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Sample records for physical-chemical co-process application

  1. Application of new physical chemical methods in soil ecological investigations.

    PubMed

    Motuzas, Algirdas; Vaisvalavicius, Rimantas; Prosycevas, Igoris

    2002-01-01

    The article discusses methodological investigations for the improvement and unification of soil testing in combination with the application of complex physico-chemical methods. An analytical procedure involving different extractions was used in order to determine the total and mobile amount of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc.) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in soil and its fine-dispersive fraction (< 0.005 mm). The average samples (effected upon by background pollution) of Calcari Epihypogleyic Luvisol, (Lvg-p-w-cc, FAO-Unesco, 1998) has been taken from the rotation field of the experimental station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture Subsequently, a fine-dispersive fraction was separated by a principle of peptization in distilled water. The investigation results obtained have shown a substantial dependence on the extractor used and the amount of fine-dispersive fraction in soil as well. It was found that the greatest reliability of the mobile heavy metal form is by using 1N CH3 COONH4 extractor and an HCl+HF mixture extractor for their total amount. Additionally, for the first time in Lithuania, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) it has been applied for the interpretation of soil chemical composition.

  2. Magnetic microgels for drug targeting applications: Physical-chemical properties and cytotoxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcu, Rodica; Craciunescu, Izabell; Garamus, Vasil M.; Janko, Christina; Lyer, Stefan; Tietze, Rainer; Alexiou, Christoph; Vekas, Ladislau

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoresponsive microgels with high saturation magnetization values have been obtained by a strategy based on the miniemulsion method using high colloidal stability organic carrier ferrofluid as primary material. Hydrophobic nanoparticles Fe3O4/oleic acid are densely packed into well-defined spherical nanoparticle clusters coated with polymers with sizes in the range 40-350 nm. Physical-chemical characteristics of magnetic microgels were investigated by TEM, SAXS, XPS and VSM measurements with the focus on the structure-properties relationship. The impact of magnetic microgels loaded with anticancer drug mitoxantrone (MTO) on the non-adherent human T cell leukemia line Jurkat was investigated in multiparameter flow cytometry. We showed that both MTO and microgel-loaded MTO penetrate into cells and both induce apoptosis and later secondary necrosis in a time- and dose dependent manner. In contrast, microgels without MTO are not cytotoxic in the corresponding concentrations. Our results show that MTO-loaded microgels are promising structures for application in magnetic drug targeting.

  3. Applications of optical micro-ring and micro-disk resonators as physical, chemical, and biological sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, Bipin

    This dissertation presents the applications of optical micro-ring and micro-disk resonators as various sensors in physical, chemical, and biological applications. This work describes the functioning of 5 different sensors and suggests ways for optimizing the performance of each of them. All of these sensors work on the principle of shift in the resonance wavelength of the micro-ring or the micro-disk in response to an external physical, chemical or biological perturbation. The first portion describes the functioning of a ring resonator device and details the various parameters which are important in sensing applications. Then a strain sensor, an accelerometer, and a humidity sensor based on polymer micro-ring resonator are described. The strain sensor has a sensitivity of 0.32pm/muε and a dynamic range of 17000muε, the accelerometer has a sensitivity of 31pm/g and a dynamic range of +/-7g, whereas, the humidity sensor has a sensitivity of 16pm/%RH and a dynamic range of 72%. The dependency of each of their sensitivities and dynamic ranges on various geometrical parameters are also discussed. The response time of the humidity sensor was reduced to less than 200ms which enables us to utilize this device as a human breathing monitor in hospitals. The second portion of the thesis, discusses the possible incorporation of ultra-high-Q silica micro-disk resonators, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by Mr. Thanh M. Le, into various sensing devices. This device is first proposed as a biosensor for detecting trace amounts of specific biomolecules. The first experiments are performed for developing the silica micro-disk as a biosensor. In this experiment, the sensitivity of the micro-disk as a function of change in refractive index of the surrounding medium is demonstrated. The observed sensitivity is 11.82nm/RIU (Refractive Index Units). Then, the possibility of using this device as a specific biosensor is explored. The method for surface functionalization of the

  4. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Agulleiro, J I; Vázquez, F; Garzón, E M; Fernández, J J

    2012-04-01

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical Chemical and Biomolecular Methods for the Optimization of Cationic Lipid-Based Lipoplexes In Vitro for the Gene Therapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Preparation and application protocols play a very important role while optimizing the cationic lipid-based lipoplexes in vitro. These protocols serve as the basis for the betterment of the lipoplexes with regard to their successful application in animals and eventually human subjects. Starting from the chemical structures of used cationic lipids (CLs), optimization of the additive inclusions, methods of nanoparticle (lipoplex) formation, presence of blood serum, time intervals of lipoplex incubation, and type of efficiency read-outs in various conditions play important roles in reaching insightful conclusions. Such steps of summarizing protocols and requirements of the pertinent events focus on getting improved lipoplexes for achieving optimal effects in terms of post transfection gene and protein expression. The progression of optimization and efficiency evaluation lead to predictable structure-method-activity relationship with involvement of various feedback principles including physical chemical and biomolecular evaluations before and after the use of lipoplexes in biological systems. This chapter discusses some of the focused strategies for the establishment of lipoplexes for a better post transfection activity with reduced risk of failure.

