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Sample records for physical properties soil

  1. Physical properties of forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2007-01-01

    Why Are Physical Properties of the Soil Important? The soil quality indicator, when combined with other data collected by the FIA program, can indicate the current rates of soil erosion, the extent and intensity of soil compaction, and some basic physical properties of the forest floor and the top 20 cm of soil. In this report, two particular physical properties of the...

  2. Physical properties of organic soils. Chapter 5.

    Treesearch

    Elon S. Verry; Don H. Boelter; Juhani Paivanen; Dale S. Nichols; Tom Malterer; Avi Gafni

    2011-01-01

    Compared with research on mineral soils, the study of the physical properties of organic soils in the United States is relatively new. A comprehensive series of studies on peat physical properties were conducted by Don Boelter (1959-1975), first at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) and later throughout the northern Lakes States to investigate how to express bulk...

  3. Estimating Soil Cation Exchange Capacity from Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateni, S. M.; Emamgholizadeh, S.; Shahsavani, D.

    2014-12-01

    The soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) is an important soil characteristic that has many applications in soil science and environmental studies. For example, CEC influences soil fertility by controlling the exchange of ions in the soil. Measurement of CEC is costly and difficult. Consequently, several studies attempted to obtain CEC from readily measurable soil physical and chemical properties such as soil pH, organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and particle size distribution. These studies have often used multiple regression or artificial neural network models. Regression-based models cannot capture the intricate relationship between CEC and soil physical and chemical attributes and provide inaccurate CEC estimates. Although neural network models perform better than regression methods, they act like a black-box and cannot generate an explicit expression for retrieval of CEC from soil properties. In a departure with regression and neural network models, this study uses Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) to estimate CEC from easily measurable soil variables such as clay, pH, and OM. CEC estimates from GEP and MARS are compared with measurements at two field sites in Iran. Results show that GEP and MARS can estimate CEC accurately. Also, the MARS model performs slightly better than GEP. Finally, a sensitivity test indicates that organic matter and pH have respectively the least and the most significant impact on CEC.

  4. Impact of long-term tillage and manure application on soil physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil physical properties play an integral role in maintaining soil quality for sustainable agricultural practices. Agronomic practices such as tillage systems and organic amendments have been shown to influence soil physical properties. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate effects of long-term ma...

  5. Soil physical property estimation from soil strength and apparent electrical conductivity sensor data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantification of soil physical properties through soil sampling and laboratory analyses is time-, cost-, and labor-consuming, making it difficult to obtain the spatially-dense data required for precision agriculture. Proximal soil sensing is an attractive alternative, but many currently available s...

  6. The number comb for a soil physical properties dynamic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olechko, K.; Patiño, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    We propose the prime numbers distribution extracted from the soil digital multiscale images and some physical properties time series as the precise indicator of the spatial and temporal dynamics under soil management changes. With this new indicator the soil dynamics can be studied as a critical phenomenon where each phase transition is estimated and modeled by the graph partitioning induced phase transition. The critical point of prime numbers distribution was correlated with the beginning of Andosols, Vertisols and saline soils physical degradation under the unsustainable soil management in Michoacan, Guanajuato and Veracruz States of Mexico. The data banks corresponding to the long time periods (between 10 and 28 years) were statistically compared by RISK 5.0 software and our own algorithms. Our approach makes us able to distill free-form natural laws of soils physical properties dynamics directly from the experimental data. The Richter (1987) and Schmidt and Lipson (2009) original approaches were very useful to design the algorithms to identify Hamiltonians, Lagrangians and other laws of geometric and momentum conservation especially for erosion case.

  7. Application of Multitemporal Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture for the Estimation of Soil Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, N. M.; Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Ahuja, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of multitemporal soil moisture derived from microwave remote sensing to estimate soil physical properties. The passive microwave ESTAR instrument was employed during June 10-18, 1992, to obtain brightness temperature (TB) and surface soil moisture data in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. Analyses of spatial and temporal variations of TB and soil moisture during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in T and soil moisture and soil physical (viz. texture) and hydraulic (viz. saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(sat)) properties. Statistically significant regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and K(sat), in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results using field measured values and soil texture map indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications of microwave remote sensing to obtain quick estimates of the spatial distributions of K(sat), over large areas for input parameterization of hydrologic models.

  8. Physical and Social Impacts on Hydrologic Properties of Residential Lawn Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Band, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Land development practices result in compacted soils that filter less water, increase surface runoff and decrease groundwater infiltration. Literature review of soil infiltration rates reveals that developed sites’ rates, 0.1 to 24 cm/hr, are reduced when compared to rates of undeveloped sites, 14.7 to 48.7 cm/hr. Yet, most hydrologic models neglect the impacts of residential soil compaction on infiltration and runoff. The objectives of this study included: determination of differences between soil properties of forested and residential lawn sites in Baltimore Ecosystem Study; parcel-scale location impacts on soil properties; and the impact of social and physical factors on the distribution of soil properties of residential lawns. Infiltration measures were collected in situ using a Cornell Sprinkle Infiltrometer and soil cores were collected for water retention and texture analysis. These soil properties were paired with GIS data relating to age of house construction, property value, parcel area, percent canopy cover per parcel and parcel distance from stream. The study finds that saturated infiltration rates in residential lawn soils are significantly lower than forest soils due to reduced macroporosity of residential lawn soils. Intra-parcel differences in bulk density and soil depth indicate that runoff from residential lawns is more likely from near-house and near-curb locations than the mid-front or backyards. The range of infiltration rate, bulk density and percent organic matter can be explained by readily attainable social and physical factors—age of house construction and parcel distance to stream. The impacts of land management on soil properties appear to be more prominent than percent canopy.

  9. Soil carbon and soil physical properties response to incorporating mulched forest slash

    Treesearch

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John. F. Klepac

    2000-01-01

    A study was installed in the Lower Coastal Plain near Washington, NC, to test the hypothesis that incorporating organic matter in the form of comminuted forest slash would increase soil carbon and nutrient pools, and alter soil physical properties to favor pine growth. Two sites were selected, an organic and a mineral site, to compare the treatment effects on...

  10. Influence of Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice on soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Morvan; Isabelle, Bertrand; Gwenaelle, Gibaud

    2015-04-01

    Human activities can lead to the degradation of soil physical properties. For instance, machinery traffic across the land can induce the development of compacted areas at the wheel tracks. It leads to a decrease in porosity which results in a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, prevents water infiltration and promotes surface runoff. Land use, soil management and soil cover also have a significant influence on soil physical properties (Kodesova et al., 2011). In the arable land, surface runoff and soil erosion are enhanced by the absence of soil cover for part of the year and by the decrease of aggregate stability due to a decline of soil organic matter. In that context, few studies focused on the effects of a Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice (SRC) on soil physical properties. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the conversion of a grassland in a SRC on soil physical properties. These properties have also been compared to those of arable land and natural forest. For that, in several plots of the experimental farm of Grignon (30 km west of Paris, France), different measurements were performed: i) soil water retention on a pressure plate apparatus for 7 water potential between 0 and 1500 kPa, ii) bulk density using the method for gravelly and rocky soil recommended by the USDA, iii) aggregate stability using the method described in Le Bissonnais (1996), and iv) soil hydraulic conductivity using a Guelph permeameter. All these measurements were performed on the same soil type and on different land uses: arable land (AL), grassland (GL), natural forest (NF) and short rotation coppice (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia planted 5 years ago. Soil water retention measurements are still under progress and will be presented in congress. Bulk density measurements of the AL, GL and SRC are not significantly different. They ranged from 1.32 to 1.42. Only the NF measurements are significantly lower than the other (0.97). Aggregate

  11. Effect on physical properties of laterite soil with difference percentage of sodium bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Nur Aisyah; Azmi, Nor Azizah Che; Mukri, Mazidah; Noor, Siti Nur Aishah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This research was carried out in an attempt to know the physical properties of laterite soil with the appearance of difference percentage of sodium bentonite. Lateritic soils usually develop in tropical and other regions with similar hot and humid climate, where heavy rainfall, warm temperature and well drainage lead to the formation of thick horizons of reddish lateritic soil profiles rich in iron and aluminium. When sodium predominates, a large amount of water can be absorbed in the interlayer, resulting in the remarkable swelling properties observed with hydrating sodium bentonite. There are some basic physical properties test conducted in this research which are Specific Gravity Test, pH Test, Sieve Analysis, Hydrometer Test, Shrinkage Limit and Atterberg Limit. The test will be conducted with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sodium bentonite. Each test will be repeated three times for the accuracy of the result. From the physical properties test the soil properties characteristic react with the sodium bentonite can be determine. Therefore the best percentage of sodium bentonite admixture can be determined for laterite soil. The outcomes of this study give positive results due to the potential of sodium bentonite to improve the laterite soil particle.

  12. Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep

    2013-04-01

    This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations.

  13. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakorenko, N. N.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  14. [Changes of soil physical properties during the conversion of cropland to agroforestry system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Gao, Peng Xiang; Liu, Bin; Zhong, Chong Gao; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Shuo Xin

    2017-01-01

    To provide theoretical basis for modeling and managing agroforestry systems, the influence of conversion of cropland to agroforestry system on soil physical properties was investigated via a walnut (Juglans regia)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) intercropping system, a wide spreading local agroforestry model in northern Weihe River of loess area, with the walnut and wheat monoculture systems as the control. The results showed that the improvement of the intercropping system on soil physical properties mainly appeared in the 0-40 cm soil layer. The intercropping system could prevent soil bulk density rising in the surface soil (0-20 cm), and the plow pan in the 20-40 cm soil layer could be significantly alleviated. The intercropping system had conti-nuous improvement on soil field capacity in each soil layer with the planting age increase, and the soil field capacity was higher than that of each monoculture system in each soil layer (except 20-40 cm soil layer) since the 5th year after planting. The intercropping system had continuous improvement on soil porosity in each soil layer, but mainly in the 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layer, and the ratio of capillary porosity was also improved. The soil bulk density, field capacity and soil porosity obtained continuous improvement during the conversion of cropland to agroforestry system, and the improvement on soil physical properties was stronger in shallow soil layer than in deep soil.

  15. Soil physical properties: Key factors for successful reclamation of disturbed landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The practice of open cast mining, e.g. for lignite, results in major landscape disturbances and especially affects soils because relocation and subsequent mixing of naturally developed soil horizons leads to areas with extremely altered soil properties compared to the undisturbed conditions. Various reclamation measures are applied to recover the reconstructed landscape for different land use options. Major parts of the post mining landscapes are used for agriculture, agroforestry or silviculture, the remaining voids of the coal mines fill successively with groundwater after mine closure and are or will be used mainly for touristic and leisure purposes. Small proportions of the post mining areas are left for natural succession, or habitats for endangered flora and fauna are initiated. In reclamation research, many studies have focused on soil chemical and biological constraints of post mining substrates and investigated factors such as unsuitable pH, in many cases very low pH, (poor) nutrient contents and (poor) biological activity. But the initial and developing soil physical parameters and functions are also key factors for the success of reclamation practices. The soil water and gas balance influence strongly the suitability of a site for the intended future land use. The mechanical stability of the soil determines the rigidity of the pore system against deforming forces and thereby the persistence of soil functions, such as water and air permeability over time. The amendment of unfavourable (initial) soil physical properties is in most cases more complex and time-consuming than e.g. optimization of pH or fertilization with nutrients. Moreover, regarding the suitability of a site e.g. as a habitat for plants or microorganisms, poor physical pre-conditions can turn substrates with perfect nutrient contents and composition and pH into infertile locations of very low productivity. We show results of an on-going field study where the effects of different

  16. Plant diversity and root traits benefit physical properties key to soil function in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gould, Iain J; Quinton, John N; Weigelt, Alexandra; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning, including important effects on soil. Most studies that have explored plant diversity effects belowground, however, have largely focused on biological processes. As such, our understanding of how plant diversity impacts the soil physical environment remains limited, despite the fundamental role soil physical structure plays in ensuring soil function and ecosystem service provision. Here, in both a glasshouse and a long-term field study, we show that high plant diversity in grassland systems increases soil aggregate stability, a vital structural property of soil, and that root traits play a major role in determining diversity effects. We also reveal that the presence of particular plant species within mixed communities affects an even wider range of soil physical processes, including hydrology and soil strength regimes. Our results indicate that alongside well-documented effects on ecosystem functioning, plant diversity and root traits also benefit essential soil physical properties. © 2016 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fingerprinting: Modelling and mapping physical top soil properties with the Mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, Eddie; van Egmond, Fenny

    2010-05-01

    The Mole is a passive gamma ray soil sensor system. It is designed for the mobile collection of radioactive energy stemming from soil. As the system is passive, it only measures energy that reaches the surface of soil. In general, this energy comes from upto 30 to 40 cm deep, which can be considered topsoil. The gathered energy spectra are logged every second, are processed with the method of Full Spectrum Analysis. This method uses all available spectral data and processes it with a Chi square optimalisation using a set of standard spectra into individual nuclide point data. A standard spectrum is the measured full spectrum of a specific detector derived when exposed to 1 Bq/kg of a nuclide. With this method the outcome of the surveys become quantitative.The outcome of a field survey with the Mole results in a data file containing point information of position, Total Counts and the decay products of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs. Five elements are therefor available for the modelling of soil properties. There are several ways for the modelling of soil properties with sensor derived gamma ray data. The Mole generates ratio scale output. For modelling a quantitative deterministic approach is used based on sample locations. This process is called fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is a comparison of the concentration of the radioactive trace elements and the lab results (pH, clay content, etc.) by regression analysis. This results in a mathematical formula describing the relationship between a dependent and independent property. The results of the sensor readings are interpolated into a nuclide map with GIS software. With the derived formula a soil property map is composed. The principle of fingerprinting can be applied on large geographical areas for physical soil properties such as clay, loam or sand (50 micron), grain size and organic matter. Collected sample data of previous field surveys within the same region can be used for the prediction of soil properties elsewhere

  18. Interaction Among Machine Traffic, Soil Physical Properties and Loblolly Pine Root Prolifereation in a Piedmont Soil

    Treesearch

    Emily A. Carter; Timothy P. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The impact of forwarder traffic on soil physical properties was evaluated on a Gwinnett sandy loam, a commonly found soil of the Piedmont. Soil strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly altered by forwarder traffic, but reductions in air-filled porosity also occurred. Bulk density did not increase significantly in trafficked treatments. The...

  19. Effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties related to carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renduo; Zhu, Shuzhi; Ouyang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates.

  20. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land-use and cover types

    Treesearch

    R.V. Pouyat; I.D. Yesilonis; J. Russell-Anelli; N.K. Neerchal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of land use and cover and surface geology on soil properties in Baltimore, MD, with the objectives to: (i) measure the physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0?10 cm) by land use and cover; and (ii) ascertain whether land use and cover explain differences in these properties relative to surface geology. Mean and median values of...

  1. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  2. Periodic variation in physical and chemical properties of two central Washington soils.

    Treesearch

    Tom D. Anderson; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1970-01-01

    Soils derived from two widely distributed parent materials in central Washington were examined periodically during 1968-69 for physical and chemical properties. Basalt soils showed significant periodic variation in cation exchange capacity, pH, and Na and K contents. In sandstone soils, cation exchange capacity and Ca, Na, and K contents varied significantly among...

  3. Responses of soil physical and chemical properties to karst rocky desertification evolution in typical karst valley area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; zeng, Cheng; Xiao, Jianyong; Qian, Qinghuan; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and their response mechanism to the evolution of KRD. The characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties of different grades of KRD were studied by field sampling method to research different types of KRD in the typical karst valley of southern China. Instead of using space of time, to explore the response and the mechanisms of the soil physical and chemical properties at the different evolution process. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, sediment concentration, clay content and AWHC in different levels of KRD environment. However, these indicators are not with increasing desertification degree has been degraded, but improved after a first degradation trends; (2) The correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter, acid, alkali, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and clay contents were significantly correlated with other physical and chemical factors. They are the key factors of soil physical and chemical properties, play a key role in improving soil physical and chemical properties and promoting nutrient cycling; (3) The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and sediment concentration was 80.26%, which was the key index to evaluate rocky desertification degree based on soil physical and chemical properties. The results have important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and restoration of rocky desertification ecosystem in southwest China.

  4. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth.

    Treesearch

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming

    2005-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  5. Effect of polyacrylamide on soil physical and hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Hamdan, Enas

    2017-04-01

    The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM), as a soil conditioner, on selected soil physical and hydraulic properties (infiltration rate (f(t)), hydraulic conductivity (HC), soil moisture content, aggregate stability (AS), and soil aggregation) was studied. Two types of anionic PAM were used: Low molecular weight (LPAM) (1×105 g/mol) with medium charge density (33-43) and high molecular weight (HPAM) (1-6×106 g/mol) with medium charge density (33-43). Sandy loam soil was packed into plastic columns; PAM solutions at different concentrations (100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L-1) were used every two weeks in four wetting and drying cycles. The highest infiltration rate value was 0.16 mm s-1 at 1000 mg/L low molecular weight PAM while the highest value of infiltration rate in high PAM molecular weight was 0.11 mm s-1 compared to the control (0.01 mm s-1). Soil HC was about 3.00 cm h-1 for LPAM at 1000 mg L-1 PAM, while the highest value for HPAM was about 2 cm h-1 for the same concentration, compared to the control. The amount of water that can be held by soil increased with the addition of PAM compared to the control. Differences in water content were more pronounced in LPAM compared to HPAM. The addition of LPAM increased aggregate stability proportional to PAM concentration. Moreover, 1000 mg L-1 produced the highest aggregate stability (19{%}) compared to HPAM and control (7{%} and 5{%}), respectively. As PAM concentration increased, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased for both PAM molecular weights compared to control (0.4 mm). At 1000 mg L-1 the GMD values were 0.88 mm and 0.79 mm for LPAM and HPAM, respectively. The addition of PAM improved soil physical and hydraulic properties, with an advantage to LPAM owing that to its ability to penetrate soil aggregates and therefore stabilizing them.

  6. Characterizing scale- and location-dependent correlation of water retention parameters with soil physical properties using wavelet techniques.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Zuoxin; Si, Bingcheng

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the correlation between soil hydraulic parameters and soil physical properties is a prerequisite for the prediction of soil hydraulic properties from soil physical properties. The objective of this study was to examine the scale- and location-dependent correlation between two water retention parameters (alpha and n) in the van Genuchten (1980) function and soil physical properties (sand content, bulk density [Bd], and organic carbon content) using wavelet techniques. Soil samples were collected from a transect from Fuxin, China. Soil water retention curves were measured, and the van Genuchten parameters were obtained through curve fitting. Wavelet coherency analysis was used to elucidate the location- and scale-dependent relationships between these parameters and soil physical properties. Results showed that the wavelet coherence between alpha and sand content was significantly different from red noise at small scales (8-20 m) and from a distance of 30 to 470 m. Their wavelet phase spectrum was predominantly out of phase, indicating negative correlation between these two variables. The strong negative correlation between alpha and Bd existed mainly at medium scales (30-80 m). However, parameter n had a strong positive correlation only with Bd at scales between 20 and 80 m. Neither of the two retention parameters had significant wavelet coherency with organic carbon content. These results suggested that location-dependent scale analyses are necessary to improve the performance for soil water retention characteristic predictions.

  7. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  8. Measurement of Physical and Hydraulic Properties of Organic Soil Using Computed Tomographic Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, K. E.; Quinton, W. L.; Heck, R. J.; Price, J. S.; Schmidt, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Lower Liard River valley is located within the continental northern boreal region and the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Lying in the centre of the Mackenzie basin, this valley is an extensive flat headwater region with a high density of open water and peatlands. Several standard methods of measuring the physical properties of organic soils exist, although many of them have several drawbacks that limit their use. Organic soils, in particular, have unique properties that require special attention to ensure that the measured hydrological characteristics are represented as they exist in nature. The goal of this research was to devise an improved method of analyzing and measuring the physical and hydraulic properties of organic soil using MicroCT imagery. Specifically, this research seeks to determine if two and three-dimensional images of peat can be used to accurately characterize air-filled porosity, active porosity, pore size distribution, pore saturated area and capillarity of porous Sphagnum cells. Results indicate that measurements derived from these images are consistent with current literature. They also suggest that this non-destructive method is a valuable tool for measuring peat physical and hydraulic properties and that there is potential for additional research using CT technology.

  9. Influence of the Soil Genesis on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Işık; Fojtová, Lucie; Kubečka, Karel; Bouchal, Tomáš; Bednárik, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of soil genesis on the physical-mechanical properties. The presented case study was conducted in the region of the Ostrava Basin where there is a varied genetic composition of the Quaternary geological structure on the underlying Neogeneous sediments which are sediments of analogous granulometry but different genesis. In this study, 7827 soil samples of an eolian, fluvial, glacial, and deluvial origin and their laboratory analyses results were used. The study identified different values in certain cases, mostly in coarser-grained foundation soils, such as sandy loam S4 (MS) and clayey sand F4 (CS). The soils of the fluvial origin manifest different values than other genetic types. Next, based on regression analyses, dependence was proved neither on the deposition depth (depth of samples) nor from the point of view of the individual foundation soil classes or the genetic types. The contribution of the paper is to point at the influence of genesis on the foundation soil properties so that engineering geologists and geotechnicians pay more attention to the genesis during engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations. PMID:23844398

  10. Land management on soil physical properties and maize (Zea mays L. var. BIMA) growth (An adaptation strategy of climate change)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. K.; Komariah; Pujiasmanto, B.; Noda, K.

    2018-03-01

    Water deficit is a problem on rainfed maize production but can be solved by proper land management. The objective of the study to determine the soil physical properties and maize yield affected by land management to adapt to drought. The experimental design was a randomized complete block using 5 treatments with 4 repetitions, including: (i) Control (KO), (ii) Rice Straw Mulched (MC), (iii) Compost Fertilizer (CF), (iv) In-Organic Fertilizer (AF), (v) Legume Cover crop (CC). Soil physical and maize growth properties namely soil moisture, soil texture, soil bulk density, plant height, biomass, and yield were investigated. The results showed that composting land increased soil water availability and provided nutrient to crops and thus increase soil physical properties, maize growth and yield. Although inorganic fertilizer also increased plant growth and yield, but it did not improve soil physical properties.

  11. The Relationship of Physical Property Indicators and Clay Soil Structural Strength of Tomsk Oblast Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Molokov, V. Y.; Matveenko, I. A.; Shramok, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the characteristic of initial condition in fine-grained soils - its structural strength - pstr. Estimation and measurement of this factor at soil testing are of primary importance for defining its physical and mechanical properties as well as for subsequent calculation of foundation settlements that is insufficiently covered in Code of practice, national standard and inefficiently applicable in practice of engineering geological investigations. The article reveals the relationship between soil physical property, its occurrence depth, which will make possible to forecast pstr over the given territory.

  12. Microbial and physical properties as indicators of sandy soil quality under cropland and grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Oszust, Karolina; Brzezinska, Malgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Land use is one of the key factor driving changes in soil properties influencing on soil health and quality. Microbial diversity and physical properties are sensitive indicators for assessing soil health and quality. The alterations of microbial diversity and physical properties following land use changes have not been sufficiently elucidated, especially for sandy soils. We investigated microbial diversity indicators including fungal communities composition and physical properties of sandy acid soil under cropland and more than 20-yr-old grassland (after cropland) in Trzebieszów, Podlasie Region, Poland (N 51° 59' 24", E 22° 33' 37"). The study included four depths within 0-60 cm. Microbial genetic diversity was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) analysis, fungal community composition was evaluated by next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and functional diversity was determined by Biolog EcoPlate method. Overall microbial activity was assessed by soil enzymes (dehydrogenases, β-glucosidase) and respiration test. At the same places soil texture, organic carbon content, pH, bulk density, water holding capacity were determined. Our results showed that grassland soil was characterized by higher activity of soil enzymes than cropland. The average well color development of soil microorganisms, the microbial functional diversity and the number of carbon source utilization were significantly affected by land use type and were differentiated among soil depths. In grassland compared to cropland soil a significant increase of carboxylic acids and decrease of amino acids utilization was observed. The quantitative and qualitative differences were found in community of ammonia oxidizing archaea in cropland and grassland soil. The results of fungal community composition help to explain the soil health of grassland and cropland based on the appearance of phytopathogenic and antagonistic fungi. In general bulk density and field water

  13. [Heidaigou Opencast Coal Mine: Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Under Different Vegetation Restoration].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Ma, Ren-tian; An, Shao-shan; Zhao, Jun-feng; Xiao, Li

    2016-03-15

    Choosing the soils under different vegetation recovery of Heidaigou dump as the research objects, we mainly analyzed their basic physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities with the method of Analysis of Variance as well as their relations using Pearson correlation analysis and path analysis hoping to uncover the driving factors of the differences between soil enzyme activities under different vegetation restoration, and provide scientific suggestions for the plant selection as well as make a better evaluation to the reclamation effect. The results showed that: (1) Although the artificial vegetation restoration improved the basic physical and chemical properties of the soils while increasing their enzyme activities to a certain extent, the soil conditions still did not reach the level of the natural grassland; (2) Contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (TN) of the seabuckthorns were the nearest to those of the grassland, which reached 54. 22% and 70. 00% of those of the grassland. In addition, the soil bulk density of the seabuckthorns stand was 17. 09% lower than the maximum value of the amorpha fruitcosa land. The SOC and TN contents as well as the bulk density showed that seabuckthorns had advantages as the species for land reclamation of this dump; Compared with the seabuckthorn, the pure poplar forest had lower contents of SOC and TN respectively by 35.64% and 32.14% and displayed a 16.79% higher value of soil bulk density; (3) The activities of alkaline phosphotase under different types of vegetation rehabilitation had little variation. But soil urease activities was more sensitive to reflect the effects of vegetation restoration on soil properties; (4) Elevation of the SOC and TN turned out to be the main cause for soil fertility restoration and increased biological activities of the dump.

  14. Effects of inter row management intensity on soil physical properties in European vineyards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Kumpan, Monika; Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, Jose A.; Stiper, Katrin; Popescou, Daniela; Guernion, Muriel; Nicolai, Annegret; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2017-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly depending on soil, climate and management capabilities of vine growers. These factors influence on the availability of water during the growing season which in turn impacts on wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded many winegrowers try to keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green for as much time as possible. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, the management strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management are widely different across Europe. They differ within regions, between regions and between countries and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected vineyards with different inter row management intensities in Austria, Romania, France and Spain. In total more than 700 undisturbed core samples (from 3 to 8 cm depth) out of 50 individual vineyards were analysed for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, aggregate stability, total organic carbon, soil texture and bulk density. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with less frequent soil disturbance and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not necessarily improve for the upper soil layer in every region. The results indicate that the influence of long term and high frequency mechanical stress imposed on soil by use of agricultural machinery in inter rows as well as different fertilization strategies may in some cases exhibit higher impacts on soil physical properties than the different tillage strategies.

  15. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.

    2017-09-01

    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  16. Effect of almond shell biochar addition on the hydro-physical properties of an arable Central Valley soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, V.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is composed of any carbonaceous matter pyrolyzed under low oxygen exposure. Its use as a soil amendment to address soil infertility has been accelerated by studies reporting positive effects of enhanced nutrient retention, cation exchange capacity, microbial activity, and vegetative growth over time. Biochar has also been considered as a carbon sequestration method because of its reported environmental persistence. While the aforementioned effects are positive benefits of biochar's use, its impact on soil physical properties and water flow are equally important in maintaining soil fertility. This study aims to show how soil physical and hydraulic properties change over time with biochar addition. To address these aims, we conducted a 9 week microcosm incubation experiment with local arable loamy sand soils amended with biochar. Biochar was created from locally collected almond shells and differs by pyrolysis temperatures (350°C, 700°C) and size (<250 μm, 1-2mm). Additionally, biochar was applied to soil at a low (10 t/ha) or high (60 t/ha) rates. Changes in soil water flow properties were analyzed by infiltration or pressure cell experiments immediately after creating our soil-biochar mixtures. These experiments were repeated during and after the incubation period to observe if and how flow is altered over time. Following incubation and hydraulic experiments, a water drop penetration time (WDPT) test was conducted to observe any alterations in surface hydrophobicity. Changes in soil physical properties were analyzed by determining content of water stable aggregates remaining after wet sieving. This series of experiments is expected to provide a greater understanding on the impact biochar addition on soil physical and hydraulic properties. Furthermore, it provides insight into whether or not converting local agricultural waste into biochar for soil use will be beneficial, especially in agricultural systems undergoing climate stress.

  17. Soil physical property changes at the North American long-term soil productivity study sites: 1 and 5 years after compaction

    Treesearch

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Allan E. Tiarks; Felix Ponder; Felipe G. Sanchez; Robert L. Fleming; J. Marty Kranabetter; Robert F. Powers; Douglas M. Stone; John D. Elioff; D. Andrew Scott

    2006-01-01

    The impact of forest management operations on soil physical properties is important to understand, since management can significantly change site productivity by altering root growth potential, water infiltration and soil erosion, and water and nutrient availability. We studied soil bulk density and strength changes as indicators of soil compaction before harvesting...

  18. Soil physics: a Moroccan perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Sabah; Mrabet, Rachid; Ouadia, Mohamed

    2004-06-01

    Research on environmental pollution and degradation of soil and water resources is now of highest priority worldwide. To address these problems, soil physics should be conceived as a central core to this research. This paper objectives are to: (1) address the role and importance of soil physics, (2) demonstrate progress in this discipline, and (3) present various uses of soil physics in research, environment and industry. The study of dynamic processes at and within the soil vadose zone (flow, dispersion, transport, sedimentation, etc.), and ephemeral phenomena (deformation, compaction, etc.), form an area of particular interest in soil physics. Soil physics has changed considerably over time. These changes are due to needed precision in data collection for accurate interpretation of space and time variation of soil properties. Soil physics interacts with other disciplines and sciences such as hydro(geo)logy, agronomy, environment, micro-meteorology, pedology, mathematics, physics, water sciences, etc. These interactions prompted the emergence of advanced theories and comprehensive mechanisms of most natural processes, development of new mathematical tools (modeling and computer simulation, fractals, geostatistics, transformations), creation of high precision instrumentation (computer assisted, less time constraint, increased number of measured parameters) and the scale sharpening of physical measurements which ranges from micro to watershed. The environment industry has contributed to an enlargement of many facets of soil physics. In other words, research demand in soil physics has increased considerably to satisfy specific and environmental problems (contamination of water resources, global warming, etc.). Soil physics research is still at an embryonic stage in Morocco. Consequently, soil physicists can take advantage of developments occurring overseas, and need to build up a database of soil static and dynamic properties and to revise developed models to meet

  19. Spatial relationships among cereal yields and selected soil physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Bogusław

    2018-08-15

    Sandy soils occupy large area in Poland (about 50%) and in the world. This study aimed at determining spatial relationships of cereal yields and the selected soil physical and chemical properties in three study years (2001-2003) on low productive sandy Podzol soil (Podlasie, Poland). The yields and soil properties in plough and subsoil layers were determined at 72-150 points. The test crops were: wheat, wheat and barley mixture and oats. To explore the spatial relationship between cereal yields and each soil property spatial statistics was used. The best fitting models were adjusted to empirical semivariance and cross-semivariance, which were used to draw maps using kriging. Majority of the soil properties and crop yields exhibited low and medium variability (coefficient of variation 5-70%). The effective ranges of the spatial dependence (the distance at which data are autocorrelated) for yields and all soil properties were 24.3-58.5m and 10.5-373m, respectively. Nugget to sill ratios showed that crop yields and soil properties were strongly spatially dependent except bulk density. Majority of the pairs in cross-semivariograms exhibited strong spatial interdependence. The ranges of the spatial dependence varied in plough layer between 54.6m for yield×pH up to 2433m for yield×silt content. Corresponding ranges in subsoil were 24.8m for crop yield×clay content in 2003 and 1404m for yield×bulk density. Kriging maps allowed separating sub-field area with the lowest yield and soil cation exchange capacity, organic carbon content and pH. This area had lighter color on the aerial photograph due to high content of the sand and low content of soil organic carbon. The results will help farmers at identifying sub-field areas for applying localized management practices to improve these soil properties and further spatial studies in larger scale. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Near infrared spectra are more sensitive to land use changes than physical, chemical and biological soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, C.; Zornoza, R.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.; Scow, K.

    2009-04-01

    We studied the sensibility of the near infrared spectra (NIR) of soils to the changes caused by land use, and we compared with the sensibility of different sets of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. For this purpose, we selected three land uses, constituted by forest, almond trees orchards, and orchards abandoned between 10 and 15 years previously to sampling. Sampling was carried out in four different locations from the province of Alicante (SE Spain). We used discriminant analysis (DA) using different sets of soil properties. The different sets tested in this study using DA were: (1) physical and chemical properties (organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, aggregate stability, water holding capacity, and available Ca, Mg, K and Na), (2) biochemical properties (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and urease, phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities), (3) phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs), (4) physical, chemical and biochemical properties (all properties of the previous sets), and (5) the NIR spectra of soils (scores of the principal components). In general, all sets of properties were sensible to land use. This was observed in the DAs by the separation (more or less clear) of samples in groups defined by land use (irrespective of site). The worst results were obtained using soil physical and chemical properties. The combination of physical, chemical and biological properties enhanced the separation of samples in groups, indicating higher sensibility. It is accepted than combination of properties of different nature is more effective to evaluate the soil quality. The microbial community structure (PLFAs) was highly sensible to the land use, grouping correctly the 100% of the samples according with the land use. The NIR spectra were also sensitive to land use. The scores of the first 5 components, which explained 99.97% of the variance, grouped correctly the 85% of the soil

  1. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Simmons, Breana L; Wall, Diana H

    2009-06-18

    Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N) concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid mites did not. Although some soil characteristics were

  2. The Characteristics of Electrical and Physical Properties of Peat Soil in Rasau Village, West Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminudin, A.; Hasanah, T. R.; Iryati, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Electrical and physical properties can be used as indicators for measuring soil conditions. One of the methods developed in agricultural systems to obtain information on soil conditions is through measuring of electrical conductivity. Peat soil is one of the natural resources that exist in Indonesia. This study aims to determine the characteristics of peat soil in Rasau village, West Kalimantan. This research was conducted by the properties of electrical conductivity and water content using 5TE Water Contents and EC Sensor equipment, but also to know the change of physical nature of peat soil covering peat soil and peat type. The results showed that the electrical conductivity value of 1-4 samples was 0.02 -0.29 dS/m and the volume water content value (VWC) was 0.255-0.548 m3/m3 and the physical characteristics obtained were peat colour brown to dark brown that allegedly the soil still has a very high content of organic material derived from weathering plants and there are discovery of wood chips, wood powder and leaf powder on the ground. Knowing the information is expected to identify the land needs to be developed to be considered for future peat soil utilization.

  3. Spatial variability structure of soil CO2 emission and soil physical and chemical properties characterized by fractal dimension in sugarcane areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicalho, E. S.; Teixeira, D. B.; Panosso, A. R.; Perillo, L. I.; Iamaguti, J. L.; Pereira, G. T.; La Scala, N., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Soil CO2 emission (FCO2) is influenced by chemical, physical and biological factors that affect the production of CO2 in the soil and its transport to the atmosphere, varying in time and space depending on environmental conditions, including the management of agricultural area. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of spatial variability of FCO2 and soil properties by using fractal dimension (DF), derived from isotropic variograms at different scales, and construction of fractograms. The experimental area consisted of a regular grid of 60 × 60 m on sugarcane area under green management, containing 141 points spaced at minimum distances ranging from 0.5 to 10 m. Soil CO2 emission, soil temperature and soil moisture were evaluated over a period of 7 days, and soil chemical and physical properties were determined by sampling at a depth of 0.0 to 0.1 m. FCO2 showed an overall average of 1.51 µmol m-2 s-1, correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with soil physical factors such as soil bulk density, air-filled pore space, macroporosity and microporosity. Significant DF values were obtained in the characterization of FCO2 in medium and large scales (from 20 m). Variations in DF with the scale, which is the fractogram, indicate that the structure of FCO2 variability is similar to that observed for the soil temperature and total pore volume, and reverse for the other soil properties, except for macroporosity, sand content, soil organic matter, carbon stock, C/N ratio and CEC, which fractograms were not significantly correlated to the FCO2 fractogram. Thus, the structure of spatial variability for most soil properties, characterized by fractogram, presents a significant relationship with the structure of spatial variability of FCO2, generally with similar or dissimilar behavior, indicating the possibility of using the fractogram as tool to better observe the behavior of the spatial dependence of the variables along the scale.

  4. Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Properties and Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties and soil carbon sequestration, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties as well as soil carbon sequestration. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates and the amount of soil carbon storage.

  5. Quantifying the Interactions Between Soil Thermal Characteristics, Soil Physical Properties, Hydro-geomorphological Conditions and Vegetation Distribution in an Arctic Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Robert, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Peterson, J. E.; Soom, F.; Biraud, S.; Tran, A. P.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding of Arctic ecosystem functioning and parameterization of process-rich hydro-biogeochemical models require advances in quantifying ecosystem properties, from the bedrock to the top of the canopy. In Arctic regions having significant subsurface heterogeneity, understanding the link between soil physical properties (incl. fraction of soil constituents, bedrock depth, permafrost characteristics), thermal behavior, hydrological conditions and landscape properties is particularly challenging yet is critical for predicting the storage and flux of carbon in a changing climate. This study takes place in Seward Peninsula Watersheds near Nome AK and Council AK, which are characterized by an elevation gradient, shallow bedrock, and discontinuous permafrost. To characterize permafrost distribution where the top of permafrost cannot be easily identified with a tile probe (due to rocky soil and/or large thaw layer thickness), we developed a novel technique using vertically resolved thermistor probes to directly sense the temperature regime at multiple depths and locations. These measurements complement electrical imaging, seismic refraction and point-scale data for identification of the various thermal behavior and soil characteristics. Also, we evaluate linkages between the soil physical-thermal properties and the surface properties (hydrological conditions, geomorphic characteristics and vegetation distribution) using UAV-based aerial imaging. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate hydrological and thermal processes. Overall, this study enables the identification of watershed structure and the links between various subsurface and landscape properties in representative Arctic watersheds. Results show very distinct trends in vertically resolved soil temperature profiles and strong lateral variations over tens of meters that are linked to zones with various hydrological conditions, soil properties and vegetation

  6. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun'e; Wang, Zhanli; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-12-22

    Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m²), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S.

  7. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun’e; Wang, Zhanli; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m2), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S. PMID:29271899

  8. Effect of Soil Washing for Lead and Zinc Removal on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerer, Gerhard; Zupanc, Vesna; Gluhar, Simon; Lestan, Domen

    2017-04-01

    Soil washing as a metal pollution remediation process, especially part with intensive mixing of the soil slurry and soil compression after de-watering, significantly deteriorates physical properties of soil compared to those of non-remediated soil. Furthermore, changed physical characteristics of remediated soil influence interaction of plant roots with soil system and affect soil water regime. Remediated soils showed significant differences to their original state in water retention properties and changed structure due to the influence of artificial structure created during remediation process. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples of remediated and original soils were analyzed. We evaluated soil hydraulic properties as a possible constraint for re-establishing soil structure and soil fertility after the remediation procedure.

  9. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  10. Prescribed burning effects on soil physical properties and soil water repellency in a steep chaparral watershed, southern California, USA

    Treesearch

    K.R. Hubbert; H.K. Preisler; P.M. Wohlgemuth; R.C. Graham; M.G. Narog

    2006-01-01

    Chaparral watersheds associated with Mediterranean-type climate are distributed over five regions of the world. Because brushland soils are often shallow with low water holding capacities, and are on slopes prone to erosion, disturbances such as fire can adversely affect their physical properties. Fire can also increase the spatial coverage of soil water repellency,...

  11. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Physical Properties of Martian Dust and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Global and regional dust storms on Mars have been observed from Earth-based telescopes, Mars orbiters, and surface rovers and landers. Dust storms can be global and regional. Dust is material that is suspended into the atmosphere by winds and has a particle size of 1-3 micrometer. Planetary scientist refer to loose unconsolidated materials at the surface as "soil." The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated material that can be distinguished from rocks, bedrock, or strongly cohesive sediments. No implication for the presence or absence of organic materials or living matter is intended. Soil contains local and regional materials mixed with the globally distributed dust by aeolian processes. Loose, unconsolidated surface materials (dust and soil) may pose challenges for human exploration on Mars. Dust will no doubt adhere to spacesuits, vehicles, habitats, and other surface systems. What will be the impacts on human activity? The objective of this paper is to review the chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the martian dust and soil.

  12. Long-term tillage frequency effects on dryland soil physical and hydraulic properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 22 years) tillage frequency [no-till (NT), spring till (ST), and fall and spring till (FST)] under continuous spring whe...

  13. Changes in Physical and Chemical Soil Properties on Burnt Shrub Areas in Mediterranean Mountains, Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Felícia; de Figueiredo, Tomás; Leite, Micaela

    2014-05-01

    Human induced fire in scrublands to obtain better pastures for cattle is a relatively common practice in North Portugal. During burning, plant cover and litter layers are consumed, and the mineral soil is heated, resulting in changes to physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties. Aiming at evaluating the effect of this kind of fires on a set of physical and chemical soil properties, two study areas were selected in contrasting mountain environments: Edroso, Vinhais municipality, NE Portugal, with typical Mediterranean climate, and Revelhe, Fafe, NW Portugal, with a strong ocean-influenced climate. In both, sampling was carried out in contiguous areas burnt and not burnt, covered by shrub vegetation, predominantly Cytisus multiflorus and Ulex europeus. In each study area (Edroso and Revelhe) 16 locations were selected for soil sampling (8 in the burned area and 8 in the not burnt area), six months after fire occurrence. Disturbed soil samples were collected in the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm depth, for assessing organic matter, N, P and K concentration, cation exchange capacity and related determinations, soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil texture. Undisturbed samples were collected, in 100 cm3 cylinders, to determine bulk density in the same above mentioned layers, and permeability in the 0-5 cm layer. Compared results of burnt and not burnt areas in Edroso and Revelhe study sites, show that coarse elements content and permeability decreased and bulk density slightly increased with the fire effect. Chemical properties in both sites changed with after fire, as organic matter content, exchangeable Al and cation exchange capacity increased, the opposite trend being found for phosphorus, sum of exchangeable bases and electrical conductivity. Potassium, total nitrogen and exchangeable acidity showed different soil responses to fire in the two study areas. Results stress the clear effects of fire on fertility related soil

  14. Variability in soil-water retention properties and implications for physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landsliding is a persistent hazard to human life and property. Despite the observed connection between infiltration through the unsaturated zone and shallow landslide initiation, there is considerable uncertainty in how estimates of unsaturated soil-water retention properties affect slope stability assessment. This source of uncertainty is critical to evaluating the utility of physics-based hydrologic modeling as a tool for landslide early warning. We employ a numerical model of variably saturated groundwater flow parameterized with an ensemble of texture-, laboratory-, and field-based estimates of soil-water retention properties for an extensively monitored landslide-prone site in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, USA. Simulations of soil-water content, pore-water pressure, and the resultant factor of safety show considerable variability across and within these different parameter estimation techniques. In particular, we demonstrate that with the same permeability structure imposed across all simulations, the variability in soil-water retention properties strongly influences predictions of positive pore-water pressure coincident with widespread shallow landsliding. We also find that the ensemble of soil-water retention properties imposes an order-of-magnitude and nearly two-fold variability in seasonal and event-scale landslide susceptibility, respectively. Despite the reduced factor of safety uncertainty during wet conditions, parameters that control the dry end of the soil-water retention function markedly impact the ability of a hydrologic model to capture soil-water content dynamics observed in the field. These results suggest that variability in soil-water retention properties should be considered for objective physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria.

  15. Effects of Vegetation Management With Prescribed Fire on Soil Physical Properties in a Young Longleaf Pine Stand

    Treesearch

    W.B. Patterson; M.A. Sword-Sayer; J.D. Haywood; S. Brooker

    2004-01-01

    The intensity and frequency of prescribed fire affects soil properties that control its quality. This project evaluates how six vegetation management treatments, four of which include biennial prescribed fire, affect the soil physical properties in two stands of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) located on the Kisatchie National Forest, Rapides...

