constructed-response, and a performance event. The selected-response items consist of individual questions…

  14. Intensity Based Seismic Hazard Map of Republic of Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojcinovski, Dragi; Dimiskovska, Biserka; Stojmanovska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The territory of the Republic of Macedonia and the border terrains are among the most seismically active parts of the Balkan Peninsula belonging to the Mediterranean-Trans-Asian seismic belt. The seismological data on the R. Macedonia from the past 16 centuries point to occurrence of very strong catastrophic earthquakes. The hypocenters of the occurred earthquakes are located above the Mohorovicic discontinuity, most frequently, at a depth of 10-20 km. Accurate short -term prognosis of earthquake occurrence, i.e., simultaneous prognosis of time, place and intensity of their occurrence is still not possible. The present methods of seismic zoning have advanced to such an extent that it is with a great probability that they enable efficient protection against earthquake effects. The seismic hazard maps of the Republic of Macedonia are the result of analysis and synthesis of data from seismological, seismotectonic and other corresponding investigations necessary for definition of the expected level of seismic hazard for certain time periods. These should be amended, from time to time, with new data and scientific knowledge. The elaboration of this map does not completely solve all issues related to earthquakes, but it provides basic empirical data necessary for updating the existing regulations for construction of engineering structures in seismically active areas regulated by legal regulations and technical norms whose constituent part is the seismic hazard map. The map has been elaborated based on complex seismological and geophysical investigations of the considered area and synthesis of the results from these investigations. There were two phases of elaboration of the map. In the first phase, the map of focal zones characterized by maximum magnitudes of possible earthquakes has been elaborated. In the second phase, the intensities of expected earthquakes have been computed according to the MCS scale. The map is prognostic, i.e., it provides assessment of the

  15. Smartphone-based noise mapping: Integrating sound level meter app data into the strategic noise mapping process.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Enda; King, Eoin A

    2016-08-15

    The strategic noise mapping process of the EU has now been ongoing for more than ten years. However, despite the fact that a significant volume of research has been conducted on the process and related issues there has been little change or innovation in how relevant authorities and policymakers are conducting the process since its inception. This paper reports on research undertaken to assess the possibility for smartphone-based noise mapping data to be integrated into the traditional strategic noise mapping process. We compare maps generated using the traditional approach with those generated using smartphone-based measurement data. The advantage of the latter approach is that it has the potential to remove the need for exhaustive input data into the source calculation model for noise prediction. In addition, the study also tests the accuracy of smartphone-based measurements against simultaneous measurements taken using traditional sound level meters in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical mapping of a pollen modifier locus controlling self-incompatibility in apricot and synteny analysis within the Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Elena; Molina, Laura; Badenes, María Luisa; Romero, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    S-locus products (S-RNase and F-box proteins) are essential for the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) specific recognition in Prunus. However, accumulated genetic evidence suggests that other S-locus unlinked factors are also required for GSI. For instance, GSI breakdown was associated with a pollen-part mutation unlinked to the S-locus in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Canino'. Fine-mapping of this mutated modifier gene (M-locus) and the synteny analysis of the M-locus within the Rosaceae are here reported. A segregation distortion loci mapping strategy, based on a selectively genotyped population, was used to map the M-locus. In addition, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig was constructed for this region using overlapping oligonucleotides probes, and BAC-end sequences (BES) were blasted against Rosaceae genomes to perform micro-synteny analysis. The M-locus was mapped to the distal part of chr.3 flanked by two SSR markers within an interval of 1.8 cM corresponding to ~364 Kb in the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome. In the integrated genetic-physical map of this region, BES were mapped against the peach scaffold_3 and BACs were anchored to the apricot map. Micro-syntenic blocks were detected in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) LG17/9 and strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) FG6 chromosomes. The M-locus fine-scale mapping provides a solid basis for self-compatibility marker-assisted selection and for positional cloning of the underlying gene, a necessary goal to elucidate the pollen rejection mechanism in Prunus. In a wider context, the syntenic regions identified in peach, apple and strawberry might be useful to interpret GSI evolution in Rosaceae.

  17. Investigation of contrast-enhanced subtracted breast CT images with MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengdong; Guan, Shaolin; Xin, Runchao; Li, Jianbo

    2018-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced subtracted breast computer tomography (CESBCT) images acquired using energy-resolved photon counting detector can be helpful to enhance the visibility of breast tumors. In such technology, one challenge is the limited number of photons in each energy bin, thereby possibly leading to high noise in separate images from each energy bin, the projection-based weighted image, and the subtracted image. In conventional low-dose CT imaging, iterative image reconstruction provides a superior signal-to-noise compared with the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. In this paper, maximum a posteriori expectation maximization (MAP-EM) based on projection-based weighting imaging for reconstruction of CESBCT images acquired using an energy-resolving photon counting detector is proposed, and its performance was investigated in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The simulation study shows that MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging can improve the CNR in CESBCT images by 117.7%-121.2% compared with FBP based on projection-based weighting imaging method. When compared with the energy-integrating imaging that uses the MAP-EM algorithm, projection-based weighting imaging that uses the MAP-EM algorithm can improve the CNR of CESBCT images by 10.5%-13.3%. In conclusion, MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging shows significant improvement the CNR of the CESBCT image compared with FBP based on projection-based weighting imaging, and MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging outperforms MAP-EM based on energy-integrating imaging for CESBCT imaging.

  18. A physical map of a BAC clone contig covering the entire autosome insertion between ovine MHC Class IIa and IIb

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) harbors genes involved in overall resistance/susceptibility of the host to infectious diseases. Compared to human and mouse, the ovine MHC is interrupted by a large piece of autosome insertion via a hypothetical chromosome inversion that constitutes ~25% of ovine chromosome 20. The evolutionary consequence of such an inversion and an insertion (inversion/insertion) in relation to MHC function remains unknown. We previously constructed a BAC clone physical map for the ovine MHC exclusive of the insertion region. Here we report the construction of a high-density physical map covering the autosome insertion in order to address the question of what the inversion/insertion had to do with ruminants during the MHC evolution. Results A total of 119 pairs of comparative bovine oligo primers were utilized to screen an ovine BAC library for positive clones and the orders and overlapping relationships of the identified clones were determined by DNA fingerprinting, BAC-end sequencing, and sequence-specific PCR. A total of 368 positive BAC clones were identified and 108 of the effective clones were ordered into an overlapping BAC contig to cover the consensus region between ovine MHC class IIa and IIb. Therefore, a continuous physical map covering the entire ovine autosome inversion/insertion region was successfully constructed. The map confirmed the bovine sequence assembly for the same homologous region. The DNA sequences of 185 BAC-ends have been deposited into NCBI database with the access numbers HR309252 through HR309068, corresponding to dbGSS ID 30164010 through 30163826. Conclusions We have constructed a high-density BAC clone physical map for the ovine autosome inversion/insertion between the MHC class IIa and IIb. The entire ovine MHC region is now fully covered by a continuous BAC clone contig. The physical map we generated will facilitate MHC functional studies in the ovine, as well as the comparative MHC

  19. Map based navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuohy, S.T.; Leonard, J.J.; Bellingham, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    In this work, a map based navigation algorithm is developed wherein measured geophysical properties are matched to a priori maps. The objectives is a complete algorithm applicable to a small, power-limited AUV which performs in real time to a required resolution with bounded position error. Interval B-Splines are introduced for the non-linear representation of two-dimensional geophysical parameters that have measurement uncertainty. Fine-scale position determination involves the solution of a system of nonlinear polynomial equations with interval coefficients. This system represents the complete set of possible vehicle locations and is formulated as the intersection of contours established on each map frommore » the simultaneous measurement of associated geophysical parameters. A standard filter mechanisms, based on a bounded interval error model, predicts the position of the vehicle and, therefore, screens extraneous solutions. When multiple solutions are found, a tracking mechanisms is applied until a unique vehicle location is determined.« less

  20. Partnering with Youth to Map Their Neighborhood Environments: A Multi-Layered GIS Approach

    PubMed Central

    Topmiller, Michael; Jacquez, Farrah; Vissman, Aaron T.; Raleigh, Kevin; Miller-Francis, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Mapping approaches offer great potential for community-based participatory researchers interested in displaying youth perceptions and advocating for change. We describe a multi-layered approach for gaining local knowledge of neighborhood environments that engages youth as co-researchers and active knowledge producers. By integrating geographic information systems (GIS) with environmental audits, an interactive focus group, and sketch mapping, the approach provides a place-based understanding of physical activity resources from the situated experience of youth. Youth report safety and a lack of recreational resources as inhibiting physical activity. Maps reflecting youth perceptions aid policy-makers in making place-based improvements for youth neighborhood environments. PMID:25423245

  1. Development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention to enhance implementation of physical therapy guidelines for the management of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Geert M; Harting, Janneke; Bartholomew, Leona K; Braspenning, Jozé C; van Dolder, Rob; Heijmans, Marcel Fgj; Hendriks, Erik Jm; Kremers, Stef Pj; van Peppen, Roland Ps; Rutten, Steven Tj; Schlief, Angelique; de Vries, Nanne K; Oostendorp, Rob Ab

    2014-01-15

    Systematic planning could improve the generally moderate effectiveness of interventions to enhance adherence to clinical practice guidelines. The aim of our study was to demonstrate how the process of Intervention Mapping was used to develop an intervention to address the lack of adherence to the national CPG for low back pain by Dutch physical therapists. We systematically developed a program to improve adherence to the Dutch physical therapy guidelines for low back pain. Based on multi-method formative research, we formulated program and change objectives. Selected theory-based methods of change and practical applications were combined into an intervention program. Implementation and evaluation plans were developed. Formative research revealed influential determinants for physical therapists and practice quality managers. Self-regulation was appropriate because both the physical therapists and the practice managers needed to monitor current practice and make and implement plans for change. The program stimulated interaction between practice levels by emphasizing collective goal setting. It combined practical applications, such as knowledge transfer and discussion-and-feedback, based on theory-based methods, such as consciousness raising and active learning. The implementation plan incorporated the wider environment. The evaluation plan included an effect and process evaluation. Intervention Mapping is a useful framework for formative data in program planning in the field of clinical guideline implementation. However, a decision aid to select determinants of guideline adherence identified in the formative research to analyse the problem may increase the efficiency of the application of the Intervention Mapping process.

  2. Toward Integration of Comparative Genetic, Physical, Diversity, and Cytomolecular Maps for Grasses and Grains, Using the Sorghum Genome as a Foundation1

    PubMed Central

    Draye, Xavier; Lin, Yann-Rong; Qian, Xiao-yin; Bowers, John E.; Burow, Gloria B.; Morrell, Peter L.; Peterson, Daniel G.; Presting, Gernot G.; Ren, Shu-xin; Wing, Rod A.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2001-01-01

    The small genome of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.) provides an important template for study of closely related large-genome crops such as maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), and is a logical complement to distantly related rice (Oryza sativa) as a “grass genome model.” Using a high-density RFLP map as a framework, a robust physical map of sorghum is being assembled by integrating hybridization and fingerprint data with comparative data from related taxa such as rice and using new methods to resolve genomic duplications into locus-specific groups. By taking advantage of allelic variation revealed by heterologous probes, the positions of corresponding loci on the wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice, maize, sugarcane, and Arabidopsis genomes are being interpolated on the sorghum physical map. Bacterial artificial chromosomes for the small genome of rice are shown to close several gaps in the sorghum contigs; the emerging rice physical map and assembled sequence will further accelerate progress. An important motivation for developing genomic tools is to relate molecular level variation to phenotypic diversity. “Diversity maps,” which depict the levels and patterns of variation in different gene pools, shed light on relationships of allelic diversity with chromosome organization, and suggest possible locations of genomic regions that are under selection due to major gene effects (some of which may be revealed by quantitative trait locus mapping). Both physical maps and diversity maps suggest interesting features that may be integrally related to the chromosomal context of DNA—progress in cytology promises to provide a means to elucidate such relationships. We seek to provide a detailed picture of the structure, function, and evolution of the genome of sorghum and its relatives, together with molecular tools such as locus-specific sequence-tagged site DNA markers and bacterial artificial chromosome contigs that will have enduring value for many

  3. Building Interoperable FHIR-Based Vocabulary Mapping Services: A Case Study of OHDSI Vocabularies and Mappings.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Kiefer, Richard; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Solbrig, Harold R

    2017-01-01

    The OHDSI Common Data Model (CDM) is a deep information model, in which its vocabulary component plays a critical role in enabling consistent coding and query of clinical data. The objective of the study is to create methods and tools to expose the OHDSI vocabularies and mappings as the vocabulary mapping services using two HL7 FHIR core terminology resources ConceptMap and ValueSet. We discuss the benefits and challenges in building the FHIR-based terminology services.

  4. Mixture model based joint-MAP reconstruction of attenuation and activity maps in TOF-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, H.; Kamali-Asl, A.; Ghafarian, P.; Ay, M. R.

    2018-06-01

    A challenge to have quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) images is to provide an accurate and patient-specific photon attenuation correction. In PET/MR scanners, the nature of MR signals and hardware limitations have led to a real challenge on the attenuation map extraction. Except for a constant factor, the activity and attenuation maps from emission data on TOF-PET system can be determined by the maximum likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity approach (MLAA) from emission data. The aim of the present study is to constrain the joint estimations of activity and attenuation approach for PET system using a mixture model prior based on the attenuation map histogram. This novel prior enforces non-negativity and its hyperparameters can be estimated using a mixture decomposition step from the current estimation of the attenuation map. The proposed method can also be helpful on the solving of scaling problem and is capable to assign the predefined regional attenuation coefficients with some degree of confidence to the attenuation map similar to segmentation-based attenuation correction approaches. The performance of the algorithm is studied with numerical and Monte Carlo simulations and a phantom experiment and was compared with MLAA algorithm with and without the smoothing prior. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is capable of producing the cross-talk free activity and attenuation images from emission data. The proposed approach has potential to be a practical and competitive method for joint reconstruction of activity and attenuation maps from emission data on PET/MR and can be integrated on the other methods.

  5. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in ethnic minority groups in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    PubMed

    Langøien, Lars Jørun; Terragni, Laura; Rugseth, Gro; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Roos, Gun

    2017-07-24

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with health and wellbeing. Studies indicate that ethnic minority groups are both less active and more sedentary than the majority population and that factors influencing these behaviours may differ. Mapping the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe can help to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, research gaps and guide future research. A systematic mapping review was conducted to map the factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe (protocol PROSPERO ID = CRD42014014575). Six databases were searched for quantitative and qualitative research published between 1999 and 2014. In synthesizing the findings, all factors were sorted and structured into clusters following a data driven approach and concept mapping. Sixty-three articles were identified out of 7794 returned by the systematic search. These included 41 quantitative and 22 qualitative studies. Of these 58 focused on physical activity, 5 on both physical activity and sedentary behaviour and none focused on sedentary behaviour. The factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour were grouped into eight clusters. Social & cultural environment (n = 55) and Psychosocial (39) were the clusters containing most factors, followed by Physical environment & accessibility (33), Migration context (15), Institutional environment (14), Social & material resources (12), Health and health communication (12), Political environment (3). An important finding was that cultural and religious issues, in particular those related to gender issues, were recurring factors across the clusters. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe are influenced by a wide variety of factors, especially informed by qualitative studies. More comparative studies are

  6. Building perceptual color maps for visualizing interval data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvin, Alan D.; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Pelah, Adar; Cohen, Aron

    2000-06-01

    In visualization, a 'color map' maps a range of data values onto a scale of colors. However, unless a color map is e carefully constructed, visual artifacts can be produced. This problem has stimulated considerable interest in creating perceptually based color maps, that is, color maps where equal steps in data value are perceived as equal steps in the color map [Robertson (1988); Pizer (1981); Green (1992); Lefkowitz and Herman, 1992)]. In Rogowitz and Treinish, (1996, 1998) and in Bergman, Treinish and Rogowitz, (1995), we demonstrated that color maps based on luminance or saturation could be good candidates for satisfying this requirement. This work is based on the seminal work of S.S. Stevens (1966), who measured the perceived magnitude of different magnitudes of physical stimuli. He found that for many physical scales, including luminance (cd/m2) and saturation (the 'redness' of a long-wavelength light source), equal ratios in stimulus value produced equal ratios in perceptual magnitude. He interpreted this as indicating that there exists in human cognition a common scale for representing magnitude, and we scale the effects of different physical stimuli to this internal scale. In Rogowitz, Kalvin, Pelahb and Cohen (1999), we used a psychophysical technique to test this hypothesis as it applies to the creation of perceptually uniform color maps. We constructed color maps as trajectories through three-color spaces, a common computer graphics standard (uncalibrated HSV), a common perceptually-based engineering standard for creating visual stimuli (L*a*b*), and a space commonly used in the graphic arts (Munsell). For each space, we created color scales that varied linearly in hue, saturation, or luminance and measured the detectability of increments in hue, saturation or luminance for each of these color scales. We measured the amplitude of the just-detectable Gaussian increments at 20 different values along the range of each color map. For all three color spaces

  7. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  8. Ultrahigh-resolution mapping of peatland microform using ground-based structure from motion with multiview stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Jason J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.

    2016-11-01

    Microform is important in understanding wetland functions and processes. But collecting imagery of and mapping the physical structure of peatlands is often expensive and requires specialized equipment. We assessed the utility of coupling computer vision-based structure from motion with multiview stereo photogrammetry (SfM-MVS) and ground-based photos to map peatland topography. The SfM-MVS technique was tested on an alpine peatland in Banff National Park, Canada, and guidance was provided on minimizing errors. We found that coupling SfM-MVS with ground-based photos taken with a point and shoot camera is a viable and competitive technique for generating ultrahigh-resolution elevations (i.e., <0.01 m, mean absolute error of 0.083 m). In evaluating 100+ viable SfM-MVS data collection and processing scenarios, vegetation was found to considerably influence accuracy. Vegetation class, when accounted for, reduced absolute error by as much as 50%. The logistic flexibility of ground-based SfM-MVS paired with its high resolution, low error, and low cost makes it a research area worth developing as well as a useful addition to the wetland scientists' toolkit.

  9. Mapping quantum-classical Liouville equation: projectors and trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aaron; van Zon, Ramses; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2012-02-28

    The evolution of a mixed quantum-classical system is expressed in the mapping formalism where discrete quantum states are mapped onto oscillator states, resulting in a phase space description of the quantum degrees of freedom. By defining projection operators onto the mapping states corresponding to the physical quantum states, it is shown that the mapping quantum-classical Liouville operator commutes with the projection operator so that the dynamics is confined to the physical space. It is also shown that a trajectory-based solution of this equation can be constructed that requires the simulation of an ensemble of entangled trajectories. An approximation to this evolution equation which retains only the Poisson bracket contribution to the evolution operator does admit a solution in an ensemble of independent trajectories but it is shown that this operator does not commute with the projection operators and the dynamics may take the system outside the physical space. The dynamical instabilities, utility, and domain of validity of this approximate dynamics are discussed. The effects are illustrated by simulations on several quantum systems.

  10. Fast flow-based algorithm for creating density-equalizing map projections

    PubMed Central

    Gastner, Michael T.; Seguy, Vivien; More, Pratyush

    2018-01-01

    Cartograms are maps that rescale geographic regions (e.g., countries, districts) such that their areas are proportional to quantitative demographic data (e.g., population size, gross domestic product). Unlike conventional bar or pie charts, cartograms can represent correctly which regions share common borders, resulting in insightful visualizations that can be the basis for further spatial statistical analysis. Computer programs can assist data scientists in preparing cartograms, but developing an algorithm that can quickly transform every coordinate on the map (including points that are not exactly on a border) while generating recognizable images has remained a challenge. Methods that translate the cartographic deformations into physics-inspired equations of motion have become popular, but solving these equations with sufficient accuracy can still take several minutes on current hardware. Here we introduce a flow-based algorithm whose equations of motion are numerically easier to solve compared with previous methods. The equations allow straightforward parallelization so that the calculation takes only a few seconds even for complex and detailed input. Despite the speedup, the proposed algorithm still keeps the advantages of previous techniques: With comparable quantitative measures of shape distortion, it accurately scales all areas, correctly fits the regions together, and generates a map projection for every point. We demonstrate the use of our algorithm with applications to the 2016 US election results, the gross domestic products of Indian states and Chinese provinces, and the spatial distribution of deaths in the London borough of Kensington and Chelsea between 2011 and 2014. PMID:29463721

  11. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Donghwa; Oh, Taekjun; Choi, Hyun-Taek; Myung, Hyun

    2015-08-31

    Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments.

  12. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Donghwa; Oh, Taekjun; Choi, Hyun-Taek; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments. PMID:26404284

  13. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  14. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: High School Health/Physical Education, Released Items, Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document presents 10 released items from the Health/Physical Education Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) test given in the spring of 2000 to ninth graders. Items from the test sessions include: selected-response (multiple choice), constructed-response, and a performance event. The selected-response items consist of individual questions…

  15. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mengjie; Wang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Ye, Ning; Mai, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases) can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge. PMID:27045314

  16. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mengjie; Wang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Ye, Ning; Mai, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases) can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge.

  17. Surficial geologic map of the Amboy 30' x 60' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map of the Amboy 30' x 60' quadrangle presents characteristics of surficial materials for an area of approximately 5,000 km2 in the eastern Mojave Desert of southern California. This map consists of new surficial mapping conducted between 2000 and 2007, as well as compilations from previous surficial mapping. Surficial geologic units are mapped and described based on depositional process and age categories that reflect the mode of deposition, pedogenic effects following deposition, and, where appropriate, the lithologic nature of the material. Many physical properties were noted and measured during the geologic mapping. This information was used to classify surficial deposits and to understand their ecological importance. We focus on physical properties that drive hydrologic, biologic, and physical processes such as particle-size distribution (PSD) and bulk density. The database contains point data representing locations of samples for both laboratory determined physical properties and semiquantitative field-based information in the database. We include the locations of all field observations and note the type of information collected in the field to help assist in assessing the quality of the mapping. The publication is separated into three parts: documentation, spatial data, and printable map graphics of the database. Documentation includes this pamphlet, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and units and the map. Spatial data are distributed as ArcGIS Geodatabase in Microsoft Access format and are accompanied by a readme file, which describes the database contents, and FGDC metadata for the spatial map information. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files that provide a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  18. A Digital Tectonic Activity Map of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul; Masuoka, Penny; Montgomery, Brian; OLeary, Jay; Salisbury, Demetra; Yates, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The subject of neotectonics, covering the structures and structural activity of the last 5 million years (i.e., post-Miocene) is a well-recognized field, including "active tectonics," focussed on the last 500,000 years in a 1986 National Research Council report of that title. However, there is a cartographic gap between tectonic maps, generally showing all features regardless of age, and maps of current seismic or volcanic activity. We have compiled a map intended to bridge this gap, using modern data bases and computer-aided cartographic techniques. The maps presented here are conceptually descended from an earlier map showing tectonic and volcanic activity of the last one million years. Drawn by hand with the National Geographic Society's 1975 "The Physical World" map as a base, the 1981 map in various revisions has been widely reproduced in textbooks and various technical publications. However, two decades of progress call for a completely new map that can take advantage of new knowledge and cartographic techniques. The digital tectonic activity map (DTM), presented in shaded relief (Fig. 1) and schematic (Fig. 2) versions, is the result. The DTM is intended to show tectonism and volcanism of the last one million years, a period long enough to be representative of global activity, but short enough that features such as fault scarps and volcanos are still geomorphically recognizable. Data Sources and Cartographic Methods The DTM is based on a wide range of sources, summarized in Table 1. The most important is the digital elevation model, used to construct a shaded relief map. The bathymetry is largely from satellite altimetry, specifically the marine gravity compilations by Smith and Sandwell (1996). The shaded relief map was designed to match the new National Geographic Society world physical map (1992), although drawn independently, from the digital elevation model. The Robinson Projection is used instead of the earlier Van der Grinten one. Although neither

  19. CloudAligner: A fast and full-featured MapReduce based tool for sequence mapping.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung; Shi, Weisong; Ruden, Douglas

    2011-06-06

    Research in genetics has developed rapidly recently due to the aid of next generation sequencing (NGS). However, massively-parallel NGS produces enormous amounts of data, which leads to storage, compatibility, scalability, and performance issues. The Cloud Computing and MapReduce framework, which utilizes hundreds or thousands of shared computers to map sequencing reads quickly and efficiently to reference genome sequences, appears to be a very promising solution for these issues. Consequently, it has been adopted by many organizations recently, and the initial results are very promising. However, since these are only initial steps toward this trend, the developed software does not provide adequate primary functions like bisulfite, pair-end mapping, etc., in on-site software such as RMAP or BS Seeker. In addition, existing MapReduce-based applications were not designed to process the long reads produced by the most recent second-generation and third-generation NGS instruments and, therefore, are inefficient. Last, it is difficult for a majority of biologists untrained in programming skills to use these tools because most were developed on Linux with a command line interface. To urge the trend of using Cloud technologies in genomics and prepare for advances in second- and third-generation DNA sequencing, we have built a Hadoop MapReduce-based application, CloudAligner, which achieves higher performance, covers most primary features, is more accurate, and has a user-friendly interface. It was also designed to be able to deal with long sequences. The performance gain of CloudAligner over Cloud-based counterparts (35 to 80%) mainly comes from the omission of the reduce phase. In comparison to local-based approaches, the performance gain of CloudAligner is from the partition and parallel processing of the huge reference genome as well as the reads. The source code of CloudAligner is available at http://cloudaligner.sourceforge.net/ and its web version is at http

  20. Development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention to enhance implementation of physical therapy guidelines for the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic planning could improve the generally moderate effectiveness of interventions to enhance adherence to clinical practice guidelines. The aim of our study was to demonstrate how the process of Intervention Mapping was used to develop an intervention to address the lack of adherence to the national CPG for low back pain by Dutch physical therapists. Methods We systematically developed a program to improve adherence to the Dutch physical therapy guidelines for low back pain. Based on multi-method formative research, we formulated program and change objectives. Selected theory-based methods of change and practical applications were combined into an intervention program. Implementation and evaluation plans were developed. Results Formative research revealed influential determinants for physical therapists and practice quality managers. Self-regulation was appropriate because both the physical therapists and the practice managers needed to monitor current practice and make and implement plans for change. The program stimulated interaction between practice levels by emphasizing collective goal setting. It combined practical applications, such as knowledge transfer and discussion-and-feedback, based on theory-based methods, such as consciousness raising and active learning. The implementation plan incorporated the wider environment. The evaluation plan included an effect and process evaluation. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a useful framework for formative data in program planning in the field of clinical guideline implementation. However, a decision aid to select determinants of guideline adherence identified in the formative research to analyse the problem may increase the efficiency of the application of the Intervention Mapping process. PMID:24428945

  1. Template‐based field map prediction for rapid whole brain B0 shimming

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuhang; Vannesjo, S. Johanna; Miller, Karla L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In typical MRI protocols, time is spent acquiring a field map to calculate the shim settings for best image quality. We propose a fast template‐based field map prediction method that yields near‐optimal shims without measuring the field. Methods The template‐based prediction method uses prior knowledge of the B0 distribution in the human brain, based on a large database of field maps acquired from different subjects, together with subject‐specific structural information from a quick localizer scan. The shimming performance of using the template‐based prediction is evaluated in comparison to a range of potential fast shimming methods. Results Static B0 shimming based on predicted field maps performed almost as well as shimming based on individually measured field maps. In experimental evaluations at 7 T, the proposed approach yielded a residual field standard deviation in the brain of on average 59 Hz, compared with 50 Hz using measured field maps and 176 Hz using no subject‐specific shim. Conclusions This work demonstrates that shimming based on predicted field maps is feasible. The field map prediction accuracy could potentially be further improved by generating the template from a subset of subjects, based on parameters such as head rotation and body mass index. Magn Reson Med 80:171–180, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:29193340

  2. An image-space parallel convolution filtering algorithm based on shadow map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Yang, Huamin; Zhao, Jianping

    2017-07-01

    Shadow mapping is commonly used in real-time rendering. In this paper, we presented an accurate and efficient method of soft shadows generation from planar area lights. First this method generated a depth map from light's view, and analyzed the depth-discontinuities areas as well as shadow boundaries. Then these areas were described as binary values in the texture map called binary light-visibility map, and a parallel convolution filtering algorithm based on GPU was enforced to smooth out the boundaries with a box filter. Experiments show that our algorithm is an effective shadow map based method that produces perceptually accurate soft shadows in real time with more details of shadow boundaries compared with the previous works.

  3. Incorporating Concept Mapping in Project-Based Learning: Lessons from Watershed Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rye, James; Landenberger, Rick; Warner, Timothy A.

    2013-06-01

    The concept map tool set forth by Novak and colleagues is underutilized in education. A meta-analysis has encouraged teachers to make extensive use of concept mapping, and researchers have advocated computer-based concept mapping applications that exploit hyperlink technology. Through an NSF sponsored geosciences education grant, middle and secondary science teachers participated in professional development to apply computer-based concept mapping in project-based learning (PBL) units that investigated local watersheds. Participants attended a summer institute, engaged in a summer through spring online learning academy, and presented PBL units at a subsequent fall science teachers' convention. The majority of 17 teachers who attended the summer institute had previously used the concept mapping strategy with students and rated it highly. Of the 12 teachers who continued beyond summer, applications of concept mapping ranged from collaborative planning of PBL projects to building students' vocabulary to students producing maps related to the PBL driving question. Barriers to the adoption and use of concept mapping included technology access at the schools, lack of time for teachers to advance their technology skills, lack of student motivation to choose to learn, and student difficulty with linking terms. In addition to mitigating the aforementioned barriers, projects targeting teachers' use of technology tools may enhance adoption by recruiting teachers as partners from schools as well as a small number that already are proficient in the targeted technology and emphasizing the utility of the concept map as a planning tool.

  4. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  5. Using Playground Maps for Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, A. Vonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many schools now decorate their outside hard surface areas with maps. These maps provide color and excitement to a playground and are a terrific teaching tool for geography. But these maps can easily be integrated into physical education as well to promote both physical activity as well as knowledge of geography. The purpose of this article is to…

  6. Two types of physical inconsistency to avoid with quantile mapping: a case study with relative humidity over North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, P.