  6. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ physical/chemical treatment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites: Applicability, developing status, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Gates, D.D.; West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Webb, O.F.; Corder, S.L.; Dickerson, K.S.

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was established in June 1991 to facilitate the development and implementation of in situ remediation technologies for environmental restoration within the DOE complex. Within the ISR IP, four subareas of research have been identified: (1) in situ containment, (2) in situ physical/chemical treatment (ISPCT), (3) in situ bioremediation, and (4) subsurface manipulation/electrokinetics. Although set out as individual focus areas, these four are interrelated, and successful developments in one will often necessitate successful developments in another. In situ remediation technologies are increasingly being sought for environmental restoration due to the potential advantages that in situ technologies can offer as opposed to more traditional ex situ technologies. These advantages include limited site disruption, lower cost, reduced worker exposure, and treatment at depth under structures. While in situ remediation technologies can offer great advantages, many technology gaps exist in their application. This document presents an overview of ISPCT technologies and describes their applicability to DOE-complex needs, their development status, and relevant ongoing research. It also highlights research needs that the ISR IP should consider when making funding decisions.

  7. [Method for study of phase transitions in evaporating drop and its application for evaluation of physical-chemical properties of water and water solutions].

    PubMed

    Iakhno, T A; Sanin, A G; Sanina, O A; Iakhno, V G

    2012-01-01

    Spatial-temporal crystallization features of inorganic chlorides in evaporating drops of water solutions, considering solid surface wettability, were studied using a microscopic technique and the acoustical impedansometry. Physical-chemical mechanisms responsible for the difference in "dynamical portraits" of distilled water and salt solutions, as well as relaxation effects in water were discussed. The study demonstrated the potential use of a drying drop method in registration of changes in water properties under the action of physical and chemical factors.

  8. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  9. Physical Chemical Studies on Molecular Composite Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-20

    McCrone , L. B., Deity, J. G., Polarized Light Microscopy, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago (1987). 32. Wolfe, W. L., In Handbook of Optics, Optical...are discussed. The rheology of miscible blends of the rodlike chains with flexibie or semiflexible chains is discussed using a model accounting for...vii PHYSICAL- CHEMICAL STUDIES ON RODLIKE POLYMER COMPOSITIONS The following is a final report for work of AFOSR-89--0125, covering the period January

  10. Physical Chemical State of Water in Living Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    AD-A154 566 PHYSICAL CHEMICAL STATE OF WATER IN LIVING CELLS(J) / BAYLOR COLL OF MEDICINE HOUSTON TX DEPT OF PHYSIOLOGY C F HAZLEWOOD ET AL. MAY 85...N00014-76--C-0l0O Title: Physical Chemical State of Water in Living Cells Sub-Project A: Physical Chemical State of Water in Living Cells and Tissues Sub...provide the fundamental framework of our concepts of the living state. The following includes: (1) a statement of the rationale for this work; (2

  11. Microbial quality and physical-chemical characteristics of thermal springs.

    PubMed

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Hadi; Bagheri, Pari; Poureshg, Yusef; Rostami, Roohollah

    2016-04-01

    Microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of recreational spas were surveyed to investigate the health aspect of the spas' water. A total of 195 samples were collected from pools and springs of the spas in five sites from Ardebil Province of Iran. The effects of an independent factor defined as 'condition' and its component sub-factors (i.e., sampling point, location, and sampling date) on microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of the spas were studied by applying path analysis. The influence of physical-chemical properties on microbial quality was also considered. The percentage of samples exceeding the ISIRI (Swimming pool water microbiological specifications (vol 9412), Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran, 2007) limits for Staphylococcus (spp.) was up to 55.8 in the springs and 87.8 in the pools, 58.1 and 99.2 for HPC, 90.7 and 97.8 for total coliform and fecal coliform, and 9.3 and 34.4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. There were significant differences between the pools and springs for both physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. From the path analysis, sampling point was the most effective sub-factor of 'condition' on both the physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. Among the physical-chemical properties, water color had the most enhancing or additive influence on microbial pollution, while EC indicated a reducing or subtractive effect.