  16. Clay:organic-carbon and organic carbon as determinants of the soil physical properties: reassessment of the Complexed Organic Carbon concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Adrien; Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is well known to largely determine the soil physical properties and fertility. Total porosity, structural porosity, aeration, structural stability among others are reported to increase linearly with increasing SOC in most studies. Is there an optimal SOC content as target in soil management, or is there no limit in physical fertility improvement with SOC? Dexter et al. (2008) investigated the relation between clay:SOC ratio and the physical properties of soils from different databases. They observed that the R2 of the relation between SOC and the physical properties were maximized when considering the SOC fraction limited to a clay:SOC ratio of 10. They concluded that this fraction of the SOC was complexed, and that the additional SOC was not influencing the physical properties as strongly as the complexed one. In this study, we reassessed this approach, on a database of 180 undisturbed soil samples collected from cambiluvisols of the Swiss Plateau, on an area of 2400 km2, and from different soil uses. The physical properties were obtained with Shrinkage Analysis, which involved the parameters used in Dexter et al., 2008. We used the same method, but detected biases in the statistical approach, which was, therefore, adapted. We showed that the relation between the bulk density and SOC was changing with the score of visual evaluation of the structure (VESS) (Ball et al., 2007). Therefore, we also worked only on the "good" structures according to VESS. All shrinkage parameters were linearly correlated to SOC regardless of the clay:SOC ratio, with R2 ranging from 0.45 to 0.8. Contrarily to Dexter et al. (2008), we did not observed an optimum in the R2 of the relation when considering a SOC fraction based on the clay:SOC ratio. R2 was increasing until a Clay:SOC of about 7, where it reached, and kept, its maximum value. The land use factor was not significant. The major difference with the former study is that we worked on the same soil group

  17. Physical root-soil interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legué, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2017-12-01

    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to aerial organs, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex.

  18. Physical root-soil interactions.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legué, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2017-11-16

    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to aerial organs, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex.

  19. Near infrared spectroscopy for determination of various physical, chemical and biochemical properties in Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, R; Guerrero, C; Mataix-Solera, J; Scow, K M; Arcenegui, V; Mataix-Beneyto, J

    2008-07-01

    The potential of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict various physical, chemical and biochemical properties in Mediterranean soils from SE Spain was evaluated. Soil samples (n=393) were obtained by sampling thirteen locations during three years (2003-2005 period). These samples had a wide range of soil characteristics due to variations in land use, vegetation cover and specific climatic conditions. Biochemical properties also included microbial biomarkers based on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross validation was used to establish relationships between the NIR spectra and the reference data from physical, chemical and biochemical analyses. Based on the values of coefficient of determination (r(2)) and the ratio of standard deviation of validation set to root mean square error of cross validation (RPD), predicted results were evaluated as excellent (r(2)>0.90 and RPD>3) for soil organic carbon, Kjeldahl nitrogen, soil moisture, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, acid phosphatase activity, β-glucosidase activity and PLFA biomarkers for total bacteria, Gram positive bacteria, actinomycetes, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and total PLFA biomass. Good predictions (0.81physical, chemical and biochemical soil

  20. Interrelationships between soil biota and soil physical properties in forest areas of the Pieniny National Park (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Dzierwa, Agata

    2017-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park (PNP) in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). Investigated soil belonged to Eutric Cambisols and had silt or silt loam texture. The purpose of this research was to investigated relationship between soil biota, such as microbial activity, soil Oligochaeta (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and soil physical properties, such as water retention or aggregates stability. This research was conducted at six forest monitoring areas of the PNP. Sampling was collected in the September 2016. For each of the 6 places, undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were taken from the 0-15-cm and 15-30-cm layer in 3 to 5 replicates. Undisturbed soil was taken: i) into Kopecky cylinders to determined soil physical properties; ii) a soil cores to determined enchytraeids and fine roots biomass (RB). Disturbed soil was collected in 3 reps and homogenized. Next such soil samples were divided into three parts: i) fresh one to determined dehydrogenase activity (ADh), microbial carbon biomass (MC) and labile carbon (LC); ii) air-dried, passed through a sieve (2-mm mesh size) and used for analysis: pH, organic carbon and bulk density; iii) last part air dried was used to determined stability of different size aggregates. In field, earthworms were collected in 3 reps using hand sorting method. Investigated soils were strongly acidic to neutral (pH 4.8-6.8). Organic carbon (Corg) content was varied from 0.8% to 4.5% and was higher in 0-15-cm layers than in 15-30-cm layers. Higher Corgcontent was connected with lower bulk density. Enchytraeids density was ranged from 1807 ind. m-2 to 88855 ind. m-2 and was correlated with microbial activity (ADh and MB) and RB. Earthworms density (ED) was ranged from 7 ind. m-2to 507 ind. m-2. In investigated soil was 6 genus and 7 species (Octolasion lacteum, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea jassyensis, Lumbricus rubellus, Eisenia lucens, and Fitzingeria platyura depressa). ED was

  1. A Subsurface Soil Composition and Physical Properties Experiment to Address Mars Regolith Stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, L.; Sims, M.; Economou, T.; Stoker, C.; Wright, I.; Tokano, T.

    2004-01-01

    Previous in-situ measurements of soil-like materials on the surface of Mars, in particular during the on-going Mars Exploration Rover missions, have shown complex relationships between composition, exposure to the surface environment, texture, and local rocks. In particular, a diversity in both compositional and physical properties could be established that is interpreted to be diagnostic of the complex geologic history of the martian surface layer. Physical and chemical properties vary laterally and vertically, providing insight into the composition of rocks from which soils derive, and environmental conditions that led to soil formation. They are central to understanding whether habitable environments existed on Mars in the distant past. An instrument the Mole for Soil Compositional Studies and Sampling (MOCSS) - is proposed to allow repeated access to subsurface regolith on Mars to depths of up to 1.5 meters for in-situ measurements of elemental composition and of physical and thermophysical properties, as well as for subsurface sample acquisition. MOCSS is based on the compact PLUTO (PLanetary Underground TOol) Mole system developed for the Beagle 2 lander and incorporates a small X-ray fluorescence spectrometer within the Mole which is a new development. Overall MOCSS mass is approximately 1.4 kilograms. Taken together, the MOCSS science data support to decipher the geologic history at the landing site as compositional and textural stratigraphy if they exist - can be detected at a number of places if the MOCSS were accommodated on a rover such as MSL. Based on uncovered stratigraphy, the regional sequence of depositional and erosional styles can be constrained which has an impact on understanding the ancient history of the Martian near-surface layer, considering estimates of Mars soil production rates of 0.5... 1.0 meters per billion years on the one hand and Mole subsurface access capability of approximately 1.5 meters. An overview of the MOCSS, XRS

  2. Physical Properties of the Icy Soil at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; Mellon, M. T.; El Maarry, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Smith, P.; Pike, W.; Zent, A.; Hecht, M. H.; Ming, D.; Staufer, U.

    2008-12-01

    The geomorphological setting of the subpolar terrain at the landing site is characterized by polygonal structures. These structures are generated by long term and periodic cycles of contraction and expansion of the subsurface icy soil. The physical properties of the covering soil layer effectively control the details of this process that has its counterpart on earth in (sub) polar regions including the Siberian tundra and in Antartica. One of the prime science goals of the Phoenix mission is to investigate the physical properties of the icy soil, how these processes are influenced by water vapour diffusion in the regolith and exchange of the water vapour with the atmosphere. It is important to understand these processes on diurnal, seasonal, and climatic time scales. Phoenix landed in the middle of one of the polygons. Its retro rockets cleared the ice table of the polygon underneath the jet assemblies from ca. 5 to 10 cm of loose cloddy regolith. Soil was piled up in the centre. The fact that the soil looked still cloddy similar to that in undisturbed areas suggests strong cohesiveness of the matrix material. The clumps were not destroyed by the blast. Excavated regolith material imaged in the scoop was made up of agglomerates of grains smaller than the best resolution of the Robotic Arm Camera (20 micron). Higher resolution images (4 micron) of the microscope corroborate that the soil is predominantly composed of agglomerates of very small particles with a mean size comparable to those observed in the Martian atmosphere. The Atomic Force Microscope reveals micron sized particles and smaller, partly of plate-like shape, indicating clay like particles. The matrix material of the soil is of reddish colour probably due to iron oxideadmixture. Only about 10% by volume of the soil are most often rounded grains between 40 to 100 micrometers of diameter. Some are glassy resembling micro tektites, and most of these are magnetic. The cohesiveness of the clumps and clods of

  3. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  4. Long-term Tillage influences on soil carbon, nitrogen, physical, chemical, and biological properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (>20 yrs) tillage no-till, spring till, and fall plus spring till under continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on s...

  5. Dynamics of Physical and Physicochemical Properties of Urban Soils under the Effect of Ice-Melting Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azovtseva, N. A.; Smagin, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Physical (water content, density, and air and water regimes) and physicochemical (electrical conductivity, pH, and SAR) properties of urban soils were investigated on test plots of Moscow to evaluate their dynamics under anthropogenic impact. The wilting point and the dependence of the capillary-sorption and total water potentials of the soil water content were determined in laboratory experiments with natural and artificially saline soil samples to evaluate the effect of salt antifreeze substances on water availability for plants under conditions of active application of deicing reagents. Seasonal dynamics of these parameters were investigated. It was found that electrolytes display a steady tendency for the accumulation and redistribution in the root zone rather than for their deep leaching despite humid climatic conditions in Moscow megalopolis. In summer, regular droughts result in drying of the root zone to critical values and to the concentration of electrolytes up to the values that make the total water potential of soil unsuitable for water uptake by roots. The key factor of soil degradation under the impact of electrolytes is the soil dispersity: the finer the texture, the higher the soil salinization and solonetzicity and the stronger irreversible changes in the soil water retention capacity and physical properties.

  6. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Treesearch

    T.P. Beldini; R.C. Oliveira Junior; Michael Keller; P.B. de Camargo; P.M. Crill; A. Damasceno da Silva; D. Bentes dos Santos; D. Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest....

  7. Influences of composted hazelnut husk on some physical properties of soils.

    PubMed

    Zeytin, Serhat; Baran, Abdullah

    2003-07-01

    Some physical properties of clay loam and sandy loam soils amended with hazelnut husk (HH) were investigated. HH collected from hazelnut trees were dried, ground and composted for four months. Before use the composted material obtained was separated to three different aggregate sizes, smaller than 0.84 mm, 0.84-2.38 mm and bigger than 2.38 mm. Then these fractions were mixed with soil samples, at 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% by weight. Huzelnut husk compost-soil mixtures were placed to plastic pots and kept in an incubator at 25+/-5 degrees C for 45 and 90 days. At the end of incubation periods, water stable aggregate (WSA), hydraulic conductivity, total porosity, aeration porosity and macro- and micro-pore percentages of the mixtures were determined. Results obtained showed that composted HH increased the WSA, hydraulic conductivity, total porosity and macro-pore percentage in both clay loam and sandy loam soils depending on the incubation time and aggregate sizes.

  8. Impacts of land use changes on physical and chemical soil properties in the Central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Hoitinga, Leo; Valdivielso, Sergio; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. Afforestation has been one of the main policies for environmental management of forest landscapes in Mediterranean areas. Afforestation has been based mainly on conifers because they are fast-growing species, and also because it was believed that this would lead to rapid restoration of soil properties and hydrological processes, and the formation of protective vegetation cover. This study analyses the effects of afforestation on physical and chemical soil properties. Specifically, we addressed this research question: (i) How do soil properties change after land abandonment? The 11 microsites considered were: Afforestation Pinus sylvestris (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), Afforestation Pinus nigra (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), natural shrubland, grasslands, bare lands, and undisturbed forest site (pine cover and close to the stem). An extensive single sampling was carried out in September 2014. We systematically collected 5 top soil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 deep soil samples (10-20 cm) per microsite (88 composite samples in total). These properties were analysed: (i) soil texture, (ii) bulk density, (iii) pH and electrical conductivity, (iv) total SOC, (v) Total Nitrogen, (vi) organic matter, (vii) CaCO3 and (viii) aggregate stability. Statistical tests have been applied to determine relationships between the different soil properties and are used to assess differences between different soil samples, land use areas and soil depths. Implications of reafforestation for soil development and environmental response are discussed. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).

  9. Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, Catherine; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Schmitz, Matthias

    While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60% lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended tomore » be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.« less

  10. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-04-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg(-1)·year(-1) for SOM, 438.9 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:P, 5.3 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:K, and -3.23 mg·cm(-3)·year(-1) for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0-80-cm soil profile (P: -4.10 mg·kg(-1)·year(-1); pH: -0.0061 unit·year(-1); C:N: 167.1 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); K:P: 371.5 mg·g(-1) year(-1); N:K: -0.242 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); EC: 0.169 μS·cm(-1)·year(-1)), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance.

  11. Soil fauna, soil properties and geo-ecosystem functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of soil fauna on soil processes is of utmost importance, as the activity of soil fauna directly affects soil quality. This is expressed by the direct effects of soil fauna on soil physical and soil chemical properties that not only have great importance to food production and ecosystems services, but also on weathering and hydrological and geomorphological processes. Soil animals can be perceived as ecosystem engineers that directly affect the flow of water, sediments and nutrients through terrestrial ecosystems. The biodiversity of animals living in the soil is huge and shows a huge range in size, functions and effects. Most work has been focused on only a few species such as earthworms and termites, but in general the knowledge on the effect of soil biota on soil ecosystem functioning is limited as it is for their impact on processes in the soil and on the soil surface. In this presentation we would like to review some of the impacts of soil fauna on soil properties that have implications for geo-ecosystem functioning and soil formation processes.

  12. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  13. [Dynamics of soil physical properties and biological soil crust during the vegetation restoration process of abandoned croplands in the Ordos Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen Tao; Li, He Yi; Lai, Li Ming; Zhang, Xiao Long; Guan, Tian Yu; Zhou, Ji Hua; Jiang, Lian He; Zheng, Yuan Run

    2017-03-18

    A series of typical abandoned croplands in the regions of Ruanliang and Yingliang in the Ordos Plateau, China, were selected, and dynamics of the surface litter, biological soil crust and soil bulk density, soil texture, and soil moisture in different soil layers were investigated. The results showed that in the abandoned cropland in Ruanliang, the clay particle content and surface litter of the surface soil layer (0-10 cm) increased during the restoration process, while that of soil bulk density substantially decreased and soil water content slightly increased in the surface soil. In the medium soil layer (10-30 cm), the clay particle content increased and the soil water content slightly decreased. In the deep soil layer (30-50 cm), there was a relatively large variation in the physical properties. In the abandoned cropland in Yingliang, the coverage of litter and the coverage and thickness of the biological soil crust increased during the abandonment process. The surface soil bulk density, soil clay particle content and soil water content remained constant in 0-10 cm soil layer, while the physical properties varied substantially in 10-40 cm soil layer. The shallow distribution of the soil water content caused by the accumulation of the litter and clay particles on the soil surface might be the key reason of the replacement of the semi-shrub Artemisia ordosica community with a perennial grass community over the last 20 years of the abandoned cropland in Ruanliang. The relatively high soil water content in the shallow layer and the development of the biological soil crust might explain why the abandoned cropland in Yingliang was not invaded by the semi-shrub A. ordosica during the restoration process.

  14. Comparing the performance of various digital soil mapping approaches to map physical soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Spatial information on physical soil properties is intensely expected, in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. One of the most widely used properties to characterize soils physically is particle size distribution (PSD), which determines soil water management and cultivability. According to their size, different particles can be categorized as clay, silt, or sand. The size intervals are defined by national or international textural classification systems. The relative percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil constitutes textural classes, which are also specified miscellaneously in various national and/or specialty systems. The most commonly used is the classification system of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Soil texture information is essential input data in meteorological, hydrological and agricultural prediction modelling. Although Hungary has a great deal of legacy soil maps and other relevant soil information, it often occurs, that maps do not exist on a certain characteristic with the required thematic and/or spatial representation. The recent developments in digital soil mapping (DSM), however, provide wide opportunities for the elaboration of object specific soil maps (OSSM) with predefined parameters (resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.). Due to the simultaneous richness of available Hungarian legacy soil data, spatial inference methods and auxiliary environmental information, there is a high versatility of possible approaches for the compilation of a given soil map. This suggests the opportunity of optimization. For the creation of an OSSM one might intend to identify the optimum set of soil data, method and auxiliary co-variables optimized for the resources (data costs, computation requirements etc.). We started comprehensive analysis of the effects of the various DSM components on the accuracy of the output maps on pilot areas. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate different

  15. Impact of roots, mycorrhizas and earthworms on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milleret, R.; Le Bayon, R.-C.; Lamy, F.; Gobat, J.-M.; Boivin, P.

    2009-07-01

    SummarySoil biota such as earthworms, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are known to play a major role in engineering the belowground part of the terrestrial ecosystems, thus strongly influencing the water budget and quality on earth. However, the effect of soil organisms and their interactions on the numerous soil physical properties to be considered are still poorly understood. Shrinkage analysis allows quantifying a large spectrum of soil properties in a single experiment, with small standard errors. The objectives of the present study were, therefore, to assess the ability of the method to quantify changes in soil properties as induced by single or combined effects of leek roots ( Allium porrum), AMF ( Glomus intraradices) and earthworms ( Allolobophora chlorotica). The study was performed on homogenised soil microcosms and the experiments lasted 35 weeks. The volume of the root network and the external fungal hyphae was measured at the end, and undisturbed soil cores were collected. Shrinkage analysis allowed calculating the changes in soil hydro-structural stability, soil plasma and structural pore volumes, soil bulk density and plant available water, and structural pore size distributions. Data analysis revealed different impacts of the experimented soil biota on the soil physical properties. At any water content, the presence of A. chlorotica resulted in a decrease of the specific bulk volume and the hydro-structural stability around 25%, and in a significant increase in the bulk soil density. These changes went with a decrease of the structural pore volumes at any pore size, a disappearing of the thinnest structural pores, a decrease in plant available water, and a hardening of the plasma. On the contrary, leek roots decreased the bulk soil density up to 1.23 g cm -3 despite an initial bulk density of 1.15 g cm -3. This increase in volume was accompanied with a enhanced hydro-structural stability, a larger structural pore volume at any

  16. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  17. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-07-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW) are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests (MF). The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer) showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart) than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation structure (stand density

  18. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  19. Effects of plough pan development on surface hydrology and on soil physical properties in Southeastern Brazilian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolino, Ana V. F. A.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Miranda, João P. L.; Souza, Andréa P.; Lopes, Marcel R. S.; Palmieri, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    SummaryConventional tillage may impose changes in soil physical properties that lead to a decrease in soil physical quality. Although plough pan formation is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in Southeastern Brazil, few studies have focused on its hydrological consequences. Detailed investigations in two experimental plots located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar close to Rio de Janeiro city were carried out to characterize the changes in soil physical properties and in soil hydrology due to plough pan formation. Conventional (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices were implemented in two plots for 3 years and soil matric potential (SMP) was monitored in each plot via nests of tensiometers and Watermark® sensors installed at different depths. Undisturbed soil blocks were collected for micromorphological analyses to quantify the total pore space in soils under CT and MT systems, and in soils under natural tropical forest. Results suggest that soils under the CT system developed a plough pan layer at about 20 cm depth that had 44% less total porosity as compared to surface conditions. It is shown that soils under the CT system tended to stay saturated for longer periods of time after each rainfall event. Besides, during intense rainy periods soils under the CT system may develop hydrologic conditions that favor lateral flows while soils under the MT system were still draining. Such hydrological responses may explain why average soil erosion rates measured for individual rainfall events under the CT system were about 2.5 times greater than the ones observed at MT. The results attested that conventional tillage in this area generated modifications in soil fabric, especially in pore-size distribution and connectivity, which induced important changes in soil hydrology and soil erosion. The agricultural practices used in this area, associated with the local steep hillslopes and intense rainfall events, are definitely not

  20. Spectroscopic characteristics of soil organic matter as a tool to assess soil physical quality in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Knicker, Heike; López-Martín, María; Carral, Pilar; Álvarez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean areas, the loss of soil physical quality is of particular concern due to the vulnerability of these ecosystems in relation to unfavourable climatic conditions, which usually lead to soil degradation processes and severe decline of its functionality. As a result, increasing scientific attention is being paid on the exploration of soil properties which could be readily used as quality indicators, including organic matter which, in fact, represents a key factor in the maintenance of soil physical status. In this line, the present research tackles the assessment of the quality of several soils from central Spain with the purpose of identifying the physical properties most closely correlated with the organic matter, considering not only the quantity but also the quality of the different C-forms. The studied attributes consist of a series of physical properties determined in field and laboratory conditions-total porosity, aggregate stability, available water capacity, air provision, water infiltration rate and soil hydric saturation-.The bulk organic matter was characterised by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and the major organic fractions (lipids, free particulate organic matter, fulvic acids, humic acids and humin) were quantified using standard procedures. The humic acids were also analysed by visible and infrared spectroscopies. The use of multidimensional scaling to classify physical properties in conjunction with molecular descriptors of soil organic matter, suggested significant correlations between the two set of variables, which were confirmed with simple and canonical regression models. The results pointed to two well-defined groups of physical attributes in the studied soils: (i) those associated with organic matter of predominantly aromatic character (water infiltration descriptors), and (ii) soil physical variables related to organic matter with marked aliphatic character, high preservation of the lignin signature and comparatively low

  1. The effects of one-time inversion tillage on soil physical properties after long-term reduced tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhwald, Michael; Augustin, Katja; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The positive effects of reduced tillage on soil stability and on various soil functions such as infiltrability or saturated hydraulic conductivity are known in general. However, long-term employment of conservation tillage can increase weed pressure, damage by mice and soil compaction. Thus, the application of one-time inversion tillage (occasional or strategic tillage) is customarily used as a method for overcoming these drawbacks. Hitherto, the effects of one-time inversion tillage on soil physical properties have not been investigated. This study focuses on analysing whether the improved soil physical properties derived by long-term reduced tillage remain after one-time inversion tillage by mouldboard plough. The study was carried out in a 5.5 ha field in the southern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 1996, this field has been subdivided into three plots, one managed conventionally by using a mouldboard plough (CT), while in the others a chisel plough (RT1) and a disk harrow (RT2) were employed. In October 2014, the entire field was ploughed by mouldboard plough to a depth of 30 cm. During the following year, four field studies were conducted to analyse the effects of this one-time inversion tillage on volumetric soil water content, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate. Additionally, penetration resistance measurements taken across the entire field were interpolated by kriging to analyse the spatial distribution of soil characteristics. The surveys of RT1 and RT2 were compared with CT and with analyses conducted before the one-time inversion tillage. This study shows that positive effects of long-term conservation tillage on several soil physical characteristics still remain after one-time mouldboard ploughing. Throughout the entire cropping season, the topsoil tilled under former conservation tillage practices revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values of saturated hydraulic conductivities and infiltration rates compared

  2. Bringing life to soil physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but

  3. Rock Content Influence on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajuli, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Jones, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Soil hydraulic properties including the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and hydraulic conductivity function are important characteristics of soil affecting a variety of soil properties and processes. The hydraulic properties are commonly measured for seived soils (i.e. particles < 2 mm), but many natural soils include rock fragments of varying size that alter bulk hydraulic properties. Relatively few studies have addressed this important problem using physically-based concepts. Motivated by this knowledge gap, we set out to describe soil hydraulic properties using binary mixtures (i.e. rock fragment inclusions in a soil matrix) based on individual properties of the rock and soil. As a first step of this study, special attention was devoted to the SWRC, where the impact of rock content on the SWRC was quantified using laboratory experiments for six different mixing ratios of soil matrix and rock. The SWRC for each mixture was obtained from water mass and water potential measurements. The resulting data for the studied mixtures yielded a family of SWRC indicating how the SWRC of the mixture is related to that of the individual media, i.e., soil and rock. A consistent model was also developed to describe the hydraulic properties of the mixture as a function of the individual properties of the rock and soil matrix. Key words: Soil hydraulic properties, rock content, binary mixture, experimental data.

  4. Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Important Mississippi Soils

    Treesearch

    R. R. Bruce; W. A. Raney; W. M. Broadfoot; H. B. Vanderford

    1958-01-01

    To realize the crop production potential of soils it is necessary to first have a knowledge of their chemical, physical and biological properties and reactions and then to so alter these properties and reactions to effect a medium optimum for plant growth. In the past, soils have been classified primarily on the basis of physical characteristics observable in the field...

  5. Few effects of invasive plants Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea on soil physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Nobis, Marcin; Zubek, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are an important problem of human-induced changes at a global scale. Invasive plants can modify soil nutrient pools and element cycling, creating feedbacks that potentially stabilize current or accelerate further invasion, and prevent re-establishment of native species. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea, invading non-forest areas located within or outside river valleys, on soil physical and chemical parameters, including soil moisture, element concentrations, organic matter content and pH. Additionally, invasion effects on plant species number and total plant cover were assessed. The concentrations of elements in shoots and roots of invasive and native plants were also measured. Split-plot ANOVA revealed that the invasions significantly reduced plant species number, but did not affect most soil physical and chemical properties. The invasions decreased total P concentration and increased N-NO 3 concentration in soil in comparison to native vegetation, though the latter only in the case of R. japonica. The influence of invasion on soil properties did not depend on location (within- or outside valleys). The lack of invasion effects on most soil properties does not necessarily imply the lack of influence of invasive plants, but may suggest that the direction of the changes varies among replicate sites and there are no general patterns of invasion-induced alterations for these parameters. Tissue element concentrations, with the exception of Mg, did not differ between invasive and native plants, and were not related to soil element concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of different combinations of “Baoshiling” on soil physical and chemical properties of Huangguogan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Xiong, B.; Qiu, X.; Liao, L.; Shun, G. C.; Huang, S. J.; Dong, Z. X.; Liu, X. Y.; Xi, L. J.

    2017-08-01

    The research is done on the Huangguogan (unique citrus breed in Sichuan, China). The experiment setted 27 groups of “Baoshiling” (self-study compound fertilizer) fertilization treatment to explore the “Baoshiling” different combinations on soil physical and chemical properties of Huangguogan. The results showed that all the combinations had improved the soil of Huangguogan orchard. The combination of A3B2C2 had the best effect. The best Fertilization management measures was “Baoshiling” bud flowering fertilizer 2kg, stable fruit fertilizer 2kg, strong fruit fertilizer 2kg. It could reduce the pH of soil and the bulk density of soil, increase the available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and urease activity.

  7. Effect of fire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Mediterranean area of Sardinia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Motroni, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Secci, Romina; Robichaud, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are one of the most widespread factors of ecosystem degradation around the world. The degree of change in both chemical and biological properties of soil inducted by forest fires is related to temperature and persistence of the fire as well as to moisture content of soil and of fuel. The present note reports the first experimental results of a wider-scale research project, whose aim is to develop methods for analysis and collection of field data by using a multidisciplinary approach in order to evaluate land erosion hazard. Specific objectives of this study are: i) to compare burned and unburned soil in order to evaluate the effect of fire on physical and chemical soil properties; ii) to measure soil erosion after fire in relation to different slopes. The experimental site is located in Mediterranean basin, on a steep slope in a hilly area of north-western Sardinia (Municipality of Ittiri, Italy), where a human caused fire occurred in august 2013. The area is mainly covered by the typical Mediterranean vegetation. Immediately after fire, several soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth, both in burned and in unburned plots. The soil organic matter, N, and P contents, pH, and soil texture were then determined in laboratory. Soil erosion rates from experimental plots were measured and estimated by silt fences technique taking into account different slopes and vegetation distribution.

  8. Harvest traffic monitoring and soil physical response in a pine plantation

    Treesearch

    Emily A. Carter; Timothy P. McDonald; John L. Torbert

    2000-01-01

    Mechanized forest harvest operations induce changes in soil physical properties, which have the potential to impact soil sustainability and forest productivity. The assessment of soil compaction and its spatial variability has been determined previously through the identification and tabulation of visual soil disturbance classes and soil physical changes associated...

  9. Effects of conversion of native cerrado vegetation to pasture on soil hydro-physical properties, evapotranspiration and streamflow on the Amazonian agricultural frontier

    PubMed Central

    Guzha, Alphonce C.; Torres, Gilmar N.; Kovacs, Kristof; Lamparter, Gabriele; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Couto, Eduardo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of land-use change on landscape-hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Northern Brazilian Cerrado biome, where the Amazon agricultural frontier is located. Motivated by the gap in literature assessing these impacts, we characterized the soil hydro-physical properties and quantified surface water fluxes from catchments under contrasting land-use in this region. We used data from field measurements in two headwater micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics and different land use, i.e. cerrado sensu stricto vegetation and pasture for extensive cattle ranching. We determined hydraulic and physical properties of the soils, applied ground-based remote sensing techniques to estimate evapotranspiration, and monitored streamflow from October 2012 to September 2014. Our results show significant differences in soil hydro-physical properties between the catchments, with greater bulk density and smaller total porosity in the pasture catchment. We found that evapotranspiration is smaller in the pasture (639 ± 31% mm yr-1) than in the cerrado catchment (1,004 ± 24% mm yr-1), and that streamflow from the pasture catchment is greater with runoff coefficients of 0.40 for the pasture and 0.27 for the cerrado catchment. Overall, our results confirm that conversion of cerrado vegetation to pasture causes soil hydro-physical properties deterioration, reduction in evapotranspiration reduction, and increased streamflow. PMID:28609462

  10. Effects of conversion of native cerrado vegetation to pasture on soil hydro-physical properties, evapotranspiration and streamflow on the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo L B; Guzha, Alphonce C; Torres, Gilmar N; Kovacs, Kristof; Lamparter, Gabriele; Amorim, Ricardo S S; Couto, Eduardo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of land-use change on landscape-hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Northern Brazilian Cerrado biome, where the Amazon agricultural frontier is located. Motivated by the gap in literature assessing these impacts, we characterized the soil hydro-physical properties and quantified surface water fluxes from catchments under contrasting land-use in this region. We used data from field measurements in two headwater micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics and different land use, i.e. cerrado sensu stricto vegetation and pasture for extensive cattle ranching. We determined hydraulic and physical properties of the soils, applied ground-based remote sensing techniques to estimate evapotranspiration, and monitored streamflow from October 2012 to September 2014. Our results show significant differences in soil hydro-physical properties between the catchments, with greater bulk density and smaller total porosity in the pasture catchment. We found that evapotranspiration is smaller in the pasture (639 ± 31% mm yr-1) than in the cerrado catchment (1,004 ± 24% mm yr-1), and that streamflow from the pasture catchment is greater with runoff coefficients of 0.40 for the pasture and 0.27 for the cerrado catchment. Overall, our results confirm that conversion of cerrado vegetation to pasture causes soil hydro-physical properties deterioration, reduction in evapotranspiration reduction, and increased streamflow.

  11. Impact of Residential Prairie Gardens on the Physical Properties of Urban Soil in Madison, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Marie R; Balster, Nick J; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prairie gardens have become a common addition to residential communities in the midwestern United States because prairie vegetation is native to the region, requires fewer resources to maintain than turfgrass, and has been promoted to help remediate urban soil. Although prairie systems typically have deeper and more diverse root systems than traditional turfgrass, no one has tested the effect of this vegetation type on the physical properties of urban soil. We hypothesized that residential prairie gardens would yield lower soil bulk density (BD), lower penetration resistance (PR), greater soil organic matter (SOM), and greater saturated hydraulic conductivity () compared with turfgrass lawns. To test this hypothesis, we examined 12 residential properties in Madison, WI, where homeowners had established a prairie garden within their turfgrass lawn. Despite a consistent trend in the difference between vegetation types, no significant main effects were found (i.e., a difference between vegetation types when averaged over depth) for any of the four soil properties measured in this study. Differences were found with depth and depended on a significant interaction with vegetation type. At the surface depth (0-0.15 m), soil beneath prairie gardens had 10% lower mean BD, 15% lower mean PR, 25% greater level of SOM, and 33% greater compared with soil beneath the adjacent lawns. These differences were not detected at deeper sampling intervals of 0.15 to 0.30 m and 0.30 to 0.45 m. Although not statistically significant, the consistent trend and direction among soil variables suggest that residential prairie gardens had changed the surface soil at a rate that marginally outpaced turfgrass and calls for controlled experiments to identify the mechanisms that might enhance these trends. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Contribution of raindrop impact to the change of soil physical properties and water erosion under semi-arid rainfalls.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Morvarid; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is a three-phase process that consists of detachment of soil particles from the soil mass, transportation of detached particles either by raindrop impact or surface water flow, and sedimentation. Detachment by raindrops is a key component of the soil erosion process. However, little information is available on the role of raindrop impact on soil losses in the semi-arid regions where vegetation cover is often poor and does not protect the soil from rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of raindrop impact to changes in soil physical properties and soil losses in a semiarid weakly-aggregated agricultural soil. Soil losses were measured under simulated rainfalls of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70mmh -1 , and under two conditions: i) with raindrop impact; and, ii) without raindrop impact. Three replications at each rainfall intensity and condition resulted in a total of 42 microplots of 1m×1.4m installed on a 10% slope according to a randomized complete block design. The contribution of raindrop impact to soil loss was computed using the difference between soil loss with raindrop impact and without raindrop impact at each rainfall intensity. Soil physical properties (aggregate size, bulk density and infiltration rate) were strongly damaged by raindrop impact as rainfall intensity increased. Soil loss was significantly affected by rainfall intensity under both soil surface conditions. The contribution of raindrop impact to soil loss decreased steadily with increasing rainfall intensity. At the lower rainfall intensities (20-30mmh -1 ), raindrop impact was the dominant factor controlling soil loss from the plots (68%) while at the higher rainfall intensities (40-70mmh -1 ) soil loss was mostly affected by increasing runoff discharge. At higher rainfall intensities the sheet flow protected the soil from raindrop impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rheological properties of soil: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangli; Zhu, Long; Yu, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Recently rheological methods have been applied to investigate the mechanical properties of soil micro-structure. Rheological techniques have a number of quantitative physically based measurements and offer a better understanding of how soil micro-structure behaves when subject to stress. Rheological material is refers to deformation properties similar to the solid and flow properties similar to the liquid of bound water and colloidal substances under stress. Soil rheology is divided into fluid rheology and plasticity rheology. Fluid rheology is produced by rheological material. Plasticity rheology mainly refers to the sliding and peristaltic between soil solid particles under shear stress. It is generally believed that the soft soil rheology mainly belongs to fluid rheology, while the rheology of sand and other coarse grained soil mainly belongs to plasticity rheology. Thus, rheology mechanisms of soft soil and sand are different. This paper introduces the methods of the research progress on the rheology of soil, in the soil rheological mechanism, rheological model and rheological numerical aspects of the research at home and abroad were summarized and analysed, discussed the problems existed in related research, and puts forward some suggestions for the future study on the rheology of soil.

  14. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Treesearch

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  15. The effect of fire on soil properties

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano

    1991-01-01

    Fire affects nutrient cycling and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils occupied by western montane forests. Combustion of litter and soil organic matter (OM) increases the availability of some nutrients, although others are volatilized (for example, N, P, S). Soil OM loss also affects cation exchange capacity, organic chelation, aggregate...

  16. Thermal properties of soils: effect of biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) have a significant effect on the soil surface energy partitioning and resulting in the temperature distribution. Thermal properties of soil depend on water content, bulk density and organic matter content. An important source of organic matter is biochar. Biochar as a material is defined as: "charcoal for application as a soil conditioner". Biochar is generally associated with co-produced end products of pyrolysis. Many different materials are used as biomass feedstock for biochar, including wood, crop residues and manures. Additional predictions were done for terra preta soil (also known as "Amazonian dark earth"), high in charcoal content, due to adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure for thousands of years i.e. approximately 10-1,000 times longer than residence times of most soil organic matter. The effect of biochar obtained from the wood biomass and other organic amendments (peat, compost) on soil thermal properties is presented in this paper. The results were compared with wetland soils of different organic matter content. The measurements of the thermal properties at various water contents were performed after incubation, under laboratory conditions using KD2Pro, Decagon Devices. The measured data were compared with predictions made using Usowicz statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2006) for biochar, mineral soil and soil with addition of biochar at various water contents and bulk densities. The model operates statistically by probability of occurrence of contacts between particular fractional compounds. It combines physical properties, specific to particular compounds, into one apparent conductance specific to the mixture. The results revealed that addition of the biochar and other organic amendments into the soil caused considerable reduction of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The mineral soil showed the highest thermal conductivity and diffusivity

  17. Effects of 1-Alkyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nitrate on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Microbial Biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tongtong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhiqiang; Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), also called room temperature ILs, are widely applied in many fields on the basis of their unique physical and chemical properties. However, numerous ILs may be released into and gradually accumulate in the environment due to their extensive use and absolute solubility. The effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C n mim]NO 3 , n = 4, 6, 8) on soil pH, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen were examined at the doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg on days 10, 20, 30, and 40. The results demonstrated that the soil pH decreased and the conductivity increased with increasing IL doses. No significant differences were observed in the soil cation-exchange capacity. All three of the tested ILs decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Additionally, there were few differences among the ILs with different alkyl chain lengths on the tested indicators except for the microbial biomass nitrogen. The present study addressed a gap in the literature regarding the effects of the aforementioned ILs with different alkyl side chains on the physicochemical properties of soil, and the results could provide the basic data for future studies on their toxicity to soil organisms, such as earthworms and soil microbes.

  18. Simulation of nitrous oxide effluxes, crop yields and soil physical properties using the LandscapeDNDC model in managed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyckowiak, Jedrzej; Lesny, Jacek; Haas, Edwin; Juszczak, Radoslaw; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from soil is very complex. Many different biological and chemical processes take place in soils which determine the amount of emitted nitrous oxide. Additionaly, biogeochemical models contain many detailed factors which may determine fluxes and other simulated variables. We used the LandscapeDNDC model in order to simulate N2O emissions, crop yields and soil physical properties from mineral cultivated soils in Poland. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils were modeled for fields with winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, triticale, potatoes and alfalfa crops. Simulations were carried out for the plots of the Brody arable experimental station of Poznan University of Life Science in western Poland and covered the period 2003 - 2012. The model accuracy and its efficiency was determined by comparing simulations result with measurements of nitrous oxide emissions (measured with static chambers) from about 40 field campaigns. N2O emissions are strongly dependent on temperature and soil water content, hence we compared also simulated soil temperature at 10cm depth and soil water content at the same depth with the daily measured values of these driving variables. We compared also simulated yield quantities for each individual experimental plots with yield quantities which were measured in the period 2003-2012. We conclude that the LandscapeDNDC model is capable to simulate soil N2O emissions, crop yields and physical properties of soil with satisfactorily good accuracy and efficiency.

  19. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    , especially in treatments with organic amendments and woodchip mulch. While in plots with this mulch, the wetting front only reaches a few centimetres in depth. This was probably due to the preferential orientation of woodchips pores parallel to the soil surface, which decreases the percolation to deeper soil layers. Neither treatment reached a wetting front like RS but, in view of the parameters related to good physical soil properties (pores distribution, infiltration and wetting front depth) the combination of SA-NM can allow a high soil moisture content to facilitate the plant cover establishment. It is right to conclude that sewage sludge is the most adequate treatment for restoring areas degraded by mining activities in a semiarid climate.

  20. Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Term Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  1. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  2. Dynamic soil properties in response to anthropogenic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Ortega, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical erosion, with direct implications on local biogeochemical cycling. However, the feedbacks between soil erosion, chemical weathering and biogeochemical cycling in response to anthropogenic forcing are not yet fully understood. Here, we study dynamic soil properties for a rapidly changing anthropogenic landscape, and focus on the coupling between physical erosion, soil production and soil chemical weathering. The archaeological site of Santa Maria de Melque (Toledo, Central Spain) was selected for its remarkably long occupation history dating back to the 7th century AD. As part of the agricultural complex, four retention reservoirs were built in the Early Middle Ages. The sedimentary archive was used to track the evolution in sedimentation rates and geochemical properties of the sediment. Catchment-wide soil erosion rates vary slightly between the various occupation phases (7th century-now), but are of the same magnitude as the cosmogenic nuclide-derived erosion rates. However, there exists large spatial variation in physical erosion rates that are coupled with chemical weathering intensities. The sedimentary records suggest that there are important changes in the spatial pattern of sediment source areas through time as a result of changing land use patterns

  3. The effects of treading by two breeds of dairy cow with different live weights on soil physical properties, poaching damage and herbage production on a poorly drained clay-loam soil.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, P; Fenton, O; Holden, N M; Humphreys, J

    2015-11-01

    There is little empirical evidence to indicate that dairy cow live weight affects the extent of soil damage at the hoof-soil interface during grazing on poorly drained permanent grassland. In the present study the impact of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows with a mean (±standard deviation) live weight of 570 (±61) kg were compared with Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JX) with a mean live weight of 499 (±52) kg each at two stocking densities: mean 2·42 ± (0·062) and 2·66 (±0·079) cows/ha. Soil physical properties (bulk density, macroporosity, gravimetric water content, air-filled porosity, penetration resistance and shear strength), poaching damage (post-grazing soil surface deformation and hoof-print depth), herbage yield and milk production were measured throughout 2011 and 2012. Soil physical properties, post-grazing soil surface deformation and herbage production were not affected by dairy cow breed or by interactions between breed and stocking density. Hoof-print depth was higher in the HF treatments (39 v. 37 mm, s.e. 0·5 mm). Loading pressure imposed at the soil surface was the same for both breeds due to a direct correlation between live weight and hoof size. Poaching damage was greater at higher stocking density. Using the lighter JX cow offered little advantage in terms of lowering the negative impact of treading on soil physical properties or reducing poaching damage and no advantage in terms of herbage or milk production compared with the heavier HF cow.

  4. Soil physical property response to prescribed fire in two young longleaf pine stands on the Western Gulf Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer

    2007-01-01

    Prescribed fire every 2 to 4 years is an important component of longleaf pine ecosystem restoration. Under some circumstances, repeated fire could change soil physical properties on the Western Gulf Coastal Plain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil bulk density, porosity fractions, and plant-available water holding capacity of restored longleaf pine...

  5. Impacts of Biochar on Physical Properties and Erosion Potential of a Mudstone Slopeland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Wei-Hsin; Liou, Ruei-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent issues recently because of the global climate changes. This study aims to evaluate the application of a biochar produced by rice hull, on changes of physiochemical characteristics and erosion potential of a degraded slopeland soil. Rice hull biochar pyrolized at 400°C was incorporated into the soil at rates of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/w) and was incubated for 168 d in this study. The results indicated that biochar application reduced the Bd by 12% to 25% and the PR by 57% to 92% after incubation, compared with the control. Besides, porosity and aggregate size increased by 16% to 22% and by 0.59 to 0.94 mm, respectively. The results presented that available water contents significantly increased in the amended soils by 18% to 89% because of the obvious increase of micropores. The water conductivity of the biochar-amended soils was only found in 10% biochar treatment, which might result from significant increase of macropores and reduction of soil strength (Bd and PR). During a simulated rainfall event, soil loss contents significantly decreased by 35% to 90% in the biochar-amended soils. In conclusion, biochar application could availably raise soil quality and physical properties for tilth increasing in the degraded mudstone soil. PMID:25548787

  6. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  7. Impact of Desalination on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Lanzhou Loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Min

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salt in soil has a significant influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. We performed desalination experiments on Lanzhou loess, a typical sulfate saline soil, to study the effects of salt on the physical and mechanical properties of the loess and compare variations in the soil properties after desalination. The Atterberg limits of the soil increased after desalination as a result of changes in the soil particle composition and grain refinement. The shear and uniaxial compressive strength of the soil increased as a result of decreased calcitic cementation and other changes to the soil structure. Scanning electron microstructure (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) procedures revealed changes to the microstructure and pore-size distribution of the Lanzhou loess after desalination.