    2017-12-01

    Statistical post-processing techniques aim at generating plausible climate scenarios from climate simulations and observation-based reference products. These techniques are generally not physically-based, and consequently they remedy the problem of simulation biases at the risk of generating physical inconsistency (PI). Although this concern is often emphasized, it is rarely addressed quantitatively. Here, PI generated by quantile mapping (QM), a technique widely used in climatological and hydrological applications, is investigated using relative humidity (RH) and its parent variables, namely specific humidity (SH), temperature and pressure. PI is classified into two types: 1) inadequate value for an individual variable (e.g. RH > 100 %), and 2) breaking of an inter-variable relationship. Scenarios built for this study correspond to twelve sites representing a variety of climate types over North America. Data used are an ensemble of ten 3-hourly global (CMIP5) and regional (CORDEX-NAM) simulations, as well as the CFSR reanalysis. PI of type 1 is discussed in terms of frequency of occurrence and amplitude of unphysical cases for RH and SH variables. PI of type 2 is investigated with heuristic proxies designed to directly compare the physical inconsistency problem with the initial bias problem. Finally, recommendations are provided for an appropriate use of QM given the potential to generate physical inconsistency of types 1 and 2.

  7. [Implementation of Oncomelania hupensis monitoring system based on Baidu Map].

    PubMed

    Zhi-Hua, Chen; Yi-Sheng, Zhu; Zhi-Qiang, Xue; Xue-Bing, Li; Yi-Min, Ding; Li-Jun, Bi; Kai-Min, Gao; You, Zhang

    2017-10-25

    To construct the Oncomelania hupensis snail monitoring system based on the Baidu Map. The environmental basic information about historical snail environment and existing snail environment, etc. was collected with the monitoring data about different kinds of O. hupensis snails, and then the O. hupensis snail monitoring system was built. Geographic Information System (GIS) and the electronic fence technology and Application Program Interface (API) were applied to set up the electronic fence of the snail surveillance environments, and the electronic fence was connected to the database of the snail surveillance. The O. hupensis snail monitoring system based on the Baidu Map were built up, including three modules of O. hupensis Snail Monitoring Environmental Database, Dynamic Monitoring Platform and Electronic Map. The information about monitoring O. hupensis snails could be obtained through the computer and smartphone simultaneously. The O. hupensis snail monitoring system, which is based on Baidu Map, is a visible platform to follow the process of snailsearching and molluscaciding.

  8. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa

    PubMed Central

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array’s construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. ×ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. ×ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry. PMID:26398886

  9. Model-based local density sharpening of cryo-EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Jakobi, Arjen J; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Atomic models based on high-resolution density maps are the ultimate result of the cryo-EM structure determination process. Here, we introduce a general procedure for local sharpening of cryo-EM density maps based on prior knowledge of an atomic reference structure. The procedure optimizes contrast of cryo-EM densities by amplitude scaling against the radially averaged local falloff estimated from a windowed reference model. By testing the procedure using six cryo-EM structures of TRPV1, β-galactosidase, γ-secretase, ribosome-EF-Tu complex, 20S proteasome and RNA polymerase III, we illustrate how local sharpening can increase interpretability of density maps in particular in cases of resolution variation and facilitates model building and atomic model refinement. PMID:29058676

  10. Dynamic Emulation Modelling (DEMo) of large physically-based environmental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    In environmental modelling large, spatially-distributed, physically-based models are widely adopted to describe the dynamics of physical, social and economic processes. Such an accurate process characterization comes, however, to a price: the computational requirements of these models are considerably high and prevent their use in any problem requiring hundreds or thousands of model runs to be satisfactory solved. Typical examples include optimal planning and management, data assimilation, inverse modelling and sensitivity analysis. An effective approach to overcome this limitation is to perform a top-down reduction of the physically-based model by identifying a simplified, computationally efficient emulator, constructed from and then used in place of the original model in highly resource-demanding tasks. The underlying idea is that not all the process details in the original model are equally important and relevant to the dynamics of the outputs of interest for the type of problem considered. Emulation modelling has been successfully applied in many environmental applications, however most of the literature considers non-dynamic emulators (e.g. metamodels, response surfaces and surrogate models), where the original dynamical model is reduced to a static map between input and the output of interest. In this study we focus on Dynamic Emulation Modelling (DEMo), a methodological approach that preserves the dynamic nature of the original physically-based model, with consequent advantages in a wide variety of problem areas. In particular, we propose a new data-driven DEMo approach that combines the many advantages of data-driven modelling in representing complex, non-linear relationships, but preserves the state-space representation typical of process-based models, which is both particularly effective in some applications (e.g. optimal management and data assimilation) and facilitates the ex-post physical interpretation of the emulator structure, thus enhancing the

  11. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  12. A Mobile, Map-Based Tasking Interface for Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    A MOBILE, MAP-BASED TASKING INTERFACE FOR HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION By Eli R. Hooten Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of...SUBTITLE A Mobile, Map-Based Tasking Interface for Human-Robot Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...3 II.1 Interactive Modalities and Multi-Touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II.2

  13. Object-based landslide mapping on satellite images from different sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölbling, Daniel; Friedl, Barbara; Eisank, Clemens; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have proven that object-based image analysis (OBIA) is a suitable approach for landslide mapping using remote sensing data. Mostly, optical satellite images are utilized in combination with digital elevation models (DEMs) for semi-automated mapping. The ability of considering spectral, spatial, morphometric and contextual features in OBIA constitutes a significant advantage over pixel-based methods, especially when analysing non-uniform natural phenomena such as landslides. However, many of the existing knowledge-based OBIA approaches for landslide mapping are rather complex and are tailored to specific data sets. These restraints lead to a lack of transferability of OBIA mapping routines. The objective of this study is to develop an object-based approach for landslide mapping that is robust against changing input data with different resolutions, i.e. optical satellite imagery from various sensors. Two study sites in Taiwan were selected for developing and testing the landslide mapping approach. One site is located around the Baolai village in the Huaguoshan catchment in the southern-central part of the island, the other one is a sub-area of the Taimali watershed in Taitung County near the south-eastern Pacific coast. Both areas are regularly affected by severe landslides and debris flows. A range of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite images was used for the object-based mapping of landslides and for testing the transferability across different sensors and resolutions: (I) SPOT-5, (II) Formosat-2, (III) QuickBird, and (IV) WorldView-2. Additionally, a digital elevation model (DEM) with 5 m spatial resolution and its derived products (e.g. slope, plan curvature) were used for supporting the semi-automated mapping, particularly for differentiating source areas and accumulation areas according to their morphometric characteristics. A focus was put on the identification of comparatively stable parameters (e.g. relative indices), which could be

  14. Randomly picked cosmid clones overlap the pyrB and oriC gap in the physical map of the E. coli chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Knott, V; Rees, D J; Cheng, Z; Brownlee, G G

    1988-01-01

    Sets of overlapping cosmid clones generated by random sampling and fingerprinting methods complement data at pyrB (96.5') and oriC (84') in the published physical map of E. coli. A new cloning strategy using sheared DNA, and a low copy, inducible cosmid vector were used in order to reduce bias in libraries, in conjunction with micro-methods for preparing cosmid DNA from a large number of clones. Our results are relevant to the design of the best approach to the physical mapping of large genomes. PMID:2834694

  15. Design of an image encryption scheme based on a multiple chaotic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Jun

    2013-07-01

    In order to solve the problem that chaos is degenerated in limited computer precision and Cat map is the small key space, this paper presents a chaotic map based on topological conjugacy and the chaotic characteristics are proved by Devaney definition. In order to produce a large key space, a Cat map named block Cat map is also designed for permutation process based on multiple-dimensional chaotic maps. The image encryption algorithm is based on permutation-substitution, and each key is controlled by different chaotic maps. The entropy analysis, differential analysis, weak-keys analysis, statistical analysis, cipher random analysis, and cipher sensibility analysis depending on key and plaintext are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption scheme. Through the comparison to the proposed scheme with AES, DES and Logistic encryption methods, we come to the conclusion that the image encryption method solves the problem of low precision of one dimensional chaotic function and has higher speed and higher security.

  16. Physical map of the Brucella melitensis 16 M chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Allardet-Servent, A; Carles-Nurit, M J; Bourg, G; Michaux, S; Ramuz, M

    1991-01-01

    We present the first restriction map of the Brucella melitensis 16 M chromosome obtained by Southern blot hybridization of SpeI, XhoI, and XbaI fragments separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All restriction fragments (a total of 113) were mapped into an open circle. The main difficulty in mapping involved the exceedingly high number of restriction fragments, as was expected considering the 59% G + C content of the Brucella genome. Several cloned genes were placed on this map, especially rRNA operons which are repeated three times. The size of the B. melitensis chromosome, estimated as 2,600 kb long in a previous study, appeared longer (3,130 kb) by restriction mapping. This restriction map is an initial approach to achieve a genetic map of the Brucella chromosome. Images PMID:2007548

  17. The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map: AVHRR-derived base maps, environmental controls, and integrated mapping procedures

    Treesearch

    D. A. WALKER; W. A. GOULD; MAIERH. A.; M. K. RAYNOLDS

    2002-01-01

    A new false-colour-infrared image derived from biweekly 1993 and 1995 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data provides a snow-free and cloud-free base image for the interpretation of vegetation as part of a 1:7.5M-scale Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM). A maximum-NDVI (Normalized DiVerence Vegetation Index) image prepared from the same data...

  18. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  19. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  20. Conditional Random Field-Based Offline Map Matching for Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bataineh, Safaa; Bahillo, Alfonso; Díez, Luis Enrique; Onieva, Enrique; Bataineh, Ikram

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an offline map matching technique designed for indoor localization systems based on conditional random fields (CRF). The proposed algorithm can refine the results of existing indoor localization systems and match them with the map, using loose coupling between the existing localization system and the proposed map matching technique. The purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of using the CRF technique in offline map matching problems for different scenarios and parameters. The algorithm was applied to several real and simulated trajectories of different lengths. The results were then refined and matched with the map using the CRF algorithm. PMID:27537892

  1. Conditional Random Field-Based Offline Map Matching for Indoor Environments.

    PubMed

    Bataineh, Safaa; Bahillo, Alfonso; Díez, Luis Enrique; Onieva, Enrique; Bataineh, Ikram

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present an offline map matching technique designed for indoor localization systems based on conditional random fields (CRF). The proposed algorithm can refine the results of existing indoor localization systems and match them with the map, using loose coupling between the existing localization system and the proposed map matching technique. The purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of using the CRF technique in offline map matching problems for different scenarios and parameters. The algorithm was applied to several real and simulated trajectories of different lengths. The results were then refined and matched with the map using the CRF algorithm.

  2. Developing a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe - a DEDIPAC study.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Michelle; Nicolaou, Mary; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Stok, F Marijn; Capranica, Laura; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Monsivais, Pablo; Mazzocchi, Mario; Maes, Lea; Roos, Gun; Mejean, Caroline; Powell, Katie; Stronks, Karien

    2017-11-07

    Some ethnic minority populations have a higher risk of non-communicable diseases than the majority European population. Diet and physical activity behaviours contribute to this risk, shaped by a system of inter-related factors. This study mapped a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe, to inform research prioritisation and intervention development. A concept mapping approach guided by systems thinking was used: i. Preparation (protocol and terminology); ii. Generating a list of factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe from evidence (systematic mapping reviews) and 'eminence' (89 participants from 24 academic disciplines via brainstorming, an international symposium and expert review) and; iii. Seeking consensus on structuring, rating and clustering factors, based on how they relate to each other; and iv. Interpreting/utilising the framework for research and interventions. Similar steps were undertaken for frameworks developed for the majority European population. Seven distinct clusters emerged for dietary behaviour (containing 85 factors) and 8 for physical activity behaviours (containing 183 factors). Four clusters were similar across behaviours: Social and cultural environment; Social and material resources; Psychosocial; and Migration context. Similar clusters of factors emerged in the frameworks for diet and physical activity behaviours of the majority European population, except for 'migration context'. The importance of factors across all clusters was acknowledged, but their relative importance differed for ethnic minority populations compared with the majority population. This systems-based framework integrates evidence from both expert opinion and published literature, to map the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority groups. Our findings illustrate

  3. Using concept maps in a modified team-based learning exercise.

    PubMed

    Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara E C; Durning, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Medical school education has traditionally been driven by single discipline teaching and assessment. Newer medical school curricula often implement an organ-based approach that fosters integration of basic science and clinical disciplines. Concept maps are widely used in education. Through diagrammatic depiction of a variety of concepts and their specific connections with other ideas, concept maps provide a unique perspective into learning and performance that can complement other assessment methods commonly used in medical schools. In this innovation, we describe using concepts maps as a vehicle for a modified a classic Team-Based Learning (TBL) exercise. Modifications to traditional TBL in our innovation included replacing an individual assessment using multiple-choice questions with concept maps as well as combining the group assessment and application exercise whereby teams created concept maps. These modifications were made to further assess understanding of content across the Fundamentals module (the introductory module of the preclerkship curriculum). While preliminary, student performance and feedback from faculty and students support the use of concept maps in TBL. Our findings suggest concept maps can provide a unique means of determining assessment of learning and generating feedback to students. Concept maps can also demonstrate knowledge acquisition, organization of prior and new knowledge, and synthesis of that knowledge across disciplines in a unique way providing an additional means of assessment in addition to traditional multiple-choice questions. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. A qualitative study on using concept maps in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2017-05-01

    The visual arts, including concept maps, have been shown to be effective tools for facilitating student learning. However, the use of concept maps in nursing education has been under-explored. The aim of this study was to explore how students develop concept maps and what these concept maps consist of, and their views on the use of concept maps as a learning activity in a PBL class. A qualitative approach consisting of an analysis of the contents of the concept maps and interviews with students. The study was conducted in a school of nursing in a university in Hong Kong. A total of 38 students who attended the morning session (20 students) and afternoon session (18 students) respectively of a nursing problem-based learning class. The students in both the morning and afternoon classes were allocated into four groups (4-5 students per group). Each group was asked to draw two concept maps based on a given scenario, and then to participate in a follow-up interview. Two raters individually assessed the concept maps, and then discussed their views with each other. Among the concept maps that were drawn, four were selected. Their four core features of those maps were: a) the integration of informative and artistic elements; b) the delivery of sensational messages; c) the use of images rather than words; and d) three-dimensional and movable. Both raters were concerned about how informative the presentation was, the composition of the elements, and the ease of comprehension, and appreciated the three-dimensional presentation and effective use of images. From the results of the interview, the pros and cons of using concept maps were discerned. This study demonstrated how concept maps could be implemented in a PBL class to boost the students' creativity and to motivate them to learn. This study suggests the use of concept maps as an initiative to motivate student to learn, participate actively, and nurture their creativity. To conclude, this study explored an alternative way

  5. Generalized logistic map and its application in chaos based cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawnik, M.

    2017-12-01

    The logistic map is commonly used in, for example, chaos based cryptography. However, its properties do not render a safe construction of encryption algorithms. Thus, the scope of the paper is a proposal of generalization of the logistic map by means of a wellrecognized family of chaotic maps. In the next step, an analysis of Lyapunov exponent and the distribution of the iterative variable are studied. The obtained results confirm that the analyzed model can safely and effectively replace a classic logistic map for applications involving chaotic cryptography.

  6. Incorporating Concept Mapping in Project-Based Learning: Lessons from Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James; Landenberger, Rick; Warner, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept map tool set forth by Novak and colleagues is underutilized in education. A meta-analysis has encouraged teachers to make extensive use of concept mapping, and researchers have advocated computer-based concept mapping applications that exploit hyperlink technology. Through an NSF sponsored geosciences education grant, middle and…

  7. Spectrally based mapping of riverbed composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legleiter, Carl; Stegman, Tobin K.; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing methods provide an efficient means of characterizing fluvial systems. This study evaluated the potential to map riverbed composition based on in situ and/or remote measurements of reflectance. Field spectra and substrate photos from the Snake River, Wyoming, USA, were used to identify different sediment facies and degrees of algal development and to quantify their optical characteristics. We hypothesized that accounting for the effects of depth and water column attenuation to isolate the reflectance of the streambed would enhance distinctions among bottom types and facilitate substrate classification. A bottom reflectance retrieval algorithm adapted from coastal research yielded realistic spectra for the 450 to 700 nm range; but bottom reflectance-based substrate classifications, generated using a random forest technique, were no more accurate than classifications derived from above-water field spectra. Additional hypothesis testing indicated that a combination of reflectance magnitude (brightness) and indices of spectral shape provided the most accurate riverbed classifications. Convolving field spectra to the response functions of a multispectral satellite and a hyperspectral imaging system did not reduce classification accuracies, implying that high spectral resolution was not essential. Supervised classifications of algal density produced from hyperspectral data and an inferred bottom reflectance image were not highly accurate, but unsupervised classification of the bottom reflectance image revealed distinct spectrally based clusters, suggesting that such an image could provide additional river information. We attribute the failure of bottom reflectance retrieval to yield more reliable substrate maps to a latent correlation between depth and bottom type. Accounting for the effects of depth might have eliminated a key distinction among substrates and thus reduced discriminatory power. Although further, more systematic study across a broader

  8. A reference linkage map for Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are invaluable resources in plant research. They provide a key tool for many genetic applications including: mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL); comparative mapping; identifying unlinked (i.e. independent) DNA markers for fingerprinting, population genetics and phylogenetics; assisting genome sequence assembly; relating physical and recombination distances along the genome and map-based cloning of genes. Eucalypts are the dominant tree species in most Australian ecosystems and of economic importance globally as plantation trees. The genome sequence of E. grandis has recently been released providing unprecedented opportunities for genetic and genomic research in the genus. A robust reference linkage map containing sequence-based molecular markers is needed to capitalise on this resource. Several high density linkage maps have recently been constructed for the main commercial forestry species in the genus (E. grandis, E. urophylla and E. globulus) using sequenced Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and microsatellite markers. To provide a single reference linkage map for eucalypts a composite map was produced through the integration of data from seven independent mapping experiments (1950 individuals) using a marker-merging method. Results The composite map totalled 1107 cM and contained 4101 markers; comprising 3880 DArT, 213 microsatellite and eight candidate genes. Eighty-one DArT markers were mapped to two or more linkage groups, resulting in the 4101 markers being mapped to 4191 map positions. Approximately 13% of DArT markers mapped to identical map positions, thus the composite map contained 3634 unique loci at an average interval of 0.31 cM. Conclusion The composite map represents the most saturated linkage map yet produced in Eucalyptus. As the majority of DArT markers contained on the map have been sequenced, the map provides a direct link to the E. grandis genome sequence and will serve as an important reference for

  9. Development of an intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people and design of a pilot implementation: an intervention mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Krops, Leonie A; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2018-03-16

    Physically disabled people are less physically active compared with healthy people. Existing physical activity (PA) interventions are limited in reach, since they are primarily rehabilitation or school based. The current study aims to develop a community-based intervention for stimulating PA in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. To systematically develop a PA-stimulating intervention, intervention mapping (six steps) was applied. PA level and health-related quality of life of patients after rehabilitation was determined using questionnaires (step 1). Qualitative research was performed to study professionals' and physically disabled people's ideas about intervention objectives, determinants and design (steps 2 and 3). Since experts expressed no need for a new intervention, the existing intervention 'Activity coach' was adapted to the specific target population. The adapted intervention 'Activity coach+' composes a network of intermediate organisations that refers participants to an activity coach, who coaches participants during 1 year. After a preintervention physical assessment by a physiotherapist, participants will be individually guided to existing organised or non-organised activities. An activity tracker will be used to monitor and stimulate PA in daily life (step 4). To support adoption and implementation, meetings between involved parties are organised (step 5). 'Activity coach+' is implemented in community in March 2017, and will be evaluated using a mixed-method analysis. Quantitative evaluation of intervention effects on PA, health and social participation takes place after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. The implementation process and experiences with the intervention will be determined using qualitative research (step 6). Insights from this study will be used for dissemination and further development of the intervention. The Medical Ethical Committee of the University Medical Center Groningen confirmed that formal ethical approval was not required

  10. The Effect of Using Concept Mapping on Student's Attitude and Achievement When Learning the Physics Topic of Circular and Rotational Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchembe, Dennis; Chinyama, Kaumba; Jumbe, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to show the effectiveness of concept mapping as a teaching strategy to undergraduate students taking introductory physics course. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of concept mapping on student academic achievement. The main focus of these studies have been on comparing the effectiveness of concept…

  11. Physically-Based Modelling and Real-Time Simulation of Fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jim Xiong

    1995-01-01

    Simulating physically realistic complex fluid behaviors presents an extremely challenging problem for computer graphics researchers. Such behaviors include the effects of driving boats through water, blending differently colored fluids, rain falling and flowing on a terrain, fluids interacting in a Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), etc. Such capabilities are useful in computer art, advertising, education, entertainment, and training. We present a new method for physically-based modeling and real-time simulation of fluids in computer graphics and dynamic virtual environments. By solving the 2D Navier -Stokes equations using a CFD method, we map the surface into 3D using the corresponding pressures in the fluid flow field. This achieves realistic real-time fluid surface behaviors by employing the physical governing laws of fluids but avoiding extensive 3D fluid dynamics computations. To complement the surface behaviors, we calculate fluid volume and external boundary changes separately to achieve full 3D general fluid flow. To simulate physical activities in a DIS, we introduce a mechanism which uses a uniform time scale proportional to the clock-time and variable time-slicing to synchronize physical models such as fluids in the networked environment. Our approach can simulate many different fluid behaviors by changing the internal or external boundary conditions. It can model different kinds of fluids by varying the Reynolds number. It can simulate objects moving or floating in fluids. It can also produce synchronized general fluid flows in a DIS. Our model can serve as a testbed to simulate many other fluid phenomena which have never been successfully modeled previously.

  12. Managing mapping data using commercial data base management software.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Electronic computers are involved in almost every aspect of the map making process. This involvement has become so thorough that it is practically impossible to find a recently developed process or device in the mapping field which does not employ digital processing in some form or another. This trend, which has been evolving over two decades, is accelerated by the significant improvements in capility, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of electronic devices. Computerized mapping processes and devices share a common need for machine readable data. Integrating groups of these components into automated mapping systems requires careful planning for data flow amongst them. Exploring the utility of commercial data base management software to assist in this task is the subject of this paper. -Author

  13. Challenges and complications in neighborhood mapping: from neighborhood concept to operationalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yongxin

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines complications in neighborhood mapping and corresponding challenges for the GIS community, taking both a conceptual and a methodological perspective. It focuses on the social and spatial dimensions of the neighborhood concept and highlights their relationship in neighborhood mapping. Following a brief summary of neighborhood definitions, five interwoven factors are identified to be origins of neighborhood mapping difficulties: conceptual vagueness, uncertainty of various sources, GIS representation, scale, and neighborhood homogeneity or continuity. Existing neighborhood mapping methods are grouped into six categories to be assessed: perception based, physically based, inference based, preexisting, aggregated, and automated. Mapping practices in various neighborhood-related disciplines and applications are cited as examples to demonstrate how the methods work, as well as how they should be evaluated. A few mapping strategies for the improvement of neighborhood mapping are prescribed from a GIS perspective: documenting simplifications employed in the mapping procedure, addressing uncertainty sources, developing new data solutions, and integrating complementary mapping methods. Incorporation of high-resolution data and introduction of more GIS ideas and methods (such as fuzzy logic) are identified to be future opportunities.

  14. Altering spatial priority maps via reward-based learning.

    PubMed

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Eštočinová, Jana; Calletti, Riccardo; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Sani, Ilaria; Della Libera, Chiara; Santandrea, Elisa

    2014-06-18

    Spatial priority maps are real-time representations of the behavioral salience of locations in the visual field, resulting from the combined influence of stimulus driven activity and top-down signals related to the current goals of the individual. They arbitrate which of a number of (potential) targets in the visual scene will win the competition for attentional resources. As a result, deployment of visual attention to a specific spatial location is determined by the current peak of activation (corresponding to the highest behavioral salience) across the map. Here we report a behavioral study performed on healthy human volunteers, where we demonstrate that spatial priority maps can be shaped via reward-based learning, reflecting long-lasting alterations (biases) in the behavioral salience of specific spatial locations. These biases exert an especially strong influence on performance under conditions where multiple potential targets compete for selection, conferring competitive advantage to targets presented in spatial locations associated with greater reward during learning relative to targets presented in locations associated with lesser reward. Such acquired biases of spatial attention are persistent, are nonstrategic in nature, and generalize across stimuli and task contexts. These results suggest that reward-based attentional learning can induce plastic changes in spatial priority maps, endowing these representations with the "intelligent" capacity to learn from experience. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348594-11$15.00/0.

  15. GIS-based interactive tool to map the advent of world conquerors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakkaraju, Mahesh

    The objective of this thesis is to show the scale and extent of some of the greatest empires the world has ever seen. This is a hybrid project between the GIS based interactive tool and the web-based JavaScript tool. This approach lets the students learn effectively about the emperors themselves while understanding how long and far their empires spread. In the GIS based tool, a map is displayed with various points on it, and when a user clicks on one point, the relevant information of what happened at that particular place is displayed. Apart from this information, users can also select the interactive animation button and can walk through a set of battles in chronological order. As mentioned, this uses Java as the main programming language, and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) provided by ESRI. MOJO is very effective as its GIS related features can be included in the application itself. This app. is a simple tool and has been developed for university or high school level students. D3.js is an interactive animation and visualization platform built on the Javascript framework. Though HTML5, CSS3, Javascript and SVG animations can be used to derive custom animations, this tool can help bring out results with less effort and more ease of use. Hence, it has become the most sought after visualization tool for multiple applications. D3.js has provided a map-based visualization feature so that we can easily display text-based data in a map-based interface. To draw the map and the points on it, D3.js uses data rendered in TOPO JSON format. The latitudes and longitudes can be provided, which are interpolated into the Map svg. One of the main advantages of doing it this way is that more information is retained when we use a visual medium.

  16. Mapping alpha-Particle X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (Map-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bristow, T.

    2014-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes (like physical and chemical weathering, water activity, diagenesis, low-temperature or impact metamorphism, and biogenic activity) leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of micron. The Mapping alpha-particle X-ray Spectrometer ("Map-X") is intended to provide chemical imaging at 2 orders of magnitude higher spatial resolution than previously flown instruments, yielding elemental chemistry at or below the scale length where many relict physical, chemical, and biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks.

  17. Method for Stereo Mapping Based on Objectarx and Pipeline Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Chen, T.; Lin, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Stereo mapping is an important way to acquire 4D production. Based on the development of the stereo mapping and the characteristics of ObjectARX and pipeline technology, a new stereo mapping scheme which can realize the interaction between the AutoCAD and digital photogrammetry system is offered by ObjectARX and pipeline technology. An experiment is made in order to make sure the feasibility with the example of the software MAP-AT (Modern Aerial Photogrammetry Automatic Triangulation), the experimental results show that this scheme is feasible and it has very important meaning for the realization of the acquisition and edit integration.

  18. Analysis of Physical Science Textbooks for Conceptual Frameworks on Acids, Bases and Neutralization: Implications for Students' Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel

    Eight physical science textbooks were analyzed for coverage on acids, bases, and neutralization. At the level of the text, clarity and coherence of statements were investigated. The conceptual framework for this topic was represented in a concept map which was used as a coding tool for tracing concepts and links present in textbooks. Cognitive…

  19. Topographical Hill Shading Map Production Based Tianditu (map World)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Zha, Z.; Tang, D.; Yang, J.

    2018-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the terrain service is an important channel for users on the platform. With the development of TIANDITU, topographical hill shading map production for providing and updating global terrain map on line becomes necessary for the characters of strong intuition, three-dimensional sense and aesthetic effect. As such, the terrain service of TIANDITU focuses on displaying the different scales of topographical data globally. And this paper mainly aims to research the method of topographical hill shading map production globally using DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data between the displaying scales about 1 : 140,000,000 to 1 : 4,000,000, corresponded the display level from 2 to 7 on TIANDITU website.

  20. Using a Metro Map Metaphor for Organizing Web-Based Learning Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Tove; Gronbaek, Kaj; Hansen, Per Steen

    This paper briefly describes the WebNize system and how it applies a Metro Map metaphor for organizing guided tours in Web based resources. Then, experiences in using the Metro Map based tours in a Knowledge Sharing project at the library at Aarhus School of Business (ASB) in Denmark, are discussed. The Library has been involved in establishing a…

  1. BESIII Physics Data Storing and Processing on HBase and MapReduce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEI, Xiaofeng; Li, Qiang; Kan, Bowen; Sun, Gongxing; Sun, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    In the past years, we have successfully applied Hadoop to high-energy physics analysis. Although, it has not only improved the efficiency of data analysis, but also reduced the cost of cluster building so far, there are still some spaces to be optimized, like inflexible pre-selection, low-efficient random data reading and I/O bottleneck caused by Fuse that is used to access HDFS. In order to change this situation, this paper presents a new analysis platform for high-energy physics data storing and analysing. The data structure is changed from DST tree-like files to HBase according to the features of the data itself and analysis processes, since HBase is more suitable for processing random data reading than DST files and enable HDFS to be accessed directly. A few of optimization measures are taken for the purpose of getting a good performance. A customized protocol is defined for data serializing and desterilizing for the sake of decreasing the storage space in HBase. In order to make full use of locality of data storing in HBase, utilizing a new MapReduce model and a new split policy for HBase regions are proposed in the paper. In addition, a dynamic pluggable easy-to-use TAG (event metadata) based pre-selection subsystem is established. It can assist physicists even to filter out 999%o uninterested data, if the conditions are set properly. This means that a lot of I/O resources can be saved, the CPU usage can be improved and consuming time for data analysis can be reduced. Finally, several use cases are designed, the test results show that the new platform has an excellent performance with 3.4 times faster with pre-selection and 20% faster without preselection, and the new platform is stable and scalable as well.