  12. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  13. Mathematical modeling of physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Torruellas, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme of treatment modeled includes processes such as coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, adsorption on granular activated carbon, and surge storage. Sludge treatment processes such as gravity thickening, vacuum filter dewatering, and hauling and disposal were also simulated. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate that an optimization scheme can be used to determine the minimum total cost of a complex physical-chemical treatment system with models representing the individual unit processes. A method for determining the minimum cost design of a physical-chemical treatment plant is presented. The method utilizes an existing search technique (Box complex algorithm) to optimize a non-linear cost function for the physical-chemical processes. Thus, the physical-chemical treatment plant design is formulated as an optimization problem with non-linear cost functions and realistic mathematical models for each of its constituent unit processes. The level of cost resolution adopted derives from a series of economic models developed which basically make a Present Worth Analysis of each unit within the system. The economic data are based mostly on updated cost information obtained from Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Manuals. Among the benefits directly derived from this study are the following: optimum economic design and operation of a typical physical-chemical treatment plant, simplified and directly oriented pilot plant studies, and the cost savings associated with it. Also, the formulation of a relatively new design concept is developed which underlines the need of the simultaneous consideration of all the components of a physical-chemical treatment plant for the most economic design.

  14. Control of Dermatomycoses by Physical, Chemical and Biological Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    r A.-A0% 5586 STRITCH SCHOOL OF M4EDICINE MAYWOOD ILL DEPT OF MICRO-ETC F/G 6/5 CONTROL OF DERMATOMYCOSES BY PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL...Final reports ~tW/ Yj S. ca Is -- I - - O E E ~~ ( Control of Dermatomycoses by Physical, Chemical Fina re,.tK. and Biological Agents Ciratepid123 . S...to the radical cure of dermatomycoses and the control of ringworm infections in comiunal life is to develop effective methods that kill dermatophytic

  15. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  16. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  17. Effect of electric signal frequency and form on physical-chemical oxidation of organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Yegor; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

    The behavior conditions of physical-chemical reactions securing organic wastes’ oxidation in H _{2}O _{2} aqueous medium aimed at an increase of mass exchange processes in a life support system (LSS) for a space purpose have been under study. The character of dependence of organic wastes oxidation rate in H _{2}O _{2} aqueous medium, activated with alternating current of different frequency and form have been considered. Ways of those parameters optimization for the purpose to efficiently increase the physical-chemical decomposition of organic wastes in LSS have been proposed. Specifically, power consumption and reaction time of wastes mineralization have been determined to reduce more than twice. Involvement ways of mineralized organic wastes received in intrasystem mass exchange have been shown. Application feasibility of the obtained results both for space and terrestrial purpose has been discussed. Key words: life support sustem, mineralization, turnover, frequency, organic wastes

  18. Assessment of Physical, Chemical, and Hydrologic Factors Affecting the Infiltration of Treated Wastewater in theNew Jersey Coastal Plain, with Emphasis on theHammonton Land Application Facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Tessler, Steven; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A hydrogeologic and water-quality investigation of the Hammonton Land Application Facility (Hammonton LAF) in Hammonton, New Jersey, was conducted to determine the factors that impede the infiltration of treated wastewater and to assess the potential for similar conditions to exist elsewhere in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey (particularly within the Pinelands National Reserve). Gamma logs, sediment cores, and hydraulic-profile testing indicate that extensive fine-grained strata and iron-cemented sands underlying the Hammonton LAF may impede infiltration and lead to the perching of diluted treated wastewater. Perched water was observed in augured holes adjacent to infiltration trenches, and analysis of wastewater loading and infiltration data indicates that infiltration trenches may receive lateral flow from multiple perched-water sources. Analysis of water-quality properties characteristic of treated wastewater show that although infiltrated wastewater is reaching the underlying aquifer, lengthy holding times and a long recharge pathway greatly reduce the concentrations of nitrate, boron, and many organic compounds typical of wastewater. Conditions at two currently operating facilities and one potential future facility in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were compared to those at the Hammonton Land Application Facility (LAF). Facilities operating as designed are not underlain by the restrictive strata that exist at the Hammonton LAF. Careful characterization of the geology and hydrology of the unsaturated zone underlying infiltration structures of future facilities in the New Jersey Coastal Plain and similar hydrogeologic settings will help to avoid constructing infiltration structures over or within low-hydraulic-conductivity strata that will decrease infiltration rates.