  8. Physical and chemical properties of young soils of the Icelandic highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Mankasingh, Utra

    2015-04-01

    Most of the Icelandic soils are of volcanic origin, classified as andisols (carbon content 1-12%), many of which are strongly affected by erosion and so, formation of new soils is of great interest. The effect of land cover type on the weathering patterns and the formation of new soils are of interest. The southern Icelandic highlands are characterised by harsh climate, shallow soils and limited vegetation cover. We hypothesise that in the highland regions of Iceland the progression of land cover from unvegetated to vegetated sites will impact soil development. This study describes the physical and chemical properties of highland soils in Iceland. Soil samples were collected from 12 sites in September 2013, nine sites were fully vegetated and three unvegetated: grassland (G1-G8), with moss, Carex Bigelowii and dwarf shrubs, sandy fluvial wetland (S) and unvegetated gravels (M1-M3). All soils with vegetative cover were characterized by weak or structureless soil ranging in texture from loamy sand to silty clay loam, while at unvegetated sites soil texture was structureless and sandy. On average, the bulk density of soils (range 0.53 - 1.16 g cm-3) were lower at vegetated sites than unvegetated sites. The soil depth is greater in the vegetated sites, indicating greater soil development. The average % carbon (%C), % nitrogen (%N), overall % soil organic matter (%SOM), of vegetated sites were higher than for unvegetated sites, indicating the difference in soil development: vegetated sites (mean), 1.60%C, 0.10%N, 4.9%SOM; unvegetated sites (mean), 0.27%C, 0.02%N, 1.81%SOM. All soils had significant amounts of amorphous clay minerals such as allophone, imogolite, ferrihydrite or aluminium-humus complexes and also high aluminium and iron percentages, and high phosphate retention. All of which are characteristic for andisols. There were strong associations between Fe and Al and the soil C, which are indicative of Al and Fe complexed with humus or allophane and ferrihydrite

  9. Effect of fire severity on physical and biochemical soil properties in Zagros oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) forests in Iran

    Treesearch

    M. Heydari; A. Rostamy; F. Najafi; D. C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    Fire affects the physical and chemical properties and soil biological activity of natural ecosystems. This study was conducted in the Miyan Tang region, Ilam Province in western Iran. The study site was 110 hectares, where we sampled soils in areas that were classified by fire severity: low (LS), high (HS) and medium severity (MS), and unburned (UB), which served as...

  10. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf) canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem, southwestern Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owliaie, Hamidreza

    2010-05-01

    Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the most important wild species in Zagros forests which is of high economical and environmental value. Sustainability of these forests primarily depends on soil quality and water availability. Study the relationships between trees and soil is one of the basic factors in management and planning of forests. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the effect of tree species on soil physical and chemical properties in a semi-arid region (Kohgilouye Province) in the southwestern part of Iran. The experimental design was a factorial 4×2 (4 depths and 2 distances) in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Soil samples (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm depth) were taken from beneath the tree crowns and adjacent open areas. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results showed that wild pistachio canopy increased mostly organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity, total N, SP, available K+, P (olsen), EC, EDTA extractable Fe2+ and Mn2+, while bulk density, CCE and DTPA extractable Cu2+ were decreased. Pistachio canopy had no significant effect on soil texture, Zn2+ and pH.

  11. Long-term effect of a single application of organic refuse on carbon sequestration and soil physical properties.

    PubMed

    Albaladejo, J; Lopez, J; Boix-Fayos, C; Barbera, G G; Martinez-Mena, M

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of degraded lands could be a way to reverse soil degradation and desertification in semiarid areas and mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG). Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a single addition of organic refuse on soil physical properties and measure its carbon sequestration potential. In 1988, a set of five plots (87 m(2) each) was established in an open desert-like scrubland (2-4% cover) in Murcia, Spain, to which urban solid refuse (USR) was added in a single treatment at different rates. Soil properties were monitored over a 5-yr period. Sixteen years after the addition, three of the plots were monitored again (P0: control, P1: 13 kg m(-2), P2: 26 kg m(-2) of USR added) to assess the lasting effect of the organic addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and on the physical characteristics of the soil. The SOC content was higher in P2 (16.4 g kg(-1)) and in P1 (11.8 g kg(-1)) than in P0 (7.9 g kg(-1)). Likewise, aerial biomass increased from 0.18 kg m(-2) in P0 up to 0.27 kg m(-2) in P1 and 0.46 kg m(-2) in P2. This represents a total C sequestration of 9.5 Mg ha(-1) in P2 and 3.4 Mg ha(-1) in P1, most of the sequestered C remaining in the recalcitrant soil pool. Additionally, higher saturated hydraulic conductivity, aggregate stability, and available water content values and lower bulk density values were measured in the restored plots. Clearly, a single addition of organic refuse to the degraded soils to increase the potential for C sequestration was effective.

  12. Effects of the soil pore network architecture on the soil's physical functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Sarah; Beckers, Eléonore; Léonard, Angélique; Degré, Aurore

    2017-04-01

    The soil fluid movement's prediction is of major interest within an agricultural or environmental scope because many processes depend ultimately on the soil fluids dynamic. It is common knowledge that the soil microscopic pore network structure governs the inner-soil convective fluids flow. There isn't, however, a general methodthat consider the pore network structure as a variable in the prediction of thecore scale soil's physical functionalities. There are various possible representations of the microscopic pore network: sample scale averaged structural parameters, extrapolation of theoretic pore network, or use of all the information available by modeling within the observed pore network. Different representations implydifferent analyzing methodologies. To our knowledge, few studies have compared the micro-and macroscopic soil's characteristics for the same soil core sample. The objective of our study is to explore the relationship between macroscopic physical properties and microscopic pore network structure. The saturated hydraulic conductivity, the air permeability, the retention curve, and others classical physical parameters were measured for ten soil samples from an agricultural field. The pore network characteristics were quantified through the analyses of X-ray micro-computed tomographic images(micro-CT system Skyscan-1172) with a voxel size of 22 µm3. Some of the first results confirmed what others studies had reported. Then, the comparison between macroscopic properties and microscopic parameters suggested that the air movements depended mostly on the pore connectivity and tortuosity than on the total porosity volume. We have also found that the fractal dimension calculated from the X-ray images and the fractal dimension calculated from the retention curve were significantly different. Our communication will detailthose results and discuss the methodology: would the results be similar with a different voxel size? What are the calculated and measured

  13. Effects of prescribed fires on soil properties: A review.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, M; Outeiro, L; Francos, M; Úbeda, X

    2018-02-01

    Soils constitute one of the most valuable resources on earth, especially because soil is renewable on human time scales. During the 20th century, a period marked by a widespread rural exodus and land abandonment, fire suppression policies were adopted facilitating the accumulation of fuel in forested areas, exacerbating the effects of wildfires, leading to severe degradation of soils. Prescribed fires emerged as an option for protecting forests and their soils from wildfires through the reduction of fuels levels. However such fires can serve other objectives, including stimulating the regeneration of a particular plant species, maintaining biological diversity or as a tool for recovering grasslands in encroached lands. This paper reviews studies examining the short- and long- term impacts of prescribed fires on the physical, chemical and biological soil properties; in so doing, it provides a summary of the benefits and drawbacks of this technique, to help determine if prescribed fires can be useful for managing the landscape. From the study conducted, we can affirm that prescribed fires affects soil properties but differ greatly depending on soil initial characteristics, vegetation or type of fire. Also, it is possible to see that soil's physical and biological properties are more strongly affected by prescribed fires than are its chemical properties. Finally, we conclude that prescribed fires clearly constitute a disturbance on the environment (positive, neutral or negative depending on the soil property studied), but most of the studies reviewed report a good recovery and their effects could be less pronounced than those of wildfires because of the limited soil heating and lower fire intensity and severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Microbiological soil properties after logging and slash burning.

    Treesearch

    Ernest Wright

    1957-01-01

    Considerable study has been made of the effects of logging and slash burning on chemical and physical properties of forest soils. However, little is known of the effect of such operations on microbiological properties.

  15. Physical and hydrological properties of the soil after Pine harvesting in Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, María; Fuentes Espoz, Juan Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The south of Chile has been under great pressure for about 150 years, with the replacement of native forests by agricultural crops and subsequently by plantations with fast-growing exotic species. Historically, it was considered that these plantations have stopped the degradation process of the ground. However, the restoration of the soil system can be considered as very limited or even null because of three reasons: the rotations of these artificial forest systems are too short (just 25 years ), the chosen areas are already degraded land, and after the harvesting it is common to get fire to clean. The objective of this research was to evaluate current forest management practices of these forest systems to make them more sustainable, mainly studying the effect of harvesting and waste management planting some physical - hydrological properties of the soil. This research was done in "Las Brisas", a degraded soil characterized by different planting practices of forest species, which have been harvested and, after that, burnt for taking out the residual waste. The study tried to determine the variations in the water content of the soil after fire at different depths, obtaining moisture profiles that reflect the change in soil moisture while simulating rain occurs. temperature of the fire. Several samples were taken and divided into four different experiments of management practices: some of them were dry, others were burnt, others suffered both processes and the last no process at all. Some analysis were done to determine the behavior of the main hydrological properties (ie particle size distribution, aggregate stability , hydrophobicity , infiltration ). The information collected was analyzed by the hydrologic model Hydrus -2D, to fully assess the impact of the extraction of the forest from a highly sensitive system erosive phenomena. The information obtained will be published.

  16. Soil Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Paddy-Upland Rotation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Teng-Fei; Chen, Yong; Westby, Anthony P.; Ren, Wan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Paddy-upland rotation is an unavoidable cropping system for Asia to meet the increasing demand for food. The reduction in grain yields has increased the research interest on the soil properties of rice-based cropping systems. Paddy-upland rotation fields are unique from other wetland or upland soils, because they are associated with frequent cycling between wetting and drying under anaerobic and aerobic conditions; such rotations affect the soil C and N cycles, make the chemical speciation and biological effectiveness of soil nutrient elements varied with seasons, increase the diversity of soil organisms, and make the soil physical properties more difficult to analyze. Consequently, maintaining or improving soil quality at a desirable level has become a complicated issue. Therefore, fully understanding the soil characteristics of paddy-upland rotation is necessary for the sustainable development of the system. In this paper, we offer helpful insight into the effect of rice-upland combinations on the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, which could provide guidance for reasonable cultivation management measures and contribute to the improvement of soil quality and crop yield. PMID:24995366

  17. Interactions of Soil Order and Land Use Management on Soil Properties in the Kukart Watershed, Kyrgyzstan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of selected chemical [soil organic matter (SOM), pH and total N (TN)], physical (soil texture), and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P and S cycling) character...

  18. The Influence of Basic Physical Properties of Soil on its Electrical Resistivity Value under Loose and Dense Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, M. H. Z.; Ahmad, F.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Saad, R.

    2014-04-01

    Electrical resistivity technique has become a famous alternative tool in subsurface characterization. In the past, several interpretations of electrical resistivity results were unable to be delivered in a strong justification due to lack of appreciation of soil mechanics. Traditionally, interpreters will come out with different conclusion which commonly from qualitative point of view thus creating some uncertainty regarding the result reliability. Most engineers desire to apply any techniques in their project which are able to provide some clear justification with strong, reliable and meaningful results. In order to reduce the problem, this study presents the influence of basic physical properties of soil due to the electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition. Two different conditions of soil embankment model were tested under electrical resistivity test and basic geotechnical test. It was found that the electrical resistivity value (ERV, ρ) was highly influenced by the variations of soil basic physical properties (BPP) with particular reference to moisture content (w), densities (ρbulk/dry), void ratio (e), porosity (η) and particle grain fraction (d) of soil. Strong relationship between ERV and BPP can be clearly presents such as ρ ∞ 1/w, ρ ∞ 1/ρbulk/dry, ρ ∞ e and ρ ∞ η. This study therefore contributes a means of ERV data interpretation using BPP in order to reduce ambiguity of ERV result and interpretation discussed among related persons such as geophysicist, engineers and geologist who applied these electrical resistivity techniques in subsurface profile assessment.

  19. Three-dimensional prediction of soil physical, chemical, and hydrological properties in a forested catchment of the Santa Catalina CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, C.; Holleran, M.; Lybrand, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.

    2014-12-01

    in each cluster calculated. Mass-preserving splines combined with stepwise regressions are an effective tool for predicting soil physical, chemical, and hydrological properties with depth, enhancing our understanding of the critical zone.

  20. Calibration of Noah soil hydraulic property parameters using surface soil moisture from SMOS and basin-wide in situ observations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil hydraulic properties can be retrieved from physical sampling of soil, via surveys, but this is time consuming and only as accurate as the scale of the sample. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to get pertinent soil properties at large scales, which is very useful for large scale modeling....

  1. A comparison of indexing methods to evaluate quality of soils subjected to different erosion: the role of soil microbiological properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Romina; Lidia, Giuffre; Alejandro, Costantini; Norberto, Bartoloni; Paolo, Nannipieri

    2010-05-01

    Soil quality assessment is needed to evaluate the soil conditions and sustainability of soil and crop management properties, and thus requires a systematic approach to select and interpret soil properties to be used as indicators. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare different indexing methods to assess quality of an undisturbed grassland soil (UN), a degraded pasture soil (GL) and a no tilled soil (NT) with four different A horizon depths (25, 23, 19 and 14 cm) reflecting a diverse erosion. Twenty four soil properties were measured from 0 to10 (1) and 10 to 20 cm. (2) and a minimum data set was chosen by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) considering all measured soil properties together (A), or according to their classification in physical, chemical or microbiological (B) properties. The measured soil properties involved either inexpensive or not laborious standard protocols, to be used in routine laboratory analysis (simple soil quality index - SSQI), or a more laborious, time consuming and expensive protocols to determine microbial diversity and microbial functionality by methyl ester fatty acids (PLFA) and catabolic response profiles (CRP), respectively (complex soil quality index - CSQI). The selected properties were linearly normalized and integrated by the weight additive method to calculate SSQI A, SSQI B, CSQI A and CSQI B indices. Two microbiological soil quality indices (MSQI) were also calculated: the MSQI 1 only considered microbiological properties according to the procedure used for calculating SQI; the MSQI 2 was calculated by considering microbial carbon biomass (MCB), microbial activity (Resp) and functional diversity determined by CPR (E). The soil quality indices were SSQI A = MCB 1 + Particulate Organic Carbon (POC)1 + Mean Weight Diameter (MWD)1; SSQI B = Saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) 1 + Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 1 + MCB 1; CSQI A = MCB 1 + POC 1 + MWD 1; CSQI B = K 1+ TOC 1+ 0.3 * (MCB 1+ i/a +POC 1) + 0

  2. Effects of biochar and other amendments on the physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions of an artificially degraded soil.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Lal, R; Zimmerman, A R

    2014-07-15

    Short and long-term impacts of biochar on soil properties under field conditions are poorly understood. In addition, there is a lack of field reports of the impacts of biochar on soil physical properties, gaseous emissions and C stability, particularly in comparison with other amendments. Thus, three amendments - biochar produced from oak at 650°C, humic acid (HA) and water treatment residual - (WTR) were added to a scalped silty-loam soil @ 0.5% (w/w) in triplicated plots under soybean. Over the 4-month active growing season, all amendments significantly increased soil pH, but the effect of biochar was the greatest. Biochar significantly increased soil-C by 7%, increased sub-nanopore surface area by 15% and reduced soil bulk density by 13% compared to control. However, only WTR amendment significantly increased soil nanopore surface area by 23% relative to the control. While total cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by any amendment, cumulative N2O emission was significantly decreased in the biochar-amended soil (by 92%) compared to control over the growing period. Considering both the total gas emissions and the C removed from the atmosphere as crop growth and C added to the soil, WTR and HA resulted in net soil C losses and biochar as a soil C gain. However, all amendments reduced the global warming potential (GWP) of the soil and biochar addition even produced a net negative GWP effect. The short observation period, low application rate and high intra-treatment variation resulted in fewer significant effects of the amendments on the physicochemical properties of the soils than one might expect indicating further possible experimentation altering these variables. However, there was clear evidence of amendment-soil interaction processes affecting both soil properties and gaseous emissions, particularly for biochar, that might lead to greater changes with additional field emplacement time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Determination of field-effective soil properties in the tidewater region of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    J. McFero Grace; R.W. Skaggs

    2013-01-01

    Soils vary spatially in texture, structure, depth of horizons, and macropores, which can lead to a large variation in soil physical properties. In particular, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and drainable porosity are critical properties required to model field hydrology in poorly drained lands. These soil-property values can be measured...

  4. Impact of soil properties on selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment has been recognized as a potential threat. Pharmaceuticals may contaminate soils and consequently surface and groundwater. Study was therefore focused on the evaluation of selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils, as one of the parameters, which are necessary to know when assessing contaminant transport in soils. The goals of this study were: (1) to select representative soils of the Czech Republic and to measure soil physical and chemical properties; (2) to measure adsorption isotherms of selected pharmaceuticals; (3) to evaluate impact of soil properties on pharmaceutical adsorptions and to propose pedotransfer rules for estimating adsorption coefficients from the measured soil properties. Batch sorption tests were performed for 6 selected pharmaceuticals (beta blockers Atenolol and Metoprolol, anticonvulsant Carbamazepin, and antibiotics Clarithromycin, Trimetoprim and Sulfamethoxazol) and 13 representative soils (soil samples from surface horizons of 11 different soil types and 2 substrates). The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. The simple correlations between measured physical and chemical soil properties (soil particle density, soil texture, oxidable organic carbon content, CaCO3 content, pH_H2O, pH_KCl, exchangeable acidity, cation exchange capacity, hydrolytic acidity, basic cation saturation, sorption complex saturation, salinity), and the Freundlich adsorption coefficients were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Then multiple-linear regressions were applied to predict the Freundlich adsorption coefficients from measured soil properties. The largest adsorption was measured for Clarithromycin (average value of 227.1) and decreased as follows: Trimetoprim (22.5), Metoprolol (9.0), Atenolol (6.6), Carbamazepin (2.7), Sulfamethoxazol (1.9). Absorption coefficients for Atenolol and Metoprolol closely correlated (R=0.85), and both were also

  5. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature, moisture and surface soil properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, B. F.; Dane, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this research were to: (l) Relate in-situ measured soil-water content and temperature profiles to remotely sensed surface soil-water and temperature conditions; to model simultaneous heat and water movement for spatially and temporally changing soil conditions; (2) Determine the spatial and temporal variability of surface soil properties affecting emissivity, reflectance, and material and energy flux across the soil surface. This will include physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of primary soil components and aggregate systems; and (3) Develop surface soil classes of naturally occurring and distributed soil property assemblages and group classes to be tested with respect to water content, emissivity and reflectivity. This document is a report of studies conducted during the period funded by NASA grants. The project was designed to be conducted over a five year period. Since funding was discontinued after three years, some of the research started was not completed. Additional publications are planned whenever funding can be obtained to finalize data analysis for both the arid and humid locations.

  7. Use of flyash and biogas slurry for improving wheat yield and physical properties of soil.

    PubMed

    Garg, R N; Pathak, H; Das, D K; Tomar, R K

    2005-08-01

    This study explores the potential use of by-products of energy production, i.e., (i) flyash from coal-powered electricity generation and (ii) biogas slurry from agricultural waste treatment, as nutrient sources in agriculture. These residues are available in large amounts and their disposal is a major concern for the environment. As both residues contain considerable amounts of plant nutrients, their use as soil amendment may offer a promising win-win opportunity to improve crop production and, at the same time, preventing adverse environmental impacts of waste disposal. Effect of flyash and biogas slurry on soil physical properties and growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was studied in a field experiment. Leaf area index, root length density and grain yield of wheat were higher in plots amended with flyash or biogas slurry compared to unamended plots. Both types of amendments reduced bulk density, and increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture retention capacity of soil. The study showed that flyash and biogas slurry should be used as soil amendments for obtaining short-term and long-term benefits in terms of production increments and soil amelioration.

  8. Soil physical effects on longleaf pine performance in the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Mary Anne S. Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2015-01-01

    We summarize 8 years of soil physical property responses to herbicide manipulation of the understory in two young longleaf pine stands growing on either Ruston fine sandy loam or Beauregard silt loam soils. We also describe relationships between pine sapling vigor and the soil physical environment across a 3-year period on the Ruston soil and a 2-year period on the...

  9. Estimation of soil profile physical and chemical properties using a VIS-NIR-EC-force probe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Combining data collected in-field from multiple soil sensors has the potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of soil property estimates. Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been used to estimate many important soil properties, such as soil carbon, water content, and texture. ...

  10. Aggregate stability as an indicator of soil erodibility and soil physical quality: review and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bissonnais, Yves; Chenu, Claire; Darboux, Frédéric; Duval, Odile; Legout, Cédric; Leguédois, Sophie; Gumiere, Silvio

    2010-05-01

    Aggregate breakdown due to water and rain action may cause surface crusting, slumping, a reduction of infiltration and interrill erosion. Aggregate stability determines the capacity of aggregates to resist the effects of water and rainfall. In this paper, we evaluated and reviewed the relevance of an aggregate stability measurement to characterize soil physical properties as well as to analyse the processes involved in these properties. Stability measurement assesses the sensitivity of soil aggregates to various basic disaggregation mechanisms such as slaking, differential swelling, dispersion and mechanical breakdown. It has been showed that aggregate size distributions of structural stability tests matched the size distributions of eroded aggregates under rainfall simulations and that erosion amount was well predicted using aggregate stability indexes. It means stability tests could be used to estimate both the erodibility and the size fractions that are available for crust formation and erosion processes. Several studies showed that organic matter was one of the main soil properties affecting soil stability. However, it has also been showed that aggregate stability of a given soil could vary within a year or between years. The factors controlling such changes have still to be specified. Aggregate stability appears therefore as a complex property, depending both on permanent soil characteristics and on dynamic factors such as the crusting stage, the climate and the biological activity. Despite, and may be, because of this complexity, aggregate stability seems an integrative and powerful indicator of soil physical quality. Future research efforts should look at the causes of short-term changes of structural stability, in order to fully understand all its aspects.

  11. A global data set of soil particle size properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Robert S.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Levine, Elissa R.

    1991-01-01

    A standardized global data set of soil horizon thicknesses and textures (particle size distributions) was compiled. This data set will be used by the improved ground hydrology parameterization designed for the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) Model 3. The data set specifies the top and bottom depths and the percent abundance of sand, silt, and clay of individual soil horizons in each of the 106 soil types cataloged for nine continental divisions. When combined with the World Soil Data File, the result is a global data set of variations in physical properties throughout the soil profile. These properties are important in the determination of water storage in individual soil horizons and exchange of water with the lower atmosphere. The incorporation of this data set into the GISS GCM should improve model performance by including more realistic variability in land-surface properties.

  12. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth.

    PubMed

    Missanjo, Edward; Kamanga-Thole, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0-20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m(-3) in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil.

  13. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Missanjo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0–20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m−3 in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil. PMID:27355043

  14. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  15. Evaporative losses from soils covered by physical and different types of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chamizo, S.; Cantón, Y.; Domingo, F.; Belnap, J.

    2013-01-01

    Evaporation of soil moisture is one of the most important processes affecting water availability in semiarid ecosystems. Biological soil crusts, which are widely distributed ground cover in these ecosystems, play a recognized role on water processes. Where they roughen surfaces, water residence time and thus infiltration can be greatly enhanced, whereas their ability to clog soil pores or cap the soil surface when wetted can greatly decrease infiltration rate, thus affecting evaporative losses. In this work, we compared evaporation in soils covered by physical crusts, biological crusts in different developmental stages and in the soils underlying the different biological crust types. Our results show that during the time of the highest evaporation (Day 1), there was no difference among any of the crust types or the soils underlying them. On Day 2, when soil moisture was moderately low (11%), evaporation was slightly higher in well-developed biological soil crusts than in physical or poorly developed biological soil crusts. However, crust removal did not cause significant changes in evaporation compared with the respective soil crust type. These results suggest that the small differences we observed in evaporation among crust types could be caused by differences in the properties of the soil underneath the biological crusts. At low soil moisture (<6%), there was no difference in evaporation among crust types or the underlying soils. Water loss for the complete evaporative cycle (from saturation to dry soil) was similar in both crusted and scraped soils. Therefore, we conclude that for the specific crust and soil types tested, the presence or the type of biological soil crust did not greatly modify evaporation with respect to physical crusts or scraped soils.

  16. Effects of different soil management practices on soil properties and microbial diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Anna M.; Czyż, Ewa A.; Dexter, Anthony R.; Furtak, Karolina M.; Grządziel, Jarosław; Stanek-Tarkowska, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The effects of different tillage systems on the properties and microbial diversity of an agricultural soil was investigated. In doing so, soil physical, chemical and biological properties were analysed in 2013-2015, on a long-term field experiment on a loamy sand at the IUNG-PIB Experimental Station in Grabów, Poland. Winter wheat was grown under two tillage treatments: conventional tillage using a mouldboard plough and traditional soil tillage equipment, and reduced tillage based on soil crushing-loosening equipment and a rigid-tine cultivator. Chopped wheat straw was used as a mulch on both treatments. Reduced tillage resulted in increased water content throughout the whole soil profile, in comparison with conventional tillage. Under reduced tillage, the content of readily dispersible clay was also reduced, and, therefore, soil stability was increased in the toplayers, compared with conventional tillage. In addition, the beneficial effects of reduced tillage were reflected in higher soil microbial activity as measured with dehydrogenases and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate, compared with conventional tillage. Moreover, the polimerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that soil under reduced till-age had greater diversity of microbial communities, compared with conventionally-tilled soil. Finally, reduced tillage increased organic matter content, stability in water and microbial diversity in the top layer of the soil.

  17. Impact of Ca-amendments and soil management in physical properties linked to soil-water relationship in degraded Ultisols from South-Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal-Sancho, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, P.; León, P.; Gómez-Paccard, C.; Benito, M.; Espejo, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cañamerós raña formation in western Spain was cleared for cropping in 1940´s. Its highly weathered acidic soils (Ultisols) were deeply affected by tillage. The soil organic matter (SOM) content and specially the particulate organic matter (POM), a labile fraction, were drastically reduced, and most of their chemical and physical soil properties related to its quality were negatively affected. The extraction of Ca through the harvest and the release of Al retained in organic-Al complexes resulted in a lower Ca/Al ratio which increased the Al toxicity. These effects led to a drastic yield reduction and the abandon of many degraded fields after 20-70 years of unsustainable managements. On these degraded soils we studied the effect of different soil management strategies (no-till with wild pasture (WP) and no-till with an improved pasture (IP)), and amendment applications (sugar foam waste (SF), and SF + Phosphogypsum (PH) versus control (C)). One of the objectives of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of these practices to recover soil quality parameters, especially those related to soil-water relationship. A Split-plot experiment was established in a degraded field. We evaluated the changes in superficial infiltration, bulk density, and content of water-stable aggregates per 100 g of soil before the Ca-amendment applications and pasture establishments, and after 4.5 years. We also measured the changes in SOM and POM contents which are closely related with the previous parameters. The Ca applications reduced Al toxicity, improved the pasture yield and increased organic matter inputs to soil. The results showed a significant increase of POM in all treatment compared with the POM content at the beginning of this experiment. However the "SOM minus POM" which could be classified as recalcitrant organic matter did not show significant increments. The increase of POM had a positive effect on the content of water-stable aggregates per 100 g of soil and the water

  18. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn Severity and Its Impact on Soil Properties: 2016 Erskine Fire in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haake, S.; Guo, J.; Krugh, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire frequency in the southern Sierra Nevada has increased over the past decades. The effects of wildfires on soils can increase the frequency of slope failure and debris flow events, which pose a greater risk to people, as human populations expand into foothill and mountainous communities of the Sierra Nevada. Alterations in the physical properties of burned soils are one such effect that can catalyze slope failure and debris flow events. Moreover, the degree of a soil's physical alteration resulting from wildfire is linked to fire intensity. The 2016 Erskine fire occurred in the southern Sierra Nevada, burning 48,019 acres, resulting in soils of unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severities. In this study, the physical properties of soils with varying degrees of burn severity are explored within the 2016 Erskine fire perimeter. The results constrain the effects of burn severity on soil's physical properties. Unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severity soil samples were collected within the Erskine fire perimeter. Alterations in soils' physical properties resulting from burn severity are explored using X-ray diffractometry analysis, liquid limit, plastic limit, and shear strength tests. Preliminary results from this study will be used to assess debris flow and slope failure hazard models within burned areas of the Kern River watershed in the southern Sierra Nevada.

  20. [Effect of application of cow manure and green manure on corn yield and soil physical-chemical properties in land restoration area].

    PubMed

    Xu, Da Bing; Deng, Jian Qiang; Peng, Wu Xing; Si, Guo Han; Peng, Cheng Lin; Yuan, Jia Fu; Zhao, Shu Jun; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-18

    The effects of cow manure and green manure on maize yield, soil respiration and soil physical-chemical properties in land restoration area was evaluated through field experiments. The results indicated that the maize yield and thousand-grain mass with cow manure were increased by 7.2%-29.9% and 2.5%-18.2%, respectively compared with the application of chemical fertilizer (CF), while the soil active organic carbon and organic matter contents of cow manure were 5.3%-34.6% and 8.0%-17.6% higher than that obtained in CF. The maize yield and thousand-grain mass were increased by 10.8%-15.6% and 4.5%-8.4% with application of green manure, respectively compared with CF. The content of active organic carbon in green manure was 14.1%-48.6% higher than that detected in CF. In the second year, the content of organic matter in green manure treatment was 7.2% higher than that of CF. The soil respiration rates under cow manure and green manure treatments increased by 20.0%-69.3% compared with CF. CF and green manure could improve the soil bulk density and increase the aggregate ratios of <0.01 mm and 0.05-1 mm fractions, respectively. On the other hand, the cow manure and green manure could decrease the soil total porosity and the capillary porosity. In conclusion, the application of cow manure and green manure in land restoration region could increase maize yield during the two consecutive seasons, which showed a positive response to improvement of soil physical-chemical properties.

  1. Influence of thinning Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) on hydraulic properties of an organic soil

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; R. W. Skaggs; D. Keith Cassel

    2006-01-01

    The impact of forest operations on soil properties has been a concern in forest management over the past 30 years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of forest thinning operations on soil hydraulic properties of a shallow organic (Belhaven series) soil in the Tidewater region of North Carolina. Soil physical properties were evaluated in a nested...

  2. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  3. Agricultural legacies in forest environments: tree communities, soil properties, and light availability.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Kathryn M; Marks, P L

    2007-03-01

    Temperate deciduous forests across much of Europe and eastern North America reflect legacies of past land use, particularly in the diversity and composition of plant communities. Intense disturbances, such as clearing forests for agriculture, may cause persistent environmental changes that continue to shape vegetation patterns as landscapes recover. We assessed the long-term consequences of agriculture for environmental conditions in central New York forests, including tree community structure and composition, soil physical and chemical properties, and light availability. To isolate the effects of agriculture, we compared 20 adjacent pairs of forests that were never cleared for agriculture (primary forests) and forests that established 85-100 years ago on plowed fields (secondary forests). Tree communities in primary and secondary forests had similar stem density, though secondary forests had 14% greater basal area. Species composition differed dramatically between the two forest types, with primary forests dominated by Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia and secondary forests by Acer rubrum and Pinus strobus. Primary and secondary forests showed no consistent differences in soil physical properties or in the principal gradient of soil fertility associated with soil pH. Within stands, however, soil water content and pH were more variable in primary forests. Secondary forest soils had 15% less organic matter, 16% less total carbon, and 29% less extractable phosphorus in the top 10 cm than adjacent primary stands, though the ranges of the forest types mostly overlapped. Understory light availability in primary and secondary forests was similar. These results suggest that, within 100 years, post-agricultural stands have recovered conditions comparable to less disturbed forests in many attributes, including tree size and number, soil physical properties, soil chemical properties associated with pH, and understory light availability. The principal legacies of

  4. Modeling multidomain hydraulic properties of shrink-swell soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Ryan D.; Abou Najm, Majdi R.; Rupp, David E.; Selker, John S.

    2016-10-01

    Shrink-swell soils crack and become compacted as they dry, changing properties such as bulk density and hydraulic conductivity. Multidomain models divide soil into independent realms that allow soil cracks to be incorporated into classical flow and transport models. Incongruously, most applications of multidomain models assume that the porosity distributions, bulk density, and effective saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil are constant. This study builds on a recently derived soil shrinkage model to develop a new multidomain, dual-permeability model that can accurately predict variations in soil hydraulic properties due to dynamic changes in crack size and connectivity. The model only requires estimates of soil gravimetric water content and a minimal set of parameters, all of which can be determined using laboratory and/or field measurements. We apply the model to eight clayey soils, and demonstrate its ability to quantify variations in volumetric water content (as can be determined during measurement of a soil water characteristic curve) and transient saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks (as can be measured using infiltration tests). The proposed model is able to capture observed variations in Ks of one to more than two orders of magnitude. In contrast, other dual-permeability models assume that Ks is constant, resulting in the potential for large error when predicting water movement through shrink-swell soils. Overall, the multidomain model presented here successfully quantifies fluctuations in the hydraulic properties of shrink-swell soil matrices, and are suitable for use in physical flow and transport models based on Darcy's Law, the Richards Equation, and the advection-dispersion equation.

  5. Effect of soil compaction and organic matter removal on two earthworm populations and some soil properties in a hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    D. Jordan; V. C. Hubbard; F., Jr. Ponder; E. C. Berry

    1999-01-01

    Earthworms can alter the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a forest ecosystem. Any physical manipulation to the soil ecosystem may, in turn, affect the activities and ecology of earthworms. The effects of organic matter removal (logs and forest floor) and soil compaction on earthworm activities were measured in a central hardwood region (oakhickory)...

  6. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  7. Estimation of soil hydraulic properties with microwave techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, P. E.; Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Useful quantitative information about soil properties may be obtained by calibrating energy and moisture balance models with remotely sensed data. A soil physics model solves heat and moisture flux equations in the soil profile and is driven by the surface energy balance. Model generated surface temperature and soil moisture and temperature profiles are then used in a microwave emission model to predict the soil brightness temperature. The model hydraulic parameters are varied until the predicted temperatures agree with the remotely sensed values. This method is used to estimate values for saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated matrix potential, and a soil texture parameter. The conductivity agreed well with a value measured with an infiltration ring and the other parameters agreed with values in the literature.

  8. [Effects of biochar application on greenhouse gas emission from paddy soil and its physical and chemical properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-xue; Wang, Yao-feng; Lü, Hao-hao; Chen, Yi; Tang, Xu; Wu, Chun-yan; Zhong, Zhe-ke; Yang, Sheng-mao

    2013-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rice straw returning and rice straw biochar and life rubbish biochar application on the greenhouse gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) emission from paddy soil, its physical and chemical properties, and rice grain yield. Compared with rice straw returning, applying rice straw biochar decreased the cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soil significantly by 64.2% - 78.5% and 16.3% - 18.4%, respectively. Whether planting rice or not, the cumulative N2O emission from paddy soil under the applications of rice straw biochar and life rubbish biochar was decreased significantly, compared with that without biochar amendment. Under the condition of no rice planting, applying life rubbish biochar reduced the cumulative CO2 emission significantly by 25.3%. Rice straw biochar was superior to life rubbish biochar in improving soil pH and available potassium content. Both rice straw biochar and life rubbish biochar could increase the soil organic carbon content significantly, but had less effects on the soil bulk density, total nitrogen and available phosphorus contents, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and grain yield. It was suggested that compared with rice straw returning, straw biochar was more effective in improving rice grain yield.

  9. Impacts of an integrated crop-livestock system on soil properties to enhance precipitation capture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping/Livestock systems alter soil properties that are important in enhancing capture of precipitation by developing and maintaining water infiltration and storage. In this paper we will relate soil hydraulic conductivity and other physical properties on managed Old World Bluestem grassland, whea...

  10. Using Remotely-Sensed Estimates of Soil Moisture to Infer Soil Texture and Hydraulic Properties across a Semi-arid Watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Garcia, Matthew E.; Mocko, David M.; Tischler, Michael A.; Moran, M. Susan; Thoma, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface soil moisture is a critical component of land surface energy and water balance studies encompassing a wide range of disciplines. However, the processes of infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration in the vadose zone of the soil are not easy to quantify or predict because of the difficulty in accurately representing soil texture and hydraulic properties in land surface models. This study approaches the problem of parameterizing soils from a unique perspective based on components originally developed for operational estimation of soil moisture for mobility assessments. Estimates of near-surface soil moisture derived from passive (L-band) microwave remote sensing were acquired on six dates during the Monsoon '90 experiment in southeastern Arizona, and used to calibrate hydraulic properties in an offline land surface model and infer information on the soil conditions of the region. Specifically, a robust parameter estimation tool (PEST) was used to calibrate the Noah land surface model and run at very high spatial resolution across the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Errors in simulated versus observed soil moisture were minimized by adjusting the soil texture, which in turn controls the hydraulic properties through the use of pedotransfer functions. By estimating a continuous range of widely applicable soil properties such as sand, silt, and clay percentages rather than applying rigid soil texture classes, lookup tables, or large parameter sets as in previous studies, the physical accuracy and consistency of the resulting soils could then be assessed. In addition, the sensitivity of this calibration method to the number and timing of microwave retrievals is determined in relation to the temporal patterns in precipitation and soil drying. The resultant soil properties were applied to an extended time period demonstrating the improvement in simulated soil moisture over that using default or county-level soil parameters. The methodology is also

  11. Modeling of the dielectric permittivity of porous soil media with water using statistical-physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy B.; Łukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Krystyna

    2013-04-01

    Radiometric observations with SMOS rely on the Radiation Transfer Equations (RTE) determining the Brightness Temperature (BT) in two linear polarization components (H, V) satisfying Fresnel principle of propagation in horizontally layered target media on the ground. RTE involve variables which bound the equations expressed in Electro-Magnetic (EM) terms of the intensity BT to the physical reality expressed by non-EM variables (Soil Moisture (SM), vegetation indexes, fractional coverage with many different properties, and the boundary conditions like optical thickness, layer definitions, roughness, etc.) bridging the EM domain to other physical aspects by means of the so called tau-omega methods. This method enables joining variety of different valuable models, including specific empirical estimation of physical properties in relation to the volumetric water content. The equations of RTE are in fact expressed by propagation, reflection and losses or attenuation existing on a considered propagation path. The electromagnetic propagation is expressed in the propagation constant. For target media on the ground the dielectric constant is a decisive part for effects of propagation. Therefore, despite of many various physical parameters involved, one must effectively and dominantly rely on the dielectric constant meant as a complex variable. The real part of the dielectric constant represents effect of apparent shortening the propagation path and the refraction, while the imaginary part is responsible for the attenuation or losses. This work engages statistical-physical modeling of soil properties considering the media as a mixture of solid grains, and gas or liquid filling of pores and contact bridges between compounds treated statistically. The method of this modeling provides an opportunity of characterizing the porosity by general statistical means, and is applicable to various physical properties (thermal, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties) which

  12. Incorporation of digestate selectively affects physical, chemical and biochemical properties along with CO2 emissions in two contrasting agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Petrovičová, Beatrix; Zumbo, Antonino; Romeo, Maurizio; Gullì, Tommaso; Martire, Luigi; Monti, Michele; Gelsomino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil incorporation of digestate represents a common practice to dispose the solid residues from biogas producing plants. Although the digestate constitutes a residual biomass rich in partially decomposed organic matter and nutrients, whose content is often highly variable and unbalanced, its potential fertilizer value can vary considerably depending on the recipient soil properties. The aim of the work was to assess short-term changes in the fertility status of two contrasting agricultural soils in Southern Italy (Calabria), olive grove on a clay acid soil (Typic Hapludalfs) and citrus grove on a sandy loam slightly calcareous soil (Typic Xerofluvents), respectively located along the Tyrrhenian or the Ionian coast. An amount of 30 t ha-1 digestate was incorporated into the soil by ploughing. Unamended tilled soil was used as control. The following soil physical, chemical and biochemical variables were monitored during the experimental period: aggregate stability, pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the mineralization quotient (qM). Moreover, in the olive grove soil CO2 emissions have been continuously measured at field scale for 5 months after digestate incorporation. Digestate application in both site exerted a significant positive effect on soil aggregate stability with a greater increase in clay than in sandy loam soil. Over the experimental period, digestate considerably affected the nutrient availability, namely Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, along with the electrical conductivity. The soil type increased significantly the soil N-NH4+ content, which was always higher in the olive than in citrus grove soil. N-NO3- content was markedly increased soon after the organic amendment, followed by a seasonal decline more evident in the sandy loam soil. Moreover, soil properties as CaCO3 content and the pH selectively affected the Olsen-P dynamics. No appreciable

  13. Biotic and Abiotic Soil Properties Influence Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Aude; Spor, Aymé; Jolivet, Claudy; Piveteau, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for the potentially fatal disease listeriosis and terrestrial ecosystems have been hypothesized to be its natural reservoir. Therefore, identifying the key edaphic factors that influence its survival in soil is critical. We measured the survival of L. monocytogenes in a set of 100 soil samples belonging to the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network. This soil collection is meant to be representative of the pedology and land use of the whole French territory. The population of L. monocytogenes in inoculated microcosms was enumerated by plate count after 7, 14 and 84 days of incubation. Analysis of survival profiles showed that L. monocytogenes was able to survive up to 84 days in 71% of the soils tested, in the other soils (29%) only a short-term survival (up to 7 to 14 days) was observed. Using variance partitioning techniques, we showed that about 65% of the short-term survival ratio of L. monocytogenes in soils was explained by the soil chemical properties, amongst which the basic cation saturation ratio seems to be the main driver. On the other hand, while explaining a lower amount of survival ratio variance (11%), soil texture and especially clay content was the main driver of long-term survival of L. monocytogenes in soils. In order to assess the effect of the endogenous soils microbiota on L. monocytogenes survival, sterilized versus non-sterilized soils microcosms were compared in a subset of 9 soils. We found that the endogenous soil microbiota could limit L. monocytogenes survival especially when soil pH was greater than 7, whereas in acidic soils, survival ratios in sterilized and unsterilized microcosms were not statistically different. These results point out the critical role played by both the endogenous microbiota and the soil physic-chemical properties in determining the survival of L. monocytogenes in soils. PMID:24116083

  14. Effects of biochars on hydraulic properties of clayey soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Jingbo; Palladino, Mario; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Biochar has gained popularity as an amendment to improve soil hydraulic properties. Since biochar properties depend on feedstocks and pyrolysis temperatures used for its production, proper selection of biochar type as soil amendment is of great importance for soil hydraulic properties improvement. This study investigated the effects of eight types of biochar on physical and hydraulic properties of clayey soil. Biochars were derived from four different feedstocks (Alfalfa hay, municipal organic waste, corn residues and wood chip) pyrolyzed at two different temperatures (300 and 550 °C). Clayey soil samples were taken from Leone farm (40° 26' 15.31" N, 14° 59' 45.54" E), Italy, and were oven-dried at 105 °C to determine dry bulk density. Biochars were mixed with the clayey soil at 5% by mass. Bulk densities of the mixtures were also determined. Saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) of the original clayey soil and corresponding mixtures were measured by means of falling-head method. Soil water retention measurements were conducted for clayey soil and mixtures using suction table apparatus and Richards' plate with the pressure head (h) up to 12000 cm. van Genuchten retention function was selected to evaluate the retention characteristics of clayey soil and mixtures. Available water content (AWC) was calculated by field capacity (h = - 500 cm) minus wilting pointing (h = -12000 cm). The results showed that biochar addition decreased the bulk density of clayey soil. The Ks of clayey soil increased due to the incorporation of biochars except for waste and corn biochars pyrolyzed at 550 °C. AWC of soils mixed with corn biochar pyrolyzed at 300 °C and wood biochar pyrolyzed at 550 °C, increased by 31% and 7%, respectively. Further analysis will be conducted in combination of biochar properties such as specific surface area and total pore volume. Better understanding of biochar impact on clayey soil will be helpful in biochar selection for soil amendment and

  15. Physical and Hydraulic Properties at Recently Burned and Long-Unburned Boreal Forest Areas in Interior Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, B. A.; Koch, J. C.; Walvoord, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forest regions in interior Alaska, USA are subject to recurring wildfire disturbance and climate shifts. These "press" and "pulse" disturbances impact water, solute, carbon, and energy fluxes, with feedbacks and consequences that are not adequately characterized. The NASA Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) seeks to understand susceptibility to disturbance in boreal regions. Subsurface physical and hydraulic properties are among the largest uncertainties in cryohydrogeologic modeling aiming to predict impacts of disturbance in Arctic and boreal regions. We address this research gap by characterizing physical and hydraulic properties of soil across a gradient of sites covering disparate soil textures and wildfire disturbance in interior Alaska. Samples were collected in the field within the domain of the NASA ABoVE project and analyzed in the laboratory. Physical properties measured include soil organic matter fraction, soil-particle size distribution, dry bulk density, and saturated soil-water content. Hydraulic properties measured include soil-water retention and field-saturated hydraulic conductivity using tension infiltrometers (-1 cm applied pressure head). The physical and hydraulic properties provide the foundation for site conceptual model development, cryohydrogeologic model parameterization, and integration with geophysical data. This foundation contributes to the NASA ABoVE objectives of understanding the underlying physical processes that control vulnerability in Arctic and Boreal landscapes.