  2. The MAPS Reporting Statement for Studies Mapping onto Generic Preference-Based Outcome Measures: Explanation and Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-10-01

    The process of "mapping" is increasingly being used to predict health utilities, for application within health economic evaluations, using data on other indicators or measures of health. Guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The overall objective of this research was to develop a checklist of essential items, which authors should consider when reporting mapping studies. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting by researchers. This paper provides a detailed explanation and elaboration of the items contained within the MAPS statement. In the absence of previously published reporting checklists or reporting guidance documents, a de novo list of reporting items and accompanying explanations was created. A two-round, modified Delphi survey, with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, was used to identify a list of essential reporting items from this larger list. From the initial de novo list of 29 candidate items, a set of 23 essential reporting items was developed. The items are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely, (i) title and abstract, (ii) introduction, (iii) methods, (iv) results, (v) discussion and (vi) other. For each item, we summarise the recommendation, illustrate it using an exemplar of good reporting practice identified from the published literature, and provide a detailed explanation to accompany the recommendation. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will promote clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. It is targeted at researchers developing mapping algorithms, peer reviewers and editors involved in the manuscript review process for mapping studies, and the funders of the research. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting

  3. Mapping porosity of the deep critical zone in 3D using near-surface geophysics, rock physics modeling, and drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinchum, B. A.; Holbrook, W. S.; Grana, D.; Parsekian, A.; Carr, B.; Jiao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Porosity is generated by chemical, physical and biological processes that work to transform bedrock into soil. The resulting porosity structure can provide specifics about these processes and can improve understanding groundwater storage in the deep critical zone. Near-surface geophysical methods, when combined with rock physics and drilling, can be a tool used to map porosity over large spatial scales. In this study, we estimate porosity in three-dimensions (3D) across a 58 Ha granite catchment. Observations focus on seismic refraction, downhole nuclear magnetic resonance logs, downhole sonic logs, and samples of core acquired by push coring. We use a novel petrophysical approach integrating two rock physics models, a porous medium for the saprolite and a differential effective medium for the fractured rock, that drive a Bayesian inversion to calculate porosity from seismic velocities. The inverted geophysical porosities are within about 0.05 m3/m3 of lab measured values. We extrapolate the porosity estimates below seismic refraction lines to a 3D volume using ordinary kriging to map the distribution of porosity in 3D up to depths of 80 m. This study provides a unique map of porosity on scale never-before-seen in critical zone science. Estimating porosity on these large spatial scales opens the door for improving and understanding the processes that shape the deep critical zone.

  4. Improving estimates of genetic maps: a meta-analysis-based approach.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C L

    2007-07-01

    Inaccurate genetic (or linkage) maps can reduce the power to detect linkage, increase type I error, and distort haplotype and relationship inference. To improve the accuracy of existing maps, I propose a meta-analysis-based method that combines independent map estimates into a single estimate of the linkage map. The method uses the variance of each independent map estimate to combine them efficiently, whether the map estimates use the same set of markers or not. As compared with a joint analysis of the pooled genotype data, the proposed method is attractive for three reasons: (1) it has comparable efficiency to the maximum likelihood map estimate when the pooled data are homogeneous; (2) relative to existing map estimation methods, it can have increased efficiency when the pooled data are heterogeneous; and (3) it avoids the practical difficulties of pooling human subjects data. On the basis of simulated data modeled after two real data sets, the proposed method can reduce the sampling variation of linkage maps commonly used in whole-genome linkage scans. Furthermore, when the independent map estimates are also maximum likelihood estimates, the proposed method performs as well as or better than when they are estimated by the program CRIMAP. Since variance estimates of maps may not always be available, I demonstrate the feasibility of three different variance estimators. Overall, the method should prove useful to investigators who need map positions for markers not contained in publicly available maps, and to those who wish to minimize the negative effects of inaccurate maps. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Diffusion-Based Density-Equalizing Maps: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Visualizing Homicide Rates and Other Georeferenced Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián

    2012-12-01

    In every country, public and private agencies allocate extensive funding to collect large-scale statistical data, which in turn are studied and analyzed in order to determine local, regional, national, and international policies regarding all aspects relevant to the welfare of society. One important aspect of that process is the visualization of statistical data with embedded geographical information, which most often relies on archaic methods such as maps colored according to graded scales. In this work, we apply nonstandard visualization techniques based on physical principles. We illustrate the method with recent statistics on homicide rates in Brazil and their correlation to other publicly available data. This physics-based approach provides a novel tool that can be used by interdisciplinary teams investigating statistics and model projections in a variety of fields such as economics and gross domestic product research, public health and epidemiology, sociodemographics, political science, business and marketing, and many others.

  6. New segmentation-based tone mapping algorithm for high dynamic range image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Weiwei; Guo, Huinan; Zhou, Zuofeng; Huang, Huimin; Cao, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    The traditional tone mapping algorithm for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) image has the drawback of losing the impression of brightness, contrast and color information. To overcome this phenomenon, we propose a new tone mapping algorithm based on dividing the image into different exposure regions in this paper. Firstly, the over-exposure region is determined using the Local Binary Pattern information of HDR image. Then, based on the peak and average gray of the histogram, the under-exposure and normal-exposure region of HDR image are selected separately. Finally, the different exposure regions are mapped by differentiated tone mapping methods to get the final result. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm achieve the better performance both in visual quality and objective contrast criterion than other algorithms.

  7. Mapping visual cortex in monkeys and humans using surface-based atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Lewis, J. W.; Drury, H. A.; Hadjikhani, N.; Tootell, R. B.; Bakircioglu, M.; Miller, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used surface-based atlases of the cerebral cortex to analyze the functional organization of visual cortex in humans and macaque monkeys. The macaque atlas contains multiple partitioning schemes for visual cortex, including a probabilistic atlas of visual areas derived from a recent architectonic study, plus summary schemes that reflect a combination of physiological and anatomical evidence. The human atlas includes a probabilistic map of eight topographically organized visual areas recently mapped using functional MRI. To facilitate comparisons between species, we used surface-based warping to bring functional and geographic landmarks on the macaque map into register with corresponding landmarks on the human map. The results suggest that extrastriate visual cortex outside the known topographically organized areas is dramatically expanded in human compared to macaque cortex, particularly in the parietal lobe.

  8. Contribution of radiation hybrids to genome mapping in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Faraut, T; de Givry, S; Hitte, C; Lahbib-Mansais, Y; Morisson, M; Milan, D; Schiex, T; Servin, B; Vignal, A; Galibert, F; Yerle, M

    2009-01-01

    Radiation hybrid mapping has emerged in the end of the 1990 s as a successful and complementary approach to map genomes, essentially because of its ability to bridge the gaps between genetic and clone-based physical maps, but also using comparative mapping approaches, between 'gene-rich' and 'gene-poor' maps. Since its early development in human, radiation hybrid mapping played a pivotal role in the process of mapping animal genomes, especially mammalian ones. We review here all the different steps involved in radiation hybrid mapping from the constitution of panels to the construction of maps. A description of its contribution to whole genome maps with a special emphasis on domestic animals will also be presented. Finally, current applications of radiation hybrid mapping in the context of whole genome assemblies will be described. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Glimpse: Sparsity based weak lensing mass-mapping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Leonard, A.; Pires, S.

    2018-02-01

    Glimpse, also known as Glimpse2D, is a weak lensing mass-mapping tool that relies on a robust sparsity-based regularization scheme to recover high resolution convergence from either gravitational shear alone or from a combination of shear and flexion. Including flexion allows the supplementation of the shear on small scales in order to increase the sensitivity to substructures and the overall resolution of the convergence map. To preserve all available small scale information, Glimpse avoids any binning of the irregularly sampled input shear and flexion fields and treats the mass-mapping problem as a general ill-posed inverse problem, regularized using a multi-scale wavelet sparsity prior. The resulting algorithm incorporates redshift, reduced shear, and reduced flexion measurements for individual galaxies and is made highly efficient by the use of fast Fourier estimators.

  10. Uncertainty estimation for map-based analyses

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Mark A. Hatfield; Susan J. Crocker

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, natural resource managers have asked the question, “How much?” and have received sample-based estimates of resource totals or means. Increasingly, however, the same managers are now asking the additional question, “Where?” and are expecting spatially explicit answers in the form of maps. Recent development of natural resource databases, access to...

  11. Parallel computing of physical maps--a comparative study in SIMD and MIMD parallelism.

    PubMed

    Bhandarkar, S M; Chirravuri, S; Arnold, J

    1996-01-01

    Ordering clones from a genomic library into physical maps of whole chromosomes presents a central computational problem in genetics. Chromosome reconstruction via clone ordering is usually isomorphic to the NP-complete Optimal Linear Arrangement problem. Parallel SIMD and MIMD algorithms for simulated annealing based on Markov chain distribution are proposed and applied to the problem of chromosome reconstruction via clone ordering. Perturbation methods and problem-specific annealing heuristics are proposed and described. The SIMD algorithms are implemented on a 2048 processor MasPar MP-2 system which is an SIMD 2-D toroidal mesh architecture whereas the MIMD algorithms are implemented on an 8 processor Intel iPSC/860 which is an MIMD hypercube architecture. A comparative analysis of the various SIMD and MIMD algorithms is presented in which the convergence, speedup, and scalability characteristics of the various algorithms are analyzed and discussed. On a fine-grained, massively parallel SIMD architecture with a low synchronization overhead such as the MasPar MP-2, a parallel simulated annealing algorithm based on multiple periodically interacting searches performs the best. For a coarse-grained MIMD architecture with high synchronization overhead such as the Intel iPSC/860, a parallel simulated annealing algorithm based on multiple independent searches yields the best results. In either case, distribution of clonal data across multiple processors is shown to exacerbate the tendency of the parallel simulated annealing algorithm to get trapped in a local optimum.

  12. A Game Map Complexity Measure Based on Hamming Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Su, Pan; Li, Wenliang

    With the booming of PC game market, Game AI has attracted more and more researches. The interesting and difficulty of a game are relative with the map used in game scenarios. Besides, the path-finding efficiency in a game is also impacted by the complexity of the used map. In this paper, a novel complexity measure based on Hamming distance, called the Hamming complexity, is introduced. This measure is able to estimate the complexity of binary tileworld. We experimentally demonstrated that Hamming complexity is highly relative with the efficiency of A* algorithm, and therefore it is a useful reference to the designer when developing a game map.

  13. Fourier-Mellin moment-based intertwining map for image encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Vijay

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a robust image encryption technique that utilizes Fourier-Mellin moments and intertwining logistic map is proposed. Fourier-Mellin moment-based intertwining logistic map has been designed to overcome the issue of low sensitivity of an input image. Multi-objective Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) based on Reinforcement Learning (MNSGA-RL) has been used to optimize the required parameters of intertwining logistic map. Fourier-Mellin moments are used to make the secret keys more secure. Thereafter, permutation and diffusion operations are carried out on input image using secret keys. The performance of proposed image encryption technique has been evaluated on five well-known benchmark images and also compared with seven well-known existing encryption techniques. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique outperforms others in terms of entropy, correlation analysis, a unified average changing intensity and the number of changing pixel rate. The simulation results reveal that the proposed technique provides high level of security and robustness against various types of attacks.

  14. a Mapping Method of Slam Based on Look up Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, A.; Wang, J.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years several V-SLAM(Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) approaches have appeared showing impressive reconstructions of the world. However these maps are built with far more than the required information. This limitation comes from the whole process of each key-frame. In this paper we present for the first time a mapping method based on the LOOK UP TABLE(LUT) for visual SLAM that can improve the mapping effectively. As this method relies on extracting features in each cell divided from image, it can get the pose of camera that is more representative of the whole key-frame. The tracking direction of key-frames is obtained by counting the number of parallax directions of feature points. LUT stored all mapping needs the number of cell corresponding to the tracking direction which can reduce the redundant information in the key-frame, and is more efficient to mapping. The result shows that a better map with less noise is build using less than one-third of the time. We believe that the capacity of LUT efficiently building maps makes it a good choice for the community to investigate in the scene reconstruction problems.

  15. Usability evaluation of cloud-based mapping tools for the display of very large datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, Nicole Marie

    The elasticity and on-demand nature of cloud services have made it easier to create web maps. Users only need access to a web browser and the Internet to utilize cloud based web maps, eliminating the need for specialized software. To encourage a wide variety of users, a map must be well designed; usability is a very important concept in designing a web map. Fusion Tables, a new product from Google, is one example of newer cloud-based distributed GIS services. It allows for easy spatial data manipulation and visualization, within the Google Maps framework. ESRI has also introduced a cloud based version of their software, called ArcGIS Online, built on Amazon's EC2 cloud. Utilizing a user-centered design framework, two prototype maps were created with data from the San Diego East County Economic Development Council. One map was built on Fusion Tables, and another on ESRI's ArcGIS Online. A usability analysis was conducted and used to compare both map prototypes in term so of design and functionality. Load tests were also ran, and performance metrics gathered on both map prototypes. The usability analysis was taken by 25 geography students, and consisted of time based tasks and questions on map design and functionality. Survey participants completed the time based tasks for the Fusion Tables map prototype quicker than those of the ArcGIS Online map prototype. While response was generally positive towards the design and functionality of both prototypes, overall the Fusion Tables map prototype was preferred. For the load tests, the data set was broken into 22 groups for a total of 44 tests. While the Fusion Tables map prototype performed more efficiently than the ArcGIS Online prototype, differences are almost unnoticeable. A SWOT analysis was conducted for each prototype. The results from this research point to the Fusion Tables map prototype. A redesign of this prototype would incorporate design suggestions from the usability survey, while some functionality would

  16. Physical mapping withing the tuberous sclerosis linkage group in region 9q32-q34

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.M.; Carter, N.P.; Griffiths, B.

    1993-02-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flow dot-blot analysis have been used to construct a physical map of the q32-q34 region of chromosome 9, where one of the loci responsible for tuberous sclerosis (TSC1) has been mapped by genetic linkage. Five linked groups of markers have been defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The orientation of these groups and the order of markers within them were determined by hybridization to flow-sorted dot blots derived from a panel of cell lines of chromosome 9 translocations to place probes proximal or distal to each breakpoint. The local map order 9q32-q34 derived by application of thismore » combination of techniques is as follows: centromere - ALAD-1.3 Mb-ORM/20 kb/D9S16-GSN-250 kb-C5-HXB-1.9 Mb-D9S21-AK1-1.4 Mb-SPTAN1-ASS-800-kb-ABL-2 Mb-D0S10/350 Kb/DBH-telomere. 48 refs., 6 figs., 4 figs.« less

  17. Wide-Baseline Stereo-Based Obstacle Mapping for Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiaozheng; Wang, Han

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a wide-baseline stereo-based static obstacle mapping approach for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). The proposed approach eliminates the complicated calibration work and the bulky rig in our previous binocular stereo system, and raises the ranging ability from 500 to 1000 m with a even larger baseline obtained from the motion of USVs. Integrating a monocular camera with GPS and compass information in this proposed system, the world locations of the detected static obstacles are reconstructed while the USV is traveling, and an obstacle map is then built. To achieve more accurate and robust performance, multiple pairs of frames are leveraged to synthesize the final reconstruction results in a weighting model. Experimental results based on our own dataset demonstrate the high efficiency of our system. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to address the task of wide-baseline stereo-based obstacle mapping in a maritime environment. PMID:29617293

  18. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Concept Mastery and the Challenges of Game Development on Physics Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprudin, S.; Liliasari, L.; Prihatmanto, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    This study is a survey that aims to describe pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery at a university in Ternate. Data were collected through test standard instrument for physics which used in the teacher certification program. Data were analyzed by using quantitative descriptive technique. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that generally pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery can be categorized on low category (25.4%). The map of concept mastery will be used as a reference to developing game design in the physics learning context for pre-service physics teachers.

  19. AlignerBoost: A Generalized Software Toolkit for Boosting Next-Gen Sequencing Mapping Accuracy Using a Bayesian-Based Mapping Quality Framework.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Accurate mapping of next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads to reference genomes is crucial for almost all NGS applications and downstream analyses. Various repetitive elements in human and other higher eukaryotic genomes contribute in large part to ambiguously (non-uniquely) mapped reads. Most available NGS aligners attempt to address this by either removing all non-uniquely mapping reads, or reporting one random or "best" hit based on simple heuristics. Accurate estimation of the mapping quality of NGS reads is therefore critical albeit completely lacking at present. Here we developed a generalized software toolkit "AlignerBoost", which utilizes a Bayesian-based framework to accurately estimate mapping quality of ambiguously mapped NGS reads. We tested AlignerBoost with both simulated and real DNA-seq and RNA-seq datasets at various thresholds. In most cases, but especially for reads falling within repetitive regions, AlignerBoost dramatically increases the mapping precision of modern NGS aligners without significantly compromising the sensitivity even without mapping quality filters. When using higher mapping quality cutoffs, AlignerBoost achieves a much lower false mapping rate while exhibiting comparable or higher sensitivity compared to the aligner default modes, therefore significantly boosting the detection power of NGS aligners even using extreme thresholds. AlignerBoost is also SNP-aware, and higher quality alignments can be achieved if provided with known SNPs. AlignerBoost's algorithm is computationally efficient, and can process one million alignments within 30 seconds on a typical desktop computer. AlignerBoost is implemented as a uniform Java application and is freely available at https://github.com/Grice-Lab/AlignerBoost.

  20. AlignerBoost: A Generalized Software Toolkit for Boosting Next-Gen Sequencing Mapping Accuracy Using a Bayesian-Based Mapping Quality Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qi; Grice, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate mapping of next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads to reference genomes is crucial for almost all NGS applications and downstream analyses. Various repetitive elements in human and other higher eukaryotic genomes contribute in large part to ambiguously (non-uniquely) mapped reads. Most available NGS aligners attempt to address this by either removing all non-uniquely mapping reads, or reporting one random or "best" hit based on simple heuristics. Accurate estimation of the mapping quality of NGS reads is therefore critical albeit completely lacking at present. Here we developed a generalized software toolkit "AlignerBoost", which utilizes a Bayesian-based framework to accurately estimate mapping quality of ambiguously mapped NGS reads. We tested AlignerBoost with both simulated and real DNA-seq and RNA-seq datasets at various thresholds. In most cases, but especially for reads falling within repetitive regions, AlignerBoost dramatically increases the mapping precision of modern NGS aligners without significantly compromising the sensitivity even without mapping quality filters. When using higher mapping quality cutoffs, AlignerBoost achieves a much lower false mapping rate while exhibiting comparable or higher sensitivity compared to the aligner default modes, therefore significantly boosting the detection power of NGS aligners even using extreme thresholds. AlignerBoost is also SNP-aware, and higher quality alignments can be achieved if provided with known SNPs. AlignerBoost’s algorithm is computationally efficient, and can process one million alignments within 30 seconds on a typical desktop computer. AlignerBoost is implemented as a uniform Java application and is freely available at https://github.com/Grice-Lab/AlignerBoost. PMID:27706155

  1. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  2. Liborg: a lidar-based robot for efficient 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaminck, Michiel; Luong, Hiep; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present Liborg, a spatial mapping and localization system that is able to acquire 3D models on the y using data originated from lidar sensors. The novelty of this work is in the highly efficient way we deal with the tremendous amount of data to guarantee fast execution times while preserving sufficiently high accuracy. The proposed solution is based on a multi-resolution technique based on octrees. The paper discusses and evaluates the main benefits of our approach including its efficiency regarding building and updating the map and its compactness regarding compressing the map. In addition, the paper presents a working prototype consisting of a robot equipped with a Velodyne Lidar Puck (VLP-16) and controlled by a Raspberry Pi serving as an independent acquisition platform.

  3. Fine Physical and Genetic Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene MlIW172 Originating from Wild Emmer (Triticum dicoccoides)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Zhao, Xiaojie; Cui, Yu; Song, Wei; Huo, Naxin; Liang, Yong; Xie, Jingzhong; Wang, Zhenzhong; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Yong-Xing; Lu, Ping; Zhang, De-Yun; Wang, Lili; Sun, Hua; Yang, Tsomin; Keeble-Gagnere, Gabriel; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ling, Hong-Qing; Luo, Mingcheng; Gu, Yongqiang; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90) via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172. PMID:24955773

  4. Texture Analysis of Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices Based Image Encryption Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq; Batool, Syeda Iram

    2014-09-01

    As of late, data security is key in different enclosures like web correspondence, media frameworks, therapeutic imaging, telemedicine and military correspondence. In any case, a large portion of them confronted with a few issues, for example, the absence of heartiness and security. In this letter, in the wake of exploring the fundamental purposes of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we have presented the algorithm of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lattices. The proposed mechanism diminishes intermittent impact of the ergodic dynamical systems in the chaos-based image encryption. To assess the security of the encoded image of this scheme, the association of two nearby pixels and composition peculiarities were performed. This algorithm tries to minimize the problems arises in image encryption.

  5. Characterization of Three Maize Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries toward Anchoring of the Physical Map to the Genetic Map Using High-Density Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Filter Hybridization1

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Young-Sun; Davis, Georgia L.; Duru, Ngozi A.; Musket, Theresa A.; Linton, Eric W.; Messing, Joachim W.; McMullen, Michael D.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Polacco, Mary L.; Gardiner, Jack M.; Coe, Edward H.

    2002-01-01

    Three maize (Zea mays) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from inbred line B73. High-density filter sets from all three libraries, made using different restriction enzymes (HindIII, EcoRI, and MboI, respectively), were evaluated with a set of complex probes including the185-bp knob repeat, ribosomal DNA, two telomere-associated repeat sequences, four centromere repeats, the mitochondrial genome, a multifragment chloroplast DNA probe, and bacteriophage λ. The results indicate that the libraries are of high quality with low contamination by organellar and λ-sequences. The use of libraries from multiple enzymes increased the chance of recovering each region of the genome. Ninety maize restriction fragment-length polymorphism core markers were hybridized to filters of the HindIII library, representing 6× coverage of the genome, to initiate development of a framework for anchoring BAC contigs to the intermated B73 × Mo17 genetic map and to mark the bin boundaries on the physical map. All of the clones used as hybridization probes detected at least three BACs. Twenty-two single-copy number core markers identified an average of 7.4 ± 3.3 positive clones, consistent with the expectation of six clones. This information is integrated into fingerprinting data generated by the Arizona Genomics Institute to assemble the BAC contigs using fingerprint contig and contributed to the process of physical map construction. PMID:12481051

  6. Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Ming; Lo, Loong Chueng; Feng, Felicia; Gong, Ping; Li, Jian; Zhu, Ze Yuan; Lin, Grace; Yue, Gen Hua

    2008-03-25

    Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the mapping of BAC clones to the linkage map. This BAC library consisted of 49,152 clones with an average insert size of 98 kb, representing 6.9-fold haploid genome coverage. Screening the library with 24 microsatellites and 15 ESTs/genes demonstrated that the library had good genome coverage. In addition, 62 novel microsatellites each isolated from 62 BAC clones were mapped onto the first generation linkage map. A total of 86 BAC clones were anchored on the linkage map with at least one BAC clone on each linkage group. We have constructed the first BAC library for L. calcarifer and mapped 86 BAC clones to the first generation linkage map. This BAC library and the improved linkage map with 302 DNA markers not only supply an indispensable tool to the integration of physical and linkage maps, the fine mapping of QTL and map based cloning genes located in QTL of commercial importance, but also contribute to comparative genomic studies and eventually whole genome sequencing.

  7. Flexible Learning Itineraries Based on Conceptual Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agudelo, Olga Lucía; Salinas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The use of learning itineraries based on conceptual maps is studied in order to propose a more flexible instructional design that strengthens the learning process focused on the student, generating non-linear processes, characterising its elements, setting up relationships between them and shaping a general model with specifications for each…

  8. Object-based image analysis for cadastral mapping using satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, D.; Crommelinck, S.; Bennett, R.; Koeva, M.; Lemmen, C.

    2017-10-01

    Cadasters together with land registry form a core ingredient of any land administration system. Cadastral maps comprise of the extent, ownership and value of land which are essential for recording and updating land records. Traditional methods for cadastral surveying and mapping often prove to be labor, cost and time intensive: alternative approaches are thus being researched for creating such maps. With the advent of very high resolution (VHR) imagery, satellite remote sensing offers a tremendous opportunity for (semi)-automation of cadastral boundaries detection. In this paper, we explore the potential of object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach for this purpose by applying two segmentation methods, i.e. MRS (multi-resolution segmentation) and ESP (estimation of scale parameter) to identify visible cadastral boundaries. Results show that a balance between high percentage of completeness and correctness is hard to achieve: a low error of commission often comes with a high error of omission. However, we conclude that the resulting segments/land use polygons can potentially be used as a base for further aggregation into tenure polygons using participatory mapping.

  9. Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.

  10. Construction of the physical map of the gpa7 locus reveals that a large segment was deleted during rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianran; Tian, Feng; Huang, Haiyan; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Hu, Songnian; Sun, Chuanqing

    2008-06-01

    To facilitate cloning gene(s) underlying gpa7, a deep-coverage BAC library was constructed for an isolate of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Dongxiang, Jiangxi Province, China (DXCWR). gpa7, a quantitative trait locus corresponding to grain number per panicle, is positioned in the short arm of chromosome 7. The BAC library containing 96,768 clones represents approximate 18 haploid genome equivalents. The contig spanning DXCWR gpa7 was constructed with a series of ordered markers. The putative physical map near the gpa7 locus of another accession of O. rufipogon (Accession: IRGC 105491) was also isolated in silico. Analysis of the physical maps of gpa7 indicated that a segment of about 150 kb was deleted during domestication of common wild rice.

  11. Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

    This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish

  12. MAPS of Cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to produce an interactive visualization from a mathematical model that successfully predicts metastases from head and neck cancer. We met this goal early in the project. The visualization is available for the public to view. Our work appears to fill a need for more information about this deadly disease. The idea of this project was to make an easily interpretable visualization based on what we call "functional maps" of disease. A functional map is a graphic summary of medical data, where distances between parts of the body are determined by the probability of disease, not by anatomical distances. Functional maps often beat little resemblance to anatomical maps, but they can be used to predict the spread of disease. The idea of modeling the spread of disease in an abstract multidimensional space is difficult for many people. Our goal was to make the important predictions easy to see. NASA must face this problem frequently: how to help laypersons and professionals see important trends in abstract, complex data. We took advantage of concepts perfected in NASA's graphics libraries. As an analogy, consider a functional map of early America. Suppose we choose travel times, rather than miles, as our measures of inter-city distances. For Abraham Lincoln, travel times would have been the more meaningful measure of separation between cities. In such a map New Orleans would be close to Memphis because of the Mississippi River. St. Louis would be close to Portland because of the Oregon Trail. Oklahoma City would be far from Little Rock because of the Cheyenne. Such a map would look puzzling to those of us who have always seen physical maps, but the functional map would be more useful in predicting the probabilities of inter-site transit. Continuing the analogy, we could predict the spread of social diseases such as gambling along the rivers and cattle rustling along the trails. We could simply print the functional map of America, but it would be more interesting

  13. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the DNA mapping and sequencing technologies. In particular, the present invention provides enhanced methods and compositions for the physical mapping and positional cloning of genomic DNA. The present invention also provides a useful analytical technique to directly map cloned DNA sequences onto individual stretched DNA molecules.

  14. Physical-mechanical image of the cell surface on the base of AFM data in contact mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubtseva, M. N.; Starodubtsev, I. E.; Yegorenkov, N. I.; Kuzhel, N. S.; Konstantinova, E. E.; Chizhik, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of the cell surface are well-known markers of a cell state. The complex of the parameters characterizing the cell surface properties, such as the elastic modulus (E), the parameters of adhesive (Fa), and friction (Ff) forces can be measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) in a contact mode and form namely the physical-mechanical image of the cell surface that is a fundamental element of the cell mechanical phenotype. The paper aims at forming the physical-mechanical images of the surface of two types of glutaraldehyde-fixed cancerous cells (human epithelial cells of larynx carcinoma, HEp-2c cells, and breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cells) based on the data obtained by AFM in air and revealing the basic difference between them. The average values of friction, elastic and adhesive forces, and the roughness of lateral force maps, as well as dependence of the fractal dimension of lateral force maps on Z-scale factor have been studied. We have revealed that the response of microscale areas of the HEp-2c cell surface having numerous microvilli to external mechanical forces is less expressed and more homogeneous in comparison with the response of MCF-7 cell surface.

  15. A triallelic genetic male sterility locus in Brassica napus: an integrative strategy for its physical mapping and possible local chromosome evolution around it

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Jun; Xin, Qiang; Wan, Lili; Hong, Dengfeng; Yang, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Spontaneous male sterility is an advantageous trait for both constructing efficient pollination control systems and for understanding the developmental process of the male reproductive unit in many crops. A triallelic genetic male-sterile locus (BnMs5) has been identified in Brassica napus; however, its complicated genome structure has greatly hampered the isolation of this locus. The aim of this study was to physically map BnMs5 through an integrated map-based cloning strategy and analyse the local chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. Methods A large F2 population was used to integrate the existing genetic maps around BnMs5. A map-based cloning strategy in combination with comparative mapping among B. napus, Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea was employed to facilitate the identification of a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone covering the BnMs5 locus. The genomic sequences from the Brassica species were analysed to reveal the regional chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. Key Results BnMs5 was finally delimited to a 0·3-cM genetic fragment from an integrated local genetic map, and was anchored on the B. napus A8 chromosome. Screening of a B. napus BAC clone library and identification of the positive clones validated that JBnB034L06 was the target BAC clone. The closest flanking markers restrict BnMs5 to a 21-kb region on JBnB034L06 containing six predicted functional genes. Good collinearity relationship around BnMs5 between several Brassica species was observed, while violent chromosomal evolutionary events including insertions/deletions, duplications and single nucleotide mutations were also found to have extensively occurred during their divergence. Conclusions This work represents major progress towards the molecular cloning of BnMs5, as well as presenting a powerful, integrative method to mapping loci in plants with complex genomic architecture, such as the amphidiploid B. napus. PMID:23243189

  16. Development of Motivate4Change Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol: An Interactive Technology Physical Activity and Medication Adherence Promotion Program for Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Oosterom-Calo, Rony; Te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Brug, Johannes

    2015-07-20

    It is important that heart failure (HF) patients adhere to their medication regimen and engage in physical activity. Evidence shows that adherence to these HF self-management behaviors can be improved with appropriate interventions. To further promote medication adherence and physical activity among HF patients, we developed an intervention for hospitalized HF patients. The intervention mapping protocol was applied in the development of the intervention. This entailed performing a needs assessment, defining change objectives, selecting determinants and strategies, and developing the materials. The resulting intervention, Motivate4Change, makes use of interactive technology and provides HF patients with personalized feedback and advice. Specific change objectives were defined. The relevant behavioral determinants for the physical activity program were practical knowledge on physical activity performance and self-efficacy for, and perceived benefits of, physical activity. For medication-taking, the selected determinants were practical knowledge on medication-taking, perceived barriers to medication-taking, beliefs about the necessity and harm regarding the medication prescribed, and beliefs about overprescribing and harm of medication in general. The change objectives and behavior change determinants were translated in feedback and advice strategies in an interactive technology program that included tailored feedback and advice, and role models in videos in which the behaviors and overcoming barriers were demonstrated. Relevant stakeholders were involved in the interventions development process. The intervention was pretested among HF patients and adjustments were made accordingly. The interactive technology physical activity and medication adherence promotion program for hospitalized HF patients was systematically developed using the intervention mapping protocol and was based on the available theory and evidence regarding HF self-management behavior change. The

  17. A Two-Layers Based Approach of an Enhanced-Map for Urban Positioning Support

    PubMed Central

    Piñana-Díaz, Carolina; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier; Skarmeta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a two-layer based enhanced map that can support navigation in urban environments. One layer is dedicated to describe the drivable road with a special focus on the accurate description of its bounds. This feature can support positioning and advanced map-matching when compared with standard polyline-based maps. The other layer depicts building heights and locations, thus enabling the detection of non-line-of-sight signals coming from GPS satellites not in direct view. Both the concept and the methodology for creating these enhanced maps are shown in the paper. PMID:23202172

  18. Mental Maps: A new instrument for teaching-learning-evaluation of engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleschko, K.