  19. Co-processing of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) for improved aqueous dispersibility.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Payal; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-05-15

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a widely employed film coating polymer, exhibits poor dispersibility in an aqueous medium. Rapid hydration leading to swelling and coherent gel formation is reported to be responsible for this problem. Present study focuses on the use of spray drying based approach for co-processing of HPMC to improve its dispersibility. Dispersion behavior of native HPMC showed formation of large lumps that did not dissolve completely for 40min. However, HPMC co-processed with lactose and sodium chloride exhibited improvement in dispersibility with complete dissolution attained within 20min. Mechanistic insights into improved dispersibility were obtained using contact angle studies, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) studies. Co-processed products exhibited higher immersional wetting as determined by sessile drop contact angle technique, which indicated spontaneous incursion of water. CLSM study revealed highly swollen and erodible gel in co-processed products. Novel application of TEM and STEM techniques was developed to understand the nature of mixing achieved during co-processing. Overall the improvement in dispersibility of co-processed products was predominantly due to the alteration in sub-particulate level properties during co-processing. The effect of excipients on the film properties of HPMC, like tensile strength and hygroscopicity, was also assessed. This study provides the comprehensive understanding of role of co-processing on improvement of dispersion behavior of HPMC and helps in the selection of suitable excipients for the same.

  20. Peculiarities of Production of Chromium Carbonitride Nanopowder and Its Physical-Chemical Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiryaeva, L. S.; Nozdrin, I. V.; Galevsky, G. V.

    2015-09-01

    Scientific and technological basics of plasma synthesis of chromium carbonitride have been developed, including analysis of the current production state and application of chromium carbon compounds, defining characteristics of three-jet plasma reactor, modeling- mathematical study of interaction of raw materials and plasma streams, prediction of technological parameters of plasma stream based on the modeling results, selection of optimal technological option, implementation of plasma-metallurgical technology of chromium nitride production, its physical-chemical certification and defining technical-economical production factors.

  1. Physical-chemical property based sequence motifs and methods regarding same

    DOEpatents

    Braun, Werner; Mathura, Venkatarajan S.; Schein, Catherine H.

    2008-09-09

    A data analysis system, program, and/or method, e.g., a data mining/data exploration method, using physical-chemical property motifs. For example, a sequence database may be searched for identifying segments thereof having physical-chemical properties similar to the physical-chemical property motifs.

  2. [Studies on new co-processed excipient consisting of lactose and gelatinized starch].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-tao; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Co-processed excipients withgelatinized or non-gelatinized starch were prepared by spray drying. Powder and tablet properties of corocessed excipients prepared were compared with those of physical mixtures and spray-dried lactose. Their applicability in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) powder tableting was tested on two TCM extracts, i.e., the gardenia extract and the Herba Sedi extract. It was shown that gelatinizing starch before co-spray drying with lactose could improve the performance and efficiency of starch as a binder, resulting in remarkable improvement in physicomechanical properties of co-processed excipients prepared. Conpared to self-made and commercially available spray-dried lactose, co-processed excipients achieved better compactability and higher drug loading for TCM extracts. In conclusion, the lactose-gelatinized starch co-processed excipient, with excellent physicomechanical properties, is promising to be explored as a new excipient for direct tableting.

  3. Evaluation of coal pretreatment prior to co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Barbour, F.A.; Blake, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The Western Research Institute is currently developing a mild gasification process for the recovery of a stabilized char product for use as a fuel. A liquid product of limited value is produced during the mild gasification process that may be suited as a co-processing vehicle for coal-oil co-processing. Research was conducted to evaluate co-processing of this mild gasification liquid with coal. The two major areas of research discussed in this report are: (1) coal pretreatment with a coal-derived liquid to induce coal swelling and promote catalyst dispersion and (2) co-processing coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid. The results of the investigation to evaluate co-processing of coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid indicate that the thermal pretreatment adversely affected the coal-oil co-processing under hydrogen pressure. Thermally pretreated coals co-processed under a hydrogen atmosphere and without benefit of catalyst exhibited about 86 wt % conversion as compared to 96 wt % for coal that was only thermally dried. The addition of the iron pentacarbonyl catalyst precursor to the thermally pretreated coals did improve the conversion to near that of the dried coal. Results from analysis of the product obtained from co-processing the Illinois No. 6 coal showed it was upgraded in terms of oxygen content and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio when compared to the mild gasification liquid.

  4. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels.