  16. Assessing the variation in bund structure design and its impact on soil physical properties and hydrology in Koga catchment, Highlands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakew, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene; Fleskens, Luuk; Selassie, Yihenew; Ritsema, Coen

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged soil drying and severe moisture stress during the dry season, and soil saturation and erosion during the short rainy season are critical problems in the Ethiopian highlands. Large-scale implementation of bund structures has been used as soil and water management (SWM) strategy to fight these problems and establish a sustainable land management (SLM) system. However, many SWM practices are implemented with design flaws or without proper design and maintenance, and do not match conservation requirements. The quality of implementation and effects of bund structures on soil physical properties is not yet documented. Therefore, in this study, field investigations and laboratory analysis were carried out to evaluate the variation in bund structure design and its impact on soil-water retention, bulk density, porosity and soil depth. Results show that the dimensions and stability of bund structures, and consequently, the impacts of bunds varied widely. The widths and heights of bunds, and slope gradients were significantly correlated with infiltration rate and available soil-water content. Water holding capacity was 24% higher compared to that on untreated farms. Bunds with larger dimensions of top width (>85 cm) and height (>75 cm) showed 17 and 18% higher water holding capacity compared to fields with bunds having lower dimensions. In addition, results exhibited that the porosity and soil depth were significantly affected by the dimensions of bund structures and increased with increasing widths and heights of bunds. A 14.2% increase in porosity; a 41.2% increase in infiltration rate; and a 17.5% decrease in bulk density was found in soils of treated farms compared to those of untreated farm plots. Differences in particle size distribution and soil erodibility among widths of the bunds were low. It can be concluded that bund structure design varied substantially throughout the study area, which had impacted soil-water storage and soil physical properties. Bund

  17. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  18. Influence of biochar on the physical, chemical and retention properties of an amended sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; De Pasquale, Claudio; Parrino, Francesco; Crescimanno, Giuseppina

    2017-04-01

    Soil porosity plays an important role in soil-water retention and water availability to crops, potentially affecting both agricultural practices and environmental sustainability. The pore structure controls fluid flow and transport through the soil, as well as the relationship between the properties of individual minerals and plants. Moreover, the anthropogenic pressure on soil properties has produced numerous sites with extensive desertification process close to residential areas. Biochar (biologically derived charcoal) is produced by pyrolysis of biomasses under low oxygen conditions, and it can be applied for recycling organic waste in soils and increase soil fertility, improving soil structure and enhancing soil water storage and soil water movement. Soil application of biochar might have agricultural, environmental and sustainability advantages over the use of organic manures or compost, as it is a porous material with a high inner surface area. The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the possible application of biochar from forest residues, derived from mechanically chipped trunks and large branches of Abies alba M., Larix decidua Mill., Picea excelsa L., Pinus nigra A. and Pinus sylvestris L. pyrolysed at 450 °C for 48h, to improve soil structural and hydraulic properties (achieving a stabilization of soil). Different amount of biochar were added to a desertic sandy soil, and the effect on soil porosity water retention and water available to crops were investigated. The High Energy Moisture Characteristic (HEMC) technique was applied to investigate soil-water retention at high-pressure head levels. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of N2 on external surfaces were also determined in order to investigate micro and macro porosity ratio. Both the described model of studies on adsorption-desorption experiments with the applied isotherms model explain the increasing substrate porosity with a particular attention to the macro and micro

  19. Soil vital signs: A new Soil Quality Index (SQI) for assessing forest soil health

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Katherine P. O' Neil; Charles H. Perry

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program measures a number of chemical and physical properties of soils to address specific questions about forest soil quality or health. We developed a new index of forest soil health, the soil quality index (SQI), that integrates 19 measured physical and chemical properties of forest soils into a single number that serves as...

  20. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Dennis A

    2002-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the pyrethroids bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin (also zetacypermethrin), deltamethrin, esfenvalerate (also fenvalerate), fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin (also cyhalothrin), permethrin, and tralomethrin have been reviewed and summarized in this paper. Physical properties included molecular weight, octanol-water partition coefficient, vapor pressure, water solubility, Henry's law constant, fish biocencentration factor, and soil sorption, desorption, and Freundlich coefficients. Chemical properties included rates of degradation in water as a result of hydrolysis, photodecomposition, aerobic or anaerobic degradation by microorganisms in the absence of light, and also rates of degradation in soil incubated under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the pyrethroids display a highly nonpolar nature of low water solubility, low volatility, high octanol-water partition coefficients, and have high affinity for soil and sediment particulate matter. Pyrethroids have low mobility in soil and are sorbed strongly to the sediments of natural water systems. Although attracted to living organisms because of their nonpolar nature, their capability to bioconcentrate is mitigated by their metabolism and subsequent elimination by the organisms. In fish, bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 360 and 6000. Pyrethroids in water solution tend to be stable at acid and neutral pH but [table: see text] become increasingly susceptible to hydrolysis at pH values beyond neutral. Exceptions at higher pH are bifenthrin (stable), esfenvalerate (stable), and permethrin (half-life, 240 d). Pyrethroids vary in susceptibility to sunlight. Cyfluthrin and tralomethrin in water had half-lives of 0.67 and 2.5 d; lambda-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, deltamethrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin were intermediate with a range of 17-110 d; and bifenthrin and fenpropathrin showed the least susceptibility with half-lives of 400 and 600 d, respectively

  1. The effect of total carbon on microscopic soil properties and implications for crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil structure is a dynamic property affected by physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Addition of organic matter to soils and the use of different management practices have been reported to impact soil structure and crop production. Moderation in soil temperature and increases in mic...

  2. Assessment of physical and chemical indicators of sandy soil quality for sustainable crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2017-04-01

    Sandy soils are used in agriculture in many regions of the world. The share of sandy soils in Poland is about 55%. The aim of this study was to assess spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties affecting soil quality and crop yields in the scale of field (40 x 600 m) during three years of different weather conditions. The experimental field was located on the post glacial and acidified sandy deposits of low productivity (Szaniawy, Podlasie Region, Poland). Physical soil quality indicators included: content of sand, silt, clay and water, bulk density and those chemical: organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, acidity (pH). Measurements of the most soil properties were done at spring and summer each year in topsoil and subsoil layer in 150 points. Crop yields were evaluated in places close to measuring points of the soil properties. Basic statistics including mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis minimal, maximal and correlations between the soil properties and crop yields were calculated. Analysis of spatial dependence and distribution for each property was performed using geostatistical methods. Mathematical functions were fitted to the experimentally derived semivariograms that were used for mapping the soil properties and crop yield by kriging. The results showed that the largest variations had clay content (CV 67%) and the lowest: sand content (5%). The crop yield was most negatively correlated with sand content and most positively with soil water content and cation exchange capacity. In general the exponential semivariogram models fairly good matched to empirical data. The range of semivariogram models of the measured indicators varied from 14 m to 250 m indicate high and moderate spatial variability. The values of the nugget-to-sill+nugget ratios showed that most of the soil properties and crop yields exhibited strong and moderate spatial dependency. The kriging maps allowed identification of low yielding sub-field areas that

  3. [Effects of ex situ rice straw incorporation on organic matter content and main physical properties of hilly red soil].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han-hua; Huang, Dao-you; Liu, Shou-long; Zhu, Qi-hong

    2007-11-01

    Two typical land-use types, i.e., newly cultivated slope land and mellow upland, were selected to investigate the effects of ex situ rice straw incorporation on the organic matter content, field water-holding capacity, bulk density, and porosity of hilly red soil, and to approach the correlations between these parameters. The results showed that ex situ incorporation of rice straw increased soil organic matter content, ameliorated soil physical properties, and improved soil water storage. Comparing with non-fertilization and applying chemical fertilizers, ex situ incorporation of rice straw increased the contents of organic matter (5.8%-28.9%) and > 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates in 0-20 cm soil layer, and increased the field water-holding capacity (6.8%-16.2%) and porosity (4.8%-7.7%) significantly (P < 0.05) while decreased the bulk density (4.5%-7.5%) in 10-15 cm soil layer. The organic matter content in 0-20 cm soil layer was significantly correlated to the bulk density, porosity, and field water-holding capacity in 10-15 cm soil layer (P < 0.01), and the field water-holding capacity in 0-20 cm and 10-15 cm soil layers was significantly correlated to the bulk density and porosity in these two layers (P < 0.05).

  4. Soil property effects on wind erosion of organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobeck, Ted M.; Baddock, Matthew; Scott Van Pelt, R.; Tatarko, John; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Histosols (also known as organic soils, mucks, or peats) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (OM > 20%) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. Forty two states have a total of 21 million ha of Histosols in the United States. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion resulting in loss of crop productivity and degradation of soil, air, and water quality. Estimating wind erosion on Histosols has been determined by USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a critical need for the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model. WEPS has been developed to simulate wind erosion on agricultural land in the US, including soils with organic soil material surfaces. However, additional field measurements are needed to understand how soil properties vary among organic soils and to calibrate and validate estimates of wind erosion of organic soils using WEPS. Soil properties and sediment flux were measured in six soils with high organic contents located in Michigan and Florida, USA. Soil properties observed included organic matter content, particle density, dry mechanical stability, dry clod stability, wind erodible material, and geometric mean diameter of the surface aggregate distribution. A field portable wind tunnel was used to generate suspended sediment and dust from agricultural surfaces for soils ranging from 17% to 67% organic matter. The soils were tilled and rolled to provide a consolidated, friable surface. Dust emissions and saltation were measured using an isokinetic vertical slot sampler aspirated by a regulated suction source. Suspended dust was sampled using a Grimm optical particle size analyzer. Particle density of the saltation-sized material (>106 μm) was inversely related to OM content and varied from 2.41 g cm-3 for the soil with the lowest OM content to 1.61 g cm-3 for the soil with highest OM content. Wind erodible material and the geometric mean diameter of the surface soil were inversely related to dry clod

  5. A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gregory, A S; Ritz, K; McGrath, S P; Quinton, J N; Goulding, K W T; Jones, R J A; Harris, J A; Bol, R; Wallace, P; Pilgrim, E S; Whitmore, A P

    2015-10-01

    National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity. A decline in soil organic matter principally affects soil biological and microbiological properties, but also impacts on soil physical properties because of the link with soil structure. Soil contamination affects soil chemical properties, affecting nutrient availability and degrading microbial properties, whilst soil compaction degrades the soil pore network. Soil sealing removes the link between the soil and most of the 'spheres', significantly affecting hydrological and microbial functions, and soils on re-developed brownfield sites are typically degraded in most soil properties. Having synthesized the literature on the impact on soil properties, we discuss potential subsequent impacts on the important soil functions, including food and fibre production, storage of water and C, support for biodiversity, and protection of cultural and archaeological heritage. Looking forward, we suggest a twin approach of field-based monitoring supported by controlled laboratory experimentation to improve our mechanistic understanding of soils. This would enable us to better predict future impacts of degradation processes, including climate change, on soil properties and functions so that we may manage soil resources sustainably.

  6. Quantifying the heterogeneity of soil compaction, physical soil properties and soil moisture across multiple spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2016-04-01

    England's rural landscape is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Since the Second World War the intensification of agriculture has resulted in greater levels of soil compaction, associated with higher stocking densities in fields. Locally compaction has led to loss of soil storage and an increased in levels of ponding in fields. At the catchment scale soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a 40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. However, at the catchment scale there is likely to be a significant amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields, due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on one specific type of land use (permanent pasture with cattle grazing) and areas of activity within the field (feeding area, field gate, tree shelter, open field area). The aim was to determine if the soil characteristics and soil compaction levels are homogeneous in the four areas of the field. Also, to determine if these levels stayed the same over the course of the year, or if there were differences at the end of the dry (October) and wet (April) periods. Field experiments were conducted in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 120km2. The dynamic cone penetrometer was used to determine the structural properties of the soil, soil samples were collected to assess the bulk density, organic matter content and permeability in the laboratory and the Hydrosense II was used to determine the soil moisture content in the topsoil. Penetration results show that the tree shelter is the most compacted and the open field area

  7. Soil properties and soil nitrogen dynamics of prairie-like forest openings and surrounding forests in Kentucky's Knobs Region

    Treesearch

    C.C. Rhoades; S.P. Miller; M.M. Shea

    2004-01-01

    Herbaceous communities located within forest openings increase plant species diversity of forests in the Knobs Region of Kentucky. Although these grass-dominated communities are protected and managed for rare plant species conservation, it is unclear how soil conditions may delineate the grassland-forest boundary. We compared soil chemical and physical properties and...

  8. Litter decay controlled by temperature, not soil properties, affecting future soil carbon.

    PubMed

    Gregorich, Edward G; Janzen, Henry; Ellert, Benjamin H; Helgason, Bobbi L; Qian, Budong; Zebarth, Bernie J; Angers, Denis A; Beyaert, Ronald P; Drury, Craig F; Duguid, Scott D; May, William E; McConkey, Brian G; Dyck, Miles F

    2017-04-01

    Widespread global changes, including rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, climate warming and loss of biodiversity, are predicted for this century; all of these will affect terrestrial ecosystem processes like plant litter decomposition. Conversely, increased plant litter decomposition can have potential carbon-cycle feedbacks on atmospheric CO 2 levels, climate warming and biodiversity. But predicting litter decomposition is difficult because of many interacting factors related to the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, as well as to climate and agricultural management practices. We applied 13 C-labelled plant litter to soil at ten sites spanning a 3500-km transect across the agricultural regions of Canada and measured its decomposition over five years. Despite large differences in soil type and climatic conditions, we found that the kinetics of litter decomposition were similar once the effect of temperature had been removed, indicating no measurable effect of soil properties. A two-pool exponential decay model expressing undecomposed carbon simply as a function of thermal time accurately described kinetics of decomposition. (R 2  = 0.94; RMSE = 0.0508). Soil properties such as texture, cation exchange capacity, pH and moisture, although very different among sites, had minimal discernible influence on decomposition kinetics. Using this kinetic model under different climate change scenarios, we projected that the time required to decompose 50% of the litter (i.e. the labile fractions) would be reduced by 1-4 months, whereas time required to decompose 90% of the litter (including recalcitrant fractions) would be reduced by 1 year in cooler sites to as much as 2 years in warmer sites. These findings confirm quantitatively the sensitivity of litter decomposition to temperature increases and demonstrate how climate change may constrain future soil carbon storage, an effect apparently not influenced by soil properties. © 2016 Her Majesty

  9. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  10. Vertical variation of a black soil's properties in response to freeze-thaw cycles and its links to shift of microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Han, Ziming; Deng, Mingwen; Yuan, Anqi; Wang, Jiahui; Li, Hao; Ma, Jincai

    2018-06-01

    Soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) change soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, however information regarding their vertical variations in response to FTCs is limited. In this work, black soil (silty loam) packed soil columns were exposed to 8 FTCs, and soil properties were determined for each of vertical layer of soil columns. The results revealed that after FTCs treatment, moisture and electrical conductivity (EC) salinity tended to increase in upper soil layers. Increments of ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) in top layers (0-10cm) were greater than those in other layers, and increments of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and decrease of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in middle layers (10-20cm) were greater than those in both ends. Overall, microbial community structure was mainly influenced by soil physical properties (moisture and EC) and chemical properties (pH and WSOC). For bacterial (archaeal) and fungal communities, soil physical properties, chemical properties and their interaction explained 79.73% and 82.66% of total variation, respectively. Our results provided insights into the vertical variation of soil properties caused by FTCs, and such variation had a major impact on the change of structure and composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

  12. Changes in Forest Soil Properties in Different Successional Stages in Lower Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (PMF), mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF), representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS), soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), pH, NH4 +-N, available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) and microelements (available copper (Cu), available zinc (Zn), available iron (Fe) and available boron (B)) between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage). Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage). pH, NH4 +-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. Conclusion/Significance These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  13. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  14. Calibrating Nonlinear Soil Material Properties for Seismic Analysis Using Soil Material Properties Intended for Linear Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-08-01

    Seismic analysis of nuclear structures is routinely performed using guidance provided in “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary (ASCE 4, 1998).” This document, which is currently under revision, provides detailed guidance on linear seismic soil-structure-interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear structures. To accommodate the linear analysis, soil material properties are typically developed as shear modulus and damping ratio versus cyclic shear strain amplitude. A new Appendix in ASCE 4-2014 (draft) is being added to provide guidance for nonlinear time domain SSI analysis. To accommodate the nonlinear analysis, a more appropriate form of the soil material properties includes shear stressmore » and energy absorbed per cycle versus shear strain. Ideally, nonlinear soil model material properties would be established with soil testing appropriate for the nonlinear constitutive model being used. However, much of the soil testing done for SSI analysis is performed for use with linear analysis techniques. Consequently, a method is described in this paper that uses soil test data intended for linear analysis to develop nonlinear soil material properties. To produce nonlinear material properties that are equivalent to the linear material properties, the linear and nonlinear model hysteresis loops are considered. For equivalent material properties, the shear stress at peak shear strain and energy absorbed per cycle should match when comparing the linear and nonlinear model hysteresis loops. Consequently, nonlinear material properties are selected based on these criteria.« less

  15. Viscoelastic Properties of Soil with Different Ammonium Nitrate Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawecka-Radomska, M.; Tomczyńska-Mleko, M.; Muszyńskic, S.; Wesołowska-Trojanowska, M.; Mleko, S.

    2017-12-01

    Four different soils samples were taken from not cultivated recreational places. Particle-size distribution and pH (in water and in 1 M KCl) of the soil samples were measured. Soil samples were saturated with deionized water and solution of ammonium nitrate with the concentration of 5, 50 or 500 mM for 3 days. The samples were analyzed using dynamic oscillatory rheometer by frequency and strain sweeps. Soil samples were similar to physical gels, as they presented rheological properties between those of a concentrated biopolymer and a true gel. 50 mM concentration of the salt was enough to make changes in the elasticity of the soils. Small concentration of the fertilizer caused weakening of the soil samples structure. Higher concentration of ammonium nitrate caused the increase in the moduli crossover strain value. For the loam sample taken from a playground, with the highest content of the particles <0.002 mm (clay aluminosilicates), the lowest value of strain was observed at the moduli intersection. Lower strain value was necessary for the sliding shear effect of soil A sample effecting transgression to the "flowing" state. Strain sweep moduli crossover point can be used as a determinant of the rheological properties of soil.

  16. Soil Water Retention as Indicator for Soil Physical Quality - Examples from Two SoilTrEC European Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseva, Svetla; Kercheva, Milena; Shishkov, Toma; Dimitrov, Emil; Nenov, Martin; Lair, Georg J.; Moraetis, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    well defined. The scattering is due to high values of S in subsoil, which does not always coincide with favourable physical properties, as it can be seen from the relationship with the PAW content. It was found that values of S ≥ 0.05 correspond to PAW > 20 % vol. in the topsoil horizons. The high values of S in subsoil horizons are due to the low PAW and restrict the application of the S categories in these cases. Well defined links are found between the PAW content and the S-parameter when the data from the topsoil horizons are grouped in 2 groups according to the ratio between air-filled pores (at pF 2.52) and plant available water: <2 and ≥ 2. The authors acknowledge gratefully the European Commission Research Directorate-General for funding the SoilTrEC project (Contract No 244118) under its 7th Framework Programme.

  17. Effects of long-term soil and crop management on soil hydraulic properties for claypan soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regional and national soil maps have been developed along with associated soil property databases to assist users in making land management decisions based on soil characteristics. These soil properties include average values from soil characterization for each soil series. In reality, these propert...

  18. Correlations between soil respiration and soil properties in sugarcane areas under green and slash-and-burn management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Milori, Débora M. B. P.; Marques Júnior, José; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; La Scala, Newton, Jr.

    2010-05-01

    Soil management causes changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties that consequently affect its CO2 emission. In this work we studied soil respiration (FCO2) in areas with sugarcane production in southern Brazil under two different sugarcane management systems: green (G), consisting of mechanized harvesting that produces a large amount of crop residues left on the soil surface, and slash-and-burn (SB), in which the residues are burned before manual harvest, leaving no residues on the soil surface. The study was conducted after the harvest period in two side-by-side grids installed in adjacent areas, having 20 measurement points each. The objective of this work was to determinate whether soil physical and chemical properties within each plot were useful in order to explain the spatial variability of FCO2, supposedly influence by each management system. Most of the soil physical properties studied showed no significant differences between management systems, but on the other hand most of the chemical properties differed significantly when SB and G areas were compared. Total FCO2 was 31% higher in the SB plot (729 g CO2 m-2) when compared to the G plot (557 g CO2 m-2) throughout the 70-day period after harvest studied. This seems to be related to the sensitivity of FCO2 to precipitation events, as respiration in this plot increased significantly with increases in soil moisture. Despite temporal variability showed to be positively related to soil moisture, inside each management system there was a negative correlation (p<0.01) between the spatial changes of FCO2 and soil moisture (MS), R= -0.56 and -0.59 for G and SB respectively. There was no spatial correlation between FCO2 and soil organic matter in each management system, however, the humification index (Hum) of organic matter was negatively linear correlated with FCO2 in SB (R= -0.53, p<0.05) while positively linear correlated in G area (R=0.42, p<0.10). The multiple regression model analysis

  19. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) and aggregate stability (AS) are two soil properties that are typically modified after burning and impose significant influence on subsequent hydrological and geomorphological dynamics. The response of AS and soil WR to fire depends upon how fire has influenced other key soil properties (e.g. soil OM, mineralogy). Meanwhile, routine thinning of trees and woody vegetation may alter soil properties (e.g. structure and porosity, wettability) by use of heavy machinery and species selection. The study area is situated along a north-facing slope of Mount Carmel national park (Israel). The selected sites are presented as a continuum of management intensity and fire histories. To date, the natural baseline of soil WR has yet to be thoroughly assessed and must be investigated alongside associated soil aggregating parameters in order to understand its overall impact. This study examines (i) the natural baseline of soil WR and physical properties compared to those of disturbed sites in the immediate (controlled burn) and long-term (10-years), and (ii) the interactions of soil properties with different control factors (management, surface cover, seasonal-temporal, burn temperature, soil organic carbon (OC) and mineralogy) in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Analysis of surface soil samples before and after destruction of WR by heating (200-600°C) was implemented using a combination of traditional methods and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Management and surface cover type conditioned the wettability, soil structure and porosity of soils in the field, although this largely did not affect the heat-induced changes observed in the lab. A positive correlation was observed along an increasing temperature gradient, with relative maxima of MWD and BD reached by most soils at the threshold of 400-500°C. Preliminary analyses of soil OC (MIR) and mineralogical composition (VIS-NIR) support existing research regarding: (i) the importance of soil OC quality and

  20. Soil Physical, Chemical, and Thermal Characterization, Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graham, David; Kholodov, Alexander; Wilson, Cathy; Moon, Ji-Won; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Busey, Bob

    2018-02-05

    This dataset provides the results of physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of soils at the Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Soil pits were dug from 7-14 September 2016 at designated Intensive Stations 2 through 9 at the Teller Road MM 27 Site. This dataset includes field observations and descriptions of soil layers or horizons, field measurements of soil volumetric water content, soil temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Laboratory measurements of soil properties include gravimetric water content, bulk density, volumetric water content, and total carbon and nitrogen.

  1. Soil Physical, Chemical, and Thermal Characterization, Council Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Alexander Kholodov; David Graham; Ji-Won Moon

    2018-01-22

    This dataset provides the results of physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of soils at the Council Road Site at MM71, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Soil pits were dug on 11 September 2016 at three sites. This dataset includes field observations and descriptions of soil layers or horizons, field measurements of soil volumetric water content, soil temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Laboratory measurements of soil properties include gravimetric water content, bulk density, volumetric water content, total carbon and nitrogen, and elemental composition from X-ray fluorescence for some elements.

  2. GEMAS: Unmixing magnetic properties of European agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Nurgaliev, Danis

    2016-04-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements provide new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soil which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment and consequences of climatic change, for planning economic and ecological land use, and for forensic applications. Hysteresis measurements of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey yield a comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in European agricultural soil on a continental scale. Low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k were measured using a Bartington MS2B sensor. Hysteresis properties were determined by a J-coercivity spectrometer, built at the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T. The resulting data are used to create the first continental-scale maps of magnetic soil parameters. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas contains a comprehensive set of geochemical data for the same soil samples, the new data can be used to map magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The data set also provides a unique opportunity to analyze the magnetic mineral fraction of the soil samples by unmixing their IRM acquisition curves. The endmember coefficients are interpreted by linear inversion for other magnetic, physical and chemical properties which results in an unprecedented and detailed view of the mineral magnetic composition of European agricultural soils.

  3. Enhancing the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Djarwanti, Noegroho; Umri Ukoi, Nafisah

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with stabilization of expansive soil on a laboratory experimental basis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the enhancement of the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash. The soil is treated with bagasse ash by weight (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry mass. The performance of bagasse ash stabilized soil was evaluated using physical and strength performance tests, namely the plasticity index, standard Proctor compaction, and percentage swelling. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was conducted to evaluate the clay mineral, whereas an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was to the chemical composition of bagasse ash. From the results, it was observed that the basic tests carried out proved some soil properties after the addition of bagasse ash. Furthermore, the plasticity index decreased from 53.18 to 47.70%. The maximum dry density of the specimen increased from 1.13 to 1.24 gr/cm3. The percentage swelling decreased from 5.48 to 3.29%. The outcomes of these tests demonstrate that stabilization of expansive soils using bagasse ash can improve the strength.

  4. Effects of Long-term Soil and Crop Management on Soil Hydraulic Properties for Claypan Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regional and national soil maps and associated databases of soil properties have been developed to help land managers make decisions based on soil characteristics. Hydrologic modelers also utilize soil hydraulic properties provided in these databases, in which soil characterization is based on avera...

  5. Effects of Forest Gaps on Soil Properties in Castanopsis kawakamii Nature Forest.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongsheng; Liu, Jinfu; Su, Songjin; Zheng, Shiqun; Xu, Daowei; Wu, Zeyan; Hong, Wei; Wang, James Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of forest gaps on the variations of soil properties in Castanopsis kawakamii natural forest. Soil physical and chemical properties in various sizes and development stages were studied in C. kawakamii natural forest gaps. The results showed that forest gaps in various sizes and development stages could improve soil pore space structure and water characteristics, which may effectively promote the water absorbing capacity for plant root growth and play an important role in forest regeneration. Soil pore space structure and water characteristics in small gaps showed more obvious improvements, followed by the medium and large gaps. Soil pore space structure and water characteristics in the later development stage of forest gaps demonstrated more obvious improvements, followed by the early and medium development stages. The contents of hydrolysable N and available K in various sizes and development stages of forest gaps were higher than those of non-gaps, whereas the contents of total N, total P, available P, organic matter, and organic carbon were lower. The contents of total N, hydrolysable N, available K, organic matter, and organic carbon in medium gaps were higher than those of large and small gaps. The disturbance of forest gaps could improve the soils' physical and chemical properties and increase the population species' richness, which would provide an ecological basis for the species coexistence in C. kawakamii natural forest.

  6. Changes in physical properties and carbon stocks of gray forest soils in the southern part of Moscow region during postagrogenic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeva, Yu. I.; Kurganova, I. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Pochikalov, A. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2017-03-01

    Changes in carbon stocks and physical properties of gray forest soils during their postagrogenic evolution have been studied in the succession chronosequence comprising an arable, lands abandoned 6, 15, and 30 years ago; and a secondary deciduous forest (Experimental Field Station of the Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region). It is found that carbon stocks in the upper 60-cm soil layer gain with increasing period of abandonment, from 6.17 kg C/m2 on the arable land to 8.81 kg C/m2 in the forest soil, which represents the final stage of postagrogenic succession. The most intensive carbon accumulation occurs in the upper layer of the former plow (0- to 10-cm) horizon. It is shown that the self-restoration of gray forest soils is accompanied by a reliable decrease of bulk density in the upper 10-cm layer from 1.31 ± 0.01 g/cm3 on the arable to 0.97 ± 0.02 g/cm3 in the forest. In the former plow horizon of the arable-abandoned land-forest succession series, the portion of macroaggregates increases from 73.6 to 88.5%; the mean weighted diameter of aggregates, by 1.6 times; and the coefficient of aggregation, by 3.8 times. Thus, the removal of lands from agricultural use results in a gradual restoration of their natural structure, improvement of soil agronomical properties, and carbon sequestration in the upper part of the soil profile.

  7. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7-8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78-0.90 and 0.79-0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties.

  8. Effects of golf course management on subsurface soil properties in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streeter, Matthew T.; Schilling, Keith E.

    2018-05-01

    Currently, in the USA and especially in the Midwest region, urban expansion is developing turfgrass landscapes surrounding commercial sites, homes, and recreational areas on soils that have been agriculturally managed for decades. Often, golf courses are at the forefront of conversations concerning anthropogenic environmental impacts as they account for some of the most intensively managed soils in the world. Iowa golf courses provide an ideal location to evaluate whether golf course management is affecting the quality of soils at depth. Our study evaluated how soil properties relating to soil health and resiliency varied with depth at golf courses across Iowa and interpreted relationships of these properties to current golf course management, previous land use, and inherent soil properties. Systematic variation in soil properties including sand content, NO3, and soil organic matter (SOM) were observed with depth at six Iowa golf courses among three landform regions. Variability in sand content was identified between the 20 and 50 cm depth classes at all courses, where sand content decreased by as much as 37 %. Highest concentrations of SOM and NO3 were found in the shallowest soils, whereas total C and P variability was not related to golf course management. Sand content and NO3 were found to be directly related to golf course management, particularly at shallow depths. The effects of golf course management dissipated with depth and deeper soil variations were primarily due to natural geologic conditions. The two abovementioned soil properties were very noticeably altered by golf course management and may directly impact crop productivity, soil health, and water quality, and while NO3 may be altered relatively quickly in soil through natural processes, particle size of the soil may not be altered without extensive mitigation. Iowa golf courses continue to be developed in areas of land use change from historically native prairies and more recently agriculture to

  9. Changes in physical-thermal properties of soil related to very shallow geothermal systems in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sipio, Eloisa; Psyk, Mario; Popp, Thomas; Bertermann, David

    2016-04-01

    In the near future the population living in urban areas is expected to increase. This worldwide trend will lead to a high concentrations of infrastructures in confined areas, whose impact on land use and shallow subsurface must be well evaluated. Since shallow geothermal energy resource is becoming increasingly important as renewable energy resource, due to its huge potential in providing thermal energy for residential and tertiary buildings and in contributing to reduce greenhouse gas emission, the number of installed geothermal systems is expected to continue to rise in the near future. However, a leading question concerns the short and long-term effect of an intensive thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling and thermal energy storage. From an environmental and technical point of view, changes on ground temperatures can influence the physical-thermal properties of soil and groundwater as well as their chemical and biological features. In this study the preliminary results of ITER Project are presented. This project, funded by European Union, focuses on improving heat transfer efficiency of very shallow geothermal systems, as horizontal collector systems or special forms (i.e. helix system), interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level. Given the heterogeneity of sedimentary deposits in alluvial plain and the uncertainties related to the estimation of thermal parameters for unconsolidated material affected by thermal use, physical-thermal parameters (i.e. moisture content, bulk density, thermal conductivity...) where determined in laboratory for sand, clay and loamy sand samples. In addition, preliminary results from a field test site located within an urban area will be also shown. The main aim is to improve our knowledge of heat transfer process in the soil body in order (i) to create a reference database to compare subsequently the impact of temperature variations on the same properties and (ii) to provide reliable data for

  10. Ecosystem restoration treatments affect soil physical and chemical properties in Appalachian mixed oak forests

    Treesearch

    Ralph E.J. Boerner; Jennifer a. Brinkman; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the effect of ecosystem restoration treatments on soil properties in the oak forests of southern Ohio. The treatments were (1) prescribed fire, (2) mechanical thinning, (3) fire and thinning, and (4) passive management (control). Fire and thinning resulted in increased mineral soil exposure, with the effect decreasing by the fourth...

  11. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  12. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj 2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7–8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj 2 values of 0.78–0.90 and 0.79–0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties. PMID:26217951

  13. Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as

  14. Soil properties of mangroves in contrasting geomorphic settings within the Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique

    Treesearch

    Christina E. Stringer; Carl C. Trettin; Stan Zarnoch

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are well-known for their numerous ecosystem services, including sequestering a significant carbon stock, with soils accounting for the largest pool. The soil carbon pool is dependent on the carbon content and bulk density. Our objective was to assess the spatial variability of mangrove soil physical and chemical properties within the Zambezi River Delta and...

  15. Field Identification of Andic Soil Properties for Soils of North-central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Brian Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Currently, laboratory measurements are definitive for identifying andic soil properties in both the USDA Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1999) and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (FAO/ISRIC/ISSS 1998). Andic soil properties, as described in Soil Taxonomy, result mainly from the presence of significant amounts of allophone, imogolite, ferrihydrite or...

  16. Effects of spent mushroom compost application on the physicochemical properties of a degraded soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümüş, İlknur; Şeker, Cevdet

    2017-11-01

    Under field and laboratory conditions, the application of organic amendments has generally shown an improvement in soil physicochemical properties. Here, spent mushroom compost (SMC) is proposed as a suitable organic amendment for soil structure restoration. Our study assessed the impact of SMC on the physicochemical properties of a weak-structured and physically degraded soil. The approach involved the establishment of a pot experiment with SMC applications into soil (control, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 %). Soils were incubated at field capacity (-33 kPa) for 21, 42, and 62 days under laboratory conditions. SMC applications into the soil significantly increased the aggregate stability (AS) and decreased the modulus of rupture. The application of SMC at rates of 1, 2, 4, and 8 % significantly increased the total nitrogen and soil organic carbon contents of the degraded soil at all incubation periods (p < 0.05). The results obtained in this study indicate that the application of SMC can improve soil physicochemical properties, which may benefit farmers, land managers, and mushroom growers.

  17. Atlas of soil reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    A compendium of soil spectral reflectance curves together with soil test results and site information is presented in an abbreviated manner listing those soil properties most important in influencing soil reflectance. Results are presented for 251 soils from 39 states and Brazil. A narrative key describes relationships between soil parameters and reflectance curves. All soils are classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy and soil series name for ease of identification.

  18. The effect of monoculture peanut and cassava/peanut intercropping on physical and chemical properties in peanut rhizosphere soil under the biochar application and straw mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Tian, Y.; Guo, X. F.; Chen, G. K.; He, H. Z.; Li, H. S.

    2017-03-01

    Cassava/peanut intercropping is a popular cultivation method in the south China, with the advantage of apparent yield increase. In order to analyze the effect of cassava/peanut intercropping on physical and chemical properties in peanut rhizosphere soil, the physical and chemical properties were investigated under the biochar application and straw mulching. The result showed that the Ph, organic materials content, available phosphorus content, available potassium content in peanut rhizosphere under the biochar application increased by 7.06%, 94.52%, 17.53%, 25.08% (monoculture peanut) and 8.47%, 89.94%, 17.93%, 22.87% (cassava/peanut intercropping) compared with Ck in the same planting patterns. In addition, the available nitrogen content, organic materials content, available phosphorus content, and available potassium content in peanut rhizosphere under the straw mulching increased by 89.80%, 60.92%, 5.95%, 9.98% (monoculture peanut) and 67.09%, 52.34%, 6.96%, 11.94% (cassava/peanut intercropping) compared with Ck in the same planting patterns. In the same treatment conditions, bulk density in peanut rhizosphere soil decreased and porosity and saturated permeability coefficient increased slightly. But there was no significant difference between the two. At the same time, cassava/peanut intercropping could increase soil nutrients. Therefore, it is beneficial to apply biochar and straw mulching, and the suitable intercropping row spacing is more beneficial to increase soil nutrient contents.

  19. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic Soils. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  1. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  2. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  3. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  4. Chemical properties of forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Soil Chemistry Important? The soil quality indicator was initially developed as a tool for assessing the current status of forest soil resources and predicting potential changes in soil properties. Soil chemistry data can be used to diagnose tree vigor and document the deposition of atmospheric pollutants (e.g., acid rain). This chapter focuses on two chemical...

  5. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  6. Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties Obtained with Laboratory Methods and Their Relation to Field Electrical Resistivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dathe, A.; Nemes, A.; Bloem, E.; Patterson, M.; Gimenez, D.; Angyal, A.; Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.

    2017-12-01

    Soil spatial heterogeneity plays a critical role for describing water and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Although we have a sound understanding of the physical properties underlying this heterogeneity (like macropores causing preferential water flow), their quantification in a spatial context is still a challenge. To improve existing knowledge and modelling approaches we established a field experiment on an agriculturally used silty clay loam (Stagnosol) in SE Norway. Centimeter to decimeter scale heterogeneities were investigated in the field using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a quasi-3D and a real 3D approach. More than 100 undisturbed soil samples were taken in the 2x1x1 m3plot investigated with 3D ERT to determine soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and bulk density in the laboratory. A subset of these samples was scanned at the computer tomography (CT) facility at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, with special emphasis on characterizing macroporosity. Results show that the ERT measurements captured the spatial distribution of bulk densities and reflected soil water contents. However, ERT could not resolve the large variation observed in saturated hydraulic conductivities from the soil samples. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was clearly related to the macroporosity visible in the CT scans obtained from the respective soil cores. Hydraulic conductivities close to saturation mainly changed with depths in the soil profile and therefore with bulk density. In conclusion, to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of saturated hydraulic conductivities scanning methods with a resolution smaller than the size of macropores have to be used. This is feasible only when the information obtained from for example CT scans of soil cores would be upscaled in a meaningful way.

  7. Estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of radiostrontium using soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nao K; Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new approach for estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (K(d)) of radiostrontium using some selected soil properties. We used 142 Japanese agricultural soil samples (35 Andosol, 25 Cambisol, 77 Fluvisol, and 5 others) for which Sr-K(d) values had been determined by a batch sorption test and listed in our database. Spearman's rank correlation test was carried out to investigate correlations between Sr-K(d) values and soil properties. Electrical conductivity and water soluble Ca had good correlations with Sr-K(d) values for all soil groups. Then, we found a high correlation between the ratio of exchangeable Ca to Ca concentration in water soluble fraction and Sr-K(d) values with correlation coefficient R=0.72. This pointed us toward a relatively easy way to estimate Sr-K(d) values.

  8. Effects of Spatial Variability of Soil Properties on the Triggering of Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-04-01

    Naturally-occurring spatial variations in soil properties (e.g., soil depth, moisture, and texture) affect key hydrological processes and potentially the mechanical response of soil to hydromechanical loading (relative to the commonly-assumed uniform soil mantle). We quantified the effects of soil spatial variability on the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides at the hillslope- and catchment-scales, using a physically-based landslide triggering model that considers interacting soil columns with mechanical strength thresholds (represented by the Fiber Bundle Model). The spatial variations in soil properties are represented as Gaussian random distributions and the level of variation is characterized by the coefficient of variation and correlation lengths of soil properties (i.e., soil depth, soil texture and initial water content in this study). The impacts of these spatial variations on landslide triggering characteristics were measured by comparing the times to triggering and landslide volumes for heterogeneous soil properties and homogeneous cases. Results at hillslope scale indicate that for spatial variations of an individual property (without cross correlation), the increasing of coefficient of variation introduces weak spots where mechanical damage is accelerated and leads to earlier onset of landslide triggering and smaller volumes. Increasing spatial correlation length of soil texture and initial water content also induces early landslide triggering and small released volumes due to the transition of failure mode from brittle to ductile failure. In contrast, increasing spatial correlation length of soil depth "reduces" local steepness and postpones landslide triggering. Cross-correlated soil properties generally promote landslide initiation, but depending on the internal structure of spatial distribution of each soil property, landslide triggering may be reduced. The effects of cross-correlation between initial water content and soil texture

  9. Modeling uncertainty and correlation in soil properties using Restricted Pairing and implications for ensemble-based hillslope-scale soil moisture and temperature estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, A. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Bras, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    Soil hydraulic and thermal properties (SHTPs) affect both the rate of moisture redistribution in the soil column and the volumetric soil water capacity. Adequately constraining these properties through field and lab analysis to parameterize spatially-distributed hydrology models is often prohibitively expensive. Because SHTPs vary significantly at small spatial scales individual soil samples are also only reliably indicative of local conditions, and these properties remain a significant source of uncertainty in soil moisture and temperature estimation. In ensemble-based soil moisture data assimilation, uncertainty in the model-produced prior estimate due to associated uncertainty in SHTPs must be taken into account to avoid under-dispersive ensembles. To treat SHTP uncertainty for purposes of supplying inputs to a distributed watershed model we use the restricted pairing (RP) algorithm, an extension of Latin Hypercube (LH) sampling. The RP algorithm generates an arbitrary number of SHTP combinations by sampling the appropriate marginal distributions of the individual soil properties using the LH approach, while imposing a target rank correlation among the properties. A previously-published meta- database of 1309 soils representing 12 textural classes is used to fit appropriate marginal distributions to the properties and compute the target rank correlation structure, conditioned on soil texture. Given categorical soil textures, our implementation of the RP algorithm generates an arbitrarily-sized ensemble of realizations of the SHTPs required as input to the TIN-based Realtime Integrated Basin Simulator with vegetation dynamics (tRIBS+VEGGIE) distributed parameter ecohydrology model. Soil moisture ensembles simulated with RP- generated SHTPs exhibit less variance than ensembles simulated with SHTPs generated by a scheme that neglects correlation among properties. Neglecting correlation among SHTPs can lead to physically unrealistic combinations of parameters that

  10. Effect of Fresh Poultry Litter and Compost on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Stacy; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Application of poultry litter and compost as a substitute for fertilizer not only uses unwanted waste and decreases expenditures for commercial fertilizer, it adds nutrients to soil for plant uptake. The properties of soil affected by poultry litter were analyzed to determine the positive and negative aspects of using this substitute fertilizer. This study focused on changes associated with saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, nitrate concentrations, and pH after application of varying concentrations of poultry litter and compost. Soil samples from Tennessee Valley Substation in Alabama were analyzed in a laboratory at Alabama A&M University. As a result of the application of fresh poultry litter and compost, we found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased and the bulk density decreased, while the pH was generally not affected. Using poultry litter and compost as an alternative commercial fertilizers could be adapted by the farming community to protect the sustainability of our environment. Unwanted waste is used productively and soil is enriched for farming.

  11. Soil property maps of Africa at 250 m resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge S.; Shepherd, Keith; Sila, Andrew; Desta, Lulseged T.; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-04-01

    Vast areas of arable land in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from low soil fertility and physical soil constraints, and significant amounts of nutrients are lost yearly due to unsustainable soil management practices. At the same time it is expected that agriculture in Africa must intensify to meet the growing demand for food and fiber the next decades. Protection and sustainable management of Africa's soil resources is crucial to achieve this. In this context, comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date soil information is an essential input to any agricultural or environmental management or policy and decision-making model. In Africa, detailed soil information has been fragmented and limited to specific zones of interest for decades. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. AfSIS builds on recent advances in digital soil mapping, infrared spectroscopy, remote sensing, (geo)statistics, and integrated soil fertility management to improve the way soils are evaluated, mapped, and monitored. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project has compiled two soil profile data sets (about 28,000 unique locations): the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site (new soil samples) database -- the two data sets represent the most comprehensive soil sample database of the African continent to date. In addition a large set of high-resolution environmental data layers (covariates) was assembled. The point data were used in the AfSIS project to generate a set of maps of key soil properties for the African continent at 250 m spatial resolution: sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, cation-exchange capacity, exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na), exchangeable acidity, and Al content. These properties were mapped for six depth intervals up to 2 m: 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. Random forests modelling was used to

  12. Quantitative assessment on soil enzyme activities of heavy metal contaminated soils with various soil properties.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yu; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    Soil enzyme activities are greatly influenced by soil properties and could be significant indicators of heavy metal toxicity in soil for bioavailability assessment. Two groups of experiments were conducted to determine the joint effects of heavy metals and soil properties on soil enzyme activities. Results showed that arylsulfatase was the most sensitive soil enzyme and could be used as an indicator to study the enzymatic toxicity of heavy metals under various soil properties. Soil organic matter (SOM) was the dominant factor affecting the activity of arylsulfatase in soil. A quantitative model was derived to predict the changes of arylsulfatase activity with SOM content. When the soil organic matter content was less than the critical point A (1.05% in our study), the arylsulfatase activity dropped rapidly. When the soil organic matter content was greater than the critical point A, the arylsulfatase activity gradually rose to higher levels showing that instead of harm the soil microbial activities were enhanced. The SOM content needs to be over the critical point B (2.42% in our study) to protect its microbial community from harm due to the severe Pb pollution (500mgkg(-1) in our study). The quantitative model revealed the pattern of variation of enzymatic toxicity due to heavy metals under various SOM contents. The applicability of the model under wider soil properties need to be tested. The model however may provide a methodological basis for ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krümmelbein, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

  15. Soil organic carbon dynamics jointly controlled by climate, carbon inputs, soil properties and soil carbon fractions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongkui; Feng, Wenting; Luo, Yiqi; Baldock, Jeff; Wang, Enli

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (r C , Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Among these variables, we found that the most influential variables on r C were the average C input amount and annual precipitation, and the total SOC stock at the beginning of the trials. Overall, C inputs (including C input amount and pasture frequency in the crop rotation system) accounted for 27% of the relative influence on r C , followed by climate 25% (including precipitation and temperature), soil C pools 24% (including pool size and composition) and soil properties (such as cation exchange capacity, clay content, bulk density) 24%. Path analysis identified a network of intercorrelations of climate, soil properties, C inputs and soil C pools in determining r C . The direct correlation of r C with climate was significantly weakened if removing the effects of soil properties and C pools, and vice versa. These results reveal the relative importance of climate, soil properties, C inputs and C pools and their complex interconnections in regulating SOC dynamics. Ignorance of the impact of changes in soil properties, C pool composition and C input (quantity and quality) on SOC dynamics is likely one of the main sources of uncertainty in SOC predictions from the process-based SOC models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Early Response of Soil Properties and Function to Riparian Rainforest Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P.