    2009-04-01

    The use of interactive mind maps for teaching-learning-evaluation of postgraduate students is still not very common in Geosciences. Notwithstanding, these maps allow students to organize the huge volumes of information and data they are faced with (www.spinscape.com) for efficient research project elaboration and for understanding of basic anzatz and conjectures (Singer, 2009). The elaboration of mind maps is introduced as a principle teaching-learning-evaluation instrument (Cruza and Fierros, 2006) in my Research Methodology Seminar. Each student should to construct three types of multiscale mind maps before to write the formal proposal (Curiel and Radvansky, 2004; Zimmer, 2004). The main goal is to show how useful is to manage the physical, mathematical and linguistic information on the same structured way (Montibeller and Belton, 2009; Chu et al., 2009). The mental representation of the spatially and time organized physical world (physical map) is combined with the design of hierarchical tree of mathematical models used to describe it in mathematical terms (the map composed only by mathematical symbols), visualizing this tree branches by corresponding images inside the third map consisting on images. This three-faced representation of each research project helps the participant to perceive the complex nature of studied systems and visualize their features of universality and scale invariance. The maṕs elaboration is considered to be finished when any student of other specialties become able to present it in acceptable scientific way. Some examples of recent mental maps elaborated by the master degree students of Queretaro University, Mexico will be presented and discussed. Based on my experience I recommend this education technique in order to pass from sustainable engineer teaching to educate the engineers of Sustainability. References 1. Chu, H.-Ch., Chen, M.-Y., Chen, Y.-M., 2009. A semantic-based approach to content abstraction and annotation for content

  19. Fracture mechanism maps in unirradiated and irradiated metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meimei; Zinkle, S. J.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for computing a fracture mechanism map in two-dimensional space of tensile stress and temperature using physically-based constitutive equations. Four principal fracture mechanisms were considered: cleavage fracture, low temperature ductile fracture, transgranular creep fracture, and intergranular creep fracture. The methodology was applied to calculate fracture mechanism maps for several selected reactor materials, CuCrZr, 316 type stainless steel, F82H ferritic-martensitic steel, V4Cr4Ti and Mo. The calculated fracture maps are in good agreement with empirical maps obtained from experimental observations. The fracture mechanism maps of unirradiated metals and alloys were modified to include radiation hardening effects on cleavage fracture and high temperature helium embrittlement. Future refinement of fracture mechanism maps is discussed.

  20. A Little Knowledge of Ground Motion: Explaining 3-D Physics-Based Modeling to Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Users of earthquake planning scenarios require the ground-motion map to be credible enough to justify costly planning efforts, but not all ground-motion maps are right for all uses. There are two common ways to create a map of ground motion for a hypothetical earthquake. One approach is to map the median shaking estimated by empirical attenuation relationships. The other uses 3-D physics-based modeling, in which one analyzes a mathematical model of the earth's crust near the fault rupture and calculates the generation and propagation of seismic waves from source to ground surface by first principles. The two approaches produce different-looking maps. The more-familiar median maps smooth out variability and correlation. Using them in a planning scenario can lead to a systematic underestimation of damage and loss, and could leave a community underprepared for realistic shaking. The 3-D maps show variability, including some very high values that can disconcert non-scientists. So when the USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) Haywired scenario project selected 3-D maps, it was necessary to explain to scenario users—especially engineers who often use median maps—the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the two approaches. We used authority, empirical evidence, and theory to support our choice. We prefaced our explanation with SAFRR's policy of using the best available earth science, and cited the credentials of the maps' developers and the reputation of the journal in which they published the maps. We cited recorded examples from past earthquakes of extreme ground motions that are like those in the scenario map. We explained the maps on theoretical grounds as well, explaining well established causes of variability: directivity, basin effects, and source parameters. The largest mapped motions relate to potentially unfamiliar extreme-value theory, so we used analogies to human longevity and the average age of the oldest person in samples of

  1. Molecular cloning and physical mapping of the genome of fish lymphocystis disease virus.

    PubMed

    Darai, G; Delius, H; Clarke, J; Apfel, H; Schnitzler, P; Flügel, R M

    1985-10-30

    A defined and complete gene library of the fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV) genome was established. FLDV DNA was cleaved with EcoRI, BamHI, EcoRI/BamHI and EcoRI/HindIII and the resulting fragments were inserted into the corresponding sites of the pACYC184 or pAT153 plasmid vectors using T4 DNA ligase. Since FLDV DNA is highly methylated at CpG sequences (Darai et al., 1983; Wagner et al., 1985), an Escherichia coli GC-3 strain was required to amplify the recombinant plasmids harboring the FLDV DNA fragments. Bacterial colonies harboring recombinant plasmids were selected. All cloned fragments were individually identified by digestion of the recombinant plasmid DNA with different restriction enzymes and screened by hybridization of recombinant plasmid DNA to viral DNA. This analysis revealed that sequences representing 100% of the viral genome were cloned. Using these recombinant plasmids, the physical maps of the genome were constructed for BamHI, EcoRI, BestEII, and PstI restriction endonucleases. Although the FLDV genome is linear, due to circular permutation the restriction maps are circular.

  2. Mind map learning for advanced engineering study: case study in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woradechjumroen, Denchai

    2018-01-01

    System Dynamics (SD) is one of the subjects that were use in learning Automatic Control Systems in dynamic and control field. Mathematical modelling and solving skills of students for engineering systems are expecting outcomes of the course which can be further used to efficiently study control systems and mechanical vibration; however, the fundamental of the SD includes strong backgrounds in Dynamics and Differential Equations, which are appropriate to the students in governmental universities that have strong skills in Mathematics and Scientifics. For private universities, students are weak in the above subjects since they obtained high vocational certificate from Technical College or Polytechnic School, which emphasize the learning contents in practice. To enhance their learning for improving their backgrounds, this paper applies mind maps based problem based learning to relate the essential relations of mathematical and physical equations. With the advantages of mind maps, each student is assigned to design individual mind maps for self-leaning development after they attend the class and learn overall picture of each chapter from the class instructor. Four problems based mind maps learning are assigned to each student. Each assignment is evaluated via mid-term and final examinations, which are issued in terms of learning concepts and applications. In the method testing, thirty students are tested and evaluated via student learning backgrounds in the past. The result shows that well-design mind maps can improve learning performance based on outcome evaluation. Especially, mind maps can reduce time-consuming and reviewing for Mathematics and Physics in SD significantly.

  3. The GIS map coloring support decision-making system based on case-based reasoning and simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shuang; Xiang, Wenting; Tian, Yangge

    2009-10-01

    Map coloring is a hard task even to the experienced map experts. In the GIS project, usually need to color map according to the customer, which make the work more complex. With the development of GIS, more and more programmers join the project team, which lack the training of cartology, their coloring map are harder to meet the requirements of customer. From the experience, customers with similar background usually have similar tastes for coloring map. So, we developed a GIS color scheme decision-making system which can select color schemes of similar customers from case base for customers to select and adjust. The system is a BS/CS mixed system, the client side use JSP and make it possible for the system developers to go on remote calling of the colors scheme cases in the database server and communicate with customers. Different with general case-based reasoning, even the customers are very similar, their selection may have difference, it is hard to provide a "best" option. So, we select the Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) to arrange the emergence order of different color schemes. Customers can also dynamically adjust certain features colors based on existing case. The result shows that the system can facilitate the communication between the designers and the customers and improve the quality and efficiency of coloring map.

  4. Map based localization to assist commercial fleet operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    This report outlines key recent contributions to the state of the art in lane detection, lane departure warning, : and map-based sensor fusion algorithms. These key studies are used as a basis for a discussion about the : limitations of systems that ...

  5. Toward Inverse Control of Physics-Based Sound Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfalz, A.; Berdahl, E.

    2017-05-01

    Long Short-Term Memory networks (LSTMs) can be trained to realize inverse control of physics-based sound synthesizers. Physics-based sound synthesizers simulate the laws of physics to produce output sound according to input gesture signals. When a user's gestures are measured in real time, she or he can use them to control physics-based sound synthesizers, thereby creating simulated virtual instruments. An intriguing question is how to program a computer to learn to play such physics-based models. This work demonstrates that LSTMs can be trained to accomplish this inverse control task with four physics-based sound synthesizers.

  6. Target population's requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people: an interview study.

    PubMed

    Krops, Leonie A; Folkertsma, Nienke; Hols, Doortje H J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dekker, Rienk

    2018-05-31

    To explore ideas of the target population about a community-based intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 physically disabled people, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Findings were interpreted using the integrated Physical Activity for People with a Disability and Intervention Mapping model. The intervention should aim to stimulate intrinsic motivation and raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity. It should provide diverse activities, increase visibility of these activities, and improve image of physical activity for physically disabled people. Participants suggested to provide individual coaching sessions, increase marketing, present role models, and assign buddies. Potential users should be approached personally through intermediate organizations, or via social media and word of mouth promotion. Participants suggested that users, government, sponsors, and health insurers should finance the intervention. Self-responsibility for being physically active was strongly emphasized by participants. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people should be individualized, include personal support, and should include marketing to improve image of physical activity of physically disabled people. The intervention that fulfills these requirements should be developed and tested for effects in future research. Implications for rehabilitation An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity, stimulate intrinsic motivation, offer diverse activities, increase the visibility of the possible activities, and improve the image of physical activity for physically disabled people. An intervention should include both individual- and environmental-level intervention methods. Physically disabled people most emphasized

  7. Design of multiple representations e-learning resources based on a contextual approach for the basic physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, F.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to design e-learning resources with multiple representations based on a contextual approach for the Basic Physics Course. The research uses the research and development methods accordance Dick & Carey strategy. The development carried out in the digital laboratory of Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result of the process of product development with Dick & Carey strategy, have produced e-learning design of the Basic Physics Course is presented in multiple representations in contextual learning syntax. The appropriate of representation used in the design of learning basic physics include: concept map, video, figures, data tables of experiment results, charts of data tables, the verbal explanations, mathematical equations, problem and solutions example, and exercise. Multiple representations are presented in the form of contextual learning by stages: relating, experiencing, applying, transferring, and cooperating.

  8. Mapping population-based structural connectomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengwu; Descoteaux, Maxime; Zhang, Jingwen; Girard, Gabriel; Chamberland, Maxime; Dunson, David; Srivastava, Anuj; Zhu, Hongtu

    2018-05-15

    Advances in understanding the structural connectomes of human brain require improved approaches for the construction, comparison and integration of high-dimensional whole-brain tractography data from a large number of individuals. This article develops a population-based structural connectome (PSC) mapping framework to address these challenges. PSC simultaneously characterizes a large number of white matter bundles within and across different subjects by registering different subjects' brains based on coarse cortical parcellations, compressing the bundles of each connection, and extracting novel connection weights. A robust tractography algorithm and streamline post-processing techniques, including dilation of gray matter regions, streamline cutting, and outlier streamline removal are applied to improve the robustness of the extracted structural connectomes. The developed PSC framework can be used to reproducibly extract binary networks, weighted networks and streamline-based brain connectomes. We apply the PSC to Human Connectome Project data to illustrate its application in characterizing normal variations and heritability of structural connectomes in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rockfall hazard assessment integrating probabilistic physically based rockfall source detection (Norddal municipality, Norway).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Oppikofer, T.; Fischer, L.; Hermanns, R. L.; Taurisano, A.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional techniques to assess rockfall hazard are partially based on probabilistic analysis. Stochastic methods has been used for run-out analysis of rock blocks to estimate the trajectories that a detached block will follow during its fall until it stops due to kinetic energy loss. However, the selection of rockfall source areas is usually defined either by multivariate analysis or by field observations. For either case, a physically based approach is not used for the source area detection. We present an example of rockfall hazard assessment that integrates a probabilistic rockfall run-out analysis with a stochastic assessment of the rockfall source areas using kinematic stability analysis in a GIS environment. The method has been tested for a steep more than 200 m high rock wall, located in the municipality of Norddal (Møre og Romsdal county, Norway), where a large number of people are either exposed to snow avalanches, rockfalls, or debris flows. The area was selected following the recently published hazard mapping plan of Norway. The cliff is formed by medium to coarse-grained quartz-dioritic to granitic gneisses of Proterozoic age. Scree deposits product of recent rockfall activity are found at the bottom of the rock wall. Large blocks can be found several tens of meters away from the cliff in Sylte, the main locality in the Norddal municipality. Structural characterization of the rock wall was done using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds in the software Coltop3D (www.terranum.ch), and results were validated with field data. Orientation data sets from the structural characterization were analyzed separately to assess best-fit probability density functions (PDF) for both dip angle and dip direction angle of each discontinuity set. A GIS-based stochastic kinematic analysis was then carried out using the discontinuity set orientations and the friction angle as random variables. An airborne laser scanning digital elevation model (ALS-DEM) with 1 m

  10. Analysis of pre-service physics teacher skills designing simple physics experiments based technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati; Huda, C.; Kurniawan, W.; Masturi; Khoiri, N.

    2018-03-01

    Pre-service physics teacher skill in designing simple experiment set is very important in adding understanding of student concept and practicing scientific skill in laboratory. This study describes the skills of physics students in designing simple experiments based technologicall. The experimental design stages include simple tool design and sensor modification. The research method used is descriptive method with the number of research samples 25 students and 5 variations of simple physics experimental design. Based on the results of interviews and observations obtained the results of pre-service physics teacher skill analysis in designing simple experimental physics charged technology is good. Based on observation result, pre-service physics teacher skill in designing simple experiment is good while modification and sensor application are still not good. This suggests that pre-service physics teacher still need a lot of practice and do experiments in designing physics experiments using sensor modifications. Based on the interview result, it is found that students have high enough motivation to perform laboratory activities actively and students have high curiosity to be skilled at making simple practicum tool for physics experiment.

  11. Locating Sequence on FPC Maps and Selecting a Minimal Tiling Path

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Friedrich W.; Hatfield, James; Nelson, William; Soderlund, Carol A.

    2003-01-01

    This study discusses three software tools, the first two aid in integrating sequence with an FPC physical map and the third automatically selects a minimal tiling path given genomic draft sequence and BAC end sequences. The first tool, FSD (FPC Simulated Digest), takes a sequenced clone and adds it back to the map based on a fingerprint generated by an in silico digest of the clone. This allows verification of sequenced clone positions and the integration of sequenced clones that were not originally part of the FPC map. The second tool, BSS (Blast Some Sequence), takes a query sequence and positions it on the map based on sequence associated with the clones in the map. BSS has multiple uses as follows: (1) When the query is a file of marker sequences, they can be added as electronic markers. (2) When the query is draft sequence, the results of BSS can be used to close gaps in a sequenced clone or the physical map. (3) When the query is a sequenced clone and the target is BAC end sequences, one may select the next clone for sequencing using both sequence comparison results and map location. (4) When the query is whole-genome draft sequence and the target is BAC end sequences, the results can be used to select many clones for a minimal tiling path at once. The third tool, pickMTP, automates the majority of this last usage of BSS. Results are presented using the rice FPC map, BAC end sequences, and whole-genome shotgun from Syngenta. PMID:12915486

  12. A physics based method for combining multiple anatomy models with application to medical simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanong; Magee, Derek; Ratnalingam, Rishya; Kessel, David

    2009-01-01

    We present a physics based approach to the construction of anatomy models by combining components from different sources; different image modalities, protocols, and patients. Given an initial anatomy, a mass-spring model is generated which mimics the physical properties of the solid anatomy components. This helps maintain valid spatial relationships between the components, as well as the validity of their shapes. Combination can be either replacing/modifying an existing component, or inserting a new component. The external forces that deform the model components to fit the new shape are estimated from Gradient Vector Flow and Distance Transform maps. We demonstrate the applicability and validity of the described approach in the area of medical simulation, by showing the processes of non-rigid surface alignment, component replacement, and component insertion.

  13. A web-based tool for groundwater mapping and drought analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, S.; Burns, M.; Jones, N.; Strassberg, G.

    2012-12-01

    In 2011-2012, the state of Texas saw the worst one-year drought on record. Fluctuations in gravity measured by GRACE satellites indicate that as much as 100 cubic kilometers of water was lost during this period. Much of this came from reservoirs and shallow soil moisture, but a significant amount came from aquifers. In response to this crisis, a Texas Drought Technology Steering Committee (TDTSC) consisting of academics and water managers was formed to develop new tools and strategies to assist the state in monitoring, predicting, and responding to drought events. In this presentation, we describe one of the tools that was developed as part of this effort. When analyzing the impact of drought on groundwater levels, it is fairly common to examine time series data at selected monitoring wells. However, accurately assessing impacts and trends requires both spatial and temporal analysis involving the development of detailed water level maps at various scales. Creating such maps in a flexible and rapid fashion is critical for effective drought analysis, but can be challenging due to the massive amounts of data involved and the processing required to generate such maps. Furthermore, wells are typically not sampled at the same points in time, and so developing a water table map for a particular date requires both spatial and temporal interpolation of water elevations. To address this challenge, a Cloud-based water level mapping system was developed for the state of Texas. The system is based on the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) groundwater database, but can be adapted to use other databases as well. The system involves a set of ArcGIS workflows running on a server with a web-based front end and a Google Earth plug-in. A temporal interpolation geoprocessing tool was developed to estimate the piezometric heads for all wells in a given region at a specific date using a regression analysis. This interpolation tool is coupled with other geoprocessing tools to filter

  14. A High-Density Consensus Map of Common Wheat Integrating Four Mapping Populations Scanned by the 90K SNP Array

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Gao, Fengmei; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Zhai, Shengnan; Qu, Yanying; Xia, Xianchun

    2017-01-01

    A high-density consensus map is a powerful tool for gene mapping, cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based consensus map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by integrating genetic maps from four recombinant inbred line populations. The populations were each genotyped using the wheat 90K Infinium iSelect SNP assay. A total of 29,692 SNP markers were mapped on 21 linkage groups corresponding to 21 hexaploid wheat chromosomes, covering 2,906.86 cM, with an overall marker density of 10.21 markers/cM. Compared with the previous maps based on the wheat 90K SNP chip detected 22,736 (76.6%) of the SNPs with consistent chromosomal locations, whereas 1,974 (6.7%) showed different chromosomal locations, and 4,982 (16.8%) were newly mapped. Alignment of the present consensus map and the wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) Chromosome Bin Map enabled assignment of 1,221 SNP markers to specific chromosome bins and 819 ESTs were integrated into the consensus map. The marker orders of the consensus map were validated based on physical positions on the wheat genome with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 (4D) to 0.97 (1A, 4B, 5B, and 6A), and were also confirmed by comparison with genetic position on the previously 40K SNP consensus map with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 (6D) to 0.99 (6A). Chromosomal rearrangements reported previously were confirmed in the present consensus map and new putative rearrangements were identified. In addition, an integrated consensus map was developed through the combination of five published maps with ours, containing 52,607 molecular markers. The consensus map described here provided a high-density SNP marker map and a reliable order of SNPs, representing a step forward in mapping and validation of chromosomal locations of SNPs on the wheat 90K array. Moreover, it can be

  15. A web-based intervention for health professionals and patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity: development process.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Mesters, Ilse; Crutzen, Rik; Cremers, Anita; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-12-14

    Patients with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing their physical activity and their physical fitness. According to the guidelines for cardiovascular risk management, health professionals should encourage their patients to engage in physical activity. In this paper, we provide insight regarding the systematic development of a Web-based intervention for both health professionals and patients with cardiovascular risk factors using the development method Intervention Mapping. The different steps of Intervention Mapping are described to open up the "black box" of Web-based intervention development and to support future Web-based intervention development. The development of the Professional and Patient Intention and Behavior Intervention (PIB2 intervention) was initiated with a needs assessment for both health professionals (ie, physiotherapy and nursing) and their patients. We formulated performance and change objectives and, subsequently, theory- and evidence-based intervention methods and strategies were selected that were thought to affect the intention and behavior of health professionals and patients. The rationale of the intervention was based on different behavioral change methods that allowed us to describe the scope and sequence of the intervention and produced the Web-based intervention components. The Web-based intervention consisted of 5 modules, including individualized messages and self-completion forms, and charts and tables. The systematic and planned development of the PIB2 intervention resulted in an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention. The intervention was not developed as a substitute for face-to-face contact between professionals and patients, but as an application to complement and optimize health services. The focus of the Web-based intervention was to extend professional behavior of health care professionals, as well as to improve the risk-reduction behavior of patients with

  16. A Web-Based Intervention for Health Professionals and Patients to Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Attributable to Physical Inactivity: Development Process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing their physical activity and their physical fitness. According to the guidelines for cardiovascular risk management, health professionals should encourage their patients to engage in physical activity. Objective In this paper, we provide insight regarding the systematic development of a Web-based intervention for both health professionals and patients with cardiovascular risk factors using the development method Intervention Mapping. The different steps of Intervention Mapping are described to open up the “black box” of Web-based intervention development and to support future Web-based intervention development. Methods The development of the Professional and Patient Intention and Behavior Intervention (PIB2 intervention) was initiated with a needs assessment for both health professionals (ie, physiotherapy and nursing) and their patients. We formulated performance and change objectives and, subsequently, theory- and evidence-based intervention methods and strategies were selected that were thought to affect the intention and behavior of health professionals and patients. The rationale of the intervention was based on different behavioral change methods that allowed us to describe the scope and sequence of the intervention and produced the Web-based intervention components. The Web-based intervention consisted of 5 modules, including individualized messages and self-completion forms, and charts and tables. Results The systematic and planned development of the PIB2 intervention resulted in an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention. The intervention was not developed as a substitute for face-to-face contact between professionals and patients, but as an application to complement and optimize health services. The focus of the Web-based intervention was to extend professional behavior of health care professionals, as well as to improve the risk

  17. The topographic grain concept in DEM-based geomorphometric mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    A common drawback of geomorphological analyses based on digital elevation datasets is the definition of search window size for the derivation of morphometric variables. The fixed-size neighbourhood determines the scale of the analysis and mapping, which can lead to the generalization of smaller surface details or the elimination of larger landform elements. The methods of DEM-based geomorphometric mapping are constantly developing into the direction of multi-scale landform delineation, but the optimal threshold for search window size is still a limiting factor. A possible way to determine the suitable value for the parameter is to consider the topographic grain principle (Wood, W. F. - Snell, J. B. 1960, Pike, R. J. et al. 1989). The calculation is implemented as a bash shell script for GRASS GIS to determine the optimal threshold for the r.geomorphon module. The approach relies on the potential of the topographic grain to detect the characteristic local ridgeline-to-channel spacing. By calculating the relative relief values with nested neighbourhood matrices it is possible to define a break-point where the increase rate of local relief encountered by the sample is significantly reducing. The geomorphons approach (Jasiewicz, J. - Stepinski, T. F. 2013) is a cell-based DEM classification method for the identification of landform elements at a broad range of scales by using line-of-sight technique. The landforms larger than the maximum lookup distance are broken down to smaller elements therefore the threshold needs to be set for a relatively large value. On the contrary, the computational requirements and the size of the study sites determine the upper limit for the value. Therefore the aim was to create a tool that would help to determine the optimal parameter for r.geomorphon tool. As a result it would be possible to produce more objective and consistent maps with achieving the full efficiency of this mapping technique. For the thorough analysis on the

  18. Gradient-based reliability maps for ACM-based segmentation of hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zarpalas, Dimitrios; Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2014-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus (HC), in MR images has attracted considerable scientific attention due to the widespread use of MRI and to the principal role of some structures in various mental disorders. In this literature, there exists a substantial amount of work relying on deformable models incorporating prior knowledge about structures' anatomy and shape information. However, shape priors capture global shape characteristics and thus fail to model boundaries of varying properties; HC boundaries present rich, poor, and missing gradient regions. On top of that, shape prior knowledge is blended with image information in the evolution process, through global weighting of the two terms, again neglecting the spatially varying boundary properties, causing segmentation faults. An innovative method is hereby presented that aims to achieve highly accurate HC segmentation in MR images, based on the modeling of boundary properties at each anatomical location and the inclusion of appropriate image information for each of those, within an active contour model framework. Hence, blending of image information and prior knowledge is based on a local weighting map, which mixes gradient information, regional and whole brain statistical information with a multi-atlas-based spatial distribution map of the structure's labels. Experimental results on three different datasets demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. Robot map building based on fuzzy-extending DSmT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinde; Huang, Xinhan; Wu, Zuyu; Peng, Gang; Wang, Min; Xiong, Youlun

    2007-11-01

    With the extensive application of mobile robots in many different fields, map building in unknown environments has been one of the principal issues in the field of intelligent mobile robot. However, Information acquired in map building presents characteristics of uncertainty, imprecision and even high conflict, especially in the course of building grid map using sonar sensors. In this paper, we extended DSmT with Fuzzy theory by considering the different fuzzy T-norm operators (such as Algebraic Product operator, Bounded Product operator, Einstein Product operator and Default minimum operator), in order to develop a more general and flexible combinational rule for more extensive application. At the same time, we apply fuzzy-extended DSmT to mobile robot map building with the help of new self-localization method based on neighboring field appearance matching( -NFAM), to make the new tool more robust in very complex environment. An experiment is conducted to reconstruct the map with the new tool in indoor environment, in order to compare their performances in map building with four T-norm operators, when Pioneer II mobile robot runs along the same trace. Finally, a conclusion is reached that this study develops a new idea to extend DSmT, also provides a new approach for autonomous navigation of mobile robot, and provides a human-computer interactive interface to manage and manipulate the robot remotely.

  20. Exploring a Physically Based Tool for Lightning Cessation: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elsie V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Gatlin, Patrick N.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) and NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. The project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. A summary of preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memorymore » access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.« less

  2. Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize maps for insights into genome structure variation.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Debbie M; Bass, Hank W

    2012-05-01

    Integrated cytogenetic pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were developed for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using restriction fragment length polymorphism marker-selected Sorghum propinquum bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for 19 core bin markers and 4 additional genetic framework loci. Using transgenomic BAC FISH mapping on maize chromosome addition lines of oats, we found that the relative locus position along the pachytene chromosome did not change as a function of total arm length, indicative of uniform axial contraction along the fibers during mid-prophase for tested loci on chromosomes 4 and 5. Additionally, we cytogenetically FISH mapped six loci from chromosome 9 onto their duplicated syntenic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6, which have varying amounts of sequence divergence, using sorghum BACs homologous to the chromosome 9 loci. We found that successful FISH mapping was possible even when the chromosome 9 selective marker had no counterpart in the syntenic block. In total, these 29 FISH-mapped loci were used to create the most extensive pachytene FISH maps to date for these six maize chromosomes. The FISH-mapped loci were then merged into one composite karyotype for direct comparative analysis with the recombination nodule-predicted cytogenetic, genetic linkage, and genomic physical maps using the relative marker positions of the loci on all the maps. Marker colinearity was observed between all pair-wise map comparisons, although marker distribution patterns varied widely in some cases. As expected, we found that the recombination nodule-based predictions most closely resembled the cytogenetic map positions overall. Cytogenetic and linkage map comparisons agreed with previous studies showing a decrease in marker spacing in the peri-centromeric heterochromatin region on the genetic linkage maps. In fact, there was a general trend with most loci mapping closer towards the telomere on the linkage maps than on the

  3. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamad, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS). MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc.) to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  4. Current trends in satellite based emergency mapping - the need for harmonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    During the past years, the availability and use of satellite image data to support disaster management and humanitarian relief organisations has largely increased. The automation and data processing techniques are greatly improving as well as the capacity in accessing and processing satellite imagery in getting better globally. More and more global activities via the internet and through global organisations like the United Nations or the International Charter Space and Major Disaster engage in the topic, while at the same time, more and more national or local centres engage rapid mapping operations and activities. In order to make even more effective use of this very positive increase of capacity, for the sake of operational provision of analysis results, for fast validation of satellite derived damage assessments, for better cooperation in the joint inter agency generation of rapid mapping products and for general scientific use, rapid mapping results in general need to be better harmonized, if not even standardized. In this presentation, experiences from various years of rapid mapping gained by the DLR Center for satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI) within the context of the national activities, the International Charter Space and Major Disasters, GMES/Copernicus etc. are reported. Furthermore, an overview on how automation, quality assurance and optimization can be achieved through standard operation procedures within a rapid mapping workflow is given. Building on this long term rapid mapping experience, and building on the DLR initiative to set in pace an "International Working Group on Satellite Based Emergency Mapping" current trends in rapid mapping are discussed and thoughts on how the sharing of rapid mapping information can be optimized by harmonizing analysis results and data structures are presented. Such an harmonization of analysis procedures, nomenclatures and representations of data as well as meta data are the basis to better cooperate within

  5. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems. PMID:27830746

  6. On-the-go mapping of soil mechanical resistance using a linear depth effect model.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An instrumented blade sensor was developed to map soil mechanical resistance as well as its change with depth. The sensor has become a part of the Integrated Soil Physical Properties Mapping System (ISPPMS), which also includes an optical and a capacitor-based sensor. The instrumented blade of the...