  5. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  6. Co-processing as a tool to improve aqueous dispersibility of cellulose ethers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Payal; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are important materials with numerous applications in pharmaceutical industry. They are widely employed as stabilizers and viscosity enhancers for dispersed systems, binders in granulation process and as film formers for tablets. These polymers, however, exhibit challenge during preparation of their aqueous dispersions. Rapid hydration of their surfaces causes formation of a gel that prevents water from reaching the inner core of the particle. Moreover, the surfaces of these particles become sticky, thus leading to agglomeration, eventually reducing their dispersion kinetics. Numerous procedures have been tested to improve dispersibility of cellulose ethers. These include the use of cross-linking agents, alteration in the synthesis process, adjustment of water content of cellulose ether, modification by attaching hydrophobic substituents and co-processing using various excipients. Among these, co-processing has provided the most encouraging results. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the poor dispersibility of cellulose ethers and the role of co-processing technologies in overcoming the challenge. An attempt has been made to highlight various co-processing techniques and specific role of excipients used for co-processing.

  7. Coupling entropy of co-processing model on social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhanli

    2015-08-01

    Coupling entropy of co-processing model on social networks is investigated in this paper. As one crucial factor to determine the processing ability of nodes, the information flow with potential time lag is modeled by co-processing diffusion which couples the continuous time processing and the discrete diffusing dynamics. Exact results on master equation and stationary state are achieved to disclose the formation. In order to understand the evolution of the co-processing and design the optimal routing strategy according to the maximal entropic diffusion on networks, we propose the coupling entropy comprehending the structural characteristics and information propagation on social network. Based on the analysis of the co-processing model, we analyze the coupling impact of the structural factor and information propagating factor on the coupling entropy, where the analytical results fit well with the numerical ones on scale-free social networks.

  8. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R.

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  9. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  10. Physical, Chemical and Mineral Properties of the Polonnaruwa Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by theconversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of nonterrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite)as well asdata for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples.Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = .0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 ± 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE patterns

  11. Physical, chemical, and mineral properties of the Polonnaruwa stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20 GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by the conversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of non-terrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite) as well as data for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples. Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = -0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 +/- 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE

  12. Comparison of Physical-chemical and Mechanical Properties of Chlorapatite and Hydroxyapatite Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Demnati, Imane; Grossin, David; Marsan, Olivier; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Collonges, Gérard; Combes, Christèle; Parco, Maria; Braceras, Inigo; Alexis, Joel; Balcaen, Yannick; Rey, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Chlorapatite can be considered a potential biomaterial for orthopaedic applications. Its use as plasma-sprayed coating could be of interest considering its thermal properties and particularly its ability to melt without decomposition unlike hydroxyapatite. Chlorapatite (ClA) was synthesized by a high-temperature ion exchange reaction starting from commercial stoichiometric hydroxyapatites (HA). The ClA powder showed similar characteristics as the original industrial HA powder, and was obtained in the monoclinic form. The HA and ClA powders were plasma-sprayed using a low-energy plasma spraying system with identical processing parameters. The coatings were characterized by physical-chemical methods, i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, including distribution mapping of the main phases detected such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), oxyapatite (OA), and HA or ClA. The unexpected formation of oxyapatite in ClA coatings was assigned to a side reaction with contaminating oxygenated species (O2, H2O). ClA coatings exhibited characteristics different from HA, showing a lower content of oxyapatite and amorphous phase. Although their adhesion strength was found to be lower than that of HA coatings, their application could be an interesting alternative, offering, in particular, a larger range of spraying conditions without formation of massive impurities. PMID:25893015

  13. Physical, Chemical, Bibological, and Biotechnological sciences are incomplete without each other

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By coupling of mechanics, optics, and mathematics, Theodor Svedberg invented the ultracentrifuge, which allowed separation of important biological materials by high centrifugal force, resulting in physical chemical separation and characterization of atherogenic low density lipoproteins and other bio...

  14. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  15. Physical/chemical closed-loop water-recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    Water needs, water sources, and means for recycling water are examined in terms appropriate to the water quality requirements of a small crew and spacecraft intended for long duration exploration missions. Inorganic, organic, and biological hazards are estimated for waste water sources. Sensitivities to these hazards for human uses are estimated. The water recycling processes considered are humidity condensation, carbon dioxide reduction, waste oxidation, distillation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, carbon sorption, and electrochemical oxidation. Limitations and applications of these processes are evaluated in terms of water quality objectives. Computerized simulation of some of these chemical processes is examined. Recommendations are made for development of new water recycling technology and improvement of existing technology for near term application to life support systems for humans in space. The technological developments are equally applicable to water needs on Earth, in regions where extensive water recycling is needed or where advanced water treatment is essential to meet EPA health standards.