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2–20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates), only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives. PMID:25117589

  17. Early response of soil properties and function to riparian rainforest restoration.

    PubMed

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2-20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates), only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives.

  18. Short term effect of conventional tillage and cover crops in physical and chemical properties in two olive orchards of southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to assess the differences in soil properties caused by different management systems in olive cropped farms. Nevertheless the influence of the most frequent management systems on the hydraulic properties of these soils has not been evaluated. Contrarily, there are very few studies that have tried to correlate these results with soil losses due to water erosion. There are complementary approaches to traditional degradation indices, as the S index based on the form of the soil retention curve (Dexter 2004a,b,c). The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the methods based on the S index to assess the physical quality of soil in olive orchards, (ii) to assess the short-term changes (2 years) in soil physical and chemical properties in two olive orchards under different managements systems, namely conventional tillage and cover crop, and (iii) to formulate strategies for assessing the quality of soil in olive orchards. For the studied soils, degradation processes (associated to conventional tillage) and the improvement of their properties (linked to cover crops) showed a fast response. Chemical changes were quickly observed. However physical changes are slower than chemical changes for both soils. Water retention curves allowed the evaluation of soil porosity based on depth in the profile and the management practices. The S index was computed for every soil using the conventional soil water retention equations fitted to the experimental data. For the olive cropped soils, higher S index values were obtained in the less degradated areas, in most of the cases. Therefore, the S index could be used as a soil quality indicator although further research should be required to study its evolution at a larger temporal scale. References: Dexter, A. R. 2004. a.- Soil physical quality. PartI. Theory, effects of soil texture, density, and organic matter, and effects on root growth. Geoderma 120 (2004) 201-214. Dexter, A. R. 2004. b.- Soil

  19. How far can we prevent further physical soil degradation in the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Arable as well as forest soils are exposed to increasing external stresses, which coincide with a further and deeper reaching soil degradation, which may result in an aggravation of hydraulic, gaseous, thermal but also physicochemical and chemical soil functions. The decline coincides with a simultaneous reduction in useable land areas and worsens food production amongst others. Therefore, it is mandatory, that stable soil structure from the surface down to depth prevents soil compaction, sustains water infiltration, reduces rates of soil erosion by water and wind in each case to the minimum possible under the soil, terrain, land use, and climatic conditions in which the soils occur. It improves organic carbon storage in soils and optimizes microbial activity and functions. These benefits coincide with sustainable soil properties and soil management systems, which prevent - deep mechanical stress propagation which can cause irreversible soil deformation, - loss of surface soil layers with coinciding organic and mineral nutrient pool available for microbial processing and plant uptake, - Truncation of soil horizons, or damage on private and public infrastructures (roads, houses) and downstream fields. In order to prevent negative impacts on soils, it is recommended, that A) concerning prevention of soil compaction - stresses applied to soils shall not exceed the mechanical soil stability to maintain the actual functioning of chemical, physical and biological processes and to utilize their resilience (i.e. the elasticity), - land use management strategies have to be related to the actual soil properties in order to optimize plant growth, yield, filtering and buffering of infiltrating water, and carbon sequestration. B) soil erosion by - water, wind, and tillage is counteracted by an adequate surface soil stability including a site specific residue management (e.g. conservation tillage), controlled traffic and harvesting, ecological grassland use strategies (e

  20. Research on visible and near infrared spectral-polarimetric properties of soil polluted by crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hui-yan; Zhou, Pu-cheng; Pan, Bang-long

    2017-10-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soil can impose detrimental effects on forest health and quality of agricultural products. To manage such consequences, oil leak indicators should be detected quickly by monitoring systems. Remote sensing is one of the most suitable techniques for monitoring systems, especially for areas which are uninhabitable and difficulty to access. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. During the course of reflecting light-wave, the surface of soil polluted by crude oil will cause polarimetric properties which are related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the spectralpolarimetric properties for soil polluted by crude oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain multi-angle visible and near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of soil polluted by crude oil. And then, the change rule between polarimetric properties with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle, waveband of the detector as well as different grain size of soil were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for soil polluted by crude oil.

  1. Improving root-zone soil properties for Trembling Aspen in a reconstructed mine-site soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, M. F.; Sabbagh, P.; Bockstette, S.; Landhäusser, S.; Pinno, B.

    2014-12-01

    Surface mining activities have significantly depleted natural tree cover, especially trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), in the Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland Natural Regions of Alberta. The natural soil profile is usually destroyed during these mining activities and soil and landscape reconstruction is typically the first step in the reclamation process. However, the mine tailings and overburden materials used for these new soils often become compacted during the reconstruction process because they are subjected to high amounts of traffic with heavy equipment. Compacted soils generally have low porosity and low penetrability through increased soil strength, making it difficult for roots to elongate and explore the soil. Compaction also reduces infiltration capacity and drainage, which can cause excessive runoff and soil erosion. To improve the pore size distribution and water transmission, subsoil ripping was carried out in a test plot at Genesee Prairie Mine, Alberta. Within the site, six replicates with two treatments each, unripped (compacted) and ripped (decompacted), were established with 20-m buffers between them. The main objective of this research was to characterize the effects of subsoil ripping on soil physical properties and the longevity of those effects.as well as soil water dynamics during spring snowmelt. Results showed improved bulk density, pore size distribution and water infiltration in the soil as a result of the deep ripping, but these improvements appear to be temporary.

  2. Evidence that Soil Properties and Organic Coating Drive the Phytoavailability of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Layet, Clément; Auffan, Mélanie; Santaella, Catherine; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Montes, Mélanie; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Collin, Blanche; Legros, Samuel; Bravin, Matthieu N; Angeletti, Bernard; Kieffer, Isabelle; Proux, Olivier; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-05

    The ISO-standardized RHIZOtest is used here for the first time to decipher how plant species, soil properties, and physical-chemical properties of the nanoparticles and their transformation regulate the phytoavailability of nanoparticles. Two plants, tomato and fescue, were exposed to two soils with contrasted properties: a sandy soil poor in organic matter and a clay soil rich in organic matter, both contaminated with 1, 15, and 50 mg·kg -1 of dissolved Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , bare and citrate-coated CeO 2 nanoparticles. All the results demonstrate that two antagonistic soil properties controlled Ce uptake. The clay fraction enhanced the retention of the CeO 2 nanoparticles and hence reduced Ce uptake, whereas the organic matter content enhanced Ce uptake. Moreover, in the soil poor in organic matter, the organic citrate coating significantly enhanced the phytoavailability of the cerium by forming smaller aggregates thereby facilitating the transport of nanoparticles to the roots. By getting rid of the dissimilarities between the root systems of the different plants and the normalizing the surfaces exposed to nanoparticles, the RHIZOtest demonstrated that the species of plant did not drive the phytoavailability, and provided evidence for soil-plant transfers at concentrations lower than those usually cited in the literature and closer to predicted environmental concentrations.

  3. QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, B.E.

    1993-07-21

    This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories alsomore » measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.« less

  4. Influence of soil properties and soil moisture on the efficacy of indaziflam and flumioxazin on Kochia scoparia L.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Derek J; Nissen, Scott J; Westra, Phil; Shaner, Dale L; Butters, Greg

    2017-02-01

    Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.) is a highly competitive, non-native weed found throughout the western United States. Flumioxazin and indaziflam are two broad-spectrum pre-emergence herbicides that can control kochia in a variety of crop and non-crop situations; however, under dry conditions, these herbicides sometimes fail to control this important weed. There is very little information describing the effect of soil properties and soil moisture on the efficacy of these herbicides. Soil organic matter (SOM) explained the highest proportion of variability in predicting the herbicide dose required for 80% kochia growth reduction (GR 80 ) for flumioxazin and indaziflam (R 2 = 0.72 and 0.79 respectively). SOM had a greater impact on flumioxazin phytotoxicity compared to indaziflam. Flumioxazin and indaziflam kochia phytotoxicity was greatly reduced at soil water potentials below -200 kPa. Kochia can germinate at soil moisture potentials below the moisture required for flumioxazin and indaziflam activation, which means that kochia control is greatly influenced by the complex interaction between soil physical properties and soil moisture. This research can be used to gain a better understanding of how and why some weeds, like kochia, are so difficult to manage even with herbicides that normally provide excellent control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Genesis and properties of wetland soils by VIS-NIR-SWIR as a technique for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Demattê, José Alexandre Melo; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Beirigo, Raphael Moreira; Terra, Fabrício da Silva; Marques, Karina Patrícia Prazeres; Fongaro, Caio Troula; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo

    2017-07-15

    Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators. Nine soil profiles from the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso State, Brazil) and one from the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) were investigated. Spectral morphology interpretation allowed identifying horizon differences regarding shape, absorption features and reflectance intensity. Some pedogenetic processes of wetland soils related to organic carbon accumulation and oxide iron variation were identified by spectra. Principal Component Analysis allowed discriminating soils from wetland and outside this area (oxidic environment). Quantification of organic carbon was possible with R 2 of 0.90 and low error. Quantification of clay content was masked by soils with organic carbon content over 2% where it was not possible to quantify with high R 2 and low error both properties when dataset has soil samples with high organic carbon content. By reflectance spectroscopy, important

  6. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic cotton systems improved soil properties vis-a-vis the modern systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, D.; Venugopalan, M. V.; Singh, J. V.; Narkhedkar, N. G.; Velmourougane, K.

    2012-04-01

    India is the largest cotton growing country in the world. Traditionally, cotton in India was grown with minimal inputs and resources available on farm were put to efficient use. Advent of hybrids and Bt cotton revolutionized cotton production in the country and lead to heavy reliance on external inputs. However, there is a growing awareness of the detrimental effects of excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers. This is leading to growing interest in organic cultivation of crops. An organic system (OS) was compared with the modern systems (MS) for changes in the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in field experiments conducted both on station and farmers fields in Maharashtra, India on rain dependent cotton grown on Vertisols. Soil samples of the organic plots had significantly greater C content than the MS plots relying on mineral fertilizers and pesticides. Similarly, other nutrients were also greater in the OS than the MS across locations. Most of the increases were noticed in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Interestingly, enrichment of the soil at lower depths was noticed in the OS which could be due to the surface creep of soils through the cracks in the Vertisols. With regard to the physical properties, water-stable aggregates and mean weight diameter in the MS were significantly lesser than the OS. Differences were restricted to the top 20 cm. Soil biological properties of the two systems were compared through the enzyme assays such as the dehydrogenase, glucosidase, phosphatase, sulfatase periodically during the crop growing season. All the enzyme assays indicated greater activities in the OS than the MS. Further, microfauna (nematodes) monitored indicated less of plant parasitic nematodes in the OS than the MS. Excessive tillage followed in the MS did bring about a reduction in the nematode numbers. But the systems had more parasitic nematodes.

  8. Impact of Amendments on the Physical Properties of Soil under Tropical Long-Term No Till Conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmeis Filho, Antonio C A; Crusciol, Carlos A C; Guimarães, Tiara M; Calonego, Juliano C; Mooney, Sacha J

    2016-01-01

    Tropical regions have been considered the world's primary agricultural frontier; however, some physico-chemical deficiencies, such as low soil organic matter content, poor soil structure, high erodibility, soil acidity, and aluminum toxicity, have affected their productive capacity. Lime and gypsum are commonly used to improve soil chemical fertility, but no information exists about the long-term effects of these products on the physical attributes and C protection mechanisms of highly weathered Oxisols. A field trial was conducted in a sandy clay loam (kaolinitic, thermic Typic Haplorthox) under a no-tillage system for 12 years. The trial consisted of four treatments: a control with no soil amendment application, the application of 2.1 Mg ha-1 phosphogypsum, the application of 2.0 Mg ha-1 lime, and the application of lime + phosphogypsum (2.0 + 2.1 Mg ha-1, respectively). Since the experiment was established in 2002, the rates have been applied three times (2002, 2004, and 2010). Surface liming effectively increased water-stable aggregates > 2.0 mm at a depth of up to 0.2 m; however, the association with phosphogypsum was considered a good strategy to improve the macroaggregate stability in subsoil layers (0.20 to 0.40 m). Consequently, both soil amendments applied together increased the mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) in all soil layers, with increases of up to 118 and 89%, respectively, according to the soil layer. The formation and stabilization of larger aggregates contributed to a higher accumulation of total organic carbon (TOC) on these structures. In addition to TOC, the MWD and aggregate stability index were positively correlated with Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels and base saturation. Consequently, the increase observed in the aggregate size class resulted in a better organization of soil particles, increasing the macroporosity and reducing the soil bulk density and penetration resistance. Therefore, adequate soil chemical management

  9. Flood quantiles scaling with upper soil hydraulic properties for different land uses at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Luis E.; Barrios, Miguel; Francés, Félix

    2016-10-01

    Changes in land use within a catchment are among the causes of non-stationarity in the flood regime, as they modify the upper soil physical structure and its runoff production capacity. This paper analyzes the relation between the variation of the upper soil hydraulic properties due to changes in land use and its effect on the magnitude of peak flows: (1) incorporating fractal scaling properties to relate the effect of the static storage capacity (the sum of capillary water storage capacity in the root zone, canopy interception and surface puddles) and the upper soil vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity on the flood regime; (2) describing the effect of the spatial organization of the upper soil hydraulic properties at catchment scale; (3) examining the scale properties in the parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) probability distribution function, in relation to the upper soil hydraulic properties. This study considered the historical changes of land use in the Combeima River catchment in South America, between 1991 and 2007, using distributed hydrological modeling of daily discharges to describe the hydrological response. Through simulation of land cover scenarios, it was demonstrated that it is possible to quantify the magnitude of peak flows in scenarios of land cover changes through its Wide-Sense Simple Scaling with the upper soil hydraulic properties.

  10. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effect of long-term fertilizing regime on soil microbial diversity and soil property].

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhua; Zhang, Caixia; Tang, Lisong; Xiong, Zhengqin; Wang, Baozhan; Jia, Zhongjun; Li, Yan

    2014-03-04

    To evaluate the effect of long-term fertilization on soil microbial community and soil chemical and physical properties. Using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technique, we studied microbial community in the 0-300 cm soil samples covering a 20-year field-experiment with different fertilization applications including inorganic fertilizer alone (N 300 kg/hm2, P2O5 150 kg/hm2 and K2O 60 kg/hm2) and inorganic fertilizer combined with straw (same application rate of N and P fertilizer combined with 5.4 t straw). Actinobacteria and alpha-proteobacteria were the predominant groups in the topsoil (0-20 cm). As the soil depth increased, the relative abundance of actinobacteria decreased whereas that of proteobacteria, especially gamma-proteobacteria and beta-proteobacteria increased and gradually became the dominant groups in the subsoil (20-300 cm). Long-term fertilizing applications significantly affected soil microbial communities throughout the soil profile, and increased the relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea at 0-40 cm depth. In addition, agriculture management, e. g. irrigation may be an important driving factor for the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soil profile. Total nitrogen and organic carbon contents were the most influential factors on microbial community in the topsoil and in the subsoil, respectively. Long-term fertilizer applications altered soil nutrient availability within the soil profile, which was likely to result in the different microbial community structure between the fertilizer treatments, especially for the subsoil.

  12. Impact of Amendments on the Physical Properties of Soil under Tropical Long-Term No Till Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sacha J.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical regions have been considered the world’s primary agricultural frontier; however, some physico-chemical deficiencies, such as low soil organic matter content, poor soil structure, high erodibility, soil acidity, and aluminum toxicity, have affected their productive capacity. Lime and gypsum are commonly used to improve soil chemical fertility, but no information exists about the long-term effects of these products on the physical attributes and C protection mechanisms of highly weathered Oxisols. A field trial was conducted in a sandy clay loam (kaolinitic, thermic Typic Haplorthox) under a no-tillage system for 12 years. The trial consisted of four treatments: a control with no soil amendment application, the application of 2.1 Mg ha-1 phosphogypsum, the application of 2.0 Mg ha-1 lime, and the application of lime + phosphogypsum (2.0 + 2.1 Mg ha-1, respectively). Since the experiment was established in 2002, the rates have been applied three times (2002, 2004, and 2010). Surface liming effectively increased water-stable aggregates > 2.0 mm at a depth of up to 0.2 m; however, the association with phosphogypsum was considered a good strategy to improve the macroaggregate stability in subsoil layers (0.20 to 0.40 m). Consequently, both soil amendments applied together increased the mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) in all soil layers, with increases of up to 118 and 89%, respectively, according to the soil layer. The formation and stabilization of larger aggregates contributed to a higher accumulation of total organic carbon (TOC) on these structures. In addition to TOC, the MWD and aggregate stability index were positively correlated with Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels and base saturation. Consequently, the increase observed in the aggregate size class resulted in a better organization of soil particles, increasing the macroporosity and reducing the soil bulk density and penetration resistance. Therefore, adequate soil chemical management

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Pre-Crops and Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Properties Down the Soil Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobley, E.; Honermeier, B.; Don, A.; Gocke, M. I.; Amelung, W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-crops with and without biological nitrogen fixation capacity (fava beans, clover mulch, fodder maize) and fertilization (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, PK fertilizer) on soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stocks, N concentration and stocks) and their depth distribution (down to 1 m) at a long-term field experiment set up in 1982 in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the entire soil profile. The soil was physically and chemically affected by the type of pre-crop. Plots with fava beans and maize had lower bulk densities in the subsoil than those with clover. Pre-crop type also significantly affected the depth distribution of both N and SOC. Specifically, clover pre-cropping led to an enrichment of N at the surface compared with fava beans and maize. SOC enrichment at the surface was also observed under clover, with the effect most pronounced under PK fertilization. Combined with the bulk density effects, this shift in N distribution resulted in significantly higher N stocks under clover than under fava beans. However, the total stocks of SOC were not affected by pre-crop or fertilizer regime. Our results indicate that humans influence C and N cycling and distribution in soils through the selection of pre-crops and that the influence of crop type is greater than that of fertilization regimes. Pre-cropping with clover, which is used as a mulch, leads to N enrichment in the topsoil, reducing the need for N fertilizer for the subsequent cereal crop. In contrast, the use of fava beans as a pre-crop does not lead to N enrichment. We believe this is due to the greater rooting depth of

  14. Physical and hydraulic properties of a sandy loam soil under zero, shallow and deep tillage practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the centuries, tillage has been an important agronomic practice that has been used to mechanically alter soil properties and enhance the soil ecosystem for growth of crops. A 4-yr study investigated the impact of no-tillage (NT), shallow tillage at a 10-cm depth (ST), and deep tillage at a 30-c...

  15. BOREAS HYD-1 Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Kelly, Shaun F.; Stangel, David E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-1 team coordinated a program of data collection to measure and monitor soil properties in collaboration with other science team measurement needs. This data set contains soil hydraulic properties determined at the Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) flux tower sites based on analysis of in situ tension infiltrometer tests and laboratory-determined water retention from soil cores collected during the 1994-95 field campaigns. Results from this analysis are saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fitting parameters for the van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention function at flux tower sites. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-01 soil hydraulic properties data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. Furfural and its biochar improve the general properties of a saline soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-07-01

    Organic materials (e.g., furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of saline soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar has been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56 d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, furfural addition at a rate of 5% increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar exhibited a different effect depending on the property: furfural was more effective in decreasing pH and increasing available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  17. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  18. Intelligent estimation of spatially distributed soil physical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwashita, F.; Friedel, M.J.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Fraser, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial analysis of soil samples is often times not possible when measurements are limited in number or clustered. To obviate potential problems, we propose a new approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) technique. This approach exploits underlying nonlinear relation of the steady-state geomorphic concave-convex nature of hillslopes (from hilltop to bottom of the valley) to spatially limited soil textural data. The topographic features are extracted from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission elevation data; whereas soil textural (clay, silt, and sand) and hydraulic data were collected in 29 spatially random locations (50 to 75. cm depth). In contrast to traditional principal component analysis, the SOM identifies relations among relief features, such as, slope, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature. Stochastic cross-validation indicates that the SOM is unbiased and provides a way to measure the magnitude of prediction uncertainty for all variables. The SOM cross-component plots of the soil texture reveals higher clay proportions at concave areas with convergent hydrological flux and lower proportions for convex areas with divergent flux. The sand ratio has an opposite pattern with higher values near the ridge and lower values near the valley. Silt has a trend similar to sand, although less pronounced. The relation between soil texture and concave-convex hillslope features reveals that subsurface weathering and transport is an important process that changed from loss-to-gain at the rectilinear hillslope point. These results illustrate that the SOM can be used to capture and predict nonlinear hillslope relations among relief, soil texture, and hydraulic conductivity data. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Using the Rasch model as an objective and probabilistic technique to integrate different soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Jesús Moral García, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements that integrates many soil properties affecting crop productivity, including, for instance, soil texture, water content, and cation exchange capacity. The ECa measurements obtained with a 3100 Veris sensor, operating in both shallow (0-30 cm), ECs, and deep (0-90 cm), ECd, mode, can be used as an additional and essential information to be included in a probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of quantifying the overall soil fertililty potential in an agricultural field. This quantification should integrate the main soil physical and chemical properties, with different units. In this work, the formulation of the Rasch model integrates 11 soil properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter -OM-, pH, total nitrogen -TN-, available phosphorus -AP- and potassium -AK-, cation exchange capacity -CEC-, ECd, and ECs) measured at 70 locations in a field. The main outputs of the model include a ranking of all soil samples according to their relative fertility potential and the unexpected behaviours of some soil samples and properties. In the case study, the considered soil variables fit the model reasonably, having an important influence on soil fertility, except pH, probably due to its homogeneity in the field. Moreover, ECd, ECs are the most influential properties on soil fertility and, on the other hand, AP and AK the less influential properties. The use of the Rasch model to estimate soil fertility potential (always in a relative way, taking into account the characteristics of the studied soil) constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a field where high soil fertility potential exists and establishing those soil samples or properties which have any anomaly; this information can be necessary to conduct site-specific treatments, leading to a more cost-effective and sustainable field

  20. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  1. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  2. Combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion in a mollisol area under long-term agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Wu, Yuyang; Hao, Zengchao; Zhang, Qi; Bu, Qingwei; Gao, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion exhibits special characteristics in the process of agricultural development. Understanding the combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion, especially in the area under long-term agricultural cultivations, is vital to watershed agricultural and soil management. This study investigated the temporal-spatial patterns of the soil erosion based on a modified version of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and conducted a soil erosion contribution analysis. The land use data were interpreted from Landsat series images, and soil properties were obtained from field sampling, laboratory tests and SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water) model calculations. Over a long period of agricultural development, the average erosion modulus decreased from 187.7tkm -2 a -1 in 1979 to 158.4tkm -2 a -1 in 2014. The land use types were transformed mainly in the reclamation of paddy fields and the shrinking of wetlands on a large scale. Most of the soils were converted to loam from silty or clay loam and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K s ) of most soil types decreased by 1.11% to 43.6%. The rapidly increasing area of 49.8km 2 of paddy fields together with the moderate decrease of 14.0km 2 of forests, as well as K s values explained 87.4% of the total variance in soil erosion. Although changes in soil physical and water characteristics indicated that soil erosion loads should have become higher, the upsurge in paddy fields played an important role in mitigating soil erosion in this study area. These results demonstrated that land use changes had more significant impacts than soil property changes on soil erosion. This study suggested that rational measures should be taken to extend paddy fields and control the dry land farming. These findings will benefit watershed agricultural targeting and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vital Soil: Function, Value and Properties.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article is a review of the book, Vital Soil: Function, Value and Properties. Soil vitality has been defined as the ability of soil ecosystems to stay in balance in a changing world. The soil environment and the life that it supports developed over centuries and millennia, but careless human ac...

  4. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  5. Impact of surface coal mining on soil hydraulic properties

    Treesearch

    X. Liu; J. Q. Wu; P. W. Conrad; S. Dun; C. S. Todd; R. L. McNearny; William Elliot; H. Rhee; P. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is strongly related to soil hydraulic properties. Understanding how surface coal mining affects these properties is therefore important in developing effective management practices to control erosion during reclamation. To determine the impact of mining activities on soil hydraulic properties, soils from undisturbed areas, areas of roughly graded mine...

  6. Interaction of the Bored Sand and Gravel Drain Pile with the Surrounding Compacted Loam Soil and Foundation Raft Taking into Account Rheological Properties of the Loam Soil and Non-Linear Properties of the Drain Pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Anzhelo, G. O.; Buslov, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The task of the interaction of the sand and gravel drain pile with the surrounding loam soil after its preliminary deep compaction and formation of the composite ground cylinder from the drain pile and surrounding compacted loam soil (cells) is considered in the article. It is seen that the subsidence and carrying capacity of such cell considerably depends on physical and mechanical properties of the compacted drain piles and surrounding loam soil as well as their diameter and intercellular distance. The strain-stress state of the cell is considered not taking into account its component elements, but taking into account linear and elastic-plastic properties of the drain pile and creep flow of the surrounding loam soil. It is stated that depending on these properties the distribution and redistribution of the load on a cell takes place from the foundation raft between the drain pile and surrounding soil. Based on the results of task solving the formulas and charts are given demonstrating the ratio of the load between the drain pile and surrounding loam soil in time.

  7. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  8. Thermal alteration of soil organic matter properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Samuel N.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret

    2017-02-01

    Fire is a major driver of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, and contemporary global climate change is changing global fire regimes. We conducted laboratory heating experiments on soils from five locations across the western Sierra Nevada climosequence to investigate thermal alteration of SOM properties and determine temperature thresholds for major shifts in SOM properties. Topsoils (0 to 5 cm depth) were exposed to a range of temperatures that are expected during prescribed and wild fires (150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 °C). With increase in temperature, we found that the concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decreased in a similar pattern among all five soils that varied considerably in their original SOM concentrations and mineralogies. Soils were separated into discrete size classes by dry sieving. The C and N concentrations in the larger aggregate size fractions (2-0.25 mm) decreased with an increase in temperature, so that at 450 °C the remaining C and N were almost entirely associated with the smaller aggregate size fractions ( < 0.25 mm). We observed a general trend of 13C enrichment with temperature increase. There was also 15N enrichment with temperature increase, followed by 15N depletion when temperature increased beyond 350 °C. For all the measured variables, the largest physical, chemical, elemental, and isotopic changes occurred at the mid-intensity fire temperatures, i.e., 350 and 450 °C. The magnitude of the observed changes in SOM composition and distribution in three aggregate size classes, as well as the temperature thresholds for critical changes in physical and chemical properties of soils (such as specific surface area, pH, cation exchange capacity), suggest that transformation and loss of SOM are the principal responses in heated soils. Findings from this systematic investigation of soil and SOM response to heating are critical for predicting how soils are likely to be affected by future climate and fire regimes.

  9. Soil physical land degradation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  10. Fractal Scaling of Particle Size Distribution and Relationships with Topsoil Properties Affected by Biological Soil Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guang-Lei; Ding, Guo-Dong; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Qin, Shu-Gao; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Bao, Yan-Feng; Liu, Yun-Dong; Wan, Li; Deng, Ji-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological soil crusts are common components of desert ecosystem; they cover ground surface and interact with topsoil that contribute to desertification control and degraded land restoration in arid and semiarid regions. Methodology/Principal Findings To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses crust), as well as the referenced sandland in the Mu Us Desert, Northern China. Relationships between fractal dimensions of soil particle size distribution and selected soil properties were discussed as well. The results indicated that biological soil crusts had significant positive effects on soil physical structure (P<0.05); and soil organic carbon and nutrients showed an upward trend across the successional stages of biological soil crusts. Fractal dimensions ranged from 2.1477 to 2.3032, and significantly linear correlated with selected soil properties (R2 = 0.494∼0.955, P<0.01). Conclusions/Significance Biological soil crusts cause an important increase in soil fertility, and are beneficial to sand fixation, although the process is rather slow. Fractal dimension proves to be a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in soil properties that additionally implies desertification. This study will be essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on optimal solutions regarding desertification control and assessment, as well as degraded ecosystem restoration in arid and semiarid regions. PMID:24516668

  11. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and

  12. [Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-Yong; Wang, Li-Hai; Sun, Mo-Long

    2013-07-01

    Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May, 2011. In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively. Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content (R = 0.687), and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R = 0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees, but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%. No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.

  13. Biofilm effect on soil hydraulic properties: Experimental investigation using soil-grown real biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Elazar; Iden, Sascha C.; Furman, Alex; Durner, Wolfgang; Rosenzweig, Ravid

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the influence of attached microbial biomass on water flow in variably saturated soils is crucial for many engineered flow systems. So far, the investigation of the effects of microbial biomass has been mainly limited to water-saturated systems. We have assessed the influence of biofilms on the soil hydraulic properties under variably saturated conditions. A sandy soil was incubated with Pseudomonas Putida and the hydraulic properties of the incubated soil were determined by a combination of methods. Our results show a stronger soil water retention in the inoculated soil as compared to the control. The increase in volumetric water content reaches approximately 0.015 cm3 cm-3 but is only moderately correlated with the carbon deficit, a proxy for biofilm quantity, and less with the cell viable counts. The presence of biofilm reduced the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil by up to one order of magnitude. Under unsaturated conditions, the hydraulic conductivity was only reduced by a factor of four. This means that relative water conductance in biofilm-affected soils is higher compared to the clean soil at low water contents, and that the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve of biofilm-affected soil cannot be predicted by simply scaling the saturated hydraulic conductivity. A flexible parameterization of the soil hydraulic functions accounting for capillary and noncapillary flow was needed to adequately describe the observed properties over the entire wetness range. More research is needed to address the exact flow mechanisms in biofilm-affected, unsaturated soil and how they are related to effective system properties.

  14. The methods of geomorphometry and digital soil mapping for assessing spatial variability in the properties of agrogray soils on a slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.; Nechaeva, T. V.; Savenkov, O. A.; Smirnova, N. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between the morphometric parameters (MPs) of topography calculated on the basis of digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM, 30 m) and the properties of the plow layer of agrogray soils on a slope were analyzed. The contribution of MPs to the spatial variability of the soil moisture reached 42%; to the content of physical clay (<0.01 mm particles), 59%; to the humus content, 46%; to the total nitrogen content, 31%; to the content of nitrate nitrogen, 28%; to the content of mobile phosphorus, 40%; to the content of exchangeable potassium, 45%; to the content of exchangeable calcium, 67%; to the content of exchangeable magnesium, 40%; and to the soil pH, 42%. A comparative analysis of the plow layer within the eluvial and transitional parts of the slope was performed with the use of geomorphometric methods and digital soil mapping. The regression analysis showed statistically significant correlations between the properties of the plow layer and the MPs describing surface runoff, geometric forms of surface, and the soil temperature regime.

  15. Using soil properties to predict in vivo bioavailability of lead in soils.

    PubMed

    Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lamb, Dane; Thavamani, Palanisami; Kuchel, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Soil plays a significant role in controlling the potential bioavailability of contaminants in the environment. In this study, eleven soils were used to investigate the relationship between soil properties and relative bioavailability (RB) of lead (Pb). To minimise the effect of source of Pb on in vivo bioavailability, uncontaminated study soils were spiked with 1500 mg Pb/kg soil and aged for 10-12 months prior to investigating the relationships between soil properties and in vivo RB of Pb using swine model. The biological responses to oral administration of Pb in aqueous phase or as spiked soils were compared by applying a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to blood Pb concentration. The study revealed that RB of Pb from aged soils ranged from 30±9% to 83±7%. The very different RB of Pb in these soils was attributed to variations in the soils' physico-chemical properties. This was established using sorption studies showing: firstly, Freundlich partition coefficients that ranged from 21 to 234; and secondly, a strongly significant (R(2)=0.94, P<0.001) exponential relationship between RB and Freundlich partition coefficient (Kd). This simple exponential model can be used to predict relative bioavailability of Pb in contaminated soils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such model derived using sorption partition coefficient to predict the relative bioavailability of Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ROCK AND SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AT THE MER GUSEV CRATER AND MERIDIANI PLANUM LANDING SITES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Richter, L.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J.; Cabrol, N.; Gorevan, S.; Greeley, R.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2006-01-01

    Following the successful landings of both Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, respectively, their Athena suite of instruments is being used to study the geologic history of these two very different landing sites on Mars that had been selected on the basis of showing different types of evidence for aqueous processes in the planet s past. Utilizing the on-board instruments as well as the rovers mobility system, a wide range of physical properties investigations is carried out as well - the subject of this abstract - that provide additional information on the geology and processes at the sites. Results of the mission in general as well as of the physical properties studies thus far greatly exceed expectations in that observations and measurements by both vehicles show a rich variety in materials and processes: the Gusev site in the vicinity of the lander is remarkably flat and generally devoid of large rocks along traverses up to the time of this writing (approx.Sol 50) and suggestive of a deflated surface with generally only thin veneers of bright dust while exhibiting evidence of a widespread occurrence of a crust from cemented fines that has been observed to fail in the form of blocky clods when disturbed by vehicle rolling action; numerous small and shallow depressions - presumably created by impacts - are observed at the site which are infilled with bright, fine-grained material that likewise appears indurated and which was studied by a trenching experiment; small ripple bedforms are scattered across the site and were characterized in terms of particle size distributions. At the Meridiani site, studies so far - up to approx.Sol 33 - have focussed on soils and the rock outcrop encountered within the approx.20 m diameter crater that the spacecraft came to rest in: from a physical properties point of view, a mantle of dark, well-sorted, apparently basaltic sand with small to moderate cohesion has been of interest - and has

  17. Soil moisture and properties estimation by assimilating soil temperatures using particle batch smoother: A new perspective for DTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Ochsner, T. E.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture, hydraulic and thermal properties are critical for understanding the soil surface energy balance and hydrological processes. Here, we will discuss the potential of using soil temperature observations from Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture and soil properties. With DTS soil temperature can be measured with high resolution (spatial <1m, and temporal < 1min) in cables up to kilometers in length. Soil temperature evolution is primarily controlled by the soil thermal properties, and the energy balance at the soil surface. Hence, soil moisture, which affects both soil thermal properties and the energy that participates the evaporation process, is strongly correlated to the soil temperatures. In addition, the dynamics of the soil moisture is determined by the soil hydraulic properties.Here we will demonstrate that soil moisture, hydraulic and thermal properties can be estimated by assimilating observed soil temperature at shallow depths using the Particle Batch Smoother (PBS). The PBS can be considered as an extension of the particle filter, which allows us to infer soil moisture and soil properties using the dynamics of soil temperature within a batch window. Both synthetic and real field data will be used to demonstrate the robustness of this approach. We will show that the proposed method is shown to be able to handle different sources of uncertainties, which may provide a new view of using DTS observations to estimate sub-meter resolution soil moisture and properties for remote sensing product validation.

  18. Estimation of soil sorption coefficients of veterinary pharmaceuticals from soil properties.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Gebbink, Wouter A; Tolls, Johannes

    2006-04-01

    Environmental exposure assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals requires estimating the sorption to soil. Soil sorption coefficients of three common, ionizable, antimicrobial agents (oxytetracycline [OTC], tylosin [TYL], and sulfachloropyridazine [SCP]) were studied in relation to the soil properties of 11 different soils. The soil sorption coefficient at natural pH varied from 950 to 7,200, 10 to 370, and 0.4 to 35 L/kg for OTC, TYL, and SCP, respectively. The variation increased by almost two orders of magnitude for OTC and TYL when pH was artificially adjusted. Separate soil properties (pH, organic carbon content, clay content, cation-exchange capacity, aluminum oxyhydroxide content, and iron oxyhydroxide content) were not able to explain more than half the variation observed in soil sorption coefficients. This reflects the complexity of the sorbent-sorbate interactions. Partial-least-squares (PLS) models, integrating all the soil properties listed above, were able to explain as much as 78% of the variation in sorption coefficients. The PLS model was able to predict the sorption coefficient with an accuracy of a factor of six. Considering the pH-dependent speciation, species-specific PLS models were developed. These models were able to predict species-specific sorption coefficients with an accuracy of a factor of three to four. However, the species-specific sorption models did not improve the estimation of sorption coefficients of species mixtures, because these models were developed with a reduced data set at standardized aqueous concentrations. In conclusion, pragmatic approaches like PLS modeling might be suitable to estimate soil sorption for risk assessment purposes.

  19. Inversion of soil electrical conductivity data to estimate layered soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CBulk apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensors respond to multiple soil properties, including clay content, water content, and salt content (i.e., salinity). They provide a single sensor value for an entire soil profile down to a sensor-dependent measurement depth, weighted by a nonlinear...

  20. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  1. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  2. Variation of Desert Soil Hydraulic Properties with Pedogenic Maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Perkins, K. S.; Mirus, B. B.; Schmidt, K. M.; Miller, D. M.; Stock, J. D.; Singha, K.

    2006-12-01

    Older alluvial desert soils exhibit greater pedogenic maturity, having more distinct desert pavements, vesicular (Av) horizons, and more pronounced stratification from processes such as illuviation and salt accumulation. These and related effects strongly influence the soil hydraulic properties. Older soils have been observed to have lower saturated hydraulic conductivity, and possibly greater capacity to retain water, but the quantitative effect of specific pedogenic features on the soil water retention or unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) curves is poorly known. With field infiltration/redistribution experiments on three different-aged soils developed within alluvial wash deposits in the Mojave National Preserve, we evaluated effective hydraulic properties over a scale of several m horizontally and to 1.5 m depth. We then correlated these properties with pedogenic features. The selected soils are (1) recently deposited sediments, (2) a soil of early Holocene age, and (3) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. In each experiment we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infiltration ring for 2.3 hr. For several weeks we monitored subsurface water content and matric pressure using surface electrical resistance imaging, dielectric-constant probes, heat-dissipation probes, and tensiometers. Analysis of these data using an inverse modeling technique gives the water retention and K properties needed for predictive modeling. Some properties show a consistent trend with soil age. Progressively more developed surface and near-surface features such as desert pavement and Av horizons are the likely cause of an observed consistent decline of infiltration capacity with soil age. Other properties, such as vertical flow retardation by layer contrasts, appear to have a more complicated soil-age dependence. The wash deposits display distinct depositional layering that has a retarding effect on vertical flow, an effect that may be less pronounced in the older Holocene soil

  3. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  4. Stimulatory effects of arsenic-tolerant soil fungi on plant growth promotion and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16-293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20-222% and 34-760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils.

  5. Links between Soil Fungal Diversity and Plant and Soil Properties on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dou, Yanxing; Huang, Yimei; An, Shaoshan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed inconsistent correlations between fungal diversity and plant/soil properties from local to global scales. Here, we investigated the internal relationships between soil fungal diversity and plant/soil properties on the Loess Plateau following vegetation restoration, using Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region for fungal identification. We found significant effects of land use types (Af, Artificial forest; Ns, Natural shrub; Ag, Artificial grassland; Ng, Natural grassland; Sc, slope cropland) on soil fungal communities composition, and the dominant phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, which transitioned from Basidiomycota-dominant to Ascomycota-dominant community due to vegetation restoration. The Chao1 richness, Shannon’s diversity and ACE indices were significantly influenced by land use types with the order of Ns > Af > Ng > Ag > Sc, and the total number of OTUs varied widely. In contrast, Good’s coverage and Simpson’s diversity indicated no significant difference among land use types (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that plant and soil properties were closely related to fungal diversity regardless of land use types. In addition, soil organic carbon (SOC) and Hplant (plant richness, Shannon-Wiener index) were strong driving factors that explained fungal diversity. As revealed by the structural equation model (SEM) and generalized additive models (GAMs), fungal diversity was directly and indirectly affected by soil and plant properties, respectively, providing evidence for strong links between soil fungal diversity and plant and soil properties on the Loess Plateau. PMID:29163460

  6. Links between Soil Fungal Diversity and Plant and Soil Properties on the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Dou, Yanxing; Huang, Yimei; An, Shaoshan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed inconsistent correlations between fungal diversity and plant/soil properties from local to global scales. Here, we investigated the internal relationships between soil fungal diversity and plant/soil properties on the Loess Plateau following vegetation restoration, using Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region for fungal identification. We found significant effects of land use types (Af, Artificial forest; Ns, Natural shrub; Ag, Artificial grassland; Ng, Natural grassland; Sc, slope cropland) on soil fungal communities composition, and the dominant phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota , and Zygomycota , which transitioned from Basidiomycota -dominant to Ascomycota -dominant community due to vegetation restoration. The Chao1 richness, Shannon's diversity and ACE indices were significantly influenced by land use types with the order of Ns > Af > Ng > Ag > Sc, and the total number of OTUs varied widely. In contrast, Good's coverage and Simpson's diversity indicated no significant difference among land use types ( p > 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that plant and soil properties were closely related to fungal diversity regardless of land use types. In addition, soil organic carbon (SOC) and H plant (plant richness, Shannon-Wiener index) were strong driving factors that explained fungal diversity. As revealed by the structural equation model (SEM) and generalized additive models (GAMs), fungal diversity was directly and indirectly affected by soil and plant properties, respectively, providing evidence for strong links between soil fungal diversity and plant and soil properties on the Loess Plateau.

  7. Variations in soil detachment rates after wildfire as a function of soil depth, flow properties, and root properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Nyman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire affects hillslope erosion through increased surface runoff and increased sediment availability, both of which contribute to large post-fire erosion events. Relations between soil detachment rate, soil depth, flow and root properties, and fire impacts are poorly understood and not represented explicitly in commonly used post-fire erosion models. Detachment rates were measured on intact soil cores using a modified tilting flume. The cores were mounted flush with the flume-bed and a measurement was made on the surface of the core. The core was extruded upward, cut off, and another measurement was repeated at a different depth below the original surface of the core. Intact cores were collected from one site burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon (FMC) fire in Colorado and from one site burned by the 2010 Pozo fire in California. Each site contained contrasting vegetation and soil types. Additional soil samples were collected alongside the intact cores and were analyzed in the laboratory for soil properties (organic matter, bulk density, particle-size distribution) and for root properties (root density and root-length density). Particle-size distribution and root properties were different between sites, but sites were similar in terms of bulk density and organic matter. Soil detachment rates had similar relations with non-uniform shear stress and non-uniform unit stream power. Detachment rates within single sampling units displayed a relatively weak and inconsistent relation to flow variables. When averaged across all clusters, the detachment rate displayed a linear relation to shear stress, but variability in soil properties meant that the shear stress accounted for only a small proportion of the overall variability in detachment rates (R2 = 0.23; R2 is the coefficient of determination). Detachment rate was related to root-length density in some clusters (R2 values up to 0.91) and unrelated in others (R2 values 2 value improved and the range of exponents became

  8. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  9. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  10. General Relationships between Abiotic Soil Properties and Soil Biota across Spatial Scales and Different Land-Use Types

    PubMed Central

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Schöning, Ingo; Alt, Fabian; Herold, Nadine; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Marhan, Sven; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wubet, Tesfaye; Yurkov, Andrey; Begerow, Dominik; Berner, Doreen; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Ehnes, Roswitha B.; Erdmann, Georgia; Fischer, Christiane; Foesel, Bärbel; Groh, Janine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Kandeler, Ellen; Lang, Christa; Lohaus, Gertrud; Meyer, Annabel; Nacke, Heiko; Näther, Astrid; Overmann, Jörg; Polle, Andrea; Pollierer, Melanie M.; Scheu, Stefan; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schulze, Waltraud; Weinert, Jan; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wolters, Volkmar; Schrumpf, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider

  11. New Physical Algorithms for Downscaling SMAP Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, M.; Ghafari, E.; Babaeian, E.; Davary, K.; Farid, A.; Jones, S. B.; Tuller, M.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides new means for estimation of surface soil moisture at the global scale. However, for many hydrological and agricultural applications the spatial SMAP resolution is too low. To address this scale issue we fused SMAP data with MODIS observations to generate soil moisture maps at 1-km spatial resolution. In course of this study we have improved several existing empirical algorithms and introduced a new physical approach for downscaling SMAP data. The universal triangle/trapezoid model was applied to relate soil moisture to optical/thermal observations such as NDVI, land surface temperature and surface reflectance. These algorithms were evaluated with in situ data measured at 5-cm depth. Our results demonstrate that downscaling SMAP soil moisture data based on physical indicators of soil moisture derived from the MODIS satellite leads to higher accuracy than that achievable with empirical downscaling algorithms. Keywords: Soil moisture, microwave data, downscaling, MODIS, triangle/trapezoid model.