  7. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping using Structural Feature based Collaborative Reconstruction (SFCR) in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of MR quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from local phase measurements is an ill posed inverse problem and different regularization strategies incorporating a priori information extracted from magnitude and phase images have been proposed. However, the anatomy observed in magnitude and phase images does not always coincide spatially with that in susceptibility maps, which could give erroneous estimation in the reconstructed susceptibility map. In this paper, we develop a structural feature based collaborative reconstruction (SFCR) method for QSM including both magnitude and susceptibility based information. The SFCR algorithm is composed of two consecutive steps corresponding to complementary reconstruction models, each with a structural feature based l1 norm constraint and a voxel fidelity based l2 norm constraint, which allows both the structure edges and tiny features to be recovered, whereas the noise and artifacts could be reduced. In the M-step, the initial susceptibility map is reconstructed by employing a k-space based compressed sensing model incorporating magnitude prior. In the S-step, the susceptibility map is fitted in spatial domain using weighted constraints derived from the initial susceptibility map from the M-step. Simulations and in vivo human experiments at 7T MRI show that the SFCR method provides high quality susceptibility maps with improved RMSE and MSSIM. Finally, the susceptibility values of deep gray matter are analyzed in multiple head positions, with the supine position most approximate to the gold standard COSMOS result. PMID:27019480

  8. Maps based on 53 GHz (5.7 mm wavelength)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Maps based on 53 GHz (5.7 mm wavelength) observations made with the DMR over the entire 4-year mission (top) on a scale from 0 - 4 K, showing the near-uniformity of the CMB brightness, (middle) on a scale intended to enhance the contrast due to the dipole described in the slide 19 caption, and (bottom) following subtraction of the dipole component. Emission from the Milky Way Galaxy is evident in the bottom image. See slide 19 caption for information about map smoothing and projection.

  9. Complete physical mapping of IL6 reveals a new marker associated with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Farhat, S B; de Souza, C M; Braosi, A P R; Kim, S H; Tramontina, V A; Papalexiou, V; Olandoski, M; Mira, M T; Luczyszyn, S M; Trevilatto, P C

    2017-04-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a powerful stimulator of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Production of IL-6 is modulated by polymorphisms, and higher levels of this cytokine are found locally in patients with chronic periodontitis. In this study we performed a modern approach - Complete physical mapping of the IL6 gene - to identify the polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis in a southern Brazilian population sample. One-hundred and nine individuals of both genders (mean age: 41.5 ± 8.5 years) were divided into a study group (56 participants with periodontitis) and a control group (53 individuals without periodontitis). After collection and purification of DNA, nine tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1524107, rs2069835, rs2069837, rs2069838, rs2069840, rs2069842, rs2069843, rs2069845 and rs2069849) covering the entire gene were selected according to the information available on the International HapMap Project website and evaluated using real-time PCR. Differences in the distribution of the following parameters were statistically significant between study and control groups: number of teeth (p = 0.030); probing depth (p < 0.001); clinical attachment level (p < 0.001); gingival index (p < 0.001); plaque index (p = 0.003); calculus index (p < 0.001); and dental mobility (p < 0.001). It was found that marker rs2069837 (located in intron 2 of IL6) under G dominant was associated with protection against chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population in the presence of clinical variables, such as visible plaque, dentist visit frequency and dental floss use, and was suggested for the first time as a marker of susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. Complete physical mapping of IL6 (using tag SNPs) was carried out for the first time, unveiling allele G of polymorphism rs2069837 (located in the second intron of IL6) as a suggestive marker of protection against chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A

  10. Interval data clustering using self-organizing maps based on adaptive Mahalanobis distances.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Chantal; Hamdan, Hani

    2013-10-01

    The self-organizing map is a kind of artificial neural network used to map high dimensional data into a low dimensional space. This paper presents a self-organizing map for interval-valued data based on adaptive Mahalanobis distances in order to do clustering of interval data with topology preservation. Two methods based on the batch training algorithm for the self-organizing maps are proposed. The first method uses a common Mahalanobis distance for all clusters. In the second method, the algorithm starts with a common Mahalanobis distance per cluster and then switches to use a different distance per cluster. This process allows a more adapted clustering for the given data set. The performances of the proposed methods are compared and discussed using artificial and real interval data sets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  12. Hash function based on chaotic map lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2007-06-01

    A new hash function system, based on coupled chaotic map dynamics, is suggested. By combining floating point computation of chaos and some simple algebraic operations, the system reaches very high bit confusion and diffusion rates, and this enables the system to have desired statistical properties and strong collision resistance. The chaos-based hash function has its advantages for high security and fast performance, and it serves as one of the most highly competitive candidates for practical applications of hash function for software realization and secure information communications in computer networks.

  13. Hash function based on chaotic map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2007-06-01

    A new hash function system, based on coupled chaotic map dynamics, is suggested. By combining floating point computation of chaos and some simple algebraic operations, the system reaches very high bit confusion and diffusion rates, and this enables the system to have desired statistical properties and strong collision resistance. The chaos-based hash function has its advantages for high security and fast performance, and it serves as one of the most highly competitive candidates for practical applications of hash function for software realization and secure information communications in computer networks.

  14. Physical and genetic map of Streptococcus thermophilus A054.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Y; Pebay, M; Guedon, G; Simonet, J M; Decaris, B

    1994-01-01

    The three restriction endonucleases SfiI, BssHII, and SmaI were found to generate fragments with suitable size distributions for mapping the genome of Streptococcus thermophilus A054. A total of 5, 8, and 24 fragments were produced with SfiI, BssHII, and SmaI, respectively. An average genome size of 1,824 kb was determined by summing the total fragment sizes obtained by digestions with these three enzymes. Partial and multiple digestions of genomic DNA in conjunction with Southern hybridization were used to map SfiI, BssHII, and SmaI fragments. All restriction fragments were arranged in a unique circular chromosome. Southern hybridization analysis with specific probes allowed 23 genetic markers to be located on the restriction map. Among them, six rrn loci were precisely located. The area of the chromosome containing the ribosomal operons was further detailed by mapping some of the ApaI and SgrAI sites. Comparison of macrorestriction patterns from three clones derived from strain A054 revealed two variable regions in the chromosome. One was associated with the tandem rrnD and rrnE loci, and the other was mapped in the region of the lactose operon. Images PMID:8002562

  15. The Active plus protocol: systematic development of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions for the over-fifties.

    PubMed

    van Stralen, Maartje M; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart N; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian

    2008-12-04

    Limited data are available on the development, implementation and evaluation processes of physical activity promotion programmes among older adults. More integrative insights into interventions describing the planned systematic development, implementation and evaluation are needed. The purpose of this study is to give an integrative insight into the development of the Active plus programme applying the six-step Intervention Mapping protocol. The Active plus programme consisted of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity promotion interventions, both comprising three tailored letters delivered over four months and aimed at raising awareness of insufficient physical activity, and stimulating physical activity initiation and maintenance among the over-fifties. The first intervention, the basic tailored intervention, provided tailored letters that intervened on the psychosocial determinants of physical activity. The second intervention, the intervention plus, provided the same tailored information but additionally provided tailored information about physical activity opportunities in the specific environment in which the older adults lived. This environment-based component also provided access to a forum and e-buddy system on a website. A plan for implementation and evaluation is also described. The planned development of the Active plus programme resulted in two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions targeted at the over-fifties. Dutch Trial Register NTR 920.

  16. Agent-Based Mapping of Credit Risk for Sustainable Microfinance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Jusup, Marko; Podobnik, Boris; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk---a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital. PMID:25945790

  17. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Jusup, Marko; Podobnik, Boris; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital.

  18. BESIU Physical Analysis on Hadoop Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jing; Zang, Dongsong; Lei, Xiaofeng; Li, Qiang; Sun, Gongxing

    2014-06-01

    In the past 20 years, computing cluster has been widely used for High Energy Physics data processing. The jobs running on the traditional cluster with a Data-to-Computing structure, have to read large volumes of data via the network to the computing nodes for analysis, thereby making the I/O latency become a bottleneck of the whole system. The new distributed computing technology based on the MapReduce programming model has many advantages, such as high concurrency, high scalability and high fault tolerance, and it can benefit us in dealing with Big Data. This paper brings the idea of using MapReduce model to do BESIII physical analysis, and presents a new data analysis system structure based on Hadoop platform, which not only greatly improve the efficiency of data analysis, but also reduces the cost of system building. Moreover, this paper establishes an event pre-selection system based on the event level metadata(TAGs) database to optimize the data analyzing procedure.

  19. Using intervention mapping to promote the receipt of clinical preventive services among women with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rie; Peterson, Jana J; Weatherby, Amanda V; Buckley, David I; Walsh, Emily S; Kailes, June Isaacson; Krahn, Gloria L

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of Promoting Access to Health Services (PATHS), an intervention to promote regular use of clinical preventive services by women with physical disabilities. The intervention was developed using intervention mapping (IM), a theory-based logical process that incorporates the six steps of assessment of need, preparation of matrices, selection of theoretical methods and strategies, program design, program implementation, and evaluation. The development process used methods and strategies aligned with the social cognitive theory and the health belief model. PATHS was adapted from the workbook Making Preventive Health Care Work for You, developed by a disability advocate, and was informed by participant input at five points: at inception through consultation by the workbook author, in conceptualization through a town hall meeting, in pilot testing with feedback, in revision of the curriculum through an advisory group, and in implementation by trainers with disabilities. The resulting PATHS program is a 90-min participatory small-group workshop, followed by structured telephone support for 6 months.

  20. Mapping ground water vulnerability to pesticide leaching with a process-based metamodel of EuroPEARL.

    PubMed

    Tiktak, A; Boesten, J J T I; van der Linden, A M A; Vanclooster, M

    2006-01-01

    To support EU policy, indicators of pesticide leaching at the European level are required. For this reason, a metamodel of the spatially distributed European pesticide leaching model EuroPEARL was developed. EuroPEARL considers transient flow and solute transport and assumes Freundlich adsorption, first-order degradation and passive plant uptake of pesticides. Physical parameters are depth dependent while (bio)-chemical parameters are depth, temperature, and moisture dependent. The metamodel is based on an analytical expression that describes the mass fraction of pesticide leached. The metamodel ignores vertical parameter variations and assumes steady flow. The calibration dataset was generated with EuroPEARL and consisted of approximately 60,000 simulations done for 56 pesticides with different half-lives and partitioning coefficients. The target variable was the 80th percentile of the annual average leaching concentration at 1-m depth from a time series of 20 yr. The metamodel explains over 90% of the variation of the original model with only four independent spatial attributes. These parameters are available in European soil and climate databases, so that the calibrated metamodel could be applied to generate maps of the predicted leaching concentration in the European Union. Maps generated with the metamodel showed a good similarity with the maps obtained with EuroPEARL, which was confirmed by means of quantitative performance indicators.

  1. Mapping Partners Master Drug Dictionary to RxNorm using an NLP-based approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Chang, Frank Y; DiMaggio, Dana; Rocha, Roberto A

    2012-08-01

    To develop an automated method based on natural language processing (NLP) to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a mapping between RxNorm and a local medication terminology for interoperability and meaningful use purposes. We mapped 5961 terms from Partners Master Drug Dictionary (MDD) and 99 of the top prescribed medications to RxNorm. The mapping was conducted at both term and concept levels using an NLP tool, called MTERMS, followed by a manual review conducted by domain experts who created a gold standard mapping. The gold standard was used to assess the overall mapping between MDD and RxNorm and evaluate the performance of MTERMS. Overall, 74.7% of MDD terms and 82.8% of the top 99 terms had an exact semantic match to RxNorm. Compared to the gold standard, MTERMS achieved a precision of 99.8% and a recall of 73.9% when mapping all MDD terms, and a precision of 100% and a recall of 72.6% when mapping the top prescribed medications. The challenges and gaps in mapping MDD to RxNorm are mainly due to unique user or application requirements for representing drug concepts and the different modeling approaches inherent in the two terminologies. An automated approach based on NLP followed by human expert review is an efficient and feasible way for conducting dynamic mapping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. USGS "Did You Feel It?" internet-based macroseismic intensity maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.; Hopper, M.; Dewey, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system is an automated approach for rapidly collecting macroseismic intensity data from Internet users' shaking and damage reports and generating intensity maps immediately following earthquakes; it has been operating for over a decade (1999-2011). DYFI-based intensity maps made rapidly available through the DYFI system fundamentally depart from more traditional maps made available in the past. The maps are made more quickly, provide more complete coverage and higher resolution, provide for citizen input and interaction, and allow data collection at rates and quantities never before considered. These aspects of Internet data collection, in turn, allow for data analyses, graphics, and ways to communicate with the public, opportunities not possible with traditional data-collection approaches. Yet web-based contributions also pose considerable challenges, as discussed herein. After a decade of operational experience with the DYFI system and users, we document refinements to the processing and algorithmic procedures since DYFI was first conceived. We also describe a number of automatic post-processing tools, operations, applications, and research directions, all of which utilize the extensive DYFI intensity datasets now gathered in near-real time. DYFI can be found online at the website http://earthquake.usgs.gov/dyfi/. ?? 2011 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.

  3. Subpixel Mapping of Hyperspectral Image Based on Linear Subpixel Feature Detection and Object Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoxin; Zhao, Liaoying; Li, Xiaorun; Chen, Shuhan

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the limitation of spatial resolution of the imaging sensor and the variability of ground surfaces, mixed pixels are widesperead in hyperspectral imagery. The traditional subpixel mapping algorithms treat all mixed pixels as boundary-mixed pixels while ignoring the existence of linear subpixels. To solve this question, this paper proposed a new subpixel mapping method based on linear subpixel feature detection and object optimization. Firstly, the fraction value of each class is obtained by spectral unmixing. Secondly, the linear subpixel features are pre-determined based on the hyperspectral characteristics and the linear subpixel feature; the remaining mixed pixels are detected based on maximum linearization index analysis. The classes of linear subpixels are determined by using template matching method. Finally, the whole subpixel mapping results are iteratively optimized by binary particle swarm optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed subpixel mapping method is evaluated via experiments based on simulated and real hyperspectral data sets. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of subpixel mapping.

  4. A High-Density Genetic Map with Array-Based Markers Facilitates Structural and Quantitative Trait Locus Analyses of the Common Wheat Genome

    PubMed Central

    Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Ohno, Ryoko; Kimura, Tatsuro; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Yuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    The large genome and allohexaploidy of common wheat have complicated construction of a high-density genetic map. Although improvements in the throughput of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made it possible to obtain a large amount of genotyping data for an entire mapping population by direct sequencing, including hexaploid wheat, a significant number of missing data points are often apparent due to the low coverage of sequencing. In the present study, a microarray-based polymorphism detection system was developed using NGS data obtained from complexity-reduced genomic DNA of two common wheat cultivars, Chinese Spring (CS) and Mironovskaya 808. After design and selection of polymorphic probes, 13,056 new markers were added to the linkage map of a recombinant inbred mapping population between CS and Mironovskaya 808. On average, 2.49 missing data points per marker were observed in the 201 recombinant inbred lines, with a maximum of 42. Around 40% of the new markers were derived from genic regions and 11% from repetitive regions. The low number of retroelements indicated that the new polymorphic markers were mainly derived from the less repetitive region of the wheat genome. Around 25% of the mapped sequences were useful for alignment with the physical map of barley. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of 14 agronomically important traits related to flowering, spikes, and seeds demonstrated that the new high-density map showed improved QTL detection, resolution, and accuracy over the original simple sequence repeat map. PMID:24972598

  5. A three-dimensional mapping of the ocean based on environmental data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Roger; Wright, Dawn J.; Breyer, Sean P.; Butler, Kevin; Van Graafeiland, Keith; Costello, Mark J.; Harris, Peter T.; Goodin, Kathleen; Guinotte, John M.; Basher, Zeenatul; Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Monaco, Mark E.; Cressie, Noel; Aniello, Peter; Frye, Charles; Stephens, Drew

    2017-01-01

    The existence, sources, distribution, circulation, and physicochemical nature of macroscale oceanic water bodies have long been a focus of oceanographic inquiry. Building on that work, this paper describes an objectively derived and globally comprehensive set of 37 distinct volumetric region units, called ecological marine units (EMUs). They are constructed on a regularly spaced ocean point-mesh grid, from sea surface to seafloor, and attributed with data from the 2013 World Ocean Atlas version 2. The point attribute data are the means of the decadal averages from a 57-year climatology of six physical and chemical environment parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate). The database includes over 52 million points that depict the global ocean in x, y, and z dimensions. The point data were statistically clustered to define the 37 EMUs, which represent physically and chemically distinct water volumes based on spatial variation in the six marine environmental characteristics used. The aspatial clustering to produce the 37 EMUs did not include point location or depth as a determinant, yet strong geographic and vertical separation was observed. Twenty-two of the 37 EMUs are globally or regionally extensive, and account for 99% of the ocean volume, while the remaining 15 are smaller and shallower, and occur around coastal features. We assessed the vertical distribution of EMUs in the water column and placed them into classical depth zones representing epipelagic (0 m to 200 m), mesopelagic (200 m to 1,000 m), bathypelagic (1,000 m to 4,000 m) and abyssopelagic (>4,000 m) layers. The mapping and characterization of the EMUs represent a new spatial framework for organizing and understanding the physical, chemical, and ultimately biological properties and processes of oceanic water bodies. The EMUs are an initial objective partitioning of the ocean using long-term historical average data, and could be extended in the future by

  6. Communicating Earth Observation (EO)-based landslide mapping capabilities to practitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Florian; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Weinke, Elisabeth; Vecchiotti, Filippo; Kociu, Arben

    2016-04-01

    Current remote sensing methods and the available Earth Observation (EO) data for landslide mapping already can support practitioners in their processes for gathering and for using landslide information. Information derived from EO data can support emergency services and authorities in rapid mapping after landslide-triggering events, in landslide monitoring and can serve as a relevant basis for hazard and risk mapping. These applications also concern owners, maintainers and insurers of infrastructure. Most often practitioners have a rough overview of the potential and limits of EO-based methods for landslide mapping. However, semi-automated image analysis techniques are still rarely used in practice. This limits the opportunity for user feedback, which would contribute to improve the methods for delivering fully adequate results in terms of accuracy, applicability and reliability. Moreover, practitioners miss information on the best way of integrating the methods in their daily processes. Practitioners require easy-to-grasp interfaces for testing new methods, which in turn would provide researchers with valuable user feedback. We introduce ongoing work towards an innovative web service which will allow for fast and efficient provision of EO-based landslide information products and that supports online processing. We investigate the applicability of various very high resolution (VHR), e.g. WorldView-2/3, Pleiades, and high resolution (HR), e.g. Landsat, Sentinel-2, optical EO data for semi-automated mapping based on object-based image analysis (OBIA). The methods, i.e. knowledge-based and statistical OBIA routines, are evaluated regarding their suitability for inclusion in a web service that is easy to use with the least amount of necessary training. The pre-operational web service will be implemented for selected study areas in the Alps (Austria, Italy), where weather-induced landslides have happened in the past. We will test the service on its usability together

  7. Cloud-based computation for accelerating vegetation mapping and change detection at regional to national scales

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Gregory; Zhiqiang Yang; David M. Bell; Warren B. Cohen; Sean Healey; Janet L. Ohmann; Heather M. Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Mapping vegetation and landscape change at fine spatial scales is needed to inform natural resource and conservation planning, but such maps are expensive and time-consuming to produce. For Landsat-based methodologies, mapping efforts are hampered by the daunting task of manipulating multivariate data for millions to billions of pixels. The advent of cloud-based...

  8. Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, R.L.; Halford, K.J.; Radyk, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Plant-based techniques were tested for field-scale evaluation of tritium contamination adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of tritium in plant water, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict and map subsurface contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into tritium migration pathways and processes. Plant sampling [creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville] required one-fifth the time of soil water vapor sampling. Plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a separation distance of 380 m; measurement uncertainty accounted for <0.1% of the total variability in the data. Regression equations based on plant tritium explained 96 and 90% of the variation in root-zone and sub-root-zone soil water vapor concentrations, respectively. The equations were combined with kriged plant-water concentrations to map subsurface contamination. Mapping showed preferential lateral movement of tritium through a dry, coarse-textured layer beneath the root zone, with concurrent upward movement through the root zone. Analysis of subsurface fluxes along a transect perpendicular to the LLRW facility showed that upward diffusive-vapor transport dominates other transport modes beneath native vegetation. Downward advective-liquid transport dominates at one endpoint of the transect, beneath a devegetated road immediately adjacent to the facility. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document large-scale subsurface vapor-phase tritium migration from a LLRW facility. Plant-based methods provide a noninvasive, cost-effective approach to mapping subsurface tritium migration in desert areas.

  9. Physical Test Prototypes Based on Microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramitha, S. T.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a prototype of a physical test-based microcontroller. The research method uses the research and development of the Borg and gall. The procedure starts from the study; research and information collecting, planning, develop preliminary form of product, preliminary field testing, main product revision, playing field testing, operational product revision, field operational testing, final product revision, dissemination and implementation. Validation of the product, obtained through expert evaluation; test products of small scale and large scale; effectiveness test; evaluation of respondents. The results showed that the eligibility assessment of prototype products based physical tests microcontroller. Based on the ratings of seven experts showed that 87% included in the category of “very good” and 13% included in the category of “good”. While the effectiveness of the test results showed that 1). The results of the experimental group to test sit-ups increase by 40% and the control group by 15%. 2). The results of the experimental group to test push-ups increased by 30% and the control group by 10%. 3). The results of the experimental group to test the Back-ups increased by 25% and the control group by 10%. With a significant value of 0.002 less than 0.05, product means a physical test prototype microcontroller based, proven effective in improving the results of physical tests. Conclusions and recommendations; Product physical microcontroller-based assays, can be used to measure the physical tests of pushups, sit ups, and back-ups.

  10. Map-IT! A Web-Based GIS Tool for Watershed Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David H.; Hewes, Christopher M.; Lossau, Matthew J.

    This paper describes the development of a prototypic, Web-accessible GIS solution for K-12 science education and citizen-based watershed monitoring. The server side consists of ArcView IMS running on an NT workstation. The client is built around MapCafe. The client interface, which runs through a standard Web browser, supports standard MapCafe…

  11. Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-based p38 MAP kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kaieda, Akira; Takahashi, Masashi; Takai, Takafumi; Goto, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Hori, Yuri; Unno, Satoko; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Itono, Sachiko; Takagi, Terufumi; Hamada, Teruki; Shirasaki, Mikio; Okada, Kengo; Snell, Gyorgy; Bragstad, Ken; Sang, Bi-Ching; Uchikawa, Osamu; Miwatashi, Seiji

    2018-02-01

    We identified novel potent inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase using structure-based design strategy. X-ray crystallography showed that when p38 MAP kinase is complexed with TAK-715 (1) in a co-crystal structure, Phe169 adopts two conformations, where one interacts with 1 and the other shows no interaction with 1. Our structure-based design strategy shows that these two conformations converge into one via enhanced protein-ligand hydrophobic interactions. According to the strategy, we focused on scaffold transformation to identify imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivatives as potent inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase. Among the herein described and evaluated compounds, N-oxide 16 exhibited potent inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and LPS-induced TNF-α production in human monocytic THP-1 cells, and significant in vivo efficacy in rat collagen-induced arthritis models. In this article, we report the discovery of potent, selective and orally bioavailable imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-based p38 MAP kinase inhibitors with pyridine N-oxide group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping edge-based traffic measurements onto the internal links in MPLS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guofeng; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2004-09-01

    Applying multi-protocol label switching techniques to IP-based backbone for traffic engineering goals has shown advantageous. Obtaining a volume of load on each internal link of the network is crucial for traffic engineering applying. Though collecting can be available for each link, such as applying traditional SNMP scheme, the approach may cause heavy processing load and sharply degrade the throughput of the core routers. Then monitoring merely at the edge of the network and mapping the measurements onto the core provides a good alternative way. In this paper, we explore a scheme for traffic mapping with edge-based measurements in MPLS network. It is supposed that the volume of traffic on each internal link over the domain would be mapped onto by measurements available only at ingress nodes. We apply path-based measurements at ingress nodes without enabling measurements in the core of the network. We propose a method that can infer a path from the ingress to the egress node using label distribution protocol without collecting routing data from core routers. Based on flow theory and queuing theory, we prove that our approach is effective and present the algorithm for traffic mapping. We also show performance simulation results that indicate potential of our approach.

  13. A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yilun; Qian, Yunsheng

    2018-01-01

    A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image method based on FPGA can transmit the color of the reference image to single-band night-time image, which is consistent with human visual habits and can help observers identify the target. This paper introduces the processing of the natural-color mapping algorithm based on FPGA. Firstly, the image can be transformed based on histogram equalization, and the intensity features and standard deviation features of reference image are stored in SRAM. Then, the real-time digital images' intensity features and standard deviation features are calculated by FPGA. At last, FPGA completes the color mapping through matching pixels between images using the features in luminance channel.

  14. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  15. NaviCell: a web-based environment for navigation, curation and maintenance of large molecular interaction maps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular biology knowledge can be formalized and systematically represented in a computer-readable form as a comprehensive map of molecular interactions. There exist an increasing number of maps of molecular interactions containing detailed and step-wise description of various cell mechanisms. It is difficult to explore these large maps, to organize discussion of their content and to maintain them. Several efforts were recently made to combine these capabilities together in one environment, and NaviCell is one of them. Results NaviCell is a web-based environment for exploiting large maps of molecular interactions, created in CellDesigner, allowing their easy exploration, curation and maintenance. It is characterized by a combination of three essential features: (1) efficient map browsing based on Google Maps; (2) semantic zooming for viewing different levels of details or of abstraction of the map and (3) integrated web-based blog for collecting community feedback. NaviCell can be easily used by experts in the field of molecular biology for studying molecular entities of interest in the context of signaling pathways and crosstalk between pathways within a global signaling network. NaviCell allows both exploration of detailed molecular mechanisms represented on the map and a more abstract view of the map up to a top-level modular representation. NaviCell greatly facilitates curation, maintenance and updating the comprehensive maps of molecular interactions in an interactive and user-friendly fashion due to an imbedded blogging system. Conclusions NaviCell provides user-friendly exploration of large-scale maps of molecular interactions, thanks to Google Maps and WordPress interfaces, with which many users are already familiar. Semantic zooming which is used for navigating geographical maps is adopted for molecular maps in NaviCell, making any level of visualization readable. In addition, NaviCell provides a framework for community-based curation of maps

  16. NaviCell: a web-based environment for navigation, curation and maintenance of large molecular interaction maps.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, Inna; Cohen, David P A; Pook, Stuart; Viara, Eric; Calzone, Laurence; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2013-10-07

    Molecular biology knowledge can be formalized and systematically represented in a computer-readable form as a comprehensive map of molecular interactions. There exist an increasing number of maps of molecular interactions containing detailed and step-wise description of various cell mechanisms. It is difficult to explore these large maps, to organize discussion of their content and to maintain them. Several efforts were recently made to combine these capabilities together in one environment, and NaviCell is one of them. NaviCell is a web-based environment for exploiting large maps of molecular interactions, created in CellDesigner, allowing their easy exploration, curation and maintenance. It is characterized by a combination of three essential features: (1) efficient map browsing based on Google Maps; (2) semantic zooming for viewing different levels of details or of abstraction of the map and (3) integrated web-based blog for collecting community feedback. NaviCell can be easily used by experts in the field of molecular biology for studying molecular entities of interest in the context of signaling pathways and crosstalk between pathways within a global signaling network. NaviCell allows both exploration of detailed molecular mechanisms represented on the map and a more abstract view of the map up to a top-level modular representation. NaviCell greatly facilitates curation, maintenance and updating the comprehensive maps of molecular interactions in an interactive and user-friendly fashion due to an imbedded blogging system. NaviCell provides user-friendly exploration of large-scale maps of molecular interactions, thanks to Google Maps and WordPress interfaces, with which many users are already familiar. Semantic zooming which is used for navigating geographical maps is adopted for molecular maps in NaviCell, making any level of visualization readable. In addition, NaviCell provides a framework for community-based curation of maps.

  17. An Intelligent Web-Based System for Diagnosing Student Learning Problems Using Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Anal; Sinha, Devadatta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a method for development of concept map in web-based environment for identifying concepts a student is deficient in after learning using traditional methods. Direct Hashing and Pruning algorithm was used to construct concept map. Redundancies within the concept map were removed to generate a learning sequence.…

  18. Enhanced smartcard-based password-authenticated key agreement using extended chaotic maps.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hwang, Shi-Han; Lin, Tsung-Hung

    2017-01-01

    A smartcard based password-authenticated key agreement scheme enables a legal user to log in to a remote authentication server and access remote services through public networks using a weak password and a smart card. Lin recently presented an improved chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement scheme that used smartcards to eliminate the weaknesses of the scheme of Guo and Chang, which does not provide strong user anonymity and violates session key security. However, the improved scheme of Lin does not exhibit the freshness property and the validity of messages so it still fails to withstand denial-of-service and privileged-insider attacks. Additionally, a single malicious participant can predetermine the session key such that the improved scheme does not exhibit the contributory property of key agreements. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes an enhanced smartcard-based password-authenticated key agreement scheme that utilizes extended chaotic maps. The session security of this enhanced scheme is based on the extended chaotic map-based Diffie-Hellman problem, and is proven in the real-or-random and the sequence of games models. Moreover, the enhanced scheme ensures the freshness of communicating messages by appending timestamps, and thereby avoids the weaknesses in previous schemes.

  19. Log-polar mapping-based scale space tracking with adaptive target response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongdong; Wen, Gongjian; Kuai, Yangliu; Zhang, Ximing

    2017-05-01

    Correlation filter-based tracking has exhibited impressive robustness and accuracy in recent years. Standard correlation filter-based trackers are restricted to translation estimation and equipped with fixed target response. These trackers produce an inferior performance when encountered with a significant scale variation or appearance change. We propose a log-polar mapping-based scale space tracker with an adaptive target response. This tracker transforms the scale variation of the target in the Cartesian space into a shift along the logarithmic axis in the log-polar space. A one-dimensional scale correlation filter is learned online to estimate the shift along the logarithmic axis. With the log-polar representation, scale estimation is achieved accurately without a multiresolution pyramid. To achieve an adaptive target response, a variance of the Gaussian function is computed from the response map and updated online with a learning rate parameter. Our log-polar mapping-based scale correlation filter and adaptive target response can be combined with any correlation filter-based trackers. In addition, the scale correlation filter can be extended to a two-dimensional correlation filter to achieve joint estimation of the scale variation and in-plane rotation. Experiments performed on an OTB50 benchmark demonstrate that our tracker achieves superior performance against state-of-the-art trackers.

  20. Enhanced smartcard-based password-authenticated key agreement using extended chaotic maps

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hwang, Shi-Han

    2017-01-01

    A smartcard based password-authenticated key agreement scheme enables a legal user to log in to a remote authentication server and access remote services through public networks using a weak password and a smart card. Lin recently presented an improved chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement scheme that used smartcards to eliminate the weaknesses of the scheme of Guo and Chang, which does not provide strong user anonymity and violates session key security. However, the improved scheme of Lin does not exhibit the freshness property and the validity of messages so it still fails to withstand denial-of-service and privileged-insider attacks. Additionally, a single malicious participant can predetermine the session key such that the improved scheme does not exhibit the contributory property of key agreements. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes an enhanced smartcard-based password-authenticated key agreement scheme that utilizes extended chaotic maps. The session security of this enhanced scheme is based on the extended chaotic map-based Diffie-Hellman problem, and is proven in the real-or-random and the sequence of games models. Moreover, the enhanced scheme ensures the freshness of communicating messages by appending timestamps, and thereby avoids the weaknesses in previous schemes. PMID:28759615

  1. Spectral Unmixing Based Construction of Lunar Mineral Abundance Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, V.; Grumpe, A.; Wöhler, C.