  16. Effects of sterilization methods on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of silk fibroin membranes.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Mariana Agostini; Weska, Raquel Farias; Beppu, Marisa Masumi

    2014-05-01

    Silk fibroin has been widely explored for many biomedical applications, due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Sterilization is a fundamental step in biomaterials processing and it must not jeopardize the functionality of medical devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of different sterilization methods in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of dense and porous silk fibroin membranes. Silk fibroin membranes were treated by several procedures: immersion in 70% ethanol solution, ultraviolet radiation, autoclave, ethylene oxide, and gamma radiation, and were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, tensile strength and in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells. The results indicated that the sterilization methods did not cause perceivable morphological changes in the membranes and the membranes were not toxic to cells. The sterilization methods that used organic solvent or an increased humidity and/or temperature (70% ethanol, autoclave, and ethylene oxide) increased the silk II content in the membranes: the dense membranes became more brittle, while the porous membranes showed increased strength at break. Membranes that underwent sterilization by UV and gamma radiation presented properties similar to the nonsterilized membranes, mainly for tensile strength and FTIR results. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of wonder kelp--Laminaria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Bhatnagar, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Laminaria is a kelp that finds its place in the brown algae family. It has been an area of study for past many years, and its wonderful biological properties have always attracted medical professionals and researchers to explore more and more from this wonder kelp. The constituents of Laminaria include iodine, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Iodine compounds, TEA-hydroiodide in particular, are great lipolytic agents as they stimulate lipase activity. Laminarins on the other hand are used as a tumor angiogenic blocker. This genus of the kelps is also rich in algin, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that forms viscous colloidal solutions or gels in water leading to the use of kelp derivatives as bulk laxatives. It has great applications in cosmeceutical science, as well as some antibacterial properties have also been assigned to Laminaria. A deeper insight into the physical, biological, and chemical properties of this wonder kelp would lead to further exploitation of Laminaria for medicinal and cosmeceutical purpose.

  18. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial characterization of copper-bearing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Popko, Domenic; Bagley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, silver, and zinc are elements with strong antimicrobial properties. Among them, copper is more environmentally friendly and has both good antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been shown that copper can even be effective against new viruses such as avian influenza (H5N1). Development of copper-bearing materials for various applications, therefore, is receiving increased attention. The Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan was the largest native copper mining regions of North America at the turn of the 20th century. Copper was extracted by mining the copper-rich basaltic rock, and steamdriven stamp mills were used to process a great volume of low-grade ores, resulting in huge amounts of crushed waste ore called stamp sands. Approximately 500 million tons of stamp sand were discarded. This material is investigated in this study as an example for the development of antimicrobial materials.

  19. Enzymes immobilized in mesoporous silica: a physical-chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Nils; Gustafsson, Hanna; Thörn, Christian; Olsson, Lisbeth; Holmberg, Krister; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-03-01

    Mesoporous materials as support for immobilized enzymes have been explored extensively during the last two decades, primarily not only for biocatalysis applications, but also for biosensing, biofuels and enzyme-controlled drug delivery. The activity of the immobilized enzymes inside the pores is often different compared to that of the free enzymes, and an important challenge is to understand how the immobilization affects the enzymes in order to design immobilization conditions that lead to optimal enzyme activity. This review summarizes methods that can be used to understand how material properties can be linked to changes in enzyme activity. Real-time monitoring of the immobilization process and techniques that demonstrate that the enzymes are located inside the pores is discussed by contrasting them to the common practice of indirectly measuring the depletion of the protein concentration or enzyme activity in the surrounding bulk phase. We propose that pore filling (pore volume fraction occupied by proteins) is the best standard for comparing the amount of immobilized enzymes at the molecular level, and present equations to calculate pore filling from the more commonly reported immobilized mass. Methods to detect changes in enzyme structure upon immobilization and to study the microenvironment inside the pores are discussed in detail. Combining the knowledge generated from these methodologies should aid in rationally designing biocatalyst based on enzymes immobilized in mesoporous materials.

  20. [Physical, chemical and bioactive compounds of tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea)].