  12. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota. PMID:27313139

  13. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  14. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-17

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  15. From the study of fire effects on individual soil properties to the development of soil quality indices. 1. The pioneer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Zornoza, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Although forest fires must be considered as a natural factor in Mediterranean ecosystems, the modification of its natural regime during last five decades has thansformed them in an environmental problem. In the Valencia region (E Spain) 1994 was the worst year in the history affecting more than 120,000 hectares. I started my Ph.D that year by studying the effects of fires in soil properties. The availability to be able to analyse a great set of different types of soil properties in the laboratories of University of Alicante allowed me to explore how fires could affect physical, chemical and micobiological soil properties. After years studying different soil properties, finding that several factors are involved, including: fire intensity and severity, vegetation, soil type, climate conditions, etc. (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Mataix-Solera et al., 2008, 2011) my research as Ph-D supervisor has been focussed to investigate more in depth some selected properties, such as aggregate stability and water repellency (Arcenegui et al., 2007, 2008). But one of the main problems in the studies conducted with samples affected by wildfires is that for the evaluation of the fire impact in the soil it is necessary to have control (unburned) soil samples from a similar non-affected near area. The existing spatial variability under field conditions does not allow having comparable samples in some acses to develop a correct assessment. With this idea in mind one of my Ph.D researcher (R. Zornoza) dedicated his thesis to develope soil quality indices capable to assess the impact of soil perturbations without comparing groups of samples, but evaluating the equilibrium among different soil properties within each soil sample (Zornoza et al., 2007, 2008). Key words: wildfire, Mediterranean soils, soil degradation, wàter repellency, aggregate stability References: Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mayoral, A.M., Morales, J., 2007. Factors controlling the

  16. Effects of Mulching on Soil Properties and Growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xue; Song, Weiting; Zhang, Huanchao; Yang, Xiulian; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0-5-cm and 5-10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. 'Rixianggui' plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments. Moisture at both soil depths was significantly higher after mulching with RG and WC than that in the unmulched control (CK) treatment. Mulching did not affect soil bulk density, pH, or total nitrogen content, but consistently improved soil organic matter. The available nitrogen in the soil increased after RG and WC treatments, but decreased after MG treatment during the experimental period. Mulching improved plant growth by increasing root activity, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll a content, as well as by providing suitable moisture conditions and nutrients in the root zone. Plant height and trunk diameter were remarkably increased after mulching, especially with RG and WC. However, while MG improved plant growth at the beginning of the treatment, the 'Rixianggui' plants later showed no improvement in growth. This was probably because MG competed with the plants for water and available nitrogen in the soil. Thus, our findings suggest that RG and WC, but not MG, improved the soil environment and the growth of 'Rixianggui' plants. Considering the effect of mulching on soil properties and plant growth and physiology, round gravel and wood chips appear to be a better choice than manila turf grass in 'Rixianggui' nurseries. Further studies are required to determine the effects of mulch quality and mulch-layer thickness on shoot and root growths.

  17. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, A; Voundi Nkana, J C; Verloo, M G

    2001-05-01

    Wood industries and power plants generate enormous quantities of wood ash. Disposal in landfills has been for long a common method for removal. New regulations for conserving the environment have raised the costs of landfill disposal and added to the difficulties for acquiring new sites for disposal. Over a few decades a number of studies have been carried out on the utilization of wood ashes in agriculture and forestry as an alternative method for disposal. Because of their properties and their influence on soil chemistry the utilization of wood ashes is particularly suited for the fertility management of tropical acid soils and forest soils. This review principally focuses on ash from the wood industry and power plants and considers its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, its effect on soil properties, on the availability of nutrient elements and on the growth and chemical composition of crops and trees, as well as its impact on the environment.

  18. Analysis of soil hydraulic and thermal properties for land surface modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Zeng, Yijian; Lv, Shaoning; Su, Zhongbo

    2018-06-01

    Soil information (e.g., soil texture and porosity) from existing soil datasets over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is claimed to be inadequate and even inaccurate for determining soil hydraulic properties (SHP) and soil thermal properties (STP), hampering the understanding of the land surface process over TP. As the soil varies across three dominant climate zones (i.e., arid, semi-arid and subhumid) over the TP, the associated SHP and STP are expected to vary correspondingly. To obtain an explicit insight into the soil hydrothermal properties over the TP, in situ and laboratory measurements of over 30 soil property profiles were obtained across the climate zones. Results show that porosity and SHP and STP differ across the climate zones and strongly depend on soil texture. In particular, it is proposed that gravel impact on porosity and SHP and STP are both considered in the arid zone and in deep layers of the semi-arid zone. Parameterization schemes for porosity, SHP and STP are investigated and compared with measurements taken. To determine the SHP, including soil water retention curves (SWRCs) and hydraulic conductivities, the pedotransfer functions (PTFs) developed by Cosby et al. (1984) (for the Clapp-Hornberger model) and the continuous PTFs given by Wösten et al. (1999) (for the Van Genuchten-Mualem model) are recommended. The STP parameterization scheme proposed by Farouki (1981) based on the model of De Vries (1963) performed better across the TP than other schemes. Using the parameterization schemes mentioned above, the uncertainties of five existing regional and global soil datasets and their derived SHP and STP over the TP are quantified through comparison with in situ and laboratory measurements. The measured soil physical properties dataset is available at https://data.4tu.nl/repository/uuid:c712717c-6ac0-47ff-9d58-97f88082ddc0.

  19. Using remote sensing and soil physical properties for predicting the spatial distribution of cotton lint yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Timely reflectance data from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production fields provide a useful tool for crop health assessment and site-specific crop management decisions. This field study investigated the relationships among site-specific normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil physical...

  20. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  1. Properties of 91 Southern Soil Series

    Treesearch

    Basil D. Doss; W. M. Broadfoot

    1956-01-01

    From June 1954 to July 1955 the Vicksburg Infiltration Project collected and analyzed samples of 91 soil series in 7 southern states. The purpose was to supply the U. S. Army with information needed for specialized research on military trafficability, but the basic data on soil properties should be of interest to soil scientists generally. The 91 series may be...

  2. Biotic and abiotic processes in eastside ecosystems: the effects of management on soil properties, processes, and productivity.

    Treesearch

    Alan E. Harvey; J. Michael Geist; Gerald L McDonald; Martin F. Jurgensen; Patrick H. Cochran; Darlene Zabowski; Robert T. Meurisse

    1994-01-01

    Productivity of forest and range land soils is based on a combination of diverse physical, chemical and biological properties. In ecosystems characteristic of eastside regions of Oregon and Washington, the productive zone is usually in the upper 1 or 2 m. Not only are the biological processes that drive both soil productivity and root development concentrated in...

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing of postfire soil properties

    Treesearch

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot; Bruce E. Frazier; Joan Q. Wu

    2004-01-01

    Forest fires may induce changes in soil organic properties that often lead to water repellent conditions within the soil profile that decrease soil infiltration capacity. The remote detection of water repellent soils after forest fires would lead to quicker and more accurate assessment of erosion potential. An airborne hyperspectral image was acquired over the Hayman...

  4. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  5. The effect of water harvesting techniques on runoff, sedimentation, and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H; Mohammad, Ayed G

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  6. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  7. EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY AND TOXCITY TO EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil properties are important factors modifying metal bioavailability to ecological receptors. Twenty-one soils with a wide range of soil properties were amended with a single concentration of Pb (2000 mg/kg) to determine the effects of soil properties on Pb bioavailability and ...

  8. Status Report for Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 1.B – Physical and Hydraulic Properties Database and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-09-26

    The objective of Activity 1.B of the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data.more » Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the objectives of Activity 1.B of the RDS Project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which has most recently been maintained by Fluor-Hanford, Inc., (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The development of the Virtual Library module was to be performed by a third party under subcontract to Fluor. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site

  9. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Rebekah F.; Abbott, Robert E.

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammermore » TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  10. Chemical and Physical Soil Restoration in Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Roberti Alves de Almeida, Danilo; Sartorio, Simone Daniela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Santin Brancalion, Pedro Henrique

    2017-04-01

    The current trend of ecological restoration is to address the recovery of degraded areas by ecosystemic way, overcoming the rehabilitation process. In this sense, the topsoil and other complementary techniques in mining areas plays an important role in soil recovery. The aim of this study was to contextualize the soil improvement, with the use of topsoil through chemical and physical attributes, relative to secondary succession areas in restoration, as well as in reference ecosystems (natural forest). Eighteen areas were evaluated, six in forest restoration process, six native forests and six just mining areas. The areas were sampled in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Chemical indicators measured were parameters of soil fertility and texture, macroporosity, microporosity, density and total porosity as physical parameters. The forest restoration using topsoil was effective in triggering a process of soil recovery, promoting, in seven years, chemical and physical characteristics similar to those of the reference ecosystem.

  11. Changes in soil hydrological and chemical properties of vineyard soils after composted cattle manure application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes soil chemical and physical properties (organic matter content, nitrogen and phosphorus, water retention capacity and infiltration) when composted organic waste were applied in vineyard soils. The effect on soil properties after two repeated applications at a rate of 10t/ha compared with the control (without treatment) were evaluated. The analysis was carried out in vineyard soils, located in the Penedès area (NE Spain). In this area, vines are the main agricultural land use and during the last decades, important land levelling operations have been carried out to facilitate the mechanizations of the labours. After levelling, the application of organic matter is a common practice in order to increase the organic matter levels. According to SSS (1998), the soils are classified as Typic Calcixerepts, with slopes between 5 and 15%. Organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus content were evaluated in one control plot and in another plot in which successive applications of compost were done, separated between them 2 years. The changes in infiltration were evaluated using simulated rainfall, applied at 60 mm/h. The simulated rainfall consisted of 2.5 mm diameter drops of deionised water freely falling from droppers positioned 2.5 m above the soil surface. Each simulation lasted for 40 min. Runoff generated was collected at 5 minute intervals. Differences between treatments were analysed using the Duncan test. The results confirmed the beneficial effect of compost application to improve organic matter and nutrients in the treated soils. The organic matter content increased from 1 to 2.9%; Nitrogen increased from < 1% to 0.25% and P (Olsen) increased from 45 to 164 mg/kg. The infiltration also improved, respectively 13 and 20% after the successive compost application. The effect on water retention capacity was significantly different after the second application. Keywords: compost, infiltration, nutrients, organic matter, water

  12. Comparing organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Mátyás, Bence; Chiluisa Andrade, Maritza Elizabeth; Yandun Chida, Nora Carmen; Taipe Velasco, Carina Maribel; Gavilanes Morales, Denisse Estefania; Miño Montero, Gisella Nicole; Ramirez Cando, Lenin Javier; Lizano Acevedo, Ronnie Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Soil management has great potential to affect soil respiration. In this study, we investigated the effects of organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration.  We measured the main soil physical-chemical properties from conventional and organic managed soil in Ecuador. Soil respiration was determined using alkaline absorption according to Witkamp.  Soil properties such as organic matter, nitrogen, and humidity, were comparable between conventional and organic soils in the present study, and in a further analysis there was no statically significant correlation with soil respiration. Therefore, even though organic farmers tend to apply more organic material to their fields, but this did not result in a significantly higher CO2 production in their soils in the present study.

  13. Comparing organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration

    PubMed Central

    Mátyás, Bence; Chiluisa Andrade, Maritza Elizabeth; Yandun Chida, Nora Carmen; Taipe Velasco, Carina Maribel; Gavilanes Morales, Denisse Estefania; Miño Montero, Gisella Nicole; Ramirez Cando, Lenin Javier; Lizano Acevedo, Ronnie Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Soil management has great potential to affect soil respiration. In this study, we investigated the effects of organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration.  We measured the main soil physical-chemical properties from conventional and organic managed soil in Ecuador. Soil respiration was determined using alkaline absorption according to Witkamp.  Soil properties such as organic matter, nitrogen, and humidity, were comparable between conventional and organic soils in the present study, and in a further analysis there was no statically significant correlation with soil respiration. Therefore, even though organic farmers tend to apply more organic material to their fields, but this did not result in a significantly higher CO2 production in their soils in the present study. PMID:29623193

  14. Reactive transport modelling to infer changes in soil hydraulic properties induced by non-conventional water irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Abellan, Javier; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Jacques, Diederik; Kohfahl, Claus; Tamoh, Karim

    2017-06-01

    The use of non-conventional water (e.g., treated wastewater, desalinated water) for different purposes is increasing in many water scarce regions of the world. Its use for irrigation may have potential drawbacks, because of mineral dissolution/precipitation processes, such as changes in soil physical and hydraulic properties (e.g., porosity, permeability), modifying infiltration and aquifer recharge processes or blocking root growth. Prediction of soil and groundwater impacts is essential for achieving sustainable agricultural practices. A numerical model to solve unsaturated water flow and non-isothermal multicomponent reactive transport has been modified implementing the spatio-temporal evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties. A long-term process simulation (30 years) of agricultural irrigation with desalinated water, based on a calibrated/validated 1D numerical model in a semi-arid region, is presented. Different scenarios conditioning reactive transport (i.e., rainwater irrigation, lack of gypsum in the soil profile, and lower partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)) have also been considered. Results show that although boundary conditions and mineral soil composition highly influence the reactive processes, dissolution/precipitation of carbonate species is triggered mainly by pCO2, closely related to plant roots. Calcite dissolution occurs in the root zone, precipitation takes place under it and at the soil surface, which will lead a root growth blockage and a direct soil evaporation decrease, respectively. For the studied soil, a gypsum dissolution up to 40 cm depth is expected at long-term, with a general increase of porosity and hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Spatial variability of soil hydraulics and remotely sensed soil parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lascano, R. J.; Van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of methods to correctly interpret remotely sensed information about soil moisture and soil temperature requires an understanding of water and energy flow in soil, because the signals originate from the surface, or from a shallow surface layer, but reflect processes in the entire profile. One formidable difficulty in this application of soil physics is the spatial heterogeneity of natural soils. Earlier work has suggested that the heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties may be described by the frequency distribution of a single scale factor. The sensitivity of hydraulic and energetic processes to the variation of this scale factor is explored with a suitable numerical model. It is believed that such an analysis can help in deciding how accurately and extensively basic physical properties of field soils need to be known in order to interpret thermal or radar waveband signals. It appears that the saturated hydraulic conductivity needs to be known only to its order of magnitude, and that the required accuracy of the soil water retention function is about 0.02 volume fraction. Furthermore, the results may be helpful in deciding how the total scene or view field, as perceived through a sensor, is composed from the actual mosaic of transient soil properties, such as surface temperature or surface soil moisture. However, the latter proposition presupposes a random distribution of permanent properties, a condition that may not be met in many instances, and no solution of the problem is apparent.

  16. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction.

    PubMed

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid

    2008-06-01

    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p < 0.0001). Clear difference was showed between the earthwork length by slope classes (p = 0.0060). Grubbing time (p = 0.2180), soil moisture (p = 0.1622), bulk density (p = 0.2490) and porosity (p = 0.2159) had no significant effect on the excavator earthworks length.

  17. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    PubMed

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  18. Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The

  19. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  20. Soil Physical Characteristics and Biological Indicators of Soil Quality Under Different Biodegradable Mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Flury, M.; Sintim, H.; Bandopadhyay, S.; Ghimire, S.; Bary, A.; DeBruyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Application of conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch in crop production offers benefits of increased water use efficiency, weed control, management of certain plant diseases, and maintenance of a micro-climate conducive for plant growth. These factors improve crop yield and quality, but PE must be retrieved and safely disposed of after usage. Substituting PE with biodegradable plastic mulches (BDM) would alleviate disposal needs, and is potentially a more sustainable practice. However, knowledge of potential impacts of BDMs on agricultural soil ecosystems is needed to evaluate sustainability. We (a) monitored soil moisture and temperature dynamics, and (b) assessed soil quality upon usage of different mulches, with pie pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) as the test crop. Experimental field trials are ongoing at two sites, one at Northwestern Washington Research and Extension Center, Mount Vernon, WA, and the other at East Tennessee Research and Education Center, Knoxville, TN. The treatments constitute four different commercial BDM products, one experimental BDM; no mulch and PE served as the controls. Soil quality parameters being examined include: organic matter content, aggregate stability, water infiltration rate, CO2 flux, pH, and extracellular enzyme activity. In addition, lysimeters were installed to examine the soil water and heat flow dynamics. We present baseline and the first field season results from this study. Mulch cover appeared to moderate soil temperatures, but biodegradable mulches also appeared to lose water more quickly than PE. All mulch types, with the exception of cellulose, reduced the diurnal fluctuations in soil temperature at 10cm depth from 1 to 4ºC. However, volumetric water content ranged from 0.10 to 0.22 m3 m-3 under the five biodegradable mulches compared to 0.22 to 0.28 m3 m-3 under conventional PE. Results from the study will be useful for management practices by providing knowledge on how different mulches impact soil physical and

  1. Revamping of entisol soil physical characteristics with compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumono; Loka, S. P.; Nasution, D. L. S.

    2018-02-01

    Physical characteristic of Entisol soil is an important factor for the growth of plant. The aim of this research was to know the effect of compost application on physical characteristics of Entisol soil. The research method used was experimental method with 6 (six) treatments and 3 replications of which K1 = 10 kg Entisol soil without compost, K2 = 9 Kg Entisol soil with 1 kg compost, K3 = 8 kg Entisol soil with 2 kg compost, K4 = 7 kg Entisol soilwith3 kg compost, K5 = 6 kg Entisol soil with 4 kg compost and K6 = 5 kg Entisol soil with 5 kg compost. The observed parameters were soil texture, soil organic matter, soil thickness, porosity, soil pore size, soil permeability and water availability. The results showed that the Entisol soil texture was loamy sand texture, the value of soil organic matter ranged from 0.74% to 4.69%, soil thickness ranged from 13.83 to 20.16 cm, porosity ranged from16% to 37%, soil pore size ranged from 2.859 to 5.493 µm, permeability ranged from 1.24 to 5.64 cm/hour and water availability ranged from 6.67% to 9.12% by each treatment.

  2. Impact of living mulches on the physical properties of Planosol in monocropped maize cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Adamavičienė, Aida; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Marks, Marek; Vaitauskienė, Kristina

    2018-04-01

    The complex mutual interactions between soil properties and plants in high-biodiversity mono-cropping agro ecosystems have not been widely investigated. For this purpose, during 2009-2011, a stationary field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Aleksandras Stulginskis University to establish the effect of a multi-component agrocenose (maize, living mulch, weeds) on the physical properties of the soil. Spring oilseed rape, white mustard, spring barley, Italian ryegrass, black medic, Persian clover and red clover were sown as living mulch into maize inter-rows. The stability of >1.0 mm aggregates increased between the beginning and end of the maize vegetative period in almost all of the crops containing living mulch. The greatest competition for moisture content between the inter-crops and maize was observed at the beginning of the vegetative period because of living mulches of long growing seasons using the most moisture. In many cases, the shear strength of the soil was significantly reduced by the living mulch in the middle of summer, when it covered the maize inter-rows. These findings show that the monocropping of maize with living mulch stabilises or improves the physical characteristics of the soil, highlighting its potential for sustainable maize growing.

  3. Soil physical properties changed induced by dry-wet cycles in the water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Junfang; Tang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    In southwest China, a grand hydraulic engineering called Three Gorges Dam (TGD) was completed and under full power run since 2009, making a total area of 349 km2 along Yangtze River exposing the dry-wet cycles by its impounding of water step by step from the elevations of 135 m in summer season to 175 m in winter season at each year. As populated area, the environmental issues aroused by the TGR have centered on water quality, biodiversity, sedimentation, downstream riverbed erosion and pollutants (both heavy metals and organic pollutants) transportation. All these are regulated or affected by soil structure and pore network, directly or indirectly. Thus, the study of soil physical quality changed induced by these seasonal dry-wet cycles is crucial. The objective of this study is: (1) to describe soil structural status in WLF zone of TGR by combination of laboratory measures and visual evaluation method; (2) to describe the pore system in this zone by both SWRC and CT images; and (3) to address the changes of soil physical quality changed by seasonal dry-wet cycles. Our results showed a deterioration of soil structure (indicated by a high Sq score in VESS) and soil aggregate stability (indicated by low MWD and the mass fractal dimension Dm) in lower land of TGR. The data from both soil water retention curve and micro-CT image demonstrates a going -worse of soil physical quality by decreasing of soil pore number and porosity as well as a shift of drainable micro-pores (0.1 < r < 125 µm) to non-drainable micro-pores (r < 0.1 µm) in the lower land of TGR.

  4. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Soil thermal properties, i.e.: specific heat capacity (c), thermal conductivity (K), volumetric heat capacity (C) govern the thermal environment and heat transport through the soil. Hence the precise knowledge and accurate predictions of these properties for peaty soils with high amount of organic matter are especially important for the proper forecasting of soil temperature and thus it may lead to a better assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions created by microbiological activity of the peatlands. The objective of the study was to develop the predictive models of the selected thermal parameters of peat-moorsh soils in terms of their potential applicability for forecasting changes of soil temperature in degraded ecosystems of the Middle Biebrza River Valley area. Evaluation of the soil thermal properties was conducted for the parameters: specific heat capacity (c), volumetric heat capacities of the dry and saturated soil (Cdry, Csat) and thermal conductivities of the dry and saturated soil (Kdry, Ksat). The thermal parameters were measured using the dual-needle probe (KD2-Pro) on soil samples collected from seven peaty soils, representing total 24 horizons. The surface layers were characterized by different degrees of advancement of soil degradation dependent on intensiveness of the cultivation practises (peaty and humic moorsh). The underlying soil layers contain peat deposits of different botanical composition (peat-moss, sedge-reed, reed and alder) and varying degrees of decomposition of the organic matter, from H1 to H7 (von Post scale). Based on the research results it has been shown that the specific heat capacity of the soils differs depending on the type of soil (type of moorsh and type of peat). The range of changes varied from 1276 J.kg-1.K-1 in the humic moorsh soil to 1944 J.kg-1.K-1 in the low decomposed sedge-moss peat. It has also been stated that in degraded peat soils with the increasing of the ash content in the soil the value of specific heat

  5. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferredmore » and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing« less

  6. Physical responses of volcanic soils to land-use intensity in tropical headwater catchments of central Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looker, N. T.; Kolka, R.; Asbjornsen, H.; Munoz-Villers, L.; Colin, P. O.; Gómez Aguilar, L. R.; Ward, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil physical properties, such as bulk density (ρb) and penetrability (P), may vary in response to anthropogenic disturbance and are relatively easy to measure. These variables are thus often used as proxies for soil characteristics that more directly govern process rates but are logistically challenging to sample in situ (e.g., hydraulic conductivity). We evaluated within- and among-site variability in the physical condition of the upper soil throughout eight first-order catchments in the volcanic landscape of central Veracruz, Mexico, through nested sampling of ρb, P, and ground cover characteristics. The study catchments spanned a land-use intensity gradient, ranging in dominant cover type from sugarcane to mature cloud forest, with pasture and coffee agroforest as intermediate cover types. Catchments were compared using data collected in forest inventory plots and at points distributed along the topographic position index. Analysis of this hierarchical dataset led to a ranking of catchments in terms of soil physical condition and, importantly, revealed the bias introduced by ignoring the within-catchment variability in response metrics. These results will help optimize soil sampling effort in landscapes with complex topography and land-use/cover distributions.

  7. Analyzing the impacts of three types of biochar on soil carbon fractions and physiochemical properties in a corn-soybean rotation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar is a soil amendment produced from incomplete pyrolysis of organic materials in the absence of oxygen. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil physical properties and organic carbon was investigated under controlled conditions such as laboratory or greenhouse environments. Th...

  8. Soil physical properties regulate lethal heating during burning of woody residues

    Treesearch

    Matt Busse; Carol Shestak; Ken Hubbert; Eric Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Temperatures well in excess of the lethal threshold for roots (60°C) have been measured in forest soils when woody fuels are burned. Whether this heat pulse is strongly moderated by soil moisture or soil texture is not fully understood, however. We measured soil heat profi les during 60 experimental burns, identifying changes in maximum soil temperature and heat...

  9. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Nikodem, Antonin; Muhlhanselova, Marcela; Zigova, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Study is focused on a comparison of a soil structure and soil hydraulic properties within soil profiles of a same soil type under different land management. Study was performed in Haplic Luvisol in Hnevceves the Czech Republic. Two soil profiles, which were in close distance from each other, were chosen: 1. under the conventional tillage, 2. under the permanent (30 years) grass cover. Soil sampling and field experiments were carried out immediately after the harvest of winter barley in 2008. The micromorphological images were used to evaluate the soil structure of all Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C diagnostic horizons. The hydraulic properties of the diagnostic horizons were studied in the laboratory using multistep outflow experiments performed on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples. A tension disc infiltrometer (with a disc radius of 10 cm) and minidisc tension infiltrometers (with a disc radius of 2.2 cm) were used to measure cumulative water infiltration under unsaturated conditions created using a pressure head of -2 cm. Measurements were performed at a depths of 5, 45, 75 and 110 cm, which corresponded to the Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C horizons of studied Haplic Luvisol at both locations. The Guelph permeameter was used to measure cumulative water flux under surface ponding conditions. The depth of the drilled well was 10, 50, 80 and 115 cm, the well radius was 3 cm, and the well ponding depth was 5 cm. Both tests were used to evaluate hydraulic conductivity (K for h=-2cm, and Ks) values. Results showed, that while properties in the Bt2 and C horizons of both soil profiles were relatively similar, properties in the Ap and Bt1 horizons were different. The fraction of gravitational pores (which may cause preferential flow) in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the convectional tillage was large than those in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the permanent grass. This influenced for instance the Ks values measured using the Guelph permeametr. The Ks

  10. Predicting root zone soil moisture with soil properties and satellite near-surface moisture data across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, D.; Manfreda, S.; Keller, K.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2017-03-01

    Satellite-based near-surface (0-2 cm) soil moisture estimates have global coverage, but do not capture variations of soil moisture in the root zone (up to 100 cm depth) and may be biased with respect to ground-based soil moisture measurements. Here, we present an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) hydrologic data assimilation system that predicts bias in satellite soil moisture data to support the physically based Soil Moisture Analytical Relationship (SMAR) infiltration model, which estimates root zone soil moisture with satellite soil moisture data. The SMAR-EnKF model estimates a regional-scale bias parameter using available in situ data. The regional bias parameter is added to satellite soil moisture retrievals before their use in the SMAR model, and the bias parameter is updated continuously over time with the EnKF algorithm. In this study, the SMAR-EnKF assimilates in situ soil moisture at 43 Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) monitoring locations across the conterminous U.S. Multivariate regression models are developed to estimate SMAR parameters using soil physical properties and the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) evapotranspiration data product as covariates. SMAR-EnKF root zone soil moisture predictions are in relatively close agreement with in situ observations when using optimal model parameters, with root mean square errors averaging 0.051 [cm3 cm-3] (standard error, s.e. = 0.005). The average root mean square error associated with a 20-fold cross-validation analysis with permuted SMAR parameter regression models increases moderately (0.082 [cm3 cm-3], s.e. = 0.004). The expected regional-scale satellite correction bias is negative in four out of six ecoregions studied (mean = -0.12 [-], s.e. = 0.002), excluding the Great Plains and Eastern Temperate Forests (0.053 [-], s.e. = 0.001). With its capability of estimating regional-scale satellite bias, the SMAR-EnKF system can predict root zone soil moisture over broad extents and has

  11. Combining phytoextraction and biochar addition improves soil biochemical properties in a soil contaminated with Cd.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of phytoremediation is to improve ecosystem functioning. Soil biochemical properties are considered as effective indicators of soil quality and are sensitive to various environmental stresses, including heavy metal contamination. The biochemical response in a soil contaminated with cadmium was tested after several treatments aimed to reduce heavy metal availability including liming, biochar addition and phytoextraction using Amaranthus tricolor L. Two biochars were added to the soil: eucalyptus pyrolysed at 600 °C (EB) and poultry litter at 400 °C (PLB). Two liming treatments were chosen with the aim of bringing soil pH to the same values as in the treatments EB and PLB. The properties studied included soil microbial biomass C, soil respiration and the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase. Both phytoremediation and biochar addition improved soil biochemical properties, although results were enzyme specific. For biochar addition these changes were partly, but not exclusively, mediated by alterations in soil pH. A careful choice of biochar must be undertaken to optimize the remediation process from the point of view of metal phytoextraction and soil biological activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical properties of 134 soils in six northeastern states

    Treesearch

    A. R. Eschner; B. O. Jones; R. C. Moyle

    1957-01-01

    From June 1954 to July 1955 the Vicksburg Infiltration Project collected and analyzed samples from 134 sites in six Northeastern States; the samples included 79 soil series and 114 soil types. This work was done to supply the U. S. Army with information needed for specialized research on military traffic ability. The basic data are herein presented because of their...

  13. The soil management assessment framework: A potential soil health assessment tool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) was developed in the 1990s utilizing Systems Engineering and Ecology experiences with scoring functions to normalize disparate soil physical, chemical, and biological indicator data representing critical properties and processes associated with soil qu...

  14. Physical and chemical properties of pyrolyzed biosolids for utilization in sand-based turfgrass rootzones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biosolids are several forms of treated sewage sludge that are intended for use as soil conditioners for horticultural, agricultural and industrial crops. The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical and physical properties of biosolids pyrolyzed at several different temperatures, a...

  15. Soil physics and chemistry at a medieval ridge and furrow site in northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; van der Maaten, Ernst; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The usage of non-reversible ploughs, mainly during the Middle Ages and until historic times, led to the formation of ridge and furrow systems. Due to improvements of agricultural techniques, these historic agricultural sites were often abandoned and are now marginal land. The parallel ridges and furrows are usually, if not destroyed by later conventional ploughing, preserved in present-day forests. In northeastern Germany ridge and furrow systems are normally several decameters long and up to ten meters wide. The height difference between ridge top and furrow bottom is up to 50 centimeters and is expected to cause significant contrasts of soil properties and vegetation. Furthermore, due to the abandonment of sites with ridges and furrows, soils on these sites are unique archives for studies on fertilization, soil carbon dynamics and soil development. Therefore, we are characterizing soil physics (bulk density, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, texture) and soil chemistry (soil acidity, carbon and nitrogen content) on a type location of historic ridges and furrows about 100 km northwest of Berlin.

  16. Effects of high- and low-intensity fires on soil properties and plant growth in a Bolivian dry forest

    Treesearch

    Deborah K. Kennard; H.L. Gholz

    2001-01-01

    We compared soil nutrient availabiiity and soil physical properties among four treatments (high-intensity fire, low- intensity fire, plant removal, and harvesting gap) and a control (intact forest understory) over a period of 18 months in a tropical dry forest in Bolivia. The effect of treatments on plant growth was tested using a shade intolerant tree species (

  17. Retention of silver nano-particles and silver ions in calcareous soils: Influence of soil properties.

    PubMed

    Rahmatpour, Samaneh; Shirvani, Mehran; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad R; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2017-05-15

    The rapid production and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have led to significant release of AgNPs into the terrestrial environments. Once released into the soil, AgNPs could enter into different interactions with soil particles which play key roles in controlling the fate and transport of these nanoparticles. In spite of that, experimental studies on the retention of AgNPs in soils are very scarce. Hence, the key objective of this research was to find out the retention behavior of AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in a range of calcareous soils. A second objective was to determine the extent to which the physico-chemical properties of the soils influence the Ag retention parameters. To this end, isothermal batch experiments were used to determine the retention of Poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-capped AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and Ag(I) ions by nine calcareous soils with a diversity of physico-chemical properties. The results revealed that the retention data for both PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions were well described by the classical Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal equations. The retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions was positively correlated to clay and organic carbon (OC) contents as well as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils. Due to multicolinearity among the soil properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group the soil properties which affect the retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions. Accordingly, we identified two groups of soil properties controlling retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in the calcareous soils. The first group comprised soil solid phase parameters like clay, OC, and CEC, which generally control hetero-aggregation and adsorption reactions and the second group included soil solution variables such as EC and pH as well as Cl - and Ca 2+ concentrations, which are supposed to mainly affect homo-aggregation and precipitation reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in Mediterranean areas. A comparative study of three typical sceneries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Juan; Priego-Navas, Mercedes; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Generally, literature shows that the high variability of rainfall-induced soil erosion is related to climatic differences, relief, soil properties and land use. Very different runoff rates and soil loss values have been reported in Mediterranean cropped soils depending on soil management practices, but also in soils under natural vegetation types. OBJECTIVES The aim of this research is to study the relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in three typical Mediterranean areas from southern Spain: olive groves under conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-till practices, and soils under natural vegetation. METHODS Rainfall simulation experiments have been carried out in order to assess the relationship between soil erosion risk, land use, soil management and soil properties in olive-cropped soils under different types of management and soils under natural vegetation type from Mediterranean areas in southern Spain RESULTS Results show that mean runoff rates decrease from 35% in olive grove soils under conventional tillage to 25% in olive (Olea europaea) grove soils with minimum tillage or no-till practices, and slightly over 22% in soils under natural vegetation. Moreover, considering the different vegetation types, runoff rates vary in a wide range, although runoff rates from soils under holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), 25.70%, and marginal olive groves , 25.31%, are not significantly different. Results from soils under natural vegetation show that the properties and nature of the organic residues play a role in runoff characteristics, as runoff rates above 50% were observed in less than 10% of the rainfall simulations performed on soils with a organic layer. In contrast, more than half of runoff rates from bare soils reached or surpassed 50%. Quantitatively, average values for runoff water losses increase up to 2.5 times in unprotected soils. This is a key issue in the study area, where mean annual rainfall is above 600 mm

  19. Spatial structure of soil properties at different scales of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Anna; Huwe, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Soils of tropical mountain ecosystems provide important ecosystem services like water and carbon storage, water filtration and erosion control. As these ecosystems are threatened by global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes, it is important to understand the implications of these changes. Within the DFG Research Unit "Kilimanjaro ecosystems under global change: Linking biodiversity, biotic interactions and biogeochemical ecosystem processes", we study the spatial heterogeneity of soils and the available water capacity for different land use systems. In the savannah zone of Mt. Kilimanjaro, maize fields are compared to natural savannah ecosystems. In the lower montane forest zone, coffee plantations, traditional home gardens, grasslands and natural forests are studied. We characterize the soils with respect to soil hydrology, emphasizing on the spatial variability of soil texture and bulk density at different scales. Furthermore soil organic carbon and nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and the pH-value are measured. Vis/Nir-Spectroscopy is used to detect small scale physical and chemical heterogeneity within soil profiles, as well as to get information of soil properties on a larger scale. We aim to build a spectral database for these soil properties for the Kilimanjaro region in order to get rapid information for geostatistical analysis. Partial least square regression with leave one out cross validation is used for model calibration. Results for silt and clay content, as well as carbon and nitrogen content are promising, with adjusted R² ranging from 0.70 for silt to 0.86 for nitrogen. Furthermore models for other nutrients, cation exchange capacity and available water capacity will be calibrated. We compare heterogeneity within and across the different ecosystems and state that spatial structure characteristics and complexity patterns in soil parameters can be quantitatively related to biodiversity and functional diversity

  20. Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root-Soil Interaction.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kemo; White, Philip J; Whalley, William R; Shen, Jianbo; Shi, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields. These root traits affect soil physical and chemical properties and might be utilized to improve the soil for subsequent crops. We argue that optimizing root-soil interactions is a prerequisite for future food security. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of soil-hydraulic properties and infiltration timescales in wildfire-affected soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.

    2017-01-01

    We collected soil-hydraulic property data from the literature for wildfire-affected soils, ash, and unburned soils. These data were used to calculate metrics and timescales of hydrologic response related to infiltration and surface runoff generation. Sorptivity (S) and wetting front potential (Ψf) were significantly different (lower) in burned soils compared with unburned soils, whereas field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) was not significantly different. The magnitude and duration of the influence of capillarity during infiltration was greatly reduced in burned soils, causing faster ponding times in response to rainfall. Ash had large values of S and Kfs but moderate values of Ψf, compared with unburned and burned soils, indicating ash has long ponding times in response to rainfall. The ratio of S2/Kfs was nearly constant (~100 mm) for unburned soils but more variable in burned soils, suggesting that unburned soils have a balance between gravity and capillarity contributions to infiltration that may depend on soil organic matter, whereas in burned soils the gravity contribution to infiltration is greater. Changes in S and Kfs in burned soils act synergistically to reduce infiltration and accelerate and amplify surface runoff generation. Synthesis of these findings identifies three key areas for future research. First, short timescales of capillary influences on infiltration indicate the need for better measurements of infiltration at times less than 1 min to accurately characterize S in burned soils. Second, using parameter values, such as Ψf, from unburned areas could produce substantial errors in hydrologic modeling when used without adjustment for wildfire effects, causing parameter compensation and resulting underestimation of Kfs. Third, more thorough measurement campaigns that capture soil-structural changes, organic matter impacts, quantitative water repellency trends, and soil-water content along with soil-hydraulic properties could drive the

  2. Using Multispectral and Elevation Data to Predict Soil Properties for a Better Management of Fertilizers at Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Sylvain, Jean-Daniel; N'Dayegamiye, Adrien; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Nolin, Michel; Perron, Isabelle; Grenon, Lucie; Beaudin, Isabelle; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    Quebec through an experimental field protocol (spatial sampling by management zones). Soils will be sampled, but crop yields under different nitrogen rates will also be assessed. Specifically, in each of the management areas defined, five different doses of nitrogen were applied (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg N / ha) on corn fields. In fall, the corn is harvested to assess differences in yields between the management areas and also in terms of doses of nitrogen. Ultimately, on the basis of well-established management areas, showing contrasting soil properties, the farmer will be able to ensure optimal correction of soil acidity, nitrogen fertilization, richness of soil in P and K, and improve soil drainage and physical properties. Environmentally, the principles of integrated and localized management carries significant benefits, particularly in terms of reduction of diffuse nutrient pollution.

  3. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  4. Mineralogic and compositional properties of Martian soil and dust: results from Mars Pathfinder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F.; McSween, H.Y.; Crisp, J.A.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Bridges, N.T.; Johnson, J. R.; Britt, D.T.; Golombek, M.P.; Moore, H.J.; Ghosh, A.; Bishop, J.L.; Anderson, R.C.; Brückner, J.; Economou, T.; Greenwood, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Hargraves, R.M.; Hviid, S.; Knudsen, J.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Reid, R.; Rieder, R.; Soderblom, L.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder obtained multispectral, elemental, magnetic, and physical measurements of soil and dust at the Sagan Memorial Station during the course of its 83 sol mission. We describe initial results from these measurements, concentrating on multispectral and elemental data, and use these data, along with previous Viking, SNC meteorite, and telescopic results, to help constrain the origin and evolution of Martian soil and dust. We find that soils and dust can be divided into at least eight distinct spectral units, based on parameterization of Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) 400 to 1000 nm multispectral images. The most distinctive spectral parameters for soils and dust are the reflectivity in the red, the red/blue reflectivity ratio, the near-IR spectral slope, and the strength of the 800 to 1000 nm absorption feature. Most of the Pathfinder spectra are consistent with the presence of poorly crystalline or nanophase ferric oxide(s), sometimes mixed with small but varying degrees of well-crystalline ferric and ferrous phases. Darker soil units appear to be coarser-grained, compacted, and/or mixed with a larger amount of dark ferrous materials relative to bright soils. Nanophase goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, and maghemite are leading candidates for the origin of the absorption centered near 900 nm in IMP spectra. The ferrous component in the soil cannot be well-constrained based on IMP data. Alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) measurements of six soil units show little variability within the landing site and show remarkable overall similarity to the average Viking-derived soil elemental composition. Differences exist between Viking and Pathfinder soils, however, including significantly higher S and Cl abundances and lower Si abundances in Viking soils and the lack of a correlation between Ti and Fe in Pathfinder soils. No significant linear correlations were observed between IMP spectral properties and APXS elemental chemistry. Attempts at constraining

  5. Analyzing the impacts of three types of biochar on soil carbon fractions and physiochemical properties in a corn-soybean rotation.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Saroop S; Ussiri, David A N; Kumar, Sandeep; Chintala, Rajesh; Papiernik, Sharon K; Malo, Douglas D; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    Biochar is a solid material obtained when biomass is thermochemically converted in an oxygen-limited environment. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil properties and organic carbon (C) were investigated under controlled conditions, mainly laboratory incubation or greenhouse studies. This 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of biochar on selected soil physical and chemical properties and carbon and nitrogen fractions for two selected soil types (clay loam and a sandy loam soil) under a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. The three plant based biochar materials used for this study were corn stover (CS), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue (PW), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (SG). Data showed that CS and SG significantly increased the pH of acidic soil at the eroded landscape position but produced no significant change in soil pH at the depositional landscape position. The effects of biochar treatments on cold water extractable C (WSC) and nitrogen (WSN) fractions for the 0-7.5 cm depth were depended on biochar and soil type. Results suggested that alkaline biochars applied at 10 Mg ha -1 can increase the pH and WSC fraction of acidic sandy loam soil, but the 10 Mg ha -1 rate might be low to substantially improve physical properties and hot water extractable C and N fractions of soil. Application of higher rates of biochar and long-term monitoring is needed to quantify the benefits of biochar under field conditions on soils in different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties of topsoil affected by soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikodem, Antonin; Kodesova, Radka; Jaksik, Ondrej; Jirku, Veronika; Klement, Ales; Fer, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the comparison of soil hydraulic properties of topsoil that is affected by erosion processes. In order to include variable morphological and soil properties along the slope three sites - Brumovice, Vidim and Sedlčany were selected. Two transects (A, B) and five sampling sites along each one were chosen. Soil samples were taken in Brumovice after the tillage and sowing of winter wheat in October 2010 and after the wheat harvest in August 2011. At locality Vidim and Sedlčany samples were collected in May and August 2012. Soil hydraulic properties were studied in the laboratory on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples placed in Tempe cells using the multi-step outflow test. Soil water retention data points were obtained by calculating water balance in the soil sample at each pressure head step of the experiment. The single-porosity model in HYDRUS-1D was applied to analyze the multi-step outflow and to obtain the parameters of soil hydraulic properties using the numerical inversion. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities (Kw) for the pressure head of -2 cm of topsoil were also measured after the harvest using Guelph permeameter and Minidisk tensiometer, respectively. In general soil water retention curves measured before and after vegetation period apparently differed, which indicated soil material consolidation and soil-porous system rearrangement. Soil water retention curves obtained on the soil samples and hydraulic conductivities measured in the field reflected the position at the elevation transect and the effect of erosion/accumulation processes on soil structure and consequently on the soil hydraulic properties. The highest Ks values in Brumovice were obtained at the steepest parts of the elevation transects, that have been the most eroded. The Ks values at the bottom parts decreased due to the sedimentation of eroded soil particles. The change of the Kw values along transects didn't show

  7. Spatial variability of soil properties and soil erodibility in the Alqueva reservoir watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, V.; Panagopoulos, T.; Andrade, R.; Guerrero, C.; Loures, L.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate how the spatial variability of soil properties and soil erodibility (K factor) were affected by the changes in land use allowed by irrigation with water from a reservoir in a semiarid area. To this end, three areas representative of different land uses (agroforestry grassland, lucerne crop and olive orchard) were studied within a 900 ha farm. The interrelationships between variables were analyzed by multivariate techniques and extrapolated using geostatistics. The results confirmed differences between land uses for all properties analyzed, which was explained mainly by the existence of diverse management practices (tillage, fertilization and irrigation), vegetation cover and local soil characteristics. Soil organic matter, clay and nitrogen content decreased significantly, while the K factor increased with intensive cultivation. The HJ-Biplot methodology was used to represent the variation of soil erodibility properties grouped in land uses. Native grassland was the least correlated with the other land uses. The K factor demonstrated high correlation mainly with very fine sand and silt. The maps produced with geostatistics were crucial to understand the current spatial variability in the Alqueva region. Facing the intensification of land-use conversion, a sustainable management is needed to introduce protective measures to control soil erosion.