    2017-07-01

    In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL) algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  2. Color Reproduction System Based on Color Appearance Model and Gamut Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    and Gamut Mapping DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Input/Output...report: ADP011333 thru ADP011362 UNCLASSIFIED Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping Fang-Hsuan Cheng, Chih-Yuan...perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human

  3. A Visual-Based Approach for Indoor Radio Map Construction Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang

    2017-08-04

    Localization of users in indoor spaces is a common issue in many applications. Among various technologies, a Wi-Fi fingerprinting based localization solution has attracted much attention, since it can be easily deployed using the existing off-the-shelf mobile devices and wireless networks. However, the collection of the Wi-Fi radio map is quite labor-intensive, which limits its potential for large-scale application. In this paper, a visual-based approach is proposed for the construction of a radio map in anonymous indoor environments. This approach collects multi-sensor data, e.g., Wi-Fi signals, video frames, inertial readings, when people are walking in indoor environments with smartphones in their hands. Then, it spatially recovers the trajectories of people by using both visual and inertial information. Finally, it estimates the location of fingerprints from the trajectories and constructs a Wi-Fi radio map. Experiment results show that the average location error of the fingerprints is about 0.53 m. A weighted k-nearest neighbor method is also used to evaluate the constructed radio map. The average localization error is about 3.2 m, indicating that the quality of the constructed radio map is at the same level as those constructed by site surveying. However, this approach can greatly reduce the human labor cost, which increases the potential for applying it to large indoor environments.

  4. Unsupervised spatiotemporal analysis of fMRI data using graph-based visualizations of self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Katwal, Santosh B; Gore, John C; Marois, Rene; Rogers, Baxter P

    2013-09-01

    We present novel graph-based visualizations of self-organizing maps for unsupervised functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. A self-organizing map is an artificial neural network model that transforms high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional (often a 2-D) map using unsupervised learning. However, a postprocessing scheme is necessary to correctly interpret similarity between neighboring node prototypes (feature vectors) on the output map and delineate clusters and features of interest in the data. In this paper, we used graph-based visualizations to capture fMRI data features based upon 1) the distribution of data across the receptive fields of the prototypes (density-based connectivity); and 2) temporal similarities (correlations) between the prototypes (correlation-based connectivity). We applied this approach to identify task-related brain areas in an fMRI reaction time experiment involving a visuo-manual response task, and we correlated the time-to-peak of the fMRI responses in these areas with reaction time. Visualization of self-organizing maps outperformed independent component analysis and voxelwise univariate linear regression analysis in identifying and classifying relevant brain regions. We conclude that the graph-based visualizations of self-organizing maps help in advanced visualization of cluster boundaries in fMRI data enabling the separation of regions with small differences in the timings of their brain responses.

  5. Probabilistic self-localisation on a qualitative map based on occlusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Paulo E.; Martins, Murilo F.; Fenelon, Valquiria; Cozman, Fabio G.; Dee, Hannah M.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial knowledge plays an essential role in human reasoning, permitting tasks such as locating objects in the world (including oneself), reasoning about everyday actions and describing perceptual information. This is also the case in the field of mobile robotics, where one of the most basic (and essential) tasks is the autonomous determination of the pose of a robot with respect to a map, given its perception of the environment. This is the problem of robot self-localisation (or simply the localisation problem). This paper presents a probabilistic algorithm for robot self-localisation that is based on a topological map constructed from the observation of spatial occlusion. Distinct locations on the map are defined by means of a classical formalism for qualitative spatial reasoning, whose base definitions are closer to the human categorisation of space than traditional, numerical, localisation procedures. The approach herein proposed was systematically evaluated through experiments using a mobile robot equipped with a RGB-D sensor. The results obtained show that the localisation algorithm is successful in locating the robot in qualitatively distinct regions.

  6. BOREAS Hardcopy Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nelson, Elizabeth; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) hardcopy maps are a collection of approximately 1,000 hardcopy maps representing the physical, climatological, and historical attributes of areas covering primarily the Manitoba and Saskatchewan provinces of Canada. These maps were collected by BOREAS Information System (BORIS) and Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) staff to provide basic information about site positions, manmade features, topography, geology, hydrology, land cover types, fire history, climate, and soils of the BOREAS study region. These maps are not available for distribution through the BOREAS project but may be used as an on-site resource. Information is provided within this document for individuals who want to order copies of these maps from the original map source. Note that the maps are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of the maps that are available. This inventory listing is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). For hardcopies of the individual maps, contact the sources provided.

  7. Single Image Super-Resolution Using Global Regression Based on Multiple Local Linear Mappings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Seok; Kim, Munchurl

    2017-03-01

    Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) performances and computational complexity. However, since SI only utilizes simple linear mappings, it may fail to precisely reconstruct HR patches with complex texture. In this paper, we present a novel SR method, which inherits the large-to-small patch conversion scheme from SI but uses global regression based on local linear mappings (GLM). Thus, our new SR method is called GLM-SI. In GLM-SI, each LR input patch is divided into 25 overlapped subpatches. Next, based on the local properties of these subpatches, 25 different local linear mappings are applied to the current LR input patch to generate 25 HR patch candidates, which are then regressed into one final HR patch using a global regressor. The local linear mappings are learned cluster-wise in our off-line training phase. The main contribution of this paper is as follows: Previously, linear-mapping-based conventional SR methods, including SI only used one simple yet coarse linear mapping to each patch to reconstruct its HR version. On the contrary, for each LR input patch, our GLM-SI is the first to apply a combination of multiple local linear mappings, where each local linear mapping is found according to local properties of the current LR patch. Therefore, it can better approximate nonlinear LR-to-HR mappings for HR patches with complex texture. Experiment results show that the proposed GLM-SI method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art methods, and shows comparable PSNR performance with much lower

  8. Exploring a Physically Based Tool for Lightning Cessation: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter a.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Deierling, Wiebke

    2010-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UA Huntsville) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. The project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UA Huntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. A summary of preliminary results will be presented.

  9. Improved regional-scale Brazilian cropping systems' mapping based on a semi-automatic object-based clustering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellón, Beatriz; Bégué, Agnès; Lo Seen, Danny; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Evangelista, Balbino Antônio; Simões, Margareth; Demonte Ferraz, Rodrigo Peçanha

    2018-06-01

    Cropping systems' maps at fine scale over large areas provide key information for further agricultural production and environmental impact assessments, and thus represent a valuable tool for effective land-use planning. There is, therefore, a growing interest in mapping cropping systems in an operational manner over large areas, and remote sensing approaches based on vegetation index time series analysis have proven to be an efficient tool. However, supervised pixel-based approaches are commonly adopted, requiring resource consuming field campaigns to gather training data. In this paper, we present a new object-based unsupervised classification approach tested on an annual MODIS 16-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series and a Landsat 8 mosaic of the State of Tocantins, Brazil, for the 2014-2015 growing season. Two variants of the approach are compared: an hyperclustering approach, and a landscape-clustering approach involving a previous stratification of the study area into landscape units on which the clustering is then performed. The main cropping systems of Tocantins, characterized by the crop types and cropping patterns, were efficiently mapped with the landscape-clustering approach. Results show that stratification prior to clustering significantly improves the classification accuracies for underrepresented and sparsely distributed cropping systems. This study illustrates the potential of unsupervised classification for large area cropping systems' mapping and contributes to the development of generic tools for supporting large-scale agricultural monitoring across regions.

  10. GIO-EMS and International Collaboration in Satellite based Emergency Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Jan; Lemoine, Guido; Broglia, Marco

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, satellite based emergency mapping has developed into a mature operational stage. The European Union's GMES Initial Operations - Emergency Management Service (GIO-EMS), is operational since April 2012. It's set up differs from other mechanisms (for example from the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters"), as it extends fast satellite tasking and delivery with the value adding map production as a single service, which is available, free of charge, to the authorized users of the service. Maps and vector datasets with standard characteristics and formats ranging from post-disaster damage assessment to recovery and disaster prevention are covered by this initiative. Main users of the service are European civil protection authorities and international organizations active in humanitarian aid. All non-sensitive outputs of the service are accessible to the public. The European Commission's in-house science service Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the technical and administrative supervisor of the GIO-EMS. The EC's DG ECHO Monitoring and Information Centre acts as the service's focal point and DG ENTR is responsible for overall service governance. GIO-EMS also aims to contribute to the synergy with similar existing mechanisms at national and international level. The usage of satellite data for emergency mapping has increased during the last years and this trend is expected to continue because of easier accessibility to suitable satellite and other relevant data in the near future. Furthermore, the data and analyses coming from volunteer emergency mapping communities are expected to further enrich the content of such cartographic products. In the case of major disasters the parallel activity of more providers is likely to generate non-optimal use of resources, e.g. unnecessary duplication; whereas coordination may lead to reduced time needed to cover the disaster area. Furthermore the abundant number of geospatial products of different

  11. Map based multimedia tool on Pacific theatre in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakala Venkata, Devi Prasada Reddy

    Maps have been used for depicting data of all kinds in the educational community for many years. A standout amongst the rapidly changing methods of teaching is through the development of interactive and dynamic maps. The emphasis of the thesis is to develop an intuitive map based multimedia tool, which provides a timeline of battles and events in the Pacific theatre of World War II. The tool contains summaries of major battles and commanders and has multimedia content embedded in it. The primary advantage of this Map tool is that one can quickly know about all the battles and campaigns of the Pacific Theatre by accessing Timeline of Battles in each region or Individual Battles in each region or Summary of each Battle in an interactive way. This tool can be accessed via any standard web browser and motivate the user to know more about the battles involved in the Pacific Theatre. It was made responsive using Google maps API, JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS.

  12. Mapping of unknown industrial plant using ROS-based navigation mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyandoko, G.; Ming, T. Y.; Achmad, M. S. H.

    2017-10-01

    This research examines how humans work with teleoperated unmanned mobile robot inspection in industrial plant area resulting 2D/3D map for further critical evaluation. This experiment focuses on two parts, the way human-robot doing remote interactions using robust method and the way robot perceives the environment surround as a 2D/3D perspective map. ROS (robot operating system) as a tool was utilized in the development and implementation during the research which comes up with robust data communication method in the form of messages and topics. RGBD SLAM performs the visual mapping function to construct 2D/3D map using Kinect sensor. The results showed that the mobile robot-based teleoperated system are successful to extend human perspective in term of remote surveillance in large area of industrial plant. It was concluded that the proposed work is robust solution for large mapping within an unknown construction building.

  13. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapa, Przemysław; Mitka, Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects. This paper discusses the potential application of output data from laser scanners (point clouds) to the development and updating of cartographic materials, taking Poland's base map as an example. A few research sites were chosen to present the method and the process of conducting a TLS land survey: a fragment of a residential area, a street, the surroundings of buildings, and an undeveloped area. The entire map that was drawn as a result of the survey was checked by comparing it to a map obtained from PODGiK (pol. Powiatowy Ośrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej - Regional Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Records) and by conducting a field inspection. An accuracy and quality analysis of the conducted fieldwork and deskwork yielded very good results, which provide solid grounds for predicating that cartographic materials based on a TLS point cloud are a reliable source of information about land. The contents of the map that had been created with the use of the obtained point cloud were very accurately located in space (x, y, z). The conducted accuracy analysis and the inspection of the performed works showed that high quality is characteristic of TLS surveys. The

  14. Obstacle Recognition Based on Machine Learning for On-Chip LiDAR Sensors in a Cyber-Physical System

    PubMed Central

    Beruvides, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Collision avoidance is an important feature in advanced driver-assistance systems, aimed at providing correct, timely and reliable warnings before an imminent collision (with objects, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.). The obstacle recognition library is designed and implemented to address the design and evaluation of obstacle detection in a transportation cyber-physical system. The library is integrated into a co-simulation framework that is supported on the interaction between SCANeR software and Matlab/Simulink. From the best of the authors’ knowledge, two main contributions are reported in this paper. Firstly, the modelling and simulation of virtual on-chip light detection and ranging sensors in a cyber-physical system, for traffic scenarios, is presented. The cyber-physical system is designed and implemented in SCANeR. Secondly, three specific artificial intelligence-based methods for obstacle recognition libraries are also designed and applied using a sensory information database provided by SCANeR. The computational library has three methods for obstacle detection: a multi-layer perceptron neural network, a self-organization map and a support vector machine. Finally, a comparison among these methods under different weather conditions is presented, with very promising results in terms of accuracy. The best results are achieved using the multi-layer perceptron in sunny and foggy conditions, the support vector machine in rainy conditions and the self-organized map in snowy conditions. PMID:28906450

  15. Obstacle Recognition Based on Machine Learning for On-Chip LiDAR Sensors in a Cyber-Physical System.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Fernando; Beruvides, Gerardo; Haber, Rodolfo E; Artuñedo, Antonio

    2017-09-14

    Collision avoidance is an important feature in advanced driver-assistance systems, aimed at providing correct, timely and reliable warnings before an imminent collision (with objects, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.). The obstacle recognition library is designed and implemented to address the design and evaluation of obstacle detection in a transportation cyber-physical system. The library is integrated into a co-simulation framework that is supported on the interaction between SCANeR software and Matlab/Simulink. From the best of the authors' knowledge, two main contributions are reported in this paper. Firstly, the modelling and simulation of virtual on-chip light detection and ranging sensors in a cyber-physical system, for traffic scenarios, is presented. The cyber-physical system is designed and implemented in SCANeR. Secondly, three specific artificial intelligence-based methods for obstacle recognition libraries are also designed and applied using a sensory information database provided by SCANeR. The computational library has three methods for obstacle detection: a multi-layer perceptron neural network, a self-organization map and a support vector machine. Finally, a comparison among these methods under different weather conditions is presented, with very promising results in terms of accuracy. The best results are achieved using the multi-layer perceptron in sunny and foggy conditions, the support vector machine in rainy conditions and the self-organized map in snowy conditions.

  16. Behavior Analysis of Novel Wearable Indoor Mapping System Based on 3D-SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Iago; Gesto, Manuel; Arias, Pedro; Lorenzo, Henrique

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a Wearable Prototype for indoor mapping developed by the University of Vigo. The system is based on a Velodyne LiDAR, acquiring points with 16 rays for a simplistic or low-density 3D representation of reality. With this, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (3D-SLAM) method is developed for the mapping and generation of 3D point clouds of scenarios deprived from GNSS signal. The quality of the system presented is validated through the comparison with a commercial indoor mapping system, Zeb-Revo, from the company GeoSLAM and with a terrestrial LiDAR, Faro Focus3D X330. The first is considered as a relative reference with other mobile systems and is chosen due to its use of the same principle for mapping: SLAM techniques based on Robot Operating System (ROS), while the second is taken as ground-truth for the determination of the final accuracy of the system regarding reality. Results show that the accuracy of the system is mainly determined by the accuracy of the sensor, with little increment in the error introduced by the mapping algorithm. PMID:29498715

  17. Behavior Analysis of Novel Wearable Indoor Mapping System Based on 3D-SLAM.

    PubMed

    Lagüela, Susana; Dorado, Iago; Gesto, Manuel; Arias, Pedro; González-Aguilera, Diego; Lorenzo, Henrique

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents a Wearable Prototype for indoor mapping developed by the University of Vigo. The system is based on a Velodyne LiDAR, acquiring points with 16 rays for a simplistic or low-density 3D representation of reality. With this, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (3D-SLAM) method is developed for the mapping and generation of 3D point clouds of scenarios deprived from GNSS signal. The quality of the system presented is validated through the comparison with a commercial indoor mapping system, Zeb-Revo, from the company GeoSLAM and with a terrestrial LiDAR, Faro Focus 3D X330. The first is considered as a relative reference with other mobile systems and is chosen due to its use of the same principle for mapping: SLAM techniques based on Robot Operating System (ROS), while the second is taken as ground-truth for the determination of the final accuracy of the system regarding reality. Results show that the accuracy of the system is mainly determined by the accuracy of the sensor, with little increment in the error introduced by the mapping algorithm.

  18. Fast and robust generation of feature maps for region-based visual attention.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Muhammad Zaheer; Mertsching, Bärbel

    2008-05-01

    Visual attention is one of the important phenomena in biological vision which can be followed to achieve more efficiency, intelligence, and robustness in artificial vision systems. This paper investigates a region-based approach that performs pixel clustering prior to the processes of attention in contrast to late clustering as done by contemporary methods. The foundation steps of feature map construction for the region-based attention model are proposed here. The color contrast map is generated based upon the extended findings from the color theory, the symmetry map is constructed using a novel scanning-based method, and a new algorithm is proposed to compute a size contrast map as a formal feature channel. Eccentricity and orientation are computed using the moments of obtained regions and then saliency is evaluated using the rarity criteria. The efficient design of the proposed algorithms allows incorporating five feature channels while maintaining a processing rate of multiple frames per second. Another salient advantage over the existing techniques is the reusability of the salient regions in the high-level machine vision procedures due to preservation of their shapes and precise locations. The results indicate that the proposed model has the potential to efficiently integrate the phenomenon of attention into the main stream of machine vision and systems with restricted computing resources such as mobile robots can benefit from its advantages.

  19. Mapping and Managing Knowledge and Information in Resource-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergan, Sigmar-Olaf; Graber, Wolfgang; Neumann, Anja

    2006-01-01

    In resource-based learning scenarios, students are often overwhelmed by the complexity of task-relevant knowledge and information. Techniques for the external interactive representation of individual knowledge in graphical format may help them to cope with complex problem situations. Advanced computer-based concept-mapping tools have the potential…

  20. A high-density genetic map with array-based markers facilitates structural and quantitative trait locus analyses of the common wheat genome.

    PubMed

    Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Ohno, Ryoko; Kimura, Tatsuro; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Yuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-10-01

    The large genome and allohexaploidy of common wheat have complicated construction of a high-density genetic map. Although improvements in the throughput of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made it possible to obtain a large amount of genotyping data for an entire mapping population by direct sequencing, including hexaploid wheat, a significant number of missing data points are often apparent due to the low coverage of sequencing. In the present study, a microarray-based polymorphism detection system was developed using NGS data obtained from complexity-reduced genomic DNA of two common wheat cultivars, Chinese Spring (CS) and Mironovskaya 808. After design and selection of polymorphic probes, 13,056 new markers were added to the linkage map of a recombinant inbred mapping population between CS and Mironovskaya 808. On average, 2.49 missing data points per marker were observed in the 201 recombinant inbred lines, with a maximum of 42. Around 40% of the new markers were derived from genic regions and 11% from repetitive regions. The low number of retroelements indicated that the new polymorphic markers were mainly derived from the less repetitive region of the wheat genome. Around 25% of the mapped sequences were useful for alignment with the physical map of barley. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of 14 agronomically important traits related to flowering, spikes, and seeds demonstrated that the new high-density map showed improved QTL detection, resolution, and accuracy over the original simple sequence repeat map. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  1. Virtual optical network mapping and core allocation in elastic optical networks using multi-core fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Hejun; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Zhanqi; Hao, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-11-01

    Virtualization technology can greatly improve the efficiency of the networks by allowing the virtual optical networks to share the resources of the physical networks. However, it will face some challenges, such as finding the efficient strategies for virtual nodes mapping, virtual links mapping and spectrum assignment. It is even more complex and challenging when the physical elastic optical networks using multi-core fibers. To tackle these challenges, we establish a constrained optimization model to determine the optimal schemes of optical network mapping, core allocation and spectrum assignment. To solve the model efficiently, tailor-made encoding scheme, crossover and mutation operators are designed. Based on these, an efficient genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal schemes of the virtual nodes mapping, virtual links mapping, core allocation. The simulation experiments are conducted on three widely used networks, and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  2. The DIII-D Map -- An Area-Preserving Map for Trajectories of Magnetic Field Lines in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima; Boozer, Allen; Evans, Todd

    2007-11-01

    The EFIT data for the DIII-D shot 115467 3000 ms is used to calculate the generating function for an area-preserving map for trajectories of magnetic field lines in the DIII-D. We call this map the DIII-D map. The generating function is a bivariate polynomial in base vectors &1/2circ;cos(θ) and &1/2circ;sin(θ). ψ is toroidal flux and θ is poloidal angle. The generating function is calculated using a canonical transformation from (ψ,θ) to physical coordinates (R,Z) in the DIII-D [1] and nonlinear regression. The equilibrium generating function gives an excellent representation of the equilibrium flux surfaces in the DIII-D. The DIII-D map is then used to calculate effects of the magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D. Preliminary results of the DIII-D map will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE OFES DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793. [1] A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys Lett A 364 140--145 (2007).

  3. [Development of Web-based multimedia content for a physical examination and health assessment course].

    PubMed

    Oh, Pok-Ja; Kim, Il-Ok; Shin, Sung-Rae; Jung, Hoe-Kyung

    2004-10-01

    This study was to develop Web-based multimedia content for Physical Examination and Health Assessment. The multimedia content was developed based on Jung's teaching and learning structure plan model, using the following 5 processes : 1) Analysis Stage, 2) Planning Stage, 3) Storyboard Framing and Production Stage, 4) Program Operation Stage, and 5) Final Evaluation Stage. The web based multimedia content consisted of an intro movie, main page and sub pages. On the main page, there were 6 menu bars that consisted of Announcement center, Information of professors, Lecture guide, Cyber lecture, Q&A, and Data centers, and a site map which introduced 15 week lectures. In the operation of web based multimedia content, HTML, JavaScript, Flash, and multimedia technology (Audio and Video) were utilized and the content consisted of text content, interactive content, animation, and audio & video. Consultation with the experts in context, computer engineering, and educational technology was utilized in the development of these processes. Web-based multimedia content is expected to offer individualized and tailored learning opportunities to maximize and facilitate the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. Therefore, multimedia content should be utilized concurrently with the lecture in the Physical Examination and Health Assessment classes as a vital teaching aid to make up for the weakness of the face-to- face teaching-learning method.

  4. Hyperbolic Harmonic Mapping for Surface Registration

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rui; Zeng, Wei; Su, Zhengyu; Jiang, Jian; Damasio, Hanna; Lu, Zhonglin; Wang, Yalin; Yau, Shing-Tung; Gu, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Automatic computation of surface correspondence via harmonic map is an active research field in computer vision, computer graphics and computational geometry. It may help document and understand physical and biological phenomena and also has broad applications in biometrics, medical imaging and motion capture inducstries. Although numerous studies have been devoted to harmonic map research, limited progress has been made to compute a diffeomorphic harmonic map on general topology surfaces with landmark constraints. This work conquers this problem by changing the Riemannian metric on the target surface to a hyperbolic metric so that the harmonic mapping is guaranteed to be a diffeomorphism under landmark constraints. The computational algorithms are based on Ricci flow and nonlinear heat diffusion methods. The approach is general and robust. We employ our algorithm to study the constrained surface registration problem which applies to both computer vision and medical imaging applications. Experimental results demonstrate that, by changing the Riemannian metric, the registrations are always diffeomorphic and achieve relatively high performance when evaluated with some popular surface registration evaluation standards. PMID:27187948

  5. Mapping cognitive structures of community college students engaged in basic electrostatics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, Dennis Charles

    Community college students need to be abstract thinkers in order to be successful in the introductory Physics curriculum. The purpose of this dissertation is to map the abstract thinking of community college Physics students. The laboratory environment was used as a vehicle for the mapping. Three laboratory experiments were encountered. One laboratory was based on the classic Piagetian task, the centripetal motion (CM) problem. The other two laboratories were introductory electrostatic Physics experiments, Resistance (RES) and Capacitance (CAP). The students performed all laboratories using the thinking-aloud technique. The researcher collected their verbal protocols using audiotapes. The audiotaped data was quantified by comparing it to a scoring matrix based on the Piagetian logical operators (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958) for abstract thinking. The students received scores for each laboratory experiment. These scores were compared to a reliable test of intellectual functioning, the Shipley Institute of Living Scale (SILS). Spearman rank correlation coefficients (SRCC) were obtained for SILS versus CM; SILS versus RES; and SILS versus CAP. Statistically significant results were obtained for SILS versus CM and SILS versus RES at the p < 0.05 level. When an outlier to the data was considered and suppressed, the SILS versus CAP was also statistically significant at the p < 0.05 level. The scoring matrix permits a bridge from the qualitative Piagetian level of cognitive development to a quantified, mapped level of cognitive development. The ability to quantify student abstract thinking in Physics education provides a means to adjust an instructional approach. This approach could lead to a proper state of Physics education.

  6. Physical mapping of the genomic DNA of the Oryctes rhinoceros baculovirus, KI.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K S; Gopinathan, K P

    1991-11-15

    A non-occluded baculovirus, OBV-KI has been isolated from the insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros. The viral genome is estimated to be 123 kb, with a G + C content of 43 mol% and no detectible methylated bases. A restriction map of the OBV-KI genome for BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, PstI, SalI and XbaI has been constructed.

  7. Effects of Multidimensional Concept Maps on Fourth Graders' Learning in Web-Based Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hwa-Shan; Chiou, Chei-Chang; Chiang, Heien-Kun; Lai, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Chiun-Yen; Chou, Yin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of multidimensional concept mapping instruction on students' learning performance in a web-based computer course. The subjects consisted of 103 fourth graders from an elementary school in central Taiwan. They were divided into three groups: multidimensional concept map (MCM) instruction group, Novak concept map (NCM)…

  8. Self-organizing maps based on limit cycle attractors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di-Wei; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A

    2015-03-01

    Recent efforts to develop large-scale brain and neurocognitive architectures have paid relatively little attention to the use of self-organizing maps (SOMs). Part of the reason for this is that most conventional SOMs use a static encoding representation: each input pattern or sequence is effectively represented as a fixed point activation pattern in the map layer, something that is inconsistent with the rhythmic oscillatory activity observed in the brain. Here we develop and study an alternative encoding scheme that instead uses sparsely-coded limit cycles to represent external input patterns/sequences. We establish conditions under which learned limit cycle representations arise reliably and dominate the dynamics in a SOM. These limit cycles tend to be relatively unique for different inputs, robust to perturbations, and fairly insensitive to timing. In spite of the continually changing activity in the map layer when a limit cycle representation is used, map formation continues to occur reliably. In a two-SOM architecture where each SOM represents a different sensory modality, we also show that after learning, limit cycles in one SOM can correctly evoke corresponding limit cycles in the other, and thus there is the potential for multi-SOM systems using limit cycles to work effectively as hetero-associative memories. While the results presented here are only first steps, they establish the viability of SOM models based on limit cycle activity patterns, and suggest that such models merit further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical Therapists' Perceptions of School-Based Practices.

    PubMed

    Holt, Sheryl L; Kuperstein, Janice; Effgen, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    Surveys have reported that most school-based physical therapists perceive ideal practices are not commonly implemented in their settings. Our aim was to obtain a more in-depth understanding of these perceptions through open-ended inquiry. Qualitative data were derived from voluntary open-ended responses provided upon completion of a survey regarding school-based physical therapy practice. Of the survey's 561 participants, 250 provided open-ended commentaries that were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Six qualitative themes emerged from the open-ended responses, including: In quest: Meeting students' school-based needs via physical therapy; Seeking relatedness: Finding working teams in the school system; Building understanding: Developing a voice/identity in the school context; Stretched beyond limits: Managing workloads; Networking: Coordinating services outside school to meet student needs; Defying definition: What does working in an educational model mean? School-based physical therapists seek to meet educationally relevant physical therapy needs of students, ages 3 to 21 years. Successes appear woven of a multitude of factors such as therapist expertise, team dynamics, and district supports.

  10. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  11. Towards an EO-based Landslide Web Mapping and Monitoring Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölbling, Daniel; Weinke, Elisabeth; Albrecht, Florian; Eisank, Clemens; Vecchiotti, Filippo; Friedl, Barbara; Kociu, Arben

    2017-04-01

    National and regional authorities and infrastructure maintainers in mountainous regions require accurate knowledge of the location and spatial extent of landslides for hazard and risk management. Information on landslides is often collected by a combination of ground surveying and manual image interpretation following landslide triggering events. However, the high workload and limited time for data acquisition result in a trade-off between completeness, accuracy and detail. Remote sensing data offers great potential for mapping and monitoring landslides in a fast and efficient manner. While facing an increased availability of high-quality Earth Observation (EO) data and new computational methods, there is still a lack in science-policy interaction and in providing innovative tools and methods that can easily be used by stakeholders and users to support their daily work. Taking up this issue, we introduce an innovative and user-oriented EO-based web service for landslide mapping and monitoring. Three central design components of the service are presented: (1) the user requirements definition, (2) the semi-automated image analysis methods implemented in the service, and (3) the web mapping application with its responsive user interface. User requirements were gathered during semi-structured interviews with regional authorities. The potential users were asked if and how they employ remote sensing data for landslide investigation and what their expectations to a landslide web mapping service regarding reliability and usability are. The interviews revealed the capability of our service for landslide documentation and mapping as well as monitoring of selected landslide sites, for example to complete and update landslide inventory maps. In addition, the users see a considerable potential for landslide rapid mapping. The user requirements analysis served as basis for the service concept definition. Optical satellite imagery from different high resolution (HR) and very high

  12. Validation and application of Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranya, Sandor; Muste, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel methodology to estimate bedload transport in rivers based on an improved bedform tracking procedure. The measurement technique combines components and processing protocols from two contemporary nonintrusive instruments: acoustic and image-based. The bedform mapping is conducted with acoustic surveys while the estimation of the velocity of the bedforms is obtained with processing techniques pertaining to image-based velocimetry. The technique is therefore called Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The implementation of this technique produces a whole-field velocity map associated with the multi-directional bedform movement. Based on the calculated two-dimensional bedform migration velocity field, the bedload transport estimation is done using the Exner equation. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to validate the AMV based bedload estimation in a laboratory flume at IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR). The bedform migration was analysed at three different flow discharges. Repeated bed geometry mapping, using a multiple transducer array (MTA), provided acoustic maps, which were post-processed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Bedload transport rates were calculated along longitudinal sections using the streamwise components of the bedform velocity vectors and the measured bedform heights. The bulk transport rates were compared with the results from concurrent direct physical samplings and acceptable agreement was found. As a first field implementation of the AMV an attempt was made to estimate bedload transport for a section of the Ohio river in the United States, where bed geometry maps, resulted by repeated multibeam echo sounder (MBES) surveys, served as input data. Cross-sectional distributions of bedload transport rates from the AMV based method were compared with the ones obtained from another non-intrusive technique (due to the lack of direct samplings), ISSDOTv2, developed by the US Army

  13. Development of management information system for land in mine area based on MapInfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Dong; Liu, Chuang-Hua; Wang, Xin-Chuang; Pan, Yan-Yu

    2008-10-01

    MapInfo is current a popular GIS software. This paper introduces characters of MapInfo and GIS second development methods offered by MapInfo, which include three ones based on MapBasic, OLE automation, and MapX control usage respectively. Taking development of land management information system in mine area for example, in the paper, the method of developing GIS applications based on MapX has been discussed, as well as development of land management information system in mine area has been introduced in detail, including development environment, overall design, design and realization of every function module, and simple application of system, etc. The system uses MapX 5.0 and Visual Basic 6.0 as development platform, takes SQL Server 2005 as back-end database, and adopts Matlab 6.5 to calculate number in back-end. On the basis of integrated design, the system develops eight modules including start-up, layer control, spatial query, spatial analysis, data editing, application model, document management, results output. The system can be used in mine area for cadastral management, land use structure optimization, land reclamation, land evaluation, analysis and forecasting for land in mine area and environmental disruption, thematic mapping, and so on.