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexia

    2012-12-01

    Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) is appreciated for its excellent nutritional qualities, being considered a good source of antioxidants compounds, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, sugars, organic acids, pectins and flavonoids. In this study, were evaluated physical parameters (weight, size, compression strength and humidity) and chemical (degrees Brix, titratable acidity, pH, protein, dietary fiber, ash, minerals and their bioaccesibility, pectin, antioxidants compounds) of the fruit from the Aragua State, Venezuela, as a contribution to stimulate and diversify the consumption of the tree tomato. The characterization showed that the fruits were at the ripening stage for consumption (degrees Brix 10.51, pH 3.5, acidity 0.02 g/100ml and 4.32 Kgf/cm2 compression strength) gave a yield of 74% pulp. The analytical results of the ripped pulp showed a content of 30 Kcal/100 g, dietary fiber (4.10 g/100 g), and minerals such as phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron (331.32, 21.25, 21.18, 17.03 and 7.44 mg/100 g, respectively). Bioaccesibility values of 6.71 and 1.86% were reported for calcium and iron. The extracted pectin (1.00 g/100 g) was classified as high methoxyl with high degree of esterification. The antioxidant capacity of the ripped pulp (EC50 of 165.00 g/g DPPH and reducing power of 0.07 mmol Fe +2/100 g), could be attributed to the presence of ascorbic acid (23.32 mg/100 g), lycopene (1.22 mg/100 g), and phenolic compounds (1.39 mg GAE/g), anthocyanins (0.29 mg cyanidin/g) and tannins (0.40 mg catechin/100 g).The results obtained encourage the nutritional benefits and suggest applications as a functional ingredient in food product development.

  1. Physical-chemical properties studying of molecular structures via topological index calculating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Farahani, Mohammad Reza; Yu, Xiao; Gao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    It's revealed from the earlier researches that many physical-chemical properties depend heavily on the structure of corresponding moleculars. This fact provides us an approach to measure the physical-chemical characteristics of substances and materials. In our article, we report the eccentricity related indices of certain important molecular structures from mathematical standpoint. The eccentricity version indices of nanostar dendrimers are determined and the reverse eccentric connectivity index for V-phenylenic nanotorus is discussed. The conclusions we obtained mainly use the trick of distance computation and mathematical derivation, and the results can be applied in physics engineering.

  2. Effect of nanoclay addition on physical, chemical, optical and biological properties of experimental dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Tais; Fredholm, Yann; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniel; da Silva, Pedro; Chenal, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-01

    To prepare organically modified montmorillonite (OM MMT) and assess mechanical, physical, chemical and biological effects of its introduction into resin-composites. Natural MMT clay was modified by a methacrylate functionalized quaternary ammonium intercalating agent. Interlayer distance was measured by X-ray diffraction. Dental composites were then prepared with x=0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 7.5wt.% of OM MMT, (75-x) wt.% of silanated barium glass and 25wt.% of methacrylate based matrix). Relative weight loss was measured and the effect of the substitution on mechanical properties was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis and hardness tests. Properties of resin composites were evaluated in terms of water sorption, light transmittance, biological tests and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Resin based composites with well-dispersed organically modified MMT were successfully prepared. There were no significant weight loss differences shown by TGA within all samples. The DMA analysis showed that the introduction of clays have a beneficial effect in increasing the storage and elastic modulus of composites. Clay presence was shown to interfere with the blue light transmittance, affecting Vickers hardness and water sorption levels. The amount of released monomers measured from extracts was below expected levels for this type of materials and biological tests show satisfactory cell compatibility. This paper reports the successful functionalization of MMT by a methacrylate group and further incorporation in experimental dental composites. Physical and biological results show a potential interest to the application of nanoclays into dental resin composites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  4. Solvents of pus-medicines with physical-chemical aggressive action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.; Reshetnikov, A.; Kopylov, M.; Chernova, L.

    2017-01-01

    In laboratory and clinical conditions was studied rheology of pus and sulfuric tubes after their interaction with aqueous solutions of drugs from different pharmacological groups. It is shown that solutions of almost all medicines can influence or not influence on their rheology, because local action is determined not by the name, dose or route of administration of medicines. It is established that only physical-chemical properties of fluids and physical-chemical factors of their interaction with dense pus can give them the ability to dissolve or thickening pus. We found that deliberate change physical-chemical properties of medicines solutions from various pharmacological groups, namely, raising the temperature to +42°C, increasing the alkalinity above pH 8.1 and aeration as for example by introducing carbon dioxide under pressure of 0.2 ATM, or by introducing hydrogen peroxide in 0.5 - 3%, turning them into solvents of pus, ear wax and sulfuric tubes. Discovered that solutions of drugs with such physical-chemical activity may turn thick pus and solid sulfur tube in a homogeneous liquid after a few minutes after injecting them into these biological mass.

  5. Methodology for completing Hanford 200 Area tank waste physical/chemical profile estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-04-29

    The purpose of the Methodology for Completing Hanford 200 Area Tank Waste Physical/Chemical Profile Estimations is to capture the logic inherent to completing 200 Area waste tank physical and chemical profile estimates. Since there has been good correlation between the estimate profiles and actual conditions during sampling and sub-segment analysis, it is worthwhile to document the current estimate methodology.