  8. Human land-use and soil change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wills, Skye A.; Williams, Candiss O.; Duniway, Michael C.; Veenstra, Jessica; Seybold, Cathy; Pressley, DeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Soil change refers to the alteration of soil and soil properties over time in one location, as opposed to soil variability across space. Although soils change with pedogensis, this chapter focuses on human caused soil change. Soil change can occur with human use and management over long or short time periods and small or large scales. While change can be negative or positive; often soil change is observed when short-term or narrow goals overshadow the other soil’s ecosystem services. Many soils have been changed in their chemical, physical or biological properties through agricultural activities, including cultivation, tillage, weeding, terracing, subsoiling, deep plowing, manure and fertilizer addition, liming, draining, and irrigation. Assessing soil change depends upon the ecosystem services and soil functions being evaluated. The interaction of soil properties with the type and intensity of management and disturbance determines the changes that will be observed. Tillage of cropland disrupts aggregates and decreases soil organic carbon content which can lead to decreased infiltration, increased erosion, and reduced biological function. Improved agricultural management systems can increase soil functions including crop productivity and sustainability. Forest management is most intensive during harvesting and seedling establishment. Most active management in forests causes disturbance of the soil surface which may include loss of forest floor organic materials, increases in bulk density, and increased risk of erosion. In grazing lands, pasture management often includes periods of biological, chemical and physical disturbance in addition to the grazing management imposed on rangelands. Grazing animals have both direct and indirect impacts on soil change. Hoof action can lead to the disturbance of biological crusts and other surface features impairing the soil’s physical, biological and hydrological function. There are clear feedbacks between vegetative systems

  9. The tri-soil experiment: do plants discriminate among vegetation soil types?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tested if rooting mass and root nutrient uptake of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) or creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) were influenced by vegetation soil type. Three soil types (A horizons), similar in gross physical and chemical properties, were freshly-collected. The soils varied in the veget...

  10. Interplay between physical movements of soils and mineral grains and chemical weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K.

    2007-12-01

    Most soil biogeochemistry studies treat the soils and their inorganic and organic constituents as physically immobile. Those soil materials, however, are in perpetual motion due to the conversion of bedrock to soils, colluvial transport, and vertical mixing by various biophysical perturbations of the soils. Subsequently, a soil is continuously replaced by the materials from the neighboring soils and the underlying parent material, while its individual horizons are gradually mixed with the materials in the neighboring horizons. The movements of bulk soil materials are ultimately driven by moving individual mineral grains. While rarely appreciated, these physical movements of soil's mineral components operate in the presence of strong vertical and topographic gradients of the rates of mineral dissolution and leaching. The result is that the physical movement of soil constituents affects chemical weathering. The fluxes of soil materials (via physical movements and solute fluxes) in and out of a soil system defined by a researcher determine the time length that the materials reside in the system. The residence time, together with the system-specific rates of chemical weathering, determine the degree of weathering of the materials within the system. This presentation provides a new mathematical framework to consistently quantify the residence times of minerals, individual soil horizons, soil profiles, and an entire soil within a watershed boundary. Soil age, which is equivalent of the time length since the cessation of erosion or deposition on level grounds, becomes a special case of the residence time. The model is combined with empirical data to quantitatively illustrate the impacts that the physical motion of soil constituents have on the rates of chemical weathering. The data are drawn from ongoing field and laboratory studies focusing on the impact of river incision, colluvial flux, bioturbation, and agricultural tillage on the vertical and lateral variation of

  11. Soil physicochemical properties to evaluate soil degradation under different land use types in a high rainfall tropical region: A case study from South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Lopulisa, C.; Imran, A. M.; Baja, S.

    2018-05-01

    Intensive cropping in the tropical region always becomes one of important driving forces of soil degradation. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the states and the dynamics of soil physicochemical properties to evaluate soil degradation in the tropical region a high rainfall on agricultural areas in South Sulawesi. A number of soil characteristics were analyzed for physical and chemical properties, and clay minerals with X-ray diffractometer. The degree of soil degradation is determined using Wischmeier and Smith equation. This study reveals that mean annual precipitation in 1979-2016 ranged from 1853.15 to 2981.30 mm/year. For land used for paddy field, palm oil, cacao and coffee plantation, the texture dominated with silt loam-clay loam, cation exchange capacity was 18.63-26.32 cmol+ kg-1, 0.98-2.91% of C-organic, 32-55% of base saturation, 0.1-3.5 cm h-1 of permeability, soil clay minerals were montmorillonite-kaolinite-halloysite, and the index erodibility was 0.3-0.5. Land used for mixed plants and shrubs, the texture dominated with silt loam-sandy clay loam, cation exchange capacity was 18.63-27.12 cmol+ kg-1, 1.09-2.89% of C-organic, 32-55% of base saturation, 0.2-4.9 cm/h of permeability, soil clay minerals were kaolinite-halloysite, and index erodibility was 0.1-0.3. Land use for cultivated in the high intensity of rainfall has changed the physicochemical properties of soils, but cultivated in monoculture has at some degree increased soil erodibility.

  12. Invasive Plants Rapidly Reshape Soil Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sean M; Lekberg, Ylva; Mummey, Daniel L; Sangwan, Naseer; Ramsey, Philip W; Gilbert, Jack A

    2017-01-01

    Plant invasions often reduce native plant diversity and increase net primary productivity. Invaded soils appear to differ from surrounding soils in ways that impede restoration of diverse native plant communities. We hypothesize that invader-mediated shifts in edaphic properties reproducibly alter soil microbial community structure and function. Here, we take a holistic approach, characterizing plant, prokaryotic, and fungal communities and soil physicochemical properties in field sites, invasion gradients, and experimental plots for three invasive plant species that cooccur in the Rocky Mountain West. Each invader had a unique impact on soil physicochemical properties. We found that invasions drove shifts in the abundances of specific microbial taxa, while overall belowground community structure and functional potential were fairly constant. Forb invaders were generally enriched in copiotrophic bacteria with higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and showed greater microbial carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic potential. Older invasions had stronger effects on abiotic soil properties, indicative of multiyear successions. Overall, we show that plant invasions are idiosyncratic in their impact on soils and are directly responsible for driving reproducible shifts in the soil environment over multiyear time scales. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show how invasive plant species drive rapid shifts in the soil environment from surrounding native communities. Each of the three plant invaders had different but consistent effects on soils. Thus, there does not appear to be a one-size-fits-all strategy for how plant invaders alter grassland soil environments. This work represents a crucial step toward understanding how invaders might be able to prevent or impair native reestablishment by changing soil biotic and abiotic properties.

  13. Spectral reflectance of surface soils: Relationships with some soil properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesewetter, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Using a published atlas of reflectance curves and physicochemical properties of soils, a statistical analysis was carried out. Reflectance bands which correspond to five of the wavebands used by NASA's Thematic Mapper were examined for relationships to specific soil properties. The properties considered in this study include: Sand Content, Silt Content, Clay Content, Organic Matter Content, Cation Exchange Capacity, Iron Oxide Content and Moisture Content. Regression of these seven properties on the mean values of five TM bands produced results that indicate that the predictability of the properties can be increased by stratifying the data. The data was stratified by parent material, taxonomic order, temperature zone, moisture zone and climate (combined temperature and moisture). The best results were obtained when the sample was examined by climatic classes. The middle Infra-red bands, 5 and 7, as well as the visible bands, 2 and 3, are significant in the model. The near Infra-red band, band 4, is almost as useful and should be included in any studies. General linear modeling procedures examined relationships of the seven properties with certain wavebands in the stratified samples.

  14. Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri.

    PubMed

    Nkonglolo, Nsalambi Vakanda; Johnson, Shane; Schmidt, Kent; Eivazi, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2, CH4 and N20 concentrations were collected from static and vented chambers and analyzed within two hours of collection with a gas chromatograph. T, K, R and D were measured in-situ using a KD2 probe. Soil samples were also taken for measurements of soil chemical and physical properties. The pasture acted as a sink in 2004, a source in 2005 and again a sink of CH4 in 2006. CO2 and CH4 were highest, but N2O as well as T, K and D were lowest in 2004. Only K was correlated with CO2 in 2004 while T correlated with both N2O (r = 0.76, p = 0.0001) and CO2 (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001) in 2005. In 2006, all gases fluxes were significantly correlated with T, K and R when the data for the entire year were considered. However, an in-depth examination of the data revealed the existence of month-to-month shifts, lack of correlation and differing spatial structures. These results stress the need for further studies on the relationship between soil properties and gases fluxes. K and R offer a promise as potential controlling factors for greenhouse gases fluxes in this pasture.

  15. Disentangling above- and below-ground facilitation drivers in arid environments: the role of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Yudi M; Armas, Cristina; Hortal, Sara; Casanoves, Fernando; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2017-12-01

    Nurse plants promote establishment of other plant species by buffering climate extremes and improving soil properties. Soil biota plays an important role, but an analysis to disentangle the effects of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate on facilitation is lacking. In three microhabitats (gaps, small and large Retama shrubs), we placed six microcosms with sterilized soil, two per soil origin (i.e. from each microhabitat). One in every pair received an alive, and the other a sterile, inoculum from its own soil. Seeds of annual plants were sown into the microcosms. Germination, survival and biomass were monitored. Soil bacterial communities were characterized by pyrosequencing. Germination in living Retama inoculum was nearly double that of germination in sterile inoculum. Germination was greater under Retama canopies than in gaps. Biomass was up to three times higher in nurse than in gap soils. Soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate showed a range of positive to negative effects on understory plants depending on species identity and life stage. Nurse soil microorganisms promoted germination, but the effect was smaller than the positive effects of soil properties and microclimate under nurses. Nurse below-ground environment (soil properties and microorganisms) promoted plant growth and survival more than nurse microhabitat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Soil Properties and the Conditions for Recurring Earthflow Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Olivera, S.; Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the California Coast Ranges, earthflows are major contributors to sediment transport on hillslopes and have dramatic impacts on rivers and infrastructure. Earthflows are notable for slow-movement (1-10 m/yr) that can be persistent or recurring over long periods of time (102 -103 yrs). While the physical underpinnings for this type of movement remain difficult to determine in natural settings, the slow, steady motion of an earthflow implies that at least two mechanisms must be at work: 1) a mechanism that localizes failure at the same place on the hillslope year-after-year, and 2) a mechanism that arrests the motion of the landslide and prevents runaway acceleration. In this study, we focused on the first mechanism and test the "bathtub model" (Baum and Reid,2000). According to this model, a concentration of fine-grained material in the shear zone of a slide locally reduces soil shear strength and lowers hydraulic conductivity. These effects result in the hydrologic and mechanical isolation of the slide mass, causing the landslide to fill with water (like a bathtub) during precipitation events. We wanted to investigate the role of `bathtub-like" conditions at a long-lived (>80 yrs) earthflow located 20 km northeast of San Jose, CA known as the Oak Ridge Earthflow. Towards that end, we collected and analyzed soil samples. Our work included 1) measurements of the soil particle size distribution in the shear zone, landslide body, and stable ground (given that soil grain size exerts a first-order control on hydraulic conductivity), 2) measurements of water content at the end of the dry season to observe patterns of water retention within the slide and 3) determination of Atterberg limits and soil textures that can be empirically correlated with other useful soil properties, such as strength and hydraulic conductivity, two qualities that define this hypothesis. In the shear zone, we found the soil to be weak, fine-grained (D10 = 0.04 mm), and of low

  17. Agricultural soil moisture experiment, Colby, Kansas 1978: Measured and predicted hydrological properties of the soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Predictive procedures for developing soil hydrologic properties (i.e., relationships of soil water pressure and hydraulic conductivity to soil water content) are presented. Three models of the soil water pressure-water content relationship and one model of the hydraulic conductivity-water content relationship are discussed. Input requirements for the models are indicated, and computational procedures are outlined. Computed hydrologic properties for Keith silt loam, a soil typer near Colby, Kansas, on which the 1978 Agricultural Soil Moisture Experiment was conducted, are presented. A comparison of computed results with experimental data in the dry range shows that analytical models utilizing a few basic hydrophysical parameters can produce satisfactory data for large-scale applications.

  18. Variation of surficial soil hydraulic properties across land uses in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, North Carolina, USA

    Treesearch

    Katie Price; C. Rhett Jackson; Albert J. Parker

    2010-01-01

    A full understanding of hydrologic response to human impact requires assessment of land-use impacts on key soil physical properties such as saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and moisture retention. Such properties have been shown to affect watershed hydrology by influencing pathways and transmission rates of precipitation to stream networks. Human land...

  19. The effects of the physical and chemical properties of soils on the spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, O. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of organic matter, free iron oxides, texture, moisture content, and cation exchange capacity on the spectral reflectance of soils were investigated along with techniques for differentiating soil orders by computer analysis of multispectral data. By collecting soil samples of benchmark soils from the different climatic regions within the United States and using the extended wavelength field spectroradiometer to obtain reflectance values and curves for each sample, average curves were constructed for each soil order. Results indicate that multispectral analysis may be a valuable tool for delineating and quantifying differences between soils.

  20. Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

    2009-04-01

    Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 μm), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 μm) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 μm). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

  1. Profile soil property estimation using a VIS-NIR-EC-force probe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Combining data collected in-field from multiple soil sensors has the potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of soil property estimates. Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been used to estimate many important soil properties, such as soil carbon, water content, and texture. ...

  2. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  3. Properties of hydrocarbon- and salt-contaminated flare pit soils in northeastern British Columbia (Canada).

    PubMed

    Arocena, J M; Rutherford, P M

    2005-07-01

    Many contaminated sites in Canada are associated with flare pits generated during past petroleum extraction operations. Flare pits are located adjacent to well sites, compressor stations and batteries and are often subjected to the disposal of wastes from the flaring of gas, liquid hydrocarbons and brine water. This study was conducted to evaluate the physical, chemical, electrical and mineral properties of three flare pit soils as compared to adjacent control soils. Results showed that particle size distribution, pH, total N, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Mg(2+), and sodium adsorption ratio were similar in soils from flare pits and control sites. Total C, exchangeable Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+), soluble Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) and Na(+) and electrical conductivity were higher in flare pit soils compared to control soils. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic analyses showed the presence of gypsum [CaSO(4).2H(2)O], dolomite [CaMg(CO(3))(2)], pyrite [FeS(2)], jarosite [KFe(3)(OH)(6)(SO(4))(2)], magnesium sulphate, oxides of copper and iron+copper in salt efflorescence observed in flare pit soils. Soils from both flare pits and control sites contained mica, kaolonite and 2:1 expanding clays. The salt-rich materials altered the ionic equilibria in the flare pit soils; K(Mg-Ca) selectivity coefficients in control soils were higher compared to contaminated soils. The properties of soils (e.g., high electrical conductivity) affected by inputs associated with oil and gas operations might render flare pit soils less conducive to the establishment and growth of common agricultural crops and forest trees.

  4. The influence of soil organic matter chemistry and site/soil properties in predicting the decomposability of tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamala, R.; Jastrow, J. D.; Fan, Z.; Liang, C.; Calderon, F.; Michaelson, G.; Mishra, U.; Ping, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    With the increase in high latitude warming, there is a need to better understand the potential vulnerability of soil organic matter (SOM) stored in Arctic regions. In this study, we used mid infrared spectroscopy (MidIR) to determine the influence of soil chemistry and site properties in the short-term mineralization potential of SOM stored in tundra soils. Soils from the active and permafrost layers were collected from four tundra sites on the Coastal Plain, and Arctic Foothills of the North Slope of Alaska and were incubated for 60 days at a range of temperatures. Site and soil properties including acidic versus non-acidic tundra, lowland versus upland areas, total soil organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, 60-day carbon mineralization potential (CMP), MidIR spectra and the chemical composition of the SOM stored in these soils were determined. Partial least squares (PLS) models for CMP versus MidIR spectra were produced upon splitting the dataset into site and soil properties categories. We found that SOM composition determined by MidIR spectroscopy was most effective in predicting CMP for tundra soils and it was most relevant for the active-layer mineral and upper permafrost soil horizons and/or soils with C concentrations of 10% or lower. Analysis of the factor loadings and standardized beta coefficients from the CMP PLS models indicated that spectral bands associated with clay contents, phenolic OH, aliphatic, silicates, carboxylic acids, and polysaccharides were influential for lower TOC soils, but these bands were less important for higher TOC soils. High TOC soils were influenced by a combination of other factors. Our results suggest that different factors affect the short-term CMP of SOM in tundra soils depending on the amount of TOC present. We show MidIR as a powerful tool for quickly and reasonably estimating the short-term CMP of tundra soils. Widespread application of MidIR measurements to already collected and archived tundra

  5. Prediction of soil properties using imaging spectroscopy: Considering fractional vegetation cover to improve accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, M. H. D.; Demattê, J. A. M.; da Silva Terra, F.; Vicente, L. E.; Bartholomeus, H.; de Souza Filho, C. R.

    2015-06-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have become attractive to assess soil properties because they are fast, require little labor and may reduce the amount of laboratory waste produced when compared to conventional methods. Imaging spectroscopy (IS) can have further advantages compared to laboratory or field proximal spectroscopic approaches such as providing spatially continuous information with a high density. However, the accuracy of IS derived predictions decreases when the spectral mixture of soil with other targets occurs. This paper evaluates the use of spectral data obtained by an airborne hyperspectral sensor (ProSpecTIR-VS - Aisa dual sensor) for prediction of physical and chemical properties of Brazilian highly weathered soils (i.e., Oxisols). A methodology to assess the soil spectral mixture is adapted and a progressive spectral dataset selection procedure, based on bare soil fractional cover, is proposed and tested. Satisfactory performances are obtained specially for the quantification of clay, sand and CEC using airborne sensor data (R2 of 0.77, 0.79 and 0.54; RPD of 2.14, 2.22 and 1.50, respectively), after spectral data selection is performed; although results obtained for laboratory data are more accurate (R2 of 0.92, 0.85 and 0.75; RPD of 3.52, 2.62 and 2.04, for clay, sand and CEC, respectively). Most importantly, predictions based on airborne-derived spectra for which the bare soil fractional cover is not taken into account show considerable lower accuracy, for example for clay, sand and CEC (RPD of 1.52, 1.64 and 1.16, respectively). Therefore, hyperspectral remotely sensed data can be used to predict topsoil properties of highly weathered soils, although spectral mixture of bare soil with vegetation must be considered in order to achieve an improved prediction accuracy.

  6. Effects of Machine Traffic on the Physical Properties of Ash-Cap Soils

    Treesearch

    Leonard R. Johnson; Debbie Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han

    2007-01-01

    With pressure and vibration on a soil, air spaces between soil particles can be reduced by displaced soil particles. Activity associated with heavy machine traffic increases the density of the soil and can also increase the resistance of the soil to penetration. This paper reviews research related to disturbance of forest soils with a primary focus on compaction in ash...

  7. Influence of relief and vegetation on soil properties in a disturbed chernozem soil landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Vasserman, Oleksandr; Raab, Alexandra; Naeth, Anne

    2017-04-01

    In central and southeastern Alberta, chernozems dominate the soil landscape and are divided into several groups that follow the climate gradient from Northwest to Southeast: Dark Grey Chernozems, Black Chernozems, Dark Brown Chernozems; Brown Chernozems. Principles controlling development and distribution of these chernozem subtypes along the ecotone transect are quite well known. However, intensive land use over the last century has affected soils that originally have formed under natural conditions during the Holocene in more than 10,000 years. There is a lack of knowledge regarding soil development in these landscapes on the decadal to centennial time scale. Within this time frame the most important factor of soil formation may be relief, although this has not been properly studied. This study aims to compare soil properties in a typical chernozem landscape where soils have been highly disturbed and parent materials have been re-arranged by surface coal mining. We hypothesize that within 50 years, soils develop with significant differences based on vegetation type and slope aspect. Our study site is the former Diplomat Mine near Forestburg, Alberta where spoils form a small scale ridge and graben topography. The south facing slopes of the piles are covered by grassland, whereas on the north exposition has trees and shrubs. Samples were taken from six sites with differences in topography and vegetation type. Diplomate T1 is at the top of the ridge with grassland, Diplomate S1 is on the southern slope with grassland, Diplomate N1 is on the northern slope with trees, and Diplomate N2 is on the northern slope with shrubs. For comparison we took samples from two sites without slope aspect. One site was an undisturbed grassland (Diplomate Z1) and the other sites were reclaimed piles (Diplomate R1). At each site, five soil profiles were examined and volumetrically sampled (250 cm3 steel ring) in steps of five centimeters to a depth of 30 centimeters. We present first

  8. Soil properties influence kinetics of soil acid phosphatase in response to arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziquan; Tan, Xiangping; Lu, Guannan; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; He, Wenxiang

    2018-01-01

    Soil phosphatase, which plays an important role in phosphorus cycling, is strongly inhibited by Arsenic (As). However, the inhibition mechanism in kinetics is not adequately investigated. In this study, we investigated the kinetic characteristics of soil acid phosphatase (ACP) in 14 soils with varied properties, and also explored how kinetic properties of soil ACP changed with different spiked As concentrations. The results showed that the Michaelis constant (K m ) and maximum reaction velocity (V max ) values of soil ACP ranged from 1.18 to 3.77mM and 0.025-0.133mMh -1 in uncontaminated soils. The kinetic parameters of soil ACP in different soils changed differently with As contamination. The K m remained unchanged and V max decreased with increase of As concentration in most acid and neutral soils, indicating a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism. However, in alkaline soils, the K m increased linearly and V max decreased with increase of As concentration, indicating a mixed inhibition mechanism that include competitive and noncompetitive. The competitive inhibition constant (K ic ) and noncompetitive inhibition constant (K iu ) varied among soils and ranged from 0.38 to 3.65mM and 0.84-7.43mM respectively. The inhibitory effect of As on soil ACP was mostly affected by soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Those factors influenced the combination of As with enzyme, which resulted in a difference of As toxicity to soil ACP. Catalytic efficiency (V max /K m ) of soil ACP was a sensitive kinetic parameter to assess the ecological risks of soil As contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties and variability of soil and trench fill at an arid waste-burial site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, Brian J.

    1996-01-01

    Arid sites commonly are assumed to be ideal for long-term isolation of wastes. Information on properties and variability of desert soils is limited, however, and little is known about how the natural site environment is altered by installation of a waste facility. During fall construction of two test trenches next to the waste facility on the Amargosa Desert near Beatty, NV, samples were collected to: (i) characterize physical and hydraulic properties of native soil (upper 5 m) and trench fill, (ii) determine effects of trench construction on selected properties and vertical variability of these properties, and (iii) develop conceptual models of vertical variation within the soil profile and trench fill. Water retention was measured to air dryness (ψ = 2 × 106 cm water suction). The 15 300-cm pressure-plate data were omitted from the analysis because water-activity measurements showed the actual suction values were significantly less than the expected 15 300-cm value (avg. difference = 8550 ± 2460 cm water). Trench construction significantly altered properties and variability of the natural site environment. For example, water content ranged from 0.029 to 0.041 m3 m-3 for fill vs. 0.030 to 0.095 m3 m-3 for soil; saturated hydraulic conductivity was ≈ 10-4 cm s-1 for fill vs. 10-2 to ≈ 10-4 cm s-1 for soil. Statistical analyses showed that the native soil may be represented by three major horizontal components and the fill by a single component. Under initial conditions, calculated liquid conductivity (Kl) plus isothermal vapor conductivity (Kv) for the upper two soil layers and the trench fill was ≈ 10-13 cm s-1, and Kl was ≤ Kv. For the deeper (2–5 m) soil, total conductivity was ≈ 10-10 cm s-1, and Kl was >Kv. This study quantitatively describes hydraulic characteristics of a site using data measured across a water-content range that is representative of arid conditions, but is seldom studied.

  10. Soil physical conditions as livestock treading effect in tropical Agroecosystem of dryland and strategies to mitigate desertification risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentino, A.; Torres, D.; Ospina, A.; Contreras, J.; Palma, Z.; Silvera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation in natural ecosystem of arid and semi-arid zones of Venezuela due to livestock treading (goats) it is an important problem that affect their environment functions; increase soil erodibility, bulk density, water losses and reduce porosity, water infiltration rate and soil structural stability. The presence of biological crust (BSC) in this type of soil it is very common. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil surface physical quality through the use of selected indicators, mainly some of that related to structural stability, infiltrability and the prediction of soil erosion risk in two zones of Lara state: 1) Quíbor (QUI) and 2) Humocaro Bajo (HB). The study was conducted on two selected plots (30 m x 20 m) in each zone, with natural vegetation and BSC cover, with areas affected by different degree of compaction due to treading in the paths where the goats are moving. Five sites per plot (50 cm x 50 cm) under vegetation cover and five sites over the path with bare soil were sampled (0-7,5 and 7,5-15 cm depth). The results showed that soil macroaggregate stability (equivalent diameter of aggregates >0,25 mm) was significantly higher (p<0,05 %) in soil with vegetation cover and BSC compared with bare soil. Sealing index, as a measure of aggregate stability, determined in laboratory under simulated rain and expressed as hydraulic conductivity of soil surface sealing (Kse), decreased with decreasing soil vegetation cover and the presence of BSC. However, Ksei (i: inicial) and Ksef (f: final) were significantly greater in soil with more than 75 % of BSC in comparison to bare soils. The sealing index it is used to for to estimate changes in soil water losses. As the sealing index increases, the susceptibility of the soil to undergo surface sealing or slaking decrease. These results suggested that soil physical properties are potential indicators of soil quality with regard to soil erodibility and showed that soils under vegetation cover had

  11. Acoustic Determination of Near-Surface Soil Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    requiring geostatistical analysis, while nearby others are spatially independent. In studies involving many different soil properties and chemistry ...Am 116(6), p. 3354-3369. Kravchenko, N., C.W. Boast, D.G. Bullock, 1991. Fractal analysis of soil spatial variability. Agronomy Journal 91

  12. Threshold friction velocity of crusted windblown soils in the Columbia Plateau

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wind erosion processes are governed by soil physical properties and surface characteristics. Erosion is initiated when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (u*t) of soils. Although u*t is influenced by soil physical properties such as wetness and crusting, there is little in...

  13. Reduction kinetics of hexavalent chromium in soils and its correlation with soil properties.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yibin; Li, Tingqiang; Chen, Bao; Wang, Huan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of chromium (Cr) to biota is related to its chemical forms and consequently to the redox conditions of soils. Hexavalent Cr[Cr(VI)] may undergo natural attenuation through reduction processes. In this study, the reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) in seven soils and its relationships with soil properties were investigated with laboratory incubation experiments. The results indicate that the reduction of Cr(VI) can be described by a first-order reaction. The reduction rates of Cr(VI) in the seven soils decreased in the order: Udic Ferrisols > Stagnic Anthrosols > Calcaric Regosols > Mollisol > Typic Haplustalf > Periudic Argosols > Ustic Cambosols. Simple correlation analysis revealed that the reduction of Cr(VI) in soils was positively related to organic matter content, dissolved organic matter content, Fe(II) content, clay fraction, and to the diversity index of the bacterial community but negatively correlated with easily reducible Mn content. Using stepwise regression, the reduction of Cr(VI) in soil could be quantitatively predicted by the measurement of dissolved organic matter content, Fe(II) content, pH, and soil particle size distribution, with a fitting level of 95.5%. The results indicated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in natural soils is not controlled by a single soil property but is the result of the combined effects of dissolved organic matter, Fe(II), pH, and soil particle size distribution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Kirkham’s legacy and contemporary challenges in soil physics research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper, written by the winners of the Don and Betty Kirkham Award in Soil Physics, is dedicated to the legacy of Don Kirkham. It describes eight longstanding or emerging research areas in soil physics that contain key unsolved problems. All are field-oriented with applications to a number of imp...

  15. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  16. Predicting Impact of Biochar Addition on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhli, S. A. A.; Yudi, Y.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    Biochar has been proposed as a soil amendment to improve soil hydraulic properties, including water retention and saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, for agricultural and environmental applications. However, its effect on hydraulic properties is difficult to predict and often with mixed results: in some cases biochar enhances soil hydraulic properties, while in other cases it degrades them. Despite several published observational studies, there are no models that can reliably predict biochar's impact on soil hydraulic properties. In this project we developed models to describe the effect of addition of a commercial wood biochar pyrolyzed at 550° on soil hydraulic properties in laboratory-scale experiments. The effects of biochar addition at 2% and 6% (w/w) on water retention and saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were evaluated for silt loam, sandy loam, and loamy sand. The addition of 6% (w/w) biochar increased the available water content of silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand by 25, 20 and 70%, respectively. The impact of biochar addition on water retention was predicted reasonably well using information on the intra particle pore volume of biochar (mercury porosimetry, N2 and CO2 sorption) and the particle size distribution of the soil/biochar mixture. When amended with 6% biochar, saturated hydraulic conductivity increased 17% for loamy sand, but decreased 30% and 54% for silt loam and sandy loam, respectively. The Kozeny-Carman equation modified to account for changes in inter pore volume predicted saturated hydraulic conductivities of the biochar-amended soils reasonably well, with RMSE ranging from 0.06 to 5.06 cm h-1 for silt loam and loamy sand, respectively. While intra particle pore volume of biochar contributed significantly to higher water retention, changes in hydraulic conductivity were correlated instead with changes in inter pore volume - the large pores between biochar and soil particles.

  17. Indicative capacity of NDVI in predictive mapping of the properties of plow horizons of soils on slopes in the south of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.; Nechaeva, T. V.; Savenkov, O. A.; Smirnova, N. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The informativeness of NDVI for predictive mapping of the physical and chemical properties of plow horizons of soils on different slope positions within the first (280-310 m a.s.l.) and second (240-280 m a.s.l.) altitudinal steps has been examined. This index is uninformative for mapping soil properties in small hollows, whose factual width is less than the Landsat image resolution (30 m). In regression models, NDVI index explains 52% of variance in the content of humus; 35 and 24% of variance in the contents of total and nitrate nitrogen; 19 and 29% of variance in the contents of total and available phosphorus; 25 and 50% of variance in the contents of exchangeable calcium and manganese; and 30 and 29% of variance in the contents of fine silt and soil water, respectively. On the basis of the models obtained, prognostic maps of the soil properties have been developed. Spatial distribution patterns of NDVI calculated from Landsat 8 images (30-m resolution) serve as the cartographic base and the main indicator of the soil properties. The NDVI values and the contents of humus, physical clay (<0.01 mm) and fine silt particles, total and nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and exchangeable calcium and manganese in the soils of the first altitudinal step are higher than those in the soils of the second altitudinal step. An opposite tendency has been found for the available phosphorus content: in the soils of the second altitudinal step and the hollow, its content is higher than that in the soils of the first altitudinal step by 1.8 and 2.4 times, respectively. Differences in the pH of soil water suspensions, easily available phosphorus, and clay in the soils of the compared topographic positions (first and second altitudinal steps and the hollow) are statistically unreliable.

  18. Pyrogenic Carbon in forest soils across climate and soil property gradients in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, Moritz; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important measure for soil quality. Usually a high organic matter content in soils is favourable for most ecosystems. As a very stable component, pyrogenic organic carbon (PyC) can be of major interest to investigate to potential of organic matter, to persist very long in soils. Recent studies have shown, that the mean residence time of organic matter is not only due to its intrinsic chemical nature, but also to a variety of abiotic and biotic variables set by the ecosystem. Especially for PyC it is unclear, whether its content is related to fire regime, soil properties or other climatic conditions. In this study we wanted to investigate, how climatic and soil-related conditions are influencing the persistence of PyC in soils. Therefore we used a sample set from Swiss forest soil (n = 54), which was designed for the purpose of having most differing climatic conditions (aridity and temperature) and a large range of soil properties (pH between 3.4 and 7.6; clay content between 4.7 % and 60 %). The soils were sampled in the first 20 cm of the mineral horizon on a representative plot area of 40 x 40 m. The soils were sieved to 2 mm and dried prior to the analysis. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) molecular marker method to quantify and characterize PyC in these soil samples. Despite the large span in environmental conditions, we observed rather small differences in the contribution of PyC to SOC between warmer and colder, as well as between wetter and dryer soils. The PyC content in SOC lies well in range with a global average for forest soils estimated in other studies. Stocks of PyC vary more than the content, because of the large range of SOC contents in the samples. The influence of other parameters like soil properties is still under investigation. Qualitative investigation of the BPCAs showed that the degree of condensation, defined by the relative amount of B6CA in the total BPCA, was higher in warmer soils. This

  19. Impact of anthropomorphic soil genesis on hydraulic properties: the case of cranberry production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a cranberry field requires the installation of a drainage system which causes anthropic layering of the natural sequence of soil strata. Over the years, the soil hydraulic properties may change under the influence of irrigation and water table control. In fact, natural consolidation (drainage and recharge cycles), filtration and clogging soil pores by colloidal particle accelerated by water management will alter the hydrodynamic behavior of the soil (Gaillard et al., 2007; Wildenschild and Sheppard, 2013; Bodner et al., 2013). Today, advances in the field of tomography imagery allows the study a number of physicals processes of soils (Wildenschilds and Sheppard, 2013) especially for the transport of colloidal particles (Gaillard et al., 2007) and consolidation (Reed et al, 2006; Pires et al, 2007). Therefore, the main objective of this work is to analyze the temporal evolution of hydrodynamic properties of a sandy soil during repeated drainage and recharge cycles using a medical CT-scan. A soil columns laboratory experiment was setup in fall 2013, pressure head, input and output flow, tracer monitoring (KBr and ZrO2) and tomographic analyses have been used to quantify the temporal variation of the soil hydrodynamic properties of these soil columns. The results showed that the water management (irrigation and drainage) has strong effect on soil genesis and causes significant alteration of soil hydraulic properties, which may reduce soil drainage capacity. Knowledge about the mechanisms responsible of anthropic cranberry soil genesis will allow us to predict soil evolution according to several conditions (soil type, drainage system design, water management) to better anticipate and control their future negative effects on cranberry production. References: Bodner, G., P. Scholl and H.P. Kaul. 2013. Field quantification of wetting-drying cycles to predict temporal changes of soil pore size distribution. Soil and Tillage Research 133: 1-9. doi

  20. Soil organic matter as sole indicator of soil degradation.

    PubMed

    Obalum, S E; Chibuike, G U; Peth, S; Ouyang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils. Emphasis is placed particularly on the effect of SOM on soil structure and availability of plant nutrients. Although these properties are discussed separately, the soil system is of dynamic and interactive nature, and changes in one property will likely affect other soil properties as well. Thus, functions of SOM almost always affect various soil properties and processes and engage in multiple reactions. In view of its role in soil aggregation and erosion control, in availability of plant nutrients and in ameliorating other forms of soil degradation than erosion, SOM has proven to be an important indicator of soil degradation. It has been suggested, however, that rather than the absolute amount, temporal change and potential amount of SOM be considered in its use as indicator of soil degradation, and that SOM may not be an all-purpose indicator. Whilst SOM remains a candidate without substitute as long as a one-parameter indicator of soil degradation is needed, narrowing down to the use of its labile and microbial components could be more appropriate, since early detection is important in the control and management of soil degradation.

  1. The influence of vegetation cover and soil physical properties on deflagration of shallow landslides - Nova Friburgo, RJ / Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Marques, Maria Clara; Silva, Roberta; Fraga, Joana; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; Mululo Sato, Anderson

    2017-04-01

    In 2011, the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) suffered enormous social and economic losses due to thousands of landslides caused by an extreme rainfall event. The mapping of the scars of these landslides in an area of 421 km2 in the municipality of Nova Friburgo, RJ - Brazil resulted in a total of 3622, and 89% of these scars were located in areas covered by grasses and forests. Despite the unexpected result (64% of scars in forest areas), field evidence has shown that most of the forest fragments in the municipality are in the initial stages of succession and in different states of degradation, evidencing the need for a better understanding of the role of these forests in the detonation and propagation of landslides. Two slope forest areas with different ages (20 and 50 years) were evaluated in relation to the vegetative aspects that influence the stability of the slopes in each area. Hydrological monitoring, including precipitation, interception by manual and automatic method, soil moisture and subsurface flows were performed in two different areas: forest and grass. Soil moisture was monitored by granular matrix sensors and flows by collecting troughs in trenches at depths of 0 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm, which were also analyzed for biomass and length of thick roots (> 2 mm diameter) and thin roots (< 2 mm diameter) and for the soil physical properties (particle size, aggregate stability, porosity and hydraulic conductivity in situ). In the grass area, the lower soil structure in relation to the forest areas makes it difficult to transmit the water through the soil matrix. During the monitoring period, that area preserved the moisture in depths of 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm. The fasciculate root system of the grasses increased the infiltration of water at the top of the soil, favouring the formation of more superficial saturation zones in the heavy rains, due to the hydraulic discontinuities. In forest areas

  2. Spatial variability of soil properties and soil erodibility in the Alqueva dam watershed, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, V.; Panagopoulos, T.; Andrade, R.; Guerrero, C.; Loures, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate how the spatial variability of soil properties and soil erodibility (K factor) were affected by the changes in land use allowed by irrigation with water from a reservoir in a semiarid area. To this, three areas representative of different land uses (agroforestry grassland, Lucerne crop and olive orchard) were studied within a 900 ha farm. The interrelationships between variables were analyzed by multivariate techniques and extrapolated using geostatistics. The results confirmed differences between land uses for all properties analyzed, which was explained mainly by the existence of diverse management practices (tillage, fertilization and irrigation), vegetation cover and local soil characteristics. Soil organic matter, clay and nitrogen content decreased significantly, while K factor increased with intensive cultivation. The HJ-biplot methodology was used to represent the variation of soil erodibility properties grouped in land uses. Native grassland was the least correlated with the other land uses. K factor demonstrated high correlation mainly with very fine sand and silt. The maps produced with geostatistics were crucial to understand the current spatial variability in the Alqueva region. Facing the intensification of land-use conversion, a sustainable management is needed to introduce protective measures to control soil erosion.

  3. Ptaquiloside in Pteridium aquilinum subsp. aquilinum and corresponding soils from the South of Italy: influence of physical and chemical features of soils on its occurrence.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Traversa, Andreina; Miano, Teodoro M

    2014-10-15

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). Several studies are present in literature about eco-toxicological aspects related to PTA, whereas results about the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to investigate the occurrence and possible fate of PTA in soils showing different physical and chemical features, and collected in several areas of the South of Italy. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterized from the physical and chemical points of view in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production and occurrence. PTA concentration in P. aquilinum fern seemed to be significantly affected by the availability of nutrients (mainly P) and soil pH. At the same time, PTA concentration in soil samples was always undetectable, independent of the PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples and pedo-climatic conditions. This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous soil microbial community, whereas incubation studies underlined a certain affinity of PTA for both organic colloids and clay/silt particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial characterization of soil properties and influence in soil formation in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, S Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Sánchez, Andrea; Cáceres, Francisco; Pédèches, Remi; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean oak-grassland ecosystem is very important for the rural economy and for the biodiversity of south-western European countries like Spain and Portugal. Nevertheless these ecosystems are not well characterized especially their soils. In this report soil carbon has been evaluated and related to other properties. The principal factors controlling the structure, productivity and evolution of forest ecosystems are bedrock, climate, relief, vegetation and time. Soil carbon has an important influence in the soil and ecosystem structures. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between relief, soil properties, spatial distribution of soil carbon and their influence in soil formation and geomorphology. This work is part of another study which aims to elucidate the processes involved in the soil formation and to examine their behaviour on long-term with a modelling. In our study area, located in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, in Cordoba, S Spain, have been studied 67 points at 6 depths in 262 hectares in order to determine carbon content varying between 0-6%, soil properties such as soil depth between 0-4 m, horizon depth and the rocks amount in surface. The relationship between the soil carbon, soil properties and the relief characteristic like slope, aspect, curvature can shed light the processes that affect the mechanisms of bedrock weathering and their interrelationship with geomorphological processes.

  5. Comparing hydraulic properties of soil-less substrates with natural soils: a more detailed look at hydraulic properties and their impact on plant water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, L.; Rivera, L. D.; van Iersel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Moisture release curves are often used when assessing plant-water relationships in soil-less substrates. However, differences between natural soils and soilless substrates make traditional assumptions about plant available water potentially invalid. If soil-less substrates are supposed to be treated like natural soils; why do plants begin wilting at very low water potentials (-10 to -30 kPa) and there is anywhere between 20 to 40 % water left (on a volumetric basis) in the soil (Abad et al., 2005; Arguedas et al., 2006; Ristvey et al, 2008) . We hypothesize that the fault lies in the methods used and the assumption that water potential is the only limiting factor in water availability to plants. Hydraulic properties, including the relationships that exist between plant available water, water content, and hydraulic conductivity of soil-less substrates have traditionally been characterized using instrumentation such as pressure plates, hanging water columns, and tempe cells. These approaches typically take a months and only provide data on select segments of the soil moisture release curve, and in the case of pressure plates and hanging water columns hydraulic conductivity is ignored and not very well understood. Using the Wind/Schindler Evaporation method more detailed measurements of these hydraulic properties can be measured in a less than a week. A more detailed look at the hydraulic properties of soil-less substrates and how they compare with natural soils may give us more insight into soil-plant-water-relations and what limits availability of water to plants. Soil moisture release curves and hydraulic conductivity curves of different soil-less substrates were compared with curves from typical agriculture soils to give insight into how these properties compare. Results of the soil moisture release curves showed that some soil-less substrates had comparable moisture release curves to agricultural soils while others had bi-modal curves indicating gap-gradation in

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida were performed to assess toxicity of the soils, using survival, reproduction and growth as the endpoints. Metal bioaccumulation in the animals was also measured. The properties and metal concentrations of the soils strongly differed. Metal bioaccumulation was related with total metal concentrations in soil and was highest in E. crypticus, which was more sensitive than E. andrei and F. candida. Responses of the three species to the investigated soils seemed due to both metal contamination and soil properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Relationship between sugarcane rust severity and soil properties in louisiana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Richard, Edward P

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT The extent of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation was related to variation in soil properties in five commercial fields of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv. LCP 85-384) in southern Louisiana. Sugarcane fields were grid-soil sampled at several intensities and rust ratings were collected at each point over 6 to 7 weeks. Soil properties exhibited significant variability (coefficients of variation = 9 to 70.1%) and were spatially correlated in 39 of 40 cases with a range of spatial correlation varying from 39 to 201 m. Rust ratings were spatially correlated in 32 of 33 cases, with a range varying from 29 to 241 m. Rust ratings were correlated with several soil properties, most notably soil phosphorus (r = 0.40 to 0.81) and soil sulfur (r = 0.36 to 0.68). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.22 to 0.73, and discriminant analysis further improved the overall predictive ability of rust models. Finally, contour plots of soil properties and rust levels clearly suggested a link between these two parameters. These combined data suggest that sugarcane growers that apply fertilizer in excess of plant requirements will increase the incidence and severity of rust infestations in their fields.

  9. Key indicator tools for shallow slope failure assessment using soil chemical property signatures and soil colour variables.

    PubMed

    Othman, Rashidi; Hasni, Shah Irani; Baharuddin, Zainul Mukrim; Hashim, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun; Mahamod, Lukman Hakim

    2017-10-01

    Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure. The concentration of each soil property in slope soil was evaluated from two different localities that consist of 120 soil samples from stable and unstable slopes located along the North-South Highway (PLUS) and East-West Highway (LPT). Analysis of variance established highly significant difference (P < 0.0001) between the locations, the total organic carbon (TOC), soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil texture, soil chromaticity and all combinations of interactions. The overall CIELAB analysis leads to the conclusion that the CIELAB variables lightness L*, c* (Chroma) and h* (Hue) provide the most information about soil colour and other related soil properties. With regard to the relationship between colour variables and soil properties, the analysis detected that soil texture, organic carbon, iron oxide and aluminium concentration were the key factors that strongly correlate with soil colour variables at the studied area. Indicators that could be used to predict shallow slope failure were high value of L*(62), low values of c* (20) and h* (66), low concentration of iron (53 mg kg -1 ) and aluminium oxide (37 mg kg -1 ), low soil TOC (0.5%), low CEC (3.6 cmol/kg), slightly acidic soil pH (4.9), high amount of sand fraction (68%) and low amount of clay fraction (20%).