  14. Procedure for extraction of disparate data from maps into computerized data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure is presented for extracting disparate sources of data from geographic maps and for the conversion of these data into a suitable format for processing on a computer-oriented information system. Several graphic digitizing considerations are included and related to the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory's Digitizer System. Current operating procedures for the Digitizer System are given in a simplified and logical manner. The report serves as a guide to those organizations interested in converting map-based data by using a comparable map digitizing system.

  15. Utah Flooding Hazard: Raising Public Awareness through the Creation of Multidisciplinary Web-Based Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castleton, J.; Erickson, B.; Bowman, S. D.; Unger, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Utah Geological Survey's (UGS) Geologic Hazards Program has partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create geologically derived web-based flood hazard maps. Flooding in Utah communities has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards. The most serious floods in Utah have generally occurred in the Great Salt Lake basin, particularly in the Weber River drainage on the western slopes of the Wasatch Range, in areas of high population density. With a growing population of 2.9 million, the state of Utah is motivated to raise awareness about the potential for flooding. The process of increasing community resiliency to flooding begins with identification and characterization of flood hazards. Many small communities in areas experiencing rapid growth have not been mapped completely by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM). Existing FIRM maps typically only consider drainage areas that are greater than one square mile in determining flood zones and do not incorporate geologic data, such as the presence of young, geologically active alluvial fans that indicate a high potential for debris flows and sheet flooding. Our new flood hazard mapping combines and expands on FEMA data by incorporating mapping derived from 1:24,000-scale UGS geologic maps, LiDAR data, digital elevation models, and historical aerial photography. Our flood hazard maps are intended to supplement the FIRM maps to provide local governments and the public with additional flood hazard information so they may make informed decisions, ultimately reducing the risk to life and property from flooding hazards. Flooding information must be widely available and easily accessed. One of the most effective ways to inform the public is through web-based maps. Web-based flood hazard maps will not only supply the public with the flood information they need, but also provides a platform to add additional geologic hazards to an easily accessible format.

  16. A Spatiotemporal Indexing Approach for Efficient Processing of Big Array-Based Climate Data with MapReduce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenlong; Hu, Fei; Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; Lee, Tsengdar; Bowen, Michael K.; Yang, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Climate observations and model simulations are producing vast amounts of array-based spatiotemporal data. Efficient processing of these data is essential for assessing global challenges such as climate change, natural disasters, and diseases. This is challenging not only because of the large data volume, but also because of the intrinsic high-dimensional nature of geoscience data. To tackle this challenge, we propose a spatiotemporal indexing approach to efficiently manage and process big climate data with MapReduce in a highly scalable environment. Using this approach, big climate data are directly stored in a Hadoop Distributed File System in its original, native file format. A spatiotemporal index is built to bridge the logical array-based data model and the physical data layout, which enables fast data retrieval when performing spatiotemporal queries. Based on the index, a data-partitioning algorithm is applied to enable MapReduce to achieve high data locality, as well as balancing the workload. The proposed indexing approach is evaluated using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. The experimental results show that the index can significantly accelerate querying and processing (10 speedup compared to the baseline test using the same computing cluster), while keeping the index-to-data ratio small (0.0328). The applicability of the indexing approach is demonstrated by a climate anomaly detection deployed on a NASA Hadoop cluster. This approach is also able to support efficient processing of general array-based spatiotemporal data in various geoscience domains without special configuration on a Hadoop cluster.

  17. A new gradient shimming method based on undistorted field map of B0 inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Chen, Li; Song, Kan; Liu, Zao; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Most existing gradient shimming methods for NMR spectrometers estimate field maps that resolve B0 inhomogeneity spatially from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at different echo times. However, the distortions induced by B0 inhomogeneity that always exists in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate shimming. This work proposes a new gradient shimming method based on undistorted field map of B0 inhomogeneity obtained by a more accurate field map estimation technique. Compared to the traditional field map estimation method, this new method exploits both the positive and negative polarities of the frequency encoded gradients to eliminate the distortions caused by B0 inhomogeneity in the field map. Next, the corresponding automatic post-data procedure is introduced to obtain undistorted B0 field map based on knowledge of the invariant characteristics of the B0 inhomogeneity and the variant polarity of the encoded gradient. The experimental results on both simulated and real gradient shimming tests demonstrate the high performance of this new method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depth map occlusion filling and scene reconstruction using modified exemplar-based inpainting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Fisunov, A. V.; Tokareva, S. V.; Egiazarian, K. O.

    2015-03-01

    RGB-D sensors are relatively inexpensive and are commercially available off-the-shelf. However, owing to their low complexity, there are several artifacts that one encounters in the depth map like holes, mis-alignment between the depth and color image and lack of sharp object boundaries in the depth map. Depth map generated by Kinect cameras also contain a significant amount of missing pixels and strong noise, limiting their usability in many computer vision applications. In this paper, we present an efficient hole filling and damaged region restoration method that improves the quality of the depth maps obtained with the Microsoft Kinect device. The proposed approach is based on a modified exemplar-based inpainting and LPA-ICI filtering by exploiting the correlation between color and depth values in local image neighborhoods. As a result, edges of the objects are sharpened and aligned with the objects in the color image. Several examples considered in this paper show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for large holes removal as well as recovery of small regions on several test images of depth maps. We perform a comparative study and show that statistically, the proposed algorithm delivers superior quality results compared to existing algorithms.

  19. Image Mining in Remote Sensing for Coastal Wetlands Mapping: from Pixel Based to Object Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farda, N. M.; Danoedoro, P.; Hartono; Harjoko, A.

    2016-11-01

    The availably of remote sensing image data is numerous now, and with a large amount of data it makes “knowledge gap” in extraction of selected information, especially coastal wetlands. Coastal wetlands provide ecosystem services essential to people and the environment. The aim of this research is to extract coastal wetlands information from satellite data using pixel based and object based image mining approach. Landsat MSS, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI images located in Segara Anakan lagoon are selected to represent data at various multi temporal images. The input for image mining are visible and near infrared bands, PCA band, invers PCA bands, mean shift segmentation bands, bare soil index, vegetation index, wetness index, elevation from SRTM and ASTER GDEM, and GLCM (Harralick) or variability texture. There is three methods were applied to extract coastal wetlands using image mining: pixel based - Decision Tree C4.5, pixel based - Back Propagation Neural Network, and object based - Mean Shift segmentation and Decision Tree C4.5. The results show that remote sensing image mining can be used to map coastal wetlands ecosystem. Decision Tree C4.5 can be mapped with highest accuracy (0.75 overall kappa). The availability of remote sensing image mining for mapping coastal wetlands is very important to provide better understanding about their spatiotemporal coastal wetlands dynamics distribution.

  20. MAP as a model for practice-based learning and improvement in child psychiatry training.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Sheryl H; Podell, Jennifer L; Zima, Bonnie T; Best, Karin; Sidhu, Shawn; Jura, Martha Bates

    2014-01-01

    Not only is there a growing literature demonstrating the positive outcomes that result from implementing evidence based treatments (EBTs) but also studies that suggest a lack of delivery of these EBTs in "usual care" practices. One way to address this deficit is to improve the quality of psychotherapy teaching for clinicians-in-training. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires all training programs to assess residents in a number of competencies including Practice-Based Learning and Improvements (PBLI). This article describes the piloting of Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) for child psychiatry fellows, to teach them both EBT and PBLI skills. Eight child psychiatry trainees received 5 full days of MAP training and are delivering MAP in a year-long outpatient teaching clinic. In this setting, MAP is applied to the complex, multiply diagnosed psychiatric patients that present to this clinic. This article describes how MAP tools and resources assist in teaching trainees each of the eight required competency components of PBLI, including identifying deficits in expertise, setting learning goals, performing learning activities, conducting quality improvement methods in practice, incorporating formative feedback, using scientific studies to inform practice, using technology for learning, and participating in patient education. A case example illustrates the use of MAP in teaching PBLI. MAP provides a unique way to teach important quality improvement and practice-based learning skills to trainees while training them in important psychotherapy competence.

  1. Exploration and implementation of ontology-based cultural relic knowledge map integration platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiqiang; Dong, Yiqiang

    2018-05-01

    To help designers to better carry out creative design and improve the ability of searching traditional cultural relic information, the ontology-based knowledge map construction method was explored and an integrated platform for cultural relic knowledge map was developed. First of all, the construction method of the ontology of cultural relics was put forward, and the construction of the knowledge map of cultural relics was completed based on the constructed cultural relic otology. Then, a personalized semantic retrieval framework for creative design was proposed. Finally, the integrated platform of the knowledge map of cultural relics was designed and realized. The platform was divided into two parts. One was the foreground display system, which was used for designers to search and browse cultural relics. The other was the background management system, which was for cultural experts to manage cultural relics' knowledge. The research results showed that the platform designed could improve the retrieval ability of cultural relic information. To sum up, the platform can provide a good support for the designer's creative design.

  2. Reconstructing Macroeconomics Based on Statistical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Masanao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    We believe that time has come to integrate the new approach based on statistical physics or econophysics into macroeconomics. Toward this goal, there must be more dialogues between physicists and economists. In this paper, we argue that there is no reason why the methods of statistical physics so successful in many fields of natural sciences cannot be usefully applied to macroeconomics that is meant to analyze the macroeconomy comprising a large number of economic agents. It is, in fact, weird to regard the macroeconomy as a homothetic enlargement of the representative micro agent. We trust the bright future of the new approach to macroeconomies based on statistical physics.

  3. Using microsatellites to understand the physical distribution of recombination on soybean chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ott, Alina; Trautschold, Brian; Sandhu, Devinder

    2011-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop that is an important source of oil and proteins. A number of genetic linkage maps have been developed in soybean. Specifically, hundreds of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been developed and mapped. Recent sequencing of the soybean genome resulted in the generation of vast amounts of genetic information. The objectives of this investigation were to use SSR markers in developing a connection between genetic and physical maps and to determine the physical distribution of recombination on soybean chromosomes. A total of 2,188 SSRs were used for sequence-based physical localization on soybean chromosomes. Linkage information was used from different maps to create an integrated genetic map. Comparison of the integrated genetic linkage maps and sequence based physical maps revealed that the distal 25% of each chromosome was the most marker-dense, containing an average of 47.4% of the SSR markers and 50.2% of the genes. The proximal 25% of each chromosome contained only 7.4% of the markers and 6.7% of the genes. At the whole genome level, the marker density and gene density showed a high correlation (R(2)) of 0.64 and 0.83, respectively with the physical distance from the centromere. Recombination followed a similar pattern with comparisons indicating that recombination is high in telomeric regions, though the correlation between crossover frequency and distance from the centromeres is low (R(2) = 0.21). Most of the centromeric regions were low in recombination. The crossover frequency for the entire soybean genome was 7.2%, with extremes much higher and lower than average. The number of recombination hotspots varied from 1 to 12 per chromosome. A high correlation of 0.83 between the distribution of SSR markers and genes suggested close association of SSRs with genes. The knowledge of distribution of recombination on chromosomes may be applied in characterizing and targeting genes.

  4. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  5. Advanced electrophysiologic mapping systems: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    any of the advanced systems to fluoroscopy-guided ablation of tachycardia. English-language studies with sample sizes greater than or equal to 20 that were published between 2000 and 2005 were included. Observational studies on safety of advanced mapping systems and fluoroscopy were also included. Outcomes of interest were acute success, defined as termination of arrhythmia immediately following ablation; long-term success, defined as being arrhythmia free at follow-up; total procedure time; fluoroscopy time; radiation dose; number of radiofrequency pulses; complications; cost; and the cost-effectiveness ratio. Quality of the individual studies was assessed using established criteria. Quality of the overall evidence was determined by applying the GRADE evaluation system. (3) Qualitative synthesis of the data was performed. Quantitative analysis using Revman 4.2 was performed when appropriate. Quality of the Studies Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. These comprised 18 studies on CARTO (4 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 14 non-RCTs), 3 RCTs on EnSite NavX, 4 studies on LocaLisa Navigational System (1 RCT and 3 non-RCTs), 2 studies on EnSite and CARTO, 1 on Polar Constellation basket catheter, and 7 studies on radiation safety. The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to low. Most of the studies had small sample sizes with selection bias, and there was no blinding of patients or care providers in any of the studies. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 29 months, with most having at least 6 months of follow-up. There was heterogeneity with respect to the approach to ablation, definition of success, and drug management before and after the ablation procedure. Evidence is based on a small number of small RCTS and non-RCTS with methodological flaws.Advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping/navigation systems provided real time 3-dimensional images with integration of anatomic and electrical potential information that enable better visualization of

  6. Aerosol Extinction Profile Mapping with Lognormal Distribution Based on MPL Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. H.; Lee, T. T.; Chang, K. E.; Lien, W. H.; Liu, G. R.; Liu, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study intends to challenge the profile mapping of aerosol vertical distribution by mathematical function. With the similarity in distribution pattern, lognormal distribution is examined for mapping the aerosol extinction profile based on MPL (Micro Pulse LiDAR) in situ measurements. The variables of lognormal distribution are log mean (μ) and log standard deviation (σ), which will be correlated with the parameters of aerosol optical depht (AOD) and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) associated with the altitude of extinction peak (Mode) defined in this study. On the base of 10 years MPL data with single peak, the mapping results showed that the mean error of Mode and σ retrievals are 16.1% and 25.3%, respectively. The mean error of σ retrieval can be reduced to 16.5% under the cases of larger distance between PBLH and Mode. The proposed method is further applied to MODIS AOD product in mapping extinction profile for the retrieval of PM2.5 in terms of satellite observations. The results indicated well agreement between retrievals and ground measurements when aerosols under 525 meters are well-mixed. The feasibility of proposed method to satellite remote sensing is also suggested by the case study. Keyword: Aerosol extinction profile, Lognormal distribution, MPL, Planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Mode

  7. Research-based active-learning instruction in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2013-04-01

    The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.

  8. Prediction of AL and Dst Indices from ACE Measurements Using Hybrid Physics/Black-Box Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, E.; Rao, A.; Horton, W.; Mays, L.

    2008-12-01

    ACE measurements of the solar wind velocity, IMF and proton density is used to drive a hybrid Physics/Black- Box model of the nightside magnetosphere. The core physics is contained in a low order nonlinear dynamical model of the nightside magnetosphere called WINDMI. The model is augmented by wavelet based nonlinear mappings between the solar wind quantities and the input into the physics model, followed by further wavelet based mappings of the model output field aligned currents onto the ground based magnetometer measurements of the AL index and Dst index. The black box mappings are introduced at the input stage to account for uncertainties in the way the solar wind quantities are transported from the ACE spacecraft at L1 to the magnetopause. Similar mappings are introduced at the output stage to account for a spatially and temporally varying westward auroral electrojet geometry. The parameters of the model are tuned using a genetic algorithm, and trained using the large geomagnetic storm dataset of October 3-7 2000. It's predictive performance is then evaluated on subsequent storm datasets, in particular the April 15-24 2002 storm. This work is supported by grant NSF 7020201

  9. Attack to AN Image Encryption Based on Chaotic Logistic Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Tian; Xu, Dahai; Ma, Yutian

    2013-10-01

    This paper offers two different attacks on a freshly proposed image encryption based on chaotic logistic map. The cryptosystem under study first uses a secret key of 80-bit and employed two chaotic logistic maps. We derived the initial conditions of the logistic maps from using the secret key by providing different weights to all its bits. Additionally, in this paper eight different types of procedures are used to encrypt the pixels of an image in the proposed encryption process of which one of them will be used for a certain pixel which is determined by the product of the logistic map. The secret key is revised after encrypting each block which consisted of 16 pixels of the image. The encrypting process have weakness, worst of which is that every byte of plaintext is independent when substituted, so the cipher text of the byte will not change even the other bytes have changed. As a result of weakness, a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen cipher text attack can be completed without any knowledge of the key value to recuperate the ciphered image.

  10. Epitope mapping: the first step in developing epitope-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gershoni, Jonathan M; Roitburd-Berman, Anna; Siman-Tov, Dror D; Tarnovitski Freund, Natalia; Weiss, Yael

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies are an effective line of defense in preventing infectious diseases. Highly potent neutralizing antibodies can intercept a virus before it attaches to its target cell and, thus, inactivate it. This ability is based on the antibodies' specific recognition of epitopes, the sites of the antigen to which antibodies bind. Thus, understanding the antibody/epitope interaction provides a basis for the rational design of preventive vaccines. It is assumed that immunization with the precise epitope, corresponding to an effective neutralizing antibody, would elicit the generation of similarly potent antibodies in the vaccinee. Such a vaccine would be a 'B-cell epitope-based vaccine', the implementation of which requires the ability to backtrack from a desired antibody to its corresponding epitope. In this article we discuss a range of methods that enable epitope discovery based on a specific antibody. Such a reversed immunological approach is the first step in the rational design of an epitope-based vaccine. Undoubtedly, the gold standard for epitope definition is x-ray analyses of crystals of antigen:antibody complexes. This method provides atomic resolution of the epitope; however, it is not readily applicable to many antigens and antibodies, and requires a very high degree of sophistication and expertise. Most other methods rely on the ability to monitor the binding of the antibody to antigen fragments or mutated variations. In mutagenesis of the antigen, loss of binding due to point modification of an amino acid residue is often considered an indication of an epitope component. In addition, computational combinatorial methods for epitope mapping are also useful. These methods rely on the ability of the antibody of interest to affinity isolate specific short peptides from combinatorial phage display peptide libraries. The peptides are then regarded as leads for the definition of the epitope corresponding to the antibody used to screen the peptide library. For

  11. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping hydraulic hazard is a ticklish procedure as it involves technical and socio-economic aspects. On the one hand no dangerous areas should be excluded, on the other hand it is important not to exceed, beyond the necessary, with the surface assigned to some use limitations. The availability of a high resolution topographic survey allows nowadays to face this task with innovative procedures, both in the planning (mapping) and in the map validation phases. The latter is the object of the present work. It should be stressed that the described procedure is proposed purely as a preliminary analysis based on topography only, and therefore does not intend in any way to replace more sophisticated analysis methods requiring based on hydraulic modelling. The reference elevation model is a combination of the digital terrain model and the digital building model (DTM+DBM). The option of using the standard surface model (DSM) is not viable, as the DSM represents the vegetation canopy as a solid volume. This has the consequence of unrealistically considering the vegetation as a geometric obstacle to water flow. In some cases the topographic model construction requires the identification and digitization of the principal breaklines, such as river banks, ditches and similar natural or artificial structures. The geometrical and topological procedure for the validation of the hydraulic hazard maps is made of two steps. In the first step the whole area is subdivided into fluvial segments, with length chosen as a reasonable trade-off between the need to keep the hydrographical unit as complete as possible, and the need to separate sections of the river bed with significantly different morphology. Each of these segments is made of a single elongated polygon, whose shape can be quite complex, especially for meandering river sections, where the flow direction (i.e. the potential energy gradient associated to the talweg) is often inverted. In the second step the segments are analysed

  12. Analysis of tsunami disaster map by Geographic Information System (GIS): Aceh Singkil-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhan, A.; Akhyar, H.

    2017-02-01

    Tsunami risk map is used by stakeholder as a base to decide evacuation plan and evaluates from disaster. Aceh Singkil district of Aceh- Indonesia’s disaster maps have been developed and analyzed by using GIS tool. Overlay methods through algorithms are used to produce hazard map, vulnerability, capacity and finally created disaster risk map. Spatial maps are used topographic maps, administrative map, SRTM. The parameters are social, economic, physical environmental vulnerability, a level of exposed people, parameters of houses, public building, critical facilities, productive land, population density, sex ratio, poor ratio, disability ratio, age group ratio, the protected forest, natural forest, and mangrove forest. The results show high-risk tsunami disaster at nine villages; moderate levels are seventeen villages, and other villages are shown in the low level of tsunami risk disaster.

  13. Geomorphically based predictive mapping of soil thickness in upland watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig

    2009-09-01

    The hydrologic response of upland watersheds is strongly controlled by soil (regolith) thickness. Despite the need to quantify soil thickness for input into hydrologic models, there is currently no widely used, geomorphically based method for doing so. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new method for predictive mapping of soil thicknesses using high-resolution topographic data, numerical modeling, and field-based calibration. The model framework works directly with input digital elevation model data to predict soil thicknesses assuming a long-term balance between soil production and erosion. Erosion rates in the model are quantified using one of three geomorphically based sediment transport models: nonlinear slope-dependent transport, nonlinear area- and slope-dependent transport, and nonlinear depth- and slope-dependent transport. The model balances soil production and erosion locally to predict a family of solutions corresponding to a range of values of two unconstrained model parameters. A small number of field-based soil thickness measurements can then be used to calibrate the local value of those unconstrained parameters, thereby constraining which solution is applicable at a particular study site. As an illustration, the model is used to predictively map soil thicknesses in two small, ˜0.1 km2, drainage basins in the Marshall Gulch watershed, a semiarid drainage basin in the Santa Catalina Mountains of Pima County, Arizona. Field observations and calibration data indicate that the nonlinear depth- and slope-dependent sediment transport model is the most appropriate transport model for this site. The resulting framework provides a generally applicable, geomorphically based tool for predictive mapping of soil thickness using high-resolution topographic data sets.

  14. The Impact of Concept Mapping on the Process of Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaal, Wichard; Otting, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A concept map is a graphical tool to activate and elaborate on prior knowledge, to support problem solving, promote conceptual thinking and understanding, and to organize and memorize knowledge. The aim of this study is to determine if the use of concept mapping (CM) in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum enhances the PBL process. The paper…

  15. CortiQ-based Real-Time Functional Mapping for Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapeller, Christoph; Korostenskaja, Milena; Prueckl, Robert; Chen, Po-Ching; Lee, Ki Heyeong; Westerveld, Michael; Salinas, Christine M; Cook, Jane C; Baumgartner, James E; Guger, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the use of the cortiQ-based mapping system (g.tec medication engineering GmbH, Austria) for real-time functional mapping (RTFM) and to compare it to results from electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Electrocorticographic activity was recorded in 3 male patients with intractable epilepsy by using cortiQ mapping system and analyzed in real time. Activation related to motor, sensory, and receptive language tasks was determined by evaluating the power of the high gamma frequency band (60-170 Hz). The sensitivity and specificity of RTFM were tested against ESM and fMRI results. "Next-neighbor" approach demonstrated [sensitivity/specificity %] (1) RTFM against ESM: 100.00/79.70 for hand motor; 100.00/73.87 for hand sensory; -/87 for language (it was not identified by the ESM); (2) RTFM against fMRI: 100.00/84.4 for hand motor; 66.70/85.35 for hand sensory; and 87.85/77.70 for language. The results of the quantitative "next-neighbor" RTFM evaluation were concordant to those from ESM and fMRI. The RTFM correlates well with localization of hand motor function provided by ESM and fMRI, which may offer added localization in the operating room and guidance for extraoperative ESM mapping. Real-time functional mapping correlates with fMRI language activation when ESM findings are negative. It has fewer limitations than ESM and greater flexibility in activation paradigms and measuring responses.

  16. A highly efficient approach to protein interactome mapping based on collaborative filtering framework.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-09

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly.

  17. A Highly Efficient Approach to Protein Interactome Mapping Based on Collaborative Filtering Framework

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly. PMID:25572661

  18. A Highly Efficient Approach to Protein Interactome Mapping Based on Collaborative Filtering Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly.

  19. An improved consensus linkage map of barley based on flow-sorted chromosomes and SNP markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made it easier to combine information from different mapping populations into consensus genetic maps, which provide increased marker density and genome coverage compared to individual maps. Previously, a SNP-based genotyping platform was developed a...

  20. A population 'consensus', partial linkage map of Picea abies Karst. based on RAPD markers

    Treesearch

    G. Bucci; Thomas L. Kubisiak; W.L. Nance; P. Menozzi

    1997-01-01

    The authors built a "consensus" partial linkage map based on RAPD markers using 48 sibships of eight megagametophytes each from a natural population of Norway spruce. A RAPD linkage map for a single individual from the same population had previously been constructed. Using 30 random decamers that had yielded 83 RAPD markers in the single-tree map, eight...

  1. Semi-automatic classification of glaciovolcanic landforms: An object-based mapping approach based on geomorphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.

    2016-02-01

    A new object-oriented approach is developed to classify glaciovolcanic landforms (Procedure A) and their landform elements boundaries (Procedure B). It utilizes the principle that glaciovolcanic edifices are geomorphometrically distinct from lava shields and plains (Pedersen and Grosse, 2014), and the approach is tested on data from Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The outlined procedures utilize slope and profile curvature attribute maps (20 m/pixel) and the classified results are evaluated quantitatively through error matrix maps (Procedure A) and visual inspection (Procedure B). In procedure A, the highest obtained accuracy is 94.1%, but even simple mapping procedures provide good results (> 90% accuracy). Successful classification of glaciovolcanic landform element boundaries (Procedure B) is also achieved and this technique has the potential to delineate the transition from intraglacial to subaerial volcanic activity in orthographic view. This object-oriented approach based on geomorphometry overcomes issues with vegetation cover, which has been typically problematic for classification schemes utilizing spectral data. Furthermore, it handles complex edifice outlines well and is easily incorporated into a GIS environment, where results can be edited or fused with other mapping results. The approach outlined here is designed to map glaciovolcanic edifices within the Icelandic neovolcanic zone but may also be applied to similar subaerial or submarine volcanic settings, where steep volcanic edifices are surrounded by flat plains.

  2. Physical and genetic mapping of the CMT4A locus and exclusion of PMP-2 as the defect in CMT4A

    SciTech Connect

    Othmane, K.B.; Loeb, D.; Roses, A.D.

    1995-07-20

    We have previously localized one form of the autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4 (CMT4A) to a 5-cM region of chromosome 8q13-q21. We now report the formation of a 7-Bp YAC contig spanning the region. This contig was used to map nine additional microsatellites and six STSs to this region, and subsequent haplotype analysis has narrowed the CMT4A flanking interval to less than 1 cM. In addition, using SSCP and our physical map, we have demonstrated that the myelin protein PMP-2, mapped by FISH to this region, is not the defect in CMT4A. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. PSF mapping-based correction of eddy-current-induced distortions in diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    In, Myung-Ho; Posnansky, Oleg; Speck, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    To accurately correct diffusion-encoding direction-dependent eddy-current-induced geometric distortions in diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (DW-EPI) and to minimize the calibration time at 7 Tesla (T). A point spread function (PSF) mapping based eddy-current calibration method is newly presented to determine eddy-current-induced geometric distortions even including nonlinear eddy-current effects within the readout acquisition window. To evaluate the temporal stability of eddy-current maps, calibration was performed four times within 3 months. Furthermore, spatial variations of measured eddy-current maps versus their linear superposition were investigated to enable correction in DW-EPIs with arbitrary diffusion directions without direct calibration. For comparison, an image-based eddy-current correction method was additionally applied. Finally, this method was combined with a PSF-based susceptibility-induced distortion correction approach proposed previously to correct both susceptibility and eddy-current-induced distortions in DW-EPIs. Very fast eddy-current calibration in a three-dimensional volume is possible with the proposed method. The measured eddy-current maps are very stable over time and very similar maps can be obtained by linear superposition of principal-axes eddy-current maps. High resolution in vivo brain results demonstrate that the proposed method allows more efficient eddy-current correction than the image-based method. The combination of both PSF-based approaches allows distortion-free images, which permit reliable analysis in diffusion tensor imaging applications at 7T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Earth-Base: testing the temporal congruency of paleontological collections and geologic maps of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, N. A.; Kishor, P.; McClennen, M.; Peters, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Free and open source software and data facilitate novel research by allowing geoscientists to quickly and easily bring together disparate data that have been independently collected for many different purposes. The Earth-Base project brings together several datasets using a common space-time framework that is managed and analyzed using open source software. Earth-Base currently draws on stratigraphic, paleontologic, tectonic, geodynamic, seismic, botanical, hydrologic and cartographic data. Furthermore, Earth-Base is powered by RESTful data services operating on top of PostgreSQL and MySQL databases and the R programming environment, making much of the functionality accessible to third-parties even though the detailed data schemas are unknown to them. We demonstrate the scientific potential of Earth-Base and other FOSS by comparing the stated age of fossil collections to the age of the bedrock upon which they are geolocated. This analysis makes use of web services for the Paleobiology Database (PaleoDB), Macrostrat, the 2005 Geologic Map of North America (Garrity et al. 2009) and geologic maps of the conterminous United States. This analysis is a way to quickly assess the accuracy of temporal and spatial congruence of the paleontologic and geologic map datasets. We find that 56.1% of the 52,593 PaleoDB collections have temporally consistent ages with the bedrock upon which they are located based on the Geologic Map of North America. Surprisingly, fossil collections within the conterminous United States are more consistently located on bedrock with congruent geological ages, even though the USA maps are spatially and temporally more precise. Approximately 57% of the 37,344 PaleoDB collections in the USA are located on similarly aged geologic map units. Increased accuracy is attributed to the lumping of Pliocene and Quaternary geologic map units along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in the Geologic Map of North America. The abundant Pliocene fossil collections

  5. Surrogate based wind farm layout optimization using manifold mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaja Kamaludeen, Shaafi M.; van Zuijle, Alexander; Bijl, Hester

    2016-09-01

    High computational cost associated with the high fidelity wake models such as RANS or LES serves as a primary bottleneck to perform a direct high fidelity wind farm layout optimization (WFLO) using accurate CFD based wake models. Therefore, a surrogate based multi-fidelity WFLO methodology (SWFLO) is proposed. The surrogate model is built using an SBO method referred as manifold mapping (MM). As a verification, optimization of spacing between two staggered wind turbines was performed using the proposed surrogate based methodology and the performance was compared with that of direct optimization using high fidelity model. Significant reduction in computational cost was achieved using MM: a maximum computational cost reduction of 65%, while arriving at the same optima as that of direct high fidelity optimization. The similarity between the response of models, the number of mapping points and its position, highly influences the computational efficiency of the proposed method. As a proof of concept, realistic WFLO of a small 7-turbine wind farm is performed using the proposed surrogate based methodology. Two variants of Jensen wake model with different decay coefficients were used as the fine and coarse model. The proposed SWFLO method arrived at the same optima as that of the fine model with very less number of fine model simulations.

  6. Web Based Rapid Mapping of Disaster Areas using Satellite Images, Web Processing Service, Web Mapping Service, Frequency Based Change Detection Algorithm and J-iView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandibas, J. C.; Takarada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Timely identification of areas affected by natural disasters is very important for a successful rescue and effective emergency relief efforts. This research focuses on the development of a cost effective and efficient system of identifying areas affected by natural disasters, and the efficient distribution of the information. The developed system is composed of 3 modules which are the Web Processing Service (WPS), Web Map Service (WMS) and the user interface provided by J-iView (fig. 1). WPS is an online system that provides computation, storage and data access services. In this study, the WPS module provides online access of the software implementing the developed frequency based change detection algorithm for the identification of areas affected by natural disasters. It also sends requests to WMS servers to get the remotely sensed data to be used in the computation. WMS is a standard protocol that provides a simple HTTP interface for requesting geo-registered map images from one or more geospatial databases. In this research, the WMS component provides remote access of the satellite images which are used as inputs for land cover change detection. The user interface in this system is provided by J-iView, which is an online mapping system developed at the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ). The 3 modules are seamlessly integrated into a single package using J-iView, which could rapidly generate a map of disaster areas that is instantaneously viewable online. The developed system was tested using ASTER images covering the areas damaged by the March 11, 2011 tsunami in northeastern Japan. The developed system efficiently generated a map showing areas devastated by the tsunami. Based on the initial results of the study, the developed system proved to be a useful tool for emergency workers to quickly identify areas affected by natural disasters.

  7. No clustering for linkage map based on low-copy and undermethylated microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Gwaze, David P; Reyes-Valdés, M Humberto; Bui, Thomas; Williams, Claire G

    2003-10-01

    Clustering has been reported for conifer genetic maps based on hypomethylated or low-copy molecular markers, resulting in uneven marker distribution. To test this, a framework genetic map was constructed from three types of microsatellites: low-copy, undermethylated, and genomic. These Pinus taeda L. microsatellites were mapped using a three-generation pedigree with 118 progeny. The microsatellites were highly informative; of the 32 markers in intercross configuration, 29 were segregating for three or four alleles in the progeny. The sex-averaged map placed 51 of the 95 markers in 15 linkage groups at LOD > 4.0. No clustering or uneven distribution across the genome was observed. The three types of P. taeda microsatellites were randomly dispersed within each linkage group. The 51 microsatellites covered a map distance of 795 cM, an average distance of 21.8 cM between markers, roughly half of the estimated total map length. The minimum and maximum distances between any two bins was 4.4 and 45.3 cM, respectively. These microsatellites provided anchor points for framework mapping for polymorphism in P. taeda and other closely related hard pines.

  8. Distinguishability notion based on Wootters statistical distance: Application to discrete maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    We study the distinguishability notion given by Wootters for states represented by probability density functions. This presents the particularity that it can also be used for defining a statistical distance in chaotic unidimensional maps. Based on that definition, we provide a metric d ¯ for an arbitrary discrete map. Moreover, from d ¯ , we associate a metric space with each invariant density of a given map, which results to be the set of all distinguished points when the number of iterations of the map tends to infinity. Also, we give a characterization of the wandering set of a map in terms of the metric d ¯ , which allows us to identify the dissipative regions in the phase space. We illustrate the results in the case of the logistic and the circle maps numerically and analytically, and we obtain d ¯ and the wandering set for some characteristic values of their parameters. Finally, an extension of the metric space associated for arbitrary probability distributions (not necessarily invariant densities) is given along with some consequences. The statistical properties of distributions given by histograms are characterized in terms of the cardinal of the associated metric space. For two conjugate variables, the uncertainty principle is expressed in terms of the diameters of the associated metric space with those variables.

  9. Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Improving Learning of Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Shin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Students attending object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from requirements analysis to logical design and then to physical design. Concept maps have been widely used in studies of user learning. The study reported here, based on the relationship of concept maps to learning theory and…

  10. Comparing orbiter and rover image-based mapping of an ancient sedimentary environment, Aeolis Palus, Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, K. M.; Edwards, C. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Calef, F. J.; Edgar, L. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Fraeman, A. A.; Jacob, S. R.; Le Deit, L.; Lewis, K. W.; Rice, M. S.; Rubin, D.; Williams, R. M. E.; Williford, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    This study provides the first systematic comparison of orbital facies maps with detailed ground-based geology observations from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover to examine the validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data. Orbital facies maps were constructed for the Darwin, Cooperstown, and Kimberley waypoints visited by the Curiosity rover using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. These maps, which represent the most detailed orbital analysis of these areas to date, were compared with rover image-based geologic maps and stratigraphic columns derived from Curiosity's Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). Results show that bedrock outcrops can generally be distinguished from unconsolidated surficial deposits in high-resolution orbital images and that orbital facies mapping can be used to recognize geologic contacts between well-exposed bedrock units. However, process-based interpretations derived from orbital image mapping are difficult to infer without known regional context or observable paleogeomorphic indicators, and layer-cake models of stratigraphy derived from orbital maps oversimplify depositional relationships as revealed from a rover perspective. This study also shows that fine-scale orbital image-based mapping of current and future Mars landing sites is essential for optimizing the efficiency and science return of rover surface operations.

  11. Comparing orbiter and rover image-based mapping of an ancient sedimentary environment, Aeolis Palus, Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stack, Kathryn M.; Edwards, Christopher; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D.; Edgar, Lauren; Fraeman, A.; Jacob, S.; LeDeit, L.; Lewis, K.W.; Rice, M.S.; Rubin, D.; Calef, F.; Edgett, K.; Williams, R.M.E.; Williford, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic comparison of orbital facies maps with detailed ground-based geology observations from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover to examine the validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data. Orbital facies maps were constructed for the Darwin, Cooperstown, and Kimberley waypoints visited by the Curiosity rover using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. These maps, which represent the most detailed orbital analysis of these areas to date, were compared with rover image-based geologic maps and stratigraphic columns derived from Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). Results show that bedrock outcrops can generally be distinguished from unconsolidated surficial deposits in high-resolution orbital images and that orbital facies mapping can be used to recognize geologic contacts between well-exposed bedrock units. However, process-based interpretations derived from orbital image mapping are difficult to infer without known regional context or observable paleogeomorphic indicators, and layer-cake models of stratigraphy derived from orbital maps oversimplify depositional relationships as revealed from a rover perspective. This study also shows that fine-scale orbital image-based mapping of current and future Mars landing sites is essential for optimizing the efficiency and science return of rover surface operations.

  12. Malaria Disease Mapping in Malaysia based on Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azah Samat, Nor; Mey, Liew Wan

    2017-09-01

    Disease mapping is the visual representation of the geographical distribution which give an overview info about the incidence of disease within a population through spatial epidemiology data. Based on the result of map, it helps in monitoring and planning resource needs at all levels of health care and designing appropriate interventions, tailored towards areas that deserve closer scrutiny or communities that lead to further investigations to identify important risk factors. Therefore, the choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important because production of disease risk map relies on the model used. This paper proposes Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model to estimate the relative risk for Malaria in Malaysia. The analysis involved using the number of Malaria cases that obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The outcomes of analysis are displayed through graph and map, including Malaria disease risk map that constructed according to the estimation of relative risk. The distribution of high and low risk areas of Malaria disease occurrences for all states in Malaysia can be identified in the risk map.

  13. Target-specific digital soil mapping supporting terroir mapping in Tokaj Wine Region, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Katalin; Szabó, József; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; László, Péter; Koós, Sándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Tokaj Wine Region - located in Northeast-Hungary, at Hegyalja, in Tokaj Mountains - is a historical region for botrityzed dessert wine making. Very recently the sustainable quality wine production in the region was targeted, which requires detailed and "terroir-based approach" characterization of viticultural land and the survey of the state of vineyards. Terroir is a homogeneous area that relates to both environmental and cultural factors, that influence the grape and wine quality. Soil plays dominant role determining the viticultural potential and terroir delineation. According to viticultural experts the most relevant soil properties are drainage, water holding capacity, soil depth and pH. Not all of these soil characteristics can be directly measured, therefore the synthesis of observed soil properties is needed to satisfy the requirements of terroir mapping. The sampling strategy was designed to be representative to the combinations of basic environmental parameters (slope, aspect and geology) which determine the main soil properties of the vineyards. Field survey was carried out in two steps. At first soil samples were collected from 200 sites to obtain a general view about the pedology of the area. In the second stage further 650 samples were collected and the sampling strategy was designed based on spatial annealing technique taking into consideration the results of the preliminary survey and the local characteristics of vineyards. The data collection regarded soil type, soil depth, parent material, rate of erosion, organic matter content and further physical and chemical soil properties which support the inference of the proper soil parameters. In the framework of the recent project 33 primary and secondary soil property, soil class and soil function maps were compiled. A set of the resulting maps supports to meet the demands of the Hungarian standard viticultural potential assessment, while the majority of the maps is intended to be applied for terroir

  14. Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. II. Procedures for measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles; Yerushalmi, Edit; Kuo, Vince H.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.

  15. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Silvia; Colauzzi, Michele; Scarabel, Laura; Collavo, Alberto; Rosan, Valentina; Sattin, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance) for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group) database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems) that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  16. A novel image encryption algorithm based on chaos maps with Markov properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Pei-yue; Zhang, Ming-chao; Sui, Yong-xin; Yang, Huai-jiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to construct high complexity, secure and low cost image encryption algorithm, a class of chaos with Markov properties was researched and such algorithm was also proposed. The kind of chaos has higher complexity than the Logistic map and Tent map, which keeps the uniformity and low autocorrelation. An improved couple map lattice based on the chaos with Markov properties is also employed to cover the phase space of the chaos and enlarge the key space, which has better performance than the original one. A novel image encryption algorithm is constructed on the new couple map lattice, which is used as a key stream generator. A true random number is used to disturb the key which can dynamically change the permutation matrix and the key stream. From the experiments, it is known that the key stream can pass SP800-22 test. The novel image encryption can resist CPA and CCA attack and differential attack. The algorithm is sensitive to the initial key and can change the distribution the pixel values of the image. The correlation of the adjacent pixels can also be eliminated. When compared with the algorithm based on Logistic map, it has higher complexity and better uniformity, which is nearer to the true random number. It is also efficient to realize which showed its value in common use.

  17. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun

    2018-05-01

    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  18. Topographical memory for newly-learned maps is differentially affected by route-based versus landmark-based learning: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Erin L; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Wojtarowicz, Dorothy; Jobidon, Marie-Eve; Smith, Ingrid; Lam, Quan; Vartanian, Oshin

    2018-04-11

    Humans rely on topographical memory to encode information about spatial aspects of environments. However, even though people adopt different strategies when learning new maps, little is known about the impact of those strategies on topographical memory, and their neural correlates. To examine that issue, we presented participants with 40 unfamiliar maps, each of which displayed one major route and three landmarks. Half were instructed to memorize the maps by focusing on the route, whereas the other half memorized the maps by focusing on the landmarks. One day later, the participants were tested on their ability to distinguish previously studied 'old' maps from completely unfamiliar 'new' maps under conditions of high and low working memory load in the functional MRI scanner. Viewing old versus new maps was associated with relatively greater activation in a distributed set of regions including bilateral inferior temporal gyrus - an important region for recognizing visual objects. Critically, whereas the performance of participants who had followed a route-based strategy dropped to chance level under high working memory load, participants who had followed a landmark-based strategy performed at above chance levels under both high and low working memory load - reflected by relatively greater activation in the left inferior parietal lobule (i.e. rostral part of the supramarginal gyrus known as area PFt). Our findings suggest that landmark-based learning may buffer against the effects of working memory load during recognition, and that this effect is represented by the greater involvement of a brain region implicated in both topographical and working memory.

  19. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  20. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  1. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  2. The effectiveness of Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study (ComCoReLS) model to improve skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, E.; Sutoyo, S.; Wasis; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to analyse the effectiveness of ComCoReLS (Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study) model towards the improvement skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher. This research used one group pre-test and post-test design on 12 pre-service physics teacher at University of Malang State (Indonesia) in academic year 2016/2017. Data collection was conducted through test and interview. Skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher measurement were conducted through Physics Lesson Plan Evaluation Sheet (PLPES). The data analysis technique was done by using paired t-test and n-gain. The CoMCoReLS model consists of 5 phases, including (1) Preparation, (2) Coaching, (3) Guided Practice, (4) Independent Practice, and (5) Evaluation. In the first, second, third and fifth phases are done at University of Malang State, while the fourth phase (Independent Practice) is done in SMAN 1 Singosari, SMAN 2 Malang, SMA Lab UM, MAN 3 Malang. The results showed that there was a significant increase in skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher at α = 5% and n-gain average of high category. Thus, the ComCoReLS model is effective for improving skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher.

  3. Using Photovoice and Asset Mapping to Inform a Community-Based Diabetes Intervention, Boston, Massachusetts, 2015.

    PubMed

    Florian, Jana; Roy, Nicole M St Omer; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Truong, Ve; Feng, Yi; Bloch, Philippe P; Russinova, Zlatka L; Lasser, Karen E

    2016-08-11

    Diabetes self-management takes place within a complex social and environmental context.  This study's objective was to examine the perceived and actual presence of community assets that may aid in diabetes control. We conducted one 6-hour photovoice session with 11 adults with poorly controlled diabetes in Boston, Massachusetts.  Participants were recruited from census tracts with high numbers of people with poorly controlled diabetes (diabetes "hot spots").  We coded the discussions and identified relevant themes.  We further explored themes related to the built environment through community asset mapping.  Through walking surveys, we evaluated 5 diabetes hot spots related to physical activity resources, walking environment, and availability of food choices in restaurants and food stores. Community themes from the photovoice session were access to healthy food, restaurants, and prepared foods; food assistance programs; exercise facilities; and church.  Asset mapping identified 114 community assets including 22 food stores, 22 restaurants, and 5 exercise facilities.  Each diabetes hot spot contained at least 1 food store with 5 to 9 varieties of fruits and vegetables.  Only 1 of the exercise facilities had signage regarding hours or services.  Memberships ranged from free to $9.95 per month.  Overall, these findings were inconsistent with participants' reports in the photovoice group. We identified a mismatch between perceptions of community assets and built environment and the objective reality of that environment. Incorporating photovoice and community asset mapping into a community-based diabetes intervention may bring awareness to underused neighborhood resources that can help people control their diabetes.

  4. Range image registration based on hash map and moth-flame optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Li; Ge, Baozhen; Chen, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been introduced to solve range image registration problems because of their robustness and high precision. However, EA-based range image registration algorithms are time-consuming. To reduce the computational time, an EA-based range image registration algorithm using hash map and moth-flame optimization is proposed. In this registration algorithm, a hash map is used to avoid over-exploitation in registration process. Additionally, we present a search equation that is better at exploration and a restart mechanism to avoid being trapped in local minima. We compare the proposed registration algorithm with the registration algorithms using moth-flame optimization and several state-of-the-art EA-based registration algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a lower computational cost than other algorithms and achieves similar registration precision.

  5. Concept mapping as a method to enhance evidence-based public health.

    PubMed

    van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van de Goor, Ien A M; van Oers, Hans A M

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we explore the suitability of concept mapping as a method for integrating knowledge from science, practice, and policy. In earlier research we described and analysed five cases of concept mapping procedures in the Netherlands, serving different purposes and fields in public health. In the current paper, seven new concept mapping studies of co-produced work are added to extend this analysis. For each of these twelve studies we analysed: (1) how the method was able to integrate knowledge from practice with scientific knowledge by facilitating dialogue and collaboration between different stakeholders in the field of public health, such as academic researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and the public; (2) how the method was able to bring theory development a step further (scientific relevance); and (3) how the method was able to act as a sound basis for practical decision-making (practical relevance). Based on the answers to these research questions, all but one study was considered useful for building more evidence-based public health, even though the extent to which they underpinned actual decision-making varied. The chance of actually being implemented in practice seems strongly related to the extent to which the responsible decision-makers are involved in the way the concept map is prepared and executed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping the Indonesian territory, based on pollution, social demography and geographical data, using self organizing feature map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernawati, Kuswari; Insani, Nur; Bambang S. H., M.; Nur Hadi, W.; Sahid

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to mapping the 33 (thirty-three) provinces in Indonesia, based on the data on air, water and soil pollution, as well as social demography and geography data, into a clustered model. The method used in this study was unsupervised method that combines the basic concept of Kohonen or Self-Organizing Feature Maps (SOFM). The method is done by providing the design parameters for the model based on data related directly/ indirectly to pollution, which are the demographic and social data, pollution levels of air, water and soil, as well as the geographical situation of each province. The parameters used consists of 19 features/characteristics, including the human development index, the number of vehicles, the availability of the plant's water absorption and flood prevention, as well as geographic and demographic situation. The data used were secondary data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), Indonesia. The data are mapped into SOFM from a high-dimensional vector space into two-dimensional vector space according to the closeness of location in term of Euclidean distance. The resulting outputs are represented in clustered grouping. Thirty-three provinces are grouped into five clusters, where each cluster has different features/characteristics and level of pollution. The result can used to help the efforts on prevention and resolution of pollution problems on each cluster in an effective and efficient way.

  7. Using concept mapping to evaluate knowledge structure in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Hui; Lin, Chen-Yung

    2015-11-27

    Many educational programs incorporate problem-based learning (PBL) to promote students' learning; however, the knowledge structure developed in PBL remains unclear. The aim of this study was to use concept mapping to generate an understanding of the use of PBL in the development of knowledge structures. Using a quasi-experimental study design, we employed concept mapping to illustrate the effects of PBL by examining the patterns of concepts and differences in the knowledge structures of students taught with and without a PBL approach. Fifty-two occupational therapy undergraduates were involved in the study and were randomly divided into PBL and control groups. The PBL group was given two case scenarios for small group discussion, while the control group continued with ordinary teaching and learning. Students were asked to make concept maps after being taught about knowledge structure. A descriptive analysis of the morphology of concept maps was conducted in order to compare the integration of the students' knowledge structures, and statistical analyses were done to understand the differences between groups. Three categories of concept maps were identified as follows: isolated, departmental, and integrated. The students in the control group constructed more isolated maps, while the students in the PBL group tended toward integrated mapping. Concept Relationships, Hierarchy Levels, and Cross Linkages in the concept maps were significantly greater in the PBL group; however, examples of concept maps did not differ significantly between the two groups. The data indicated that PBL had a strong effect on the acquisition and integration of knowledge. The important properties of PBL, including situational learning, problem spaces, and small group interactions, can help students to acquire more concepts, achieve an integrated knowledge structure, and enhance clinical reasoning.

  8. Uprobe: a genome-wide universal probe resource for comparative physical mapping in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Wendy A; Sullivan, Robert T; Carlson, Brian H; Thomas, James W

    2005-01-01

    Interspecies comparisons are important for deciphering the functional content and evolution of genomes. The expansive array of >70 public vertebrate genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries can provide a means of comparative mapping, sequencing, and functional analysis of targeted chromosomal segments that is independent and complementary to whole-genome sequencing. However, at the present time, no complementary resource exists for the efficient targeted physical mapping of the majority of these BAC libraries. Universal overgo-hybridization probes, designed from regions of sequenced genomes that are highly conserved between species, have been demonstrated to be an effective resource for the isolation of orthologous regions from multiple BAC libraries in parallel. Here we report the application of the universal probe design principal across entire genomes, and the subsequent creation of a complementary probe resource, Uprobe, for screening vertebrate BAC libraries. Uprobe currently consists of whole-genome sets of universal overgo-hybridization probes designed for screening mammalian or avian/reptilian libraries. Retrospective analysis, experimental validation of the probe design process on a panel of representative BAC libraries, and estimates of probe coverage across the genome indicate that the majority of all eutherian and avian/reptilian genes or regions of interest can be isolated using Uprobe. Future implementation of the universal probe design strategy will be used to create an expanded number of whole-genome probe sets that will encompass all vertebrate genomes.

  9. Standardized reference ideogram for physical mapping in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Dalzell, P; Miles, L G; Isberg, S R; Glenn, T C; King, C; Murtagh, V; Moran, C

    2009-01-01

    Basic cytogenetic data, such as diploid number and general chromosome morphology, are available for many reptilian species. Here we present a detailed cytogenetic examination of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) karyotype, including the creation of the first fully annotated G-band standard ideogram for any crocodilian species. The C. porosus karyotype contains macrochromosomes and has a diploid number of 34. This study presents a detailed description of each chromosome, permitting unambiguous chromosome identification. The fully annotated standardized C. porosus ideogram provides the backbone to a standard nomenclature system which can be used to accurately identify specific band locations. Seven microsatellite containing fosmid clones were fluorescently labeled and used as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for physical localization. Chromosome locations for each of these FISH probes were successfully assigned, demonstrating the utility of the fully annotated ideogram for genome mapping. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Laser-Based Slam with Efficient Occupancy Likelihood Map Learning for Dynamic Indoor Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Yao, Jian; Xie, Renping; Tu, Jinge; Feng, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Location-Based Services (LBS) have attracted growing attention in recent years, especially in indoor environments. The fundamental technique of LBS is the map building for unknown environments, this technique also named as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in robotic society. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for SLAMin dynamic indoor scenes based on a 2D laser scanner mounted on a mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) with the help of the grid-based occupancy likelihood map. Instead of applying scan matching in two adjacent scans, we propose to match current scan with the occupancy likelihood map learned from all previous scans in multiple scales to avoid the accumulation of matching errors. Due to that the acquisition of the points in a scan is sequential but not simultaneous, there unavoidably exists the scan distortion at different extents. To compensate the scan distortion caused by the motion of the UGV, we propose to integrate a velocity of a laser range finder (LRF) into the scan matching optimization framework. Besides, to reduce the effect of dynamic objects such as walking pedestrians often existed in indoor scenes as much as possible, we propose a new occupancy likelihood map learning strategy by increasing or decreasing the probability of each occupancy grid after each scan matching. Experimental results in several challenged indoor scenes demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of providing high-precision SLAM results.

  11. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    Detection of visually salient image regions is extensively applied in computer vision and computer graphics, such as object detection, adaptive compression, and object recognition, but any single model always has its limitations to various images, so in our work, we establish a method based on multimodel saliency maps to detect the object, which intelligently absorbs the merits of various individual saliency detection models to achieve promising results. The method can be roughly divided into three steps: in the first step, we propose a decision-making system to evaluate saliency maps obtained by seven competitive methods and merely select the three most valuable saliency maps; in the second step, we introduce heterogeneous PCNN algorithm to obtain three prime foregrounds; and then a self-designed nonlinear fusion method is proposed to merge these saliency maps; at last, the adaptive improved and simplified PCNN model is used to detect the object. Our proposed method can constitute an object detection system for different occasions, which requires no training, is simple, and highly efficient. The proposed saliency fusion technique shows better performance over a broad range of images and enriches the applicability range by fusing different individual saliency models, this proposed system is worthy enough to be called a strong model. Moreover, the proposed adaptive improved SPCNN model is stemmed from the Eckhorn's neuron model, which is skilled in image segmentation because of its biological background, and in which all the parameters are adaptive to image information. We extensively appraise our algorithm on classical salient object detection database, and the experimental results demonstrate that the aggregation of saliency maps outperforms the best saliency model in all cases, yielding highest precision of 89.90%, better recall rates of 98.20%, greatest F-measure of 91.20%, and lowest mean absolute error value of 0.057, the value of proposed saliency evaluation

  12. IntegratedMap: a Web interface for integrating genetic map data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyu; Wang, Hongyu; Gingle, Alan R

    2005-05-01

    IntegratedMap is a Web application and database schema for storing and interactively displaying genetic map data. Its Web interface includes a menu for direct chromosome/linkage group selection, a search form for selection based on mapped object location and linkage group displays. An overview display provides convenient access to the full range of mapped and anchored object types with genetic locus details, such as numbers, types and names of mapped/anchored objects displayed in a compact scrollable list box that automatically updates based on selected map location and object type. Also, multilinkage group and localized map views are available along with links that can be configured for integration with other Web resources. IntegratedMap is implemented in C#/ASP.NET and the package, including a MySQL schema creation script, is available from http://cggc.agtec.uga.edu/Data/download.asp

  13. XRF map identification problems based on a PDE electrodeposition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgura, Ivonne; Bozzini, Benedetto

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the following map identification problem (MIP): given a morphochemical reaction-diffusion (RD) PDE system modeling an electrodepostion process, we look for a time t *, belonging to the transient dynamics and a set of parameters \\mathbf{p} , such that the PDE solution, for the morphology h≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) and for the chemistry θ ≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) approximates a given experimental map M *. Towards this aim, we introduce a numerical algorithm using singular value decomposition (SVD) and Frobenius norm to give a measure of error distance between experimental maps for h and θ and simulated solutions of the RD-PDE system on a fixed time integration interval. The technique proposed allows quantitative use of microspectroscopy images, such as XRF maps. Specifically, in this work we have modelled the morphology and manganese distributions of nanostructured components of innovative batteries and we have followed their changes resulting from ageing under operating conditions. The availability of quantitative information on space-time evolution of active materials in terms of model parameters will allow dramatic improvements in knowledge-based optimization of battery fabrication and operation.

  14. RF-Based Location Using Interpolation Functions to Reduce Fingerprint Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ezpeleta, Santiago; Claver, José M.; Pérez-Solano, Juan J.; Martí, José V.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor RF-based localization using fingerprint mapping requires an initial training step, which represents a time consuming process. This location methodology needs a database conformed with RSSI (Radio Signal Strength Indicator) measures from the communication transceivers taken at specific locations within the localization area. But, the real world localization environment is dynamic and it is necessary to rebuild the fingerprint database when some environmental changes are made. This paper explores the use of different interpolation functions to complete the fingerprint mapping needed to achieve the sought accuracy, thereby reducing the effort in the training step. Also, different distributions of test maps and reference points have been evaluated, showing the validity of this proposal and necessary trade-offs. Results reported show that the same or similar localization accuracy can be achieved even when only 50% of the initial fingerprint reference points are taken. PMID:26516862

  15. Enriching Triangle Mesh Animations with Physically Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijing; Xu, Hongyi; Barbic, Jernej

    2017-10-01

    We present a system to combine arbitrary triangle mesh animations with physically based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, enabling control over the combination both in space and time. The input is a triangle mesh animation obtained using any method, such as keyframed animation, character rigging, 3D scanning, or geometric shape modeling. The input may be non-physical, crude or even incomplete. The user provides weights, specified using a minimal user interface, for how much physically based simulation should be allowed to modify the animation in any region of the model, and in time. Our system then computes a physically-based animation that is constrained to the input animation to the amount prescribed by these weights. This permits smoothly turning physics on and off over space and time, making it possible for the output to strictly follow the input, to evolve purely based on physically based simulation, and anything in between. Achieving such results requires a careful combination of several system components. We propose and analyze these components, including proper automatic creation of simulation meshes (even for non-manifold and self-colliding undeformed triangle meshes), converting triangle mesh animations into animations of the simulation mesh, and resolving collisions and self-collisions while following the input.

  16. Adding maps (GPS) to accelerometry data to improve study participants' recall of physical activity: a methodological advance in physical activity research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Barbara B; Wilson, Laura; Tribby, Calvin P; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Miller, Harvey J; Smith, Ken R

    2014-07-01

    Obtaining the 'when, where and why' of healthy bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) provides insights into natural PA. In Salt Lake City, Utah, adults wore accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) loggers for a week in a cross-sectional study to establish baseline travel and activity patterns near a planned Complete Street intervention involving a new rail line, new sidewalks and a bike path. At the end of the week, research assistants met with the 918 participants who had at least three 10 h days of good accelerometer readings. Accelerometer and GPS data were uploaded and integrated within a custom application, and participants were provided with maps and time information for past MVPA bouts of ≥3 min to help them recall bout details. Participants said that 'getting someplace' was, on average, a more important motivation for their bouts than leisure or exercise. A series of recall tests showed that participants recalled most bouts they were asked about, regardless of the duration of the bout, suggesting that participant perceptions of their shorter lifestyle bouts can be studied with this methodology. Visual prompting with a map depicting where each bout took place yielded more accurate recall than prompting with time cues alone. These techniques provide a novel way to understand participant memories of the context and subjective assessments associated with healthy bouts of PA. Prompts with time-stamped maps that illustrate places of MVPA offer an effective method to improve understanding of activity and its supportive sociophysical contexts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. MAP Fault Localization Based on Wide Area Synchronous Phasor Measurement Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Wang, Zengping

    2015-02-01

    In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event. The establishment and application of wide area measurement system (WAMS) in power system has made widespread and profound influence on the safe and stable operation of complicated power system. In this paper, taking full advantage of wide area synchronous phasor measurement information provided by PMUs, we have carried out precise fault localization based on the principles of maximum posteriori probability (MAP). Large numbers of simulation experiments have confirmed that the results of MAP fault localization are accurate and reliable. Even if there are interferences from white Gaussian stochastic noise, the results from MAP classification are also identical to the actual real situation.

  18. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Asthma Self-Management System, My Asthma Portal (MAP): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Pierre; Bartlett, Susan J; Valois, Marie-France; Zaihra, Tasneem; Paré, Guy; Grad, Roland; Eilayyan, Owis; Perreault, Robert; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether Web-based technologies can improve disease self-management is uncertain. My Asthma Portal (MAP) is a Web-based self-management support system that couples evidence-based behavioral change comp