  10. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use

  11. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

    PubMed

    Bass, Adrian M; Bird, Michael I; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-04-15

    The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO3, NH4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of field and laboratory VNIR spectroscopy for profile soil property estimation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In-field, in-situ data collection with soil sensors has potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of soil property estimates. Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been used to estimate important soil properties, such as soil carbon, nitrogen, water content, and texture. Most pre...

  13. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibria, Golam

    Resistivity imaging (RI) is a promising approach to obtaining continuous profile of soil subsurface. This method offers simple technique to identify moisture variation and heterogeneity of the investigated area. However, at present, only qualitative information of subsurface can be obtained using RI. A study on the quantification of geotechnical properties has become important for rigorous use of this method in the evaluation of geohazard potential and construction quality control of landfill liner system. Several studies have been performed to describe electrical resistivity of soil as a function of pore fluid conductivity and surface conductance. However, characterization tests on pore water and surface charge are not typically performed in a conventional geotechnical investigation. The overall objective of this study is to develop correlations between geotechnical parameters and electrical resistivity of soil, which would provide a mean to estimate geotechnical properties from RI. As a part of the study, multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop practically applicable models correlating resistivity with influential geotechnical parameters. The soil samples considered in this study were classified as highly plastic clay (CH) and low plasticity clay (CL) according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Based on the physical tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, kaolinite was identified as the dominant mineral with some traces of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron. Electrical resistivity tests were conducted on compacted clays and undisturbed samples under varied geotechnical conditions. The experimental results indicated that the degree of saturation substantially influenced electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity decreased as much as 11 times from initial value for the increase of degree of saturation from 23 to 100% in the laboratory tests on compacted clays. In case of

  14. Exploring the spatial variability of soil properties in an Alfisol Catena

    SciTech Connect

    Rosemary, F.; Vitharana, U. W. A.; Indraratne, S. P.

    Detailed digital soil maps showing the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties consistent with the landscape are required for site-specific management of plant nutrients, land use planning and process-based environmental modeling. We characterized the short-scale spatial heterogeneity of soil properties in an Alfisol catena in a tropical landscape of Sri Lanka. The impact of different land-uses (paddy, vegetable and un-cultivated) was examined to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the variability of soil properties at the catenary level. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling was used to collect 58 geo-referenced topsoil samples (0–30 cm) from the study area. Soil samples were analyzedmore » for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and texture. The spatial correlation between soil properties was analyzed by computing crossvariograms and subsequent fitting of theoretical model. Spatial distribution maps were developed using ordinary kriging. The range of soil properties, pH: 4.3–7.9; EC: 0.01–0.18 dS m –1 ; OC: 0.1–1.37%; CEC: 0.44– 11.51 cmol (+) kg –1 ; clay: 1.5–25% and sand: 59.1–84.4% and their coefficient of variations indicated a large variability in the study area. Electrical conductivity and pH showed a strong spatial correlation which was reflected by the cross-variogram close to the hull of the perfect correlation. Moreover, cross-variograms calculated for EC and Clay, CEC and OC, CEC and clay and CEC and pH indicated weak positive spatial correlation between these properties. Relative nugget effect (RNE) calculated from variograms showed strongly structured spatial variability for pH, EC and sand content (RNE < 25%) while CEC, organic carbon and clay content showed moderately structured spatial variability (25% < RNE < 75%). Spatial dependencies for examined soil properties ranged from 48 to 984 m. The mixed effects model fitting followed by Tukey's post-hoc test showed

  15. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth.

  16. Impact of alpine meadow degradation on soil hydraulic properties over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Quanjiu; Chen, Yingying; Joswiak, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryAlpine meadow soil is an important ecosystem component of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the alpine meadow soil is undergoing serious degradation mainly due to global climate change, overgrazing, human activities and rodents. In this paper, spatial sequencing was chosen over time succession sequencing to study the changes of soil hydraulic properties under different degrees of alpine meadow degradation. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and Gardner α both at the surface and at 40-50 cm depth were investigated in the field using tension infiltrometers. Soil physical and chemical properties, together with the root index at 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layer depths were also analyzed. Pearson correlations were adopted to study the relationships among the investigated factors and principal component analysis was performed to identify the dominant factor. Results show that with increasing degree of degradation, soil sand content increased while soil Ks and Gardner α as well as soil clay content, soil porosity decreased in the 0-10 cm soil layers, and organic matter and root gravimetric density decreased in both the 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layers. However, soil moisture showed no significant changes with increasing degradation. With decreasing pressure head, soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity reduced more slowly under degraded conditions than non-degraded conditions. Soil Ks and Gardner α were significantly correlated (P = 0.01) with bulk density, soil porosity, soil organic matter and root gravimetric density. Among these, soil porosity is the dominant factor explaining about 90% of the variability in total infiltration flow. Under non-degraded conditions, the infiltration flow principally depended on the presence of macropores. With increasing degree of degradation, soil macropores quickly changed to mesopores or micropores. The proportion of total infiltration flow through macropores and mesopores significantly decreased with the most

  17. Effects of soil properties on copper toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xu, Meng; Zhou, Youya; Yan, Zengguang; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chaoyan; Bai, Liping; Nie, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soil are influenced by a variety of soil properties, and this principle should be recognized in establishing soil environmental quality criteria. In the present study, the uptake and toxicity of Cu to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils with various soil properties were investigated, and regression models for predicting Cu toxicity across soils were developed. The results showed that earthworm survival and body weight change were less sensitive to Cu than earthworm cocoon production. The soil Cu-based median effective concentrations (EC50s) for earthworm cocoon production varied from 27.7 to 383.7 mg kg(-1) among 15 Chinese soils, representing approximately 14-fold variation. Soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content were identified as key factors controlling Cu toxicity to earthworm cocoon production, and simple and multiple regression models were developed for predicting Cu toxicity across soils. Tissue Cu-based EC50s for earthworm cocoon production were also calculated and varied from 15.5 to 62.5 mg kg(-1) (4-fold variation). Compared to the soil Cu-based EC50s for cocoon production, the tissue Cu-based EC50s had less variation among soils, indicating that metals in tissue were more relevant to toxicity than metals in soil and hence represented better measurements of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical properties of the martian surface from the viking 1 lander: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Shorthill, R W; Hutton, R E; Moore, H J; Scott, R F; Spitzer, C R

    1976-08-27

    The purpose of the physical properties experiment is to determine the characteristics of the martian "soil" based on the use of the Viking lander imaging system, the surface sampler, and engineering sensors. Viking 1 lander made physical contact with the surface of Mars at 11:53:07.1 hours on 20 July 1976 G.M.T. Twenty-five seconds later a high-resolution image sequence of the area around a footpad was started which contained the first information about surface conditions on Mars. The next image is a survey of the martian landscape in front of the lander, including a view of the top support of two of the landing legs. Each leg has a stroke gauge which extends from the top of the leg support an amount equal to the crushing experienced by the shock absorbers during touchdown. Subsequent images provided views of all three stroke gauges which, together with the knowledge of the impact velocity, allow determination of "soil" properties. In the images there is evidence of surface erosion from the engines. Several laboratory tests were carried out prior to the mission with a descent engine to determine what surface alterations might occur during a Mars landing. On sol 2 the shroud, which protected the surface sampler collector head from biological contamination, was ejected onto the surface. Later a cylindrical pin which dropped from the boom housing of the surface sampler during the modified unlatching sequence produced a crater (the second Mars penetrometer experiment). These two experiments provided further insight into the physical properties of the martian surface.

  19. Postwildfire measurement of soil physical and hydraulic properties at selected sampling sites in the 2011 Las Conchas wildfire burn scar, Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romero, Orlando C.; Ebel, Brian A.; Martin, Deborah A.; Buchan, Katie W.; Jornigan, Alanna D.

    2018-04-10

    The generation of runoff and the resultant flash flooding can be substantially larger following wildfire than for similar rainstorms that precede wildfire disturbance. Flash flooding after the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico provided the motivation for this investigation to assess postwildfire effects on soil-hydraulic properties (SHPs) and soil-physical properties (SPPs) as a function of remotely sensed burn severity 4 years following the wildfire. A secondary purpose of this report is to illustrate a methodology to determine SHPs that analyzes infiltrometer data by using three different analysis methods. The SPPs and SHPs are measured as a function of remotely sensed burn severity by using the difference in the Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) metric for seven sites. The dNBR metric was used to guide field sample collection across a full spectrum of burn severities that covered the range of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) and Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) thematic classes from low to high severity. The SPPs (initial and saturated soil-water content, bulk density, soil-organic matter, and soil-particle size) and SHPs (field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity) were measured under controlled laboratory conditions for soil cores collected in the field. The SHPs were estimated by using tension infiltrometer measurements and three different data analysis methods. These measurements showed large effects of burn severity, focused in the top1 centimeter (cm) of soil, on some SPPs (bulk density, soil organic matter, and particle sizes). The threshold of these bulk density and soil organic matter effects was between 300 and 400 dNBR, which corresponds to a MTBS thematic class between moderate and high burn severity and a BARC4 thematic class of high severity. Gravel content and the content of fines in the top 1 cm of soil had a higher threshold value between 450 and 500 dNBR. Lesser effects on SPPs were observed at depths of 1–3 cm

  20. Influence of site and soil properties on the DRIFT spectra of northern cold-region soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the influence of site characteristics and soil properties on the chemical composition of organic matter in soils collected from a latitudinal transect across Alaska through analysis of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform mid infrared (MidIR) spectra of bulk soils. The stud...

  1. Using Remote Sensing Platforms to Estimate Near-Surface Soil Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Rickman, D.; Mask, P. L.; Wersinger, J. M.; Luvall, J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of near-surface soil properties via remote sensing (RS) could facilitate soil survey mapping, erosion prediction, fertilization regimes, and allocation of agrochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between soil spectral signature and near surface soil properties in conventionally managed row crop systems. High resolution RS data were acquired over bare fields in the Coastal Plain, Appalachian Plateau, and Ridge and Valley provinces of Alabama using the Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) multispectral scanner. Soils ranged from sandy Kandiudults to fine textured Rhodudults. Surface soil samples (0-1 cm) were collected from 163 sampling points for soil water content, soil organic carbon (SOC), particle size distribution (PSD), and citrate dithionite extractable iron (Fed) content. Surface roughness, soil water content, and crusting were also measured at sampling. Results showed RS data acquired from lands with less than 4 % surface soil water content best approximated near-surface soil properties at the Coastal Plain site where loamy sand textured surfaces were predominant. Utilizing a combination of band ratios in stepwise regression, Fed (r2 = 0.61), SOC (r2 = 0.36), sand (r2 = 0.52), and clay (r2 = 0.76) were related to RS data at the Coastal Plain site. In contrast, the more clayey Ridge and Valley soils had r-squares of 0.50, 0.36, 0.17, and 0.57. for Fed, SOC, sand and clay, respectively. Use of estimated eEmissivity did not generally improve estimates of near-surface soil attributes.

  2. Predicting radiocaesium sorption characteristics with soil chemical properties for Japanese soils.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Smolders, Erik; Sweeck, Lieve; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2015-08-15

    The high variability of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of radiocaesium (RCs) compels a detailed analysis of the radiocaesium interception potential (RIP) of soil, which is one of the specific factors ruling the RCs transfer. The range of the RIP values for agricultural soils in the Fukushima accident affected area has not yet been fully surveyed. Here, the RIP and other major soil chemical properties were characterised for 51 representative topsoils collected in the vicinity of the Fukushima contaminated area. The RIP ranged a factor of 50 among the soils and RIP values were lower for Andosols compared to other soils, suggesting a role of soil mineralogy. Correlation analysis revealed that the RIP was most strongly and negatively correlated to soil organic matter content and oxalate extractable aluminium. The RIP correlated weakly but positively to soil clay content. The slope of the correlation between RIP and clay content showed that the RIP per unit clay was only 4.8 mmol g(-1) clay, about threefold lower than that for clays of European soils, suggesting more amorphous minerals and less micaceous minerals in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. The negative correlation between RIP and soil organic matter may indicate that organic matter can mask highly selective sorption sites to RCs. Multiple regression analysis with soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity explained the soil RIP (R(2)=0.64), allowing us to map soil RIP based on existing soil map information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping patterns of soil properties and soil moisture using electromagnetic induction to investigate the impact of land use changes on soil processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinet, Jérémy; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Govers, Gerard; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    As highlighted by many authors, classical or geophysical techniques for measuring soil moisture such as destructive soil sampling, neutron probes or Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) have some major drawbacks. Among other things, they provide point scale information, are often intrusive and time-consuming. ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) instruments are often cited as a promising alternative hydrogeophysical methods providing more efficiently soil moisture measurements ranging from hillslope to catchment scale. The overall objective of our research project is to investigate whether a combination of geophysical techniques at various scales can be used to study the impact of land use change on temporal and spatial variations of soil moisture and soil properties. In our work, apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) patterns are obtained with an EM multiconfiguration system. Depth profiles of ECa were subsequently inferred through a calibration-inversion procedure based on TDR data. The obtained spatial patterns of these profiles were linked to soil profile and soil water content distributions. Two catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) were selected in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. On selected slopes within the catchments, combined EMI and TDR measurements were carried out simultaneously, under different atmospheric and soil moisture conditions. Ground-truth data for soil properties were obtained through soil sampling and auger profiles. The comparison of these data provided information about the potential of the EMI technique to deliver qualitative and quantitative information about the variability of soil moisture and soil properties.

  4. New instruments for soil physics class: Improving the laboratory and field seminars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Jankovec, Jakub; Snehota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Teaching soil science and soil physics is an important part of the curriculum of many programs with focus on technical and natural sciences. Courses of soil science and namely soil physics have a long tradition at the faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Students receive the theoretical foundations about soil classification, soil physics, soil chemistry and soil hydraulic characteristics in the course. In practical seminars students perform measurements of physical, hydraulic and chemical characteristics of soils, thus a comprehensive survey of soil is done in the given site. So far, students had the opportunity to use old, manually operated instrumentation. The project aims to improve the attractiveness of soil physics course and to extend the practical skills of students by introducing new tasks and by involving modern automated equipment. New instruments were purchased with the support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the project FRVS No. 1162/2013 G1. Specifically, two tensiometers T8 with multi-functional handheld read-out unit (UMS, GmbH) and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Inc.) were purchased and incorporated into the course. In addition, newly designed MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (CTU in Prague) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS 2 (TOMST®, s.r.o.), were made freely available for soil physics classes and included into the courses. Online tutorials and instructional videos were developed. Detailed multimedia teaching materials were introduced so that students are able to work more independently. Students will practice operating the digital tensiometer T8 with integrated temperature sensor and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (diameter disk: 4.4 cm, suction range: 0.5 to 7.0 cm of suction) and MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (see Klipa et al., EGU2014-7230) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT

  5. Effects of poultry manure on soil biochemical properties in phthalic acid esters contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Xiaojian; Ren, Xuqin; Zhou, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of poultry manure (PM) on soil biological properties in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils. An indoor incubation experiment was conducted. Soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil enzymatic activities, and microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were measured during incubation period. The results indicated that except alkaline phosphatase activity, DBP and DEHP had negative effects on Cmic, dehydrogenase, urease, protease activities, and contents of total PLFA. However, 5 % PM treatment alleviated the negative effects of PAEs on the above biochemical parameters. In DBP-contaminated soil, 5 % PM amendment even resulted in dehydroenase activity and Cmic content increasing by 17.8 and 11.8 % on the day 15 of incubation, respectively. During the incubation periods, the total PLFA contents decreased maximumly by 17.2 and 11.6 % in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without PM amendments, respectively. Compared with those in uncontaminated soil, the total PLFA contents increased slightly and the value of bacPLFA/fugalPLFA increased significantly in PAE-contaminated soils with 5 % PM amendment. Nevertheless, in both contaminated soils, the effects of 5 % PM amendment on the biochemical parameters were not observed with 10 % PM amendment. In 10 % PM-amended soils, DBP and DEHP had little effect on Cmic, soil enzymatic activities, and microbial community composition. At the end of incubation, the effects of PAEs on these parameters disappeared, irrespective of PM amendment. The application of PM ameliorated the negative effect of PAEs on soil biological environment. However, further work is needed to study the effect of PM on soil microbial gene expression in order to explain the change mechanisms of soil biological properties.

  6. Effect of soil properties on Hydraulic characteristics under subsurface drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wangtao; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a technique that has a high potential in application because of its high efficiency in water-saving. The hydraulic characteristics of SDI sub-unit pipe network can be affected by soil physical properties as the emitters are buried in soils. The related research, however, is not fully explored. The laboratory tests were carried out in the present study to determine the effects of hydraulic factors including operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density on flow rate and its sensitivity to each hydraulic factor for two types of SDI emitters (PLASSIM emitter and Heping emitter). For this purpose, three soils with contrasting textures (i.e., light sand, silt loam, and light clay) were repacked with two soil bulk density (1.25 and1.40 g cm-3) with two initial soil water content (12% and 18%) in plexiglass columns with 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Drip emitters were buried at depth of 20 cm to measure the flow rates under seven operating pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 370 kPa). We found that the operating pressure was the dominating factor of flow rate of the SDI emitter, and flow rate increased with the increase of operating pressure. The initial soil water content and bulk density also affected the flow rate, and their effects were the most notable in the light sand soil. The sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor was dependent on soil texture, and followed a descending order of light sand>silt loam>light clay for both types of emitters. Further, the sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor decreased with the increase of operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density. This study may be used to guide the soil specific-design of SDI emitters for optimal water use and management.

  7. Use of physically-based models and Soil Taxonomy to identify soil moisture classes: Problems and proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; de Mascellis, R.; Manna, P.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    Soil classification according to Soil Taxonomy include, as fundamental feature, the estimation of soil moisture regime. The term soil moisture regime refers to the "presence or absence either of ground water or of water held at a tension of less than 1500 kPa in the soil or in specific horizons during periods of the year". In the classification procedure, defining of the soil moisture control section is the primary step in order to obtain the soil moisture regimes classification. Currently, the estimation of soil moisture regimes is carried out through simple calculation schemes, such as Newhall and Billaux models, and only in few cases some authors suggest the use of different more complex models (i.e., EPIC) In fact, in the Soil Taxonomy, the definition of the soil moisture control section is based on the wetting front position in two different conditions: the upper boundary is the depth to which a dry soil will be moistened by 2.5 cm of water within 24 hours and the lower boundary is the depth to which a dry soil will be moistened by 7.5 cm of water within 48 hours. Newhall, Billaux and EPIC models don't use physical laws to describe soil water flows, but they use a simple bucket-like scheme where the soil is divided into several compartments and water moves, instantly, only downward when the field capacity is achieved. On the other side, a large number of one-dimensional hydrological simulation models (SWAP, Cropsyst, Hydrus, MACRO, etc..) are available, tested and successfully used. The flow is simulated according to pressure head gradients through the numerical solution of the Richard's equation. These simulation models can be fruitful used to improve the study of soil moisture regimes. The aims of this work are: (i) analysis of the soil moisture control section concept by a physically based model (SWAP); (ii) comparison of the classification obtained in five different Italian pedoclimatic conditions (Mantova and Lodi in northern Italy; Salerno, Benevento and

  8. Organic and inorganic amendment application on mercury-polluted soils: effects on soil chemical and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Klouza, Martin; Holečková, Zlata; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a previous study performed in our laboratory, the use of organic and inorganic amendments can significantly modify the Hg mobility in soil. We have compared the effectiveness of organic and inorganic amendments such as digestate and fly ash, respectively, reducing the Hg mobility in Chernozem and Luvisol soils differing in their physicochemical properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare the impact of digestate and fly ash application on the chemical and biochemical parameters in these two mercury-contaminated soils in a model batch experiment. Chernozem and Luvisol soils were artificially contaminated with Hg and then incubated under controlled conditions for 21 days. Digestate and fly ash were applied to both soils in a dose of 10 and 1.5 %, respectively, and soil samples were collected after 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. The presence of Hg in both soils negatively affected to processes such as nitrification, provoked a decline in the soil microbial biomass C (soil microbial biomass C (MBC)), and the microbial activities (arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) in both soils. Meanwhile, the digestate addition to Chernozem and Luvisol soils contaminated with Hg improved the soil chemical properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N (Ntot), inorganic-N forms (N-NH4 (+) and N-NO3 (-))), as consequence of high content in C and N contained in digestate. Likewise, the soil MBC and soil microbial activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) were greatly enhanced by the digestate application in both soils. In contrast, fly ash application did not have a remarkable positive effect when compared to digestate in Chernozem and Luvisol soil contaminated with mercury. These results may indicate that the use of organic amendments such as digestate considerably improved the soil health in Chernozem and Luvisol compared with fly ash, alleviating the detrimental impact of Hg. Probably, the chemical properties present in

  9. Comparative research on tillable properties of diatomite-improved soils in the Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ji-Li; Zhao, Dong-Xue

    2016-10-15

    To improve soil texture and structure, techniques associated with physical, biological or chemical aspects are generally adopted, among which diatomite is an important soil conditioner. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the physical, hydraulic and tillage performance of diatomite-improved soils. Consistency limits and compaction properties were investigated in this study, and several performance indicators were compared, such as the liquid limit, plastic limit and compactability, of silt, silt loam and silty-clay loam soils to which diatomite was added at volumetric ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The results showed that diatomite significantly (p<0.05) improved the consistency limits, with the most preferred effects in the silt soil. The liquid limits were increased by 53.9%, 27.3%, and 14.7%, in the silt, silt loam and silty-clay loam soils, respectively, when the volumetric ratio was 30%. While diatomite lowered the maximum dry bulk density (MBD) of the classified soils, the optimum moisture content (OMC) was increased overall. The trend was consistent with the proportion of diatomite, and MBD decreased by 8.7%, 10.3%, and 13.2% in the silt, silt loam and silty-clay loam soils when 30% diatomite was mixed, whereas OMC increased by 28.7%, 22.4%, and 25.3%, respectively. Additionally, aggregate stability was negatively correlated with MBD but positively correlated with OMC. Diatomite exerts positive effects on soil mechanical strength, suggesting that soils from sludge farms are more tillable with a larger stabilized and workable matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cokriging of Electromagnetic Induction Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements and Soil Textural Properties to Demarcate Sub-field Management Zones for Precision Irrigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Cruz, L.; Whitney, J.; Telenko, D.; Oware, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    There is the growing need for the development of efficient irrigation management practices due to increasing irrigation water scarcity as a result of growing population and changing climate. Soil texture primarily controls the water-holding capacity of soils, which determines the amount of irrigation water that will be available to the plant. However, while there are significant variabilities in the textural properties of the soil across a field, conventional irrigation practices ignore the underlying variability in the soil properties, resulting in over- or under-irrigation. Over-irrigation leaches plant nutrients beyond the root-zone leading to fertilizer, energy, and water wastages with dire environmental consequences. Under-irrigation, in contrast, causes water stress of the plant, thereby reducing plant quality and yield. The goal of this project is to leverage soil textural map of a field to create water management zones (MZs) to guide site-specific precision irrigation. There is increasing application of electromagnetic induction methods to rapidly and inexpensively map spatially continuous soil properties in terms of the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of the soil. ECa is a measure of the bulk soil properties, including soil texture, moisture, salinity, and cation exchange capacity, making an ECa map a pseudo-soil map. Data for the project were collected from a farm site at Eden, NY. The objective is to leverage high-resolution ECa map to predict spatially dense soil textural properties from limited measurements of soil texture. Thus, after performing ECa mapping, we conducted particle-size analysis of soil samples to determine the textural properties of soils at selected locations across the field. We cokriged the high-resolution ECa measurements with the sparse soil textural data to estimate a soil texture map for the field. We conducted irrigation experiments at selected locations to calibrate representative water-holding capacities of each

  11. Slumping in the rain - winter soil structure across Scotland and its physical degradation from extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Rebecca; Hallett, Paul; Raffan, Annette; Lilly, Allan; Baggaley, Nikki; Rowan, John; Crookes, Bill; Ball, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    Scotland is blessed with fertile and resilient soils that produce great cereal yields and whisky. However, there is worrying anecdotal evidence, confirmed by a small body of science, that some farming practices are causing widespread physical degradation of these soils. Studies from other UK regions have identified soil physical degradation by compaction, unstable seedbeds and erosion as a moderate to serious problem, depending on farming practice, soil properties and climate. In 2015/2016 we sampled 120 fields from 4 catchments in Scotland to describe the state of soil structure in the winter. To obtain a rapid assessment, we used the increasingly popular and easily interpretable Visual Evaluations of Soil Structure (VESS) and Subsoil Structure (SubVESS). We found severe soil structural degradation in 18% of topsoils and 9% of subsoils for 120 fields in 4 catchments. The severe 2015/2016 winter precipitation, the worst ever recorded, caused a 30% increase in occurrence of severely degraded topsoils, as determined from sampling some of the same fields before and after this unprecedented weather event. Run-off, erosion and nutrient losses were about 10X from degraded parts of fields such as tramlines than either within the field or at less trafficked boundaries. There was some agreement between areas identified as structurally degraded and those ranked as being susceptible to topsoil compaction using a simple model. Broad scale surveys that incorporate temporal sampling, such as the study reported here, are essential to provide regional assessments of soil degradation and to inform follow-on, targeted studies, where more in-depth analysis would be feasible.

  12. Estimating Infiltration Rates for a Loessal Silt Loam Using Soil Properties

    Treesearch

    M. Dean Knighton

    1978-01-01

    Soil properties were related to infiltration rates as measured by single-ringsteady-head infiltometers. The properties showing strong simple correlations were identified. Regression models were developed to estimate infiltration rate from several soil properties. The best model gave fair agreement to measured rates at another location.

  13. Historical land use and stand age effects on forest soil properties in the Mid-Atlantic US

    Treesearch

    Ian Yesilonis; K. Szlavecz; Richard Pouyat; D. Whigham; L. Xia

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of agriculture lands to forest has been occurring in parts of North America for decades. The legacy of management activity during this transition is reflected in soil physical and chemical properties years after abandonment. This study was conducted at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Maryland, USA, to determine land-use history and forest...

  14. Alteration of soil hydraulic properties and soil water repellency by fire and vegetation succession in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, D. G.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the impacts of fire and plant community succession on soil water repellency (SWR) and infiltration properties to improve understanding the long term impacts of prescribed fire on SWR and infiltration properties in sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. The objectives of this study were: 1) To explore the temporal effects of prescribed burning in sagebrush dominated landscape; 2) To investigate spatial variability of soil hydrologic properties; 3) To determine the relationship among soil organic fraction, soil hydrophobicity and infiltration properties. Fieldwork was conducted in paired catchments with three dominant vegetation cover communities: Low sage, big mountain sage and aspen. Detailed, heavily replicated analyses were conducted for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, sorptivity water drop penetration time and static soil-water-air contact angle. The results show that the severity and presence of surface soil water repellency were considerably reduced six years after fire and that hydraulic conductivity increased significantly in each vegetation cover compared to pre-burn condition. Comparisons among soil hydrological properties shows that hydraulic conductivity is not strongly related to SWR, and that sorptivity is negatively correlated with SWR. The spatial variance of hydraulic properties within the burned high sage and low sage, in particularly, spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity is basically controlled by soil texture and sorptivity is affected by soil wettability. The average water repellency in Low Sage area was significantly different with Big Sage and Aspen as the gap of organic content between Low Sage and other vegetation area. The result of contact angle measurement and organic content analysis shows a strong positive correlation between SWR and organic matter.

  15. The Impact of Soil Properties on Valley-Bottom Gully Form, Northwest Highlands of Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amare, S. D.; Langendoen, E. J.; Keesstra, S.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Tilahun, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    (-6 kPa), while soil moisture content increased from 30% to 50%.The field data will be used as input for the BSTEM bank erosion model. BSTEM will be used to evaluate and quantify the effects of soil physical properties on gully form. The modeling results will be presented and will serve to develop improved reclamation strategies of valley-bottom gullies.

  16. Integrated use of soil physical and water isotope methods for ecohydrological characterization of desertified areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külls, Christoph; Nunes, Alice; Köbel-Batista, Melanie; Branquinho, Cristina; Bianconi, Nadja; Costantini, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures for monitoring desertification and soil degradation require a thorough understanding of soil physical properties and of the water balance in order to guide restoration efforts (Costantini et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that long term restoration success on degraded land depends on a series of interacting factors such as exposition, soil type, soil hydrology including lateral flow on hill-slope catenae. Recently, new soil water isotope measurement techniques have been developed (Garvelmann et al. 2012) that provide much faster and reliable stable water isotope profiles in soils. This technique yield information on groundwater recharge, soil water balance and on the origin of water available for plants, which in combination with conservative chemical tracers (chloride) can be validated. A multidisciplinary study including ecologists, soil physicists and hydrologists of the COST Action Desert Restoration Hub was carried out on four semi-arid sites in Portugal. A comparative characterization of soil physical parameters, soil water isotope and chloride profiles was performed in order to estimate pedoclimate, soil aridity, soil water balance and groundwater recharge. In combination with soil physical data a comprehensive and cross-validated characterization of pedoclimate and soil aridity was obtained. These indicators were then integrated and related to plant cover. The long-term rainfall of the four sites ranges from 512 to 638 mm, whereas air temperature is from 15.8 to 17.0°C. The De Martonne index of aridity spans from 19.3 to 24.6, pointing to semiarid to moderately arid climatic conditions. The long-term average number of days when the first 0.50 m of soil is dry ranges from 110 to 134, while the mean annual soil temperature at 0.50 m spans from 15.8 and 19.1°C. The studied profiles show different hydrological characteristics, in particular, the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1-1 to 10-100 µm/s. Three out of four profiles show a

  17. Replacing fallow with cover crops in a semiarid soil: effects on soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replacement of fallow in crop-fallow systems with cover crops (CCs) may improve soil properties. We assessed whether replacing fallow in no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow with winter and spring CCs for five years reduced wind and water erosion, increased soil organic carbon (SOC), a...

  18. Replacing fallow with cover crops in a semiarid soil:Effects on soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replacement of fallow in crop–fallow systems with cover crops (CCs) may improve soil properties. We assessed whether replacing fallow in no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow with winter and spring CCs for 5 years reduced wind and water erosion, increased soil organic carbon (SOC), and ...

  19. Cone-penetrometer exploration of sinkholes: Stratigraphy and soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomberg, D.; Upchurch, S.B.; Hayden, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Four sinkholes with varying surficial expressions were subjected to detailed stratigraphic and soil analysis by means of Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) and Electric Friction Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in order to evaluate applications of CPT to sinkhole investigations. Although widely used, SPT data are of limited value and difficult to apply to sinkhole mapping. CPT is sensitive to minor lithologic variability and is superior to SPT as a cost-effective technique for determining geotechnical properties of sinkholes. The effectiveness of CPT data results from the force measurements made along the sleeve of the cone. The friction ratio (ratio of sleeve tomore » tip resistance) is a good indicator of soil stratigraphy and properties. By smoothing the friction-ratio data, general stratigraphy and changes in soil properties are easily identified. Stratigraphy of the sinks has been complicated by intense weathering, karstification and marine transgressions. The resulting deposits include five stratigraphic units. 1 and 2 represent Plio-Pleistocene marine sediments with Unit 2 being the zone of soil clay accumulation. 3 and 4 are horizons residual from Miocene strata and indicate an episode of karstification prior to deposition of Units 1 and 2. CPT provides sufficient information for recognition of sinkhole stratigraphy and geotechnical properties. When coupled with laboratory soil analysis, CPT provides unique information about sinkhole geometry and dynamics. In contrast, SPT indicates general, inconclusive trends.« less

  20. Soil heating in chaparral fires: effects on soil properties, plant nutrients, erosion, and runoff

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano; Raymond M. Rice; Conrad C. Eugene

    1979-01-01

    This state-of-the-art report summarizes what is known about the effects of heat on soil during chaparral fires. It reviews the literature on the effects of such fires on soil properties, availabilty and loss of plant nutrients, soil wettability, erosion, and surface runoff. And it reports new data collected during recent prescribed burns and a wildfire in southern...

  1. Atomic Force Microscopy for Soil Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gazze, andrea; doerr, stefan; dudley, ed; hallin, ingrid; matthews, peter; quinn, gerry; van keulen, geertje; francis, lewis

    2016-04-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a high-resolution surface-sensitive technique, which provides 3-dimensional topographical information and material properties of both stiff and soft samples in their natural environments. Traditionally AFM has been applied to samples with low roughness: hence its use for soil analysis has been very limited so far. Here we report the optimization settings required for a standardization of high-resolution and artefact-free analysis of natural soil with AFM: soil immobilization, AFM probe selection, artefact recognition and minimization. Beyond topography, AFM can be used in a spectroscopic mode to evaluate nanomechanical properties, such as soil viscosity, stiffness, and deformation. In this regards, Bruker PeakForce-Quantitative NanoMechanical (QNM) AFM provides a fast and convenient way to extract physical properties from AFM force curves in real-time to obtain soil nanomechanical properties. Here we show for the first time the ability of AFM to describe the topography of natural soil at nanometre resolution, with observation of micro-components, such as clays, and of nano-structures, possibly of biotic origin, the visualization of which would prove difficult with other instrumentations. Finally, nanomechanical profiling has been applied to different wettability states in soil and the respective physical patterns are discussed.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Xerophytic Shrub Haloxylon ammodendron Plantations on Soil Properties and Vegetation Dynamics in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Baoli; Zhang, Aiping; Yang, Yi; Ma, Quanlin; Li, Xuemin; Zhao, Changming

    2016-01-01

    The xerophytic desert shrub Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge. is distributed naturally in Asian and African deserts, and is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of Northern China. However, there are limited long-term chrono-sequence studies on the impact of changed soil properties and vegetation dynamics following establishment of this shrub on mobile sand dunes. In Minqin County, Gansu Province, we investigated soil properties and herbaceous vegetation development of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50-year-old H. ammodendron plantations on mobile sand dunes. Soil sampling at two depths (0–5 and 5–20 cm) under the shrubs determined SOC, nutrition and soil physical characteristics. The results showed that: establishment of H. ammodendron had improved soil physio-chemical properties, increased thickness of soil crusts and coverage of biological soil crusts (BSCs), and promoted development of topsoil over an extended period of 5 decades. Soil texture and soil nutrition improved along the chrono-sequence according to three distinct phases: i) an initial fast development from 0 to 10 years, ii) a stabilizing phase from 10 to 30 years followed by iii) a relatively marked restoration development in 40 and 50-year-old plantations. Meanwhile, herbaceous community coverage also markedly increased in 30-year-old plantations. However, both soil and vegetation restoration were very slow due to low annual precipitation in Minqin county compared to other Northern China sand afforestation sites. Canonical Correspondence Analysis results demonstrated that herbaceous plant development was closely associated with changes in soil texture (increased clay and silt percentage) and availability of soil nutrients. Thus our results indicated that selection of the long-lived shrub H. ammodendron is an essential and effective tool in arid desert re-vegetation. PMID:27992458

  3. Comparison of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Laboratory and Field-Aged Biochars.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Santanu; Aller, Deborah M; Laird, David A; Chintala, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments. Twenty-two biochars produced by fast and slow pyrolysis, and gasification techniques from five different biomass feedstocks (hardwood, corn stover, soybean stover, macadamia nut shells, and switchgrass) were studied. In general, both laboratory and field aging caused similar increases in ash-free volatile matter (% w/w), cation and anion exchange capacities, specific surface area, and modifications in oxygen-containing surface functional groups of the biochars. However, ash content increased for FA (18-195%) and decreased for LA (22-74%) biochars, and pH decreased to a greater extent for LA (2.8-6.7 units) than for FA (1.6-3.8 units) biochars. The results demonstrate that the proposed laboratory aging procedure is effective for predicting the direction of changes in biochar properties on field aging. However, in the future we recommend using a less aggressive acid treatment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Influence of site and soil properties on the DRIFT spectra of northern cold-region soils [Influence of site and soil properties on the mid-infrared spectra of northern cold-region soils

    DOE PAGES

    Matamala, Roser; Calderon, Francisco J.; Jastrow, Julie D.; ...

    2017-06-05

    Here, we investigated the influence of site characteristics and soil properties on the chemical composition of organic matter in soils collected from a latitudinal transect across Alaska through analysis of diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid infrared (MidIR) spectra of bulk soils. The study included 119 soil samples collected from 28 sites including tundra, boreal forest, and grassland ecosystems. Organic, mineral, and cryoturbated soil horizons, both seasonally and perennially frozen, from a variety of depths and edaphic conditions were examined. The amount and chemical composition of organic matter as well as site and soil properties exerted a strong influence on themore » MidIR spectra. The spectra were highly sensitive to the extent of organic matter decomposition, enabling the ordination of Oi, Oe and Oa organic horizons. Differences in absorbance intensity for several spectral bands indicated that Oi horizons contained greater abundance of relatively fresh residues, phenolic-OH compounds, aliphatic compounds (waxes, lipids and fats), and carbohydrates. In contrast, Oa horizons had a greater presence of amide groups (possibly from microbial residues), aromatics, C=C bonds, carboxylates and carboxylic acids. Another significant factor differentiating these horizons was the incorporation of clays and silicates into the decomposing organic matter of Oa horizons. Calculated height peak ratios showed a clear trend to greater decomposition among Oi, Oe and Oa. The MidIR spectra were related to many site/soil attributes including land cover type, parent material, and associated factors, such as permafrost presence/absence, soil drainage, horizon depth, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, and pH. Single MidIR spectral bands were identified that might be used in future studies to quickly estimate the organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon:nitrogen ratios of soils from northern latitudes. Lastly, our results demonstrate that the

  5. Influence of site and soil properties on the DRIFT spectra of northern cold-region soils [Influence of site and soil properties on the mid-infrared spectra of northern cold-region soils

    SciTech Connect

    Matamala, Roser; Calderon, Francisco J.; Jastrow, Julie D.

    Here, we investigated the influence of site characteristics and soil properties on the chemical composition of organic matter in soils collected from a latitudinal transect across Alaska through analysis of diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid infrared (MidIR) spectra of bulk soils. The study included 119 soil samples collected from 28 sites including tundra, boreal forest, and grassland ecosystems. Organic, mineral, and cryoturbated soil horizons, both seasonally and perennially frozen, from a variety of depths and edaphic conditions were examined. The amount and chemical composition of organic matter as well as site and soil properties exerted a strong influence on themore » MidIR spectra. The spectra were highly sensitive to the extent of organic matter decomposition, enabling the ordination of Oi, Oe and Oa organic horizons. Differences in absorbance intensity for several spectral bands indicated that Oi horizons contained greater abundance of relatively fresh residues, phenolic-OH compounds, aliphatic compounds (waxes, lipids and fats), and carbohydrates. In contrast, Oa horizons had a greater presence of amide groups (possibly from microbial residues), aromatics, C=C bonds, carboxylates and carboxylic acids. Another significant factor differentiating these horizons was the incorporation of clays and silicates into the decomposing organic matter of Oa horizons. Calculated height peak ratios showed a clear trend to greater decomposition among Oi, Oe and Oa. The MidIR spectra were related to many site/soil attributes including land cover type, parent material, and associated factors, such as permafrost presence/absence, soil drainage, horizon depth, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, and pH. Single MidIR spectral bands were identified that might be used in future studies to quickly estimate the organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon:nitrogen ratios of soils from northern latitudes. Lastly, our results demonstrate that the

  6. Degradation and Improvement of Argiudolls in Centre Santa Fe (Argentina): Changes in Physical and Chemical Soil Properties and in its Productive Capacity Using a sSmulation Model of Crop Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilatti, M. A.; Marano, R.; Felli, O.; Alesso, A.; Carrizo, M. E.; Miretti, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional tillage without adequate crop rotation and restoration of nutrients had generated degradation of the soils in Santa Fe. For this reason, it is important to find alternative systems to improve them. The A horizon of a typical Argiudoll of the centre of Santa Fe was chosen in 1983 and 2003 to evaluate: (to) physical and chemical properties of the natural soil (SN), (b) level of deterioration or improvement of those properties due to the management system (LC: traditional till during 50 years with the last 15 years of wheat-soya; RAG: crop-grass rotation under no-till with partial reposition of N, P and S), (c) productive capacity (CP) of the SN and the soil changes according to its management (LC and RAG). Soil data were introduced into a model of crop production (FitoSim), using corn as pattern and 30 years of meteorological data, to evaluate the effect of the soil use on the productive capacity. LC and RAG significantly differ from SN. The former have smaller values of CO, Nt, P e, pH, Ca, K, soil bulk density, relative aggregates stability, least limiting water range and crust infiltration. However the indexes are worse in LC. RAG has greater values of P, Nt and particulate N. The mean potential yield was 16200 kg/ha. The index of production capacity of SN was 75%, i.e. the limitations of the soil and rain only allow taking advantage of 75% of the environment potential capacity. In LC that loss reached 72%. The loss of productive capacity of the evaluated management systems was 21 and 69% for RAG and LC, standing out that although RAG is degraded with regard to the SN, however it is a more conservationist management system that LC. Subsidiado por CA+ID 2009 (UNL) 12/C114; SECTEI- Ley23877-09-04; INTA PNECO-093012

  7. Physical properties of the martian surface from the Viking 1 lander: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Shorthill, R.W.; Hutton, R.E.; Moore, H.J. II

    1976-08-27

    The purpose of the physical properties experiment is to determine the characteristics of the martian ''soil'' based on the use of the Viking lander imaging system, the surface sampler, and engineering sensors. Viking 1 lander made physical contact with the surface of Mars at 11:53:07.1 hours on 20 July 1976 G.M.T. Twenty-five seconds later a high-resolution image sequence of the area around a footpad was started which contained the first information about surface conditions on Mars. The next image is a survey of the martian landscape in front of the lander, including a view of the top support of twomore » of the landing legs. Each leg has a stroke gauge which extends from the top of the leg support an amount equal to the crushing experienced by the shock absorbers during touchdown. Subsequent images provided views of all three stroke gauges which, together with the knowledge of the impact velocity, allow determination of ''soil'' properties. In the images there is evidence of surface erosion from the engines. Several laboratory tests were carried out prior to the mission with a descent engine to determine what surface alterations might occur during a Mars landing. On sol 2 the shroud, which protected the surface sampler collector head from biological contamination, was ejected onto the surface. Later a cylindrical pin which dropped from the boom housing of the surface sampler during the modified unlatching sequence produced a crater (the second Mars penetrometer experiment). These two experiments provided further insight into the physical properties of the martian surface.« less

  8. Asteroid Family Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, J. R.; DeMeo, F. E.; Kasuga, T.; Parker, A. H.

    An asteroid family is typically formed when a larger parent body undergoes a catastrophic collisional disruption, and as such, family members are expected to show physical properties that closely trace the composition and mineralogical evolution of the parent. Recently a number of new datasets have been released that probe the physical properties of a large number of asteroids, many of which are members of identified families. We review these datasets and the composite properties of asteroid families derived from this plethora of new data. We also discuss the limitations of the current data, as well as the open questions in the field.

  9. Effect of sewage sludge hydrochar on soil properties and Cd immobilization in a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Wang, Fenghua; Zhai, Yunbo; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    To investigate hydrochar as a soil amendment for the immobilization of Cd, the characteristics of hydrochars (HCs) under three temperatures and residence times, were studied, with a particular interest in soil properties, as well as the speciation, availability and plant uptake of Cd. HCs were obtained by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reaction of sewage sludge (SS). Based on the study of HC properties, we found that HCs present weak acidity with relatively high ash content and low electrical conductivity (EC) values. The addition of HCs to soil decreased soil pH and EC values but increased the abundance of soil microorganism. HCs also promoted the transformation of Cd from unstable to stable speciation and can decrease the content of phyto-available Cd (optimum condition and efficiency: A13, 2 15.38%), which restrained cabbage from assimilating Cd from soil both the aboveground (optimum condition and efficiency: A35, 52.29%) and underground (optimum condition and efficiency: C15, 57.53%) parts of it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using IKONOS Imagery to Estimate Surface Soil Property Variability in Two Alabama Physiographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Dana; Shaw, Joey; Rickman, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of surface soil properties is used to assess past erosion and predict erodibility, determine nutrient requirements, and assess surface texture for soil survey applications. This study was designed to evaluate high resolution IKONOS multispectral data as a soil- mapping tool. Imagery was acquired over conventionally tilled fields in the Coastal Plain and Tennessee Valley physiographic regions of Alabama. Acquisitions were designed to assess the impact of surface crusting, roughness and tillage on our ability to depict soil property variability. Soils consisted mostly of fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults at the Coastal Plain site and fine, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudults at the Tennessee Valley site. Soils were sampled in 0.20 ha grids to a d