  6. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    PubMed

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  7. Visualization Co-Processing of a CFD Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    1999-01-01

    OVERFLOW, a widely used CFD simulation code, is combined with a visualization system, pV3, to experiment with an environment for simulation/visualization co-processing on a SGI Origin 2000 computer(O2K) system. The shared memory version of the solver is used with the O2K 'pfa' preprocessor invoked to automatically discover parallelism in the source code. No other explicit parallelism is enabled. In order to study the scaling and performance of the visualization co-processing system, sample runs are made with different processor groups in the range of 1 to 254 processors. The data exchange between the visualization system and the simulation system is rapid enough for user interactivity when the problem size is small. This shared memory version of OVERFLOW, with minimal parallelization, does not scale well to an increasing number of available processors. The visualization task takes about 18 to 30% of the total processing time and does not appear to be a major contributor to the poor scaling. Improper load balancing and inter-processor communication overhead are contributors to this poor performance. Work is in progress which is aimed at obtaining improved parallel performance of the solver and removing the limitations of serial data transfer to pV3 by examining various parallelization/communication strategies, including the use of the explicit message passing.

  8. Numerical simulation and analysis of hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition to grow uniform perovskite MAPbI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chongqiu; Simon, Terrence; Cui, Tianhong

    2017-04-01

    Applications of metal halide perovskite have been rapidly developing in recent years. However, very little research focusing on basic growth kinetics of perovskite films can be found in the literature. This paper discusses a hybrid physical-chemical deposition process of planar perovskite films. A 2-D ANSYS Fluent simulation is presented to calculate the heat and mass transfer during the deposition process. An optimized mass flow configuration with a flow resistance imposed by a porous screen is shown to give a uniform distribution of the methylammonium iodide vapor precursor and an even surface deposition rate of perovskite films. Both steady and transient calculations indicate that increasing operating temperature or vessel pressure within certain limits can boost the surface deposition rate of perovskite. Limitations on working pressure are presented for preventing reverse flow into the chamber and associated deterioration of deposition uniformity of the perovskite films.

  9. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Smith, Charlene M.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  10. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1990-10-09

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The deploymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on deploymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380--600{degrees}C and 70--280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  11. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380[degrees]-600[degrees] C and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  12. Using ANN to predict E. coli accumulation in coves based on interaction amongst various physical, chemical and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, D.; Mohanty, B. P.; Lesikar, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    The accumulation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in canals, coves and streams is the result of a number of interacting processes operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Fate and transport of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by different physical, chemical, and biological processes. Various models developed to quantify each of these processes occurring at different scales are not so far pooled into a single predictive model. At present, very little is known about the fate and transport of E. coli in the environment. We hypothesize that E. coli population heterogeneity in canals and coves is affected by physical factors (average stream width and/ depth, secchi depth, flow and flow severity, day since precipitation, aquatic vegetation, solar radiation, dissolved and total suspended solids etc.); chemical factors (basic water quality, nutrients, organic compounds, pH, and toxicity etc.); and biological factors (type of bacterial strain, predation, and antagonism etc.). The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the interactions between E. coli and various coupled physical, chemical and biological factors; (2) examine the interactions between E. coli and toxic organic pollutants and other pathogens (viruses); and (3) evaluate qualitatively the removal efficiency of E. coli. We suggest that artificial neural networks (ANN) may be used to provide a possible solution to this problem. To demonstrate the application of the approach, we develop an ANN representing E. coli accumulation in two polluted sites at Lake Granbury in the upper part of the Brazos River in North Central Texas. The graphical structure of ANN explicitly represents cause- and-effect relationship between system variables. Each of these relationships can then be quantified independently using an approach suitable for the type and scale of information available. Preliminary results revealed that E. coli concentrations in canals show seasonal variations regardless of change

  13. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  14. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  15. Influence of copper nanoparticles on the physical-chemical properties of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The physical-chemical properties of activated sludge, such as flocculating ability, hydrophobicity, surface charge, settleability, dewaterability and bacteria extracellular polymer substances (EPS), play vital roles in the normal operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The nanoparticles released from commercial products will enter WWTPs and can induce potential adverse effects on activated sludge. This paper focused on the effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on these specific physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It was found that most of these properties were unaffected by the exposure to lower CuNPs concentration (5 ppm), but different observation were made at higher CuNPs concentrations (30 and 50 ppm). At the higher CuNPs concentrations, the sludge surface charge increased and the hydrophobicity decreased, which were attributed to more Cu2+ ions released from the CuNPs. The carbohydrate content of EPS was enhanced to defense the toxicity of CuNPs. The flocculating ability was found to be deteriorated due to the increased cell surface charge, the decreased hydrophobicity, and the damaged cell membrane. The worsened flocculating ability made the sludge flocs more dispersed, which further increased the toxicity of the CuNPs by increasing the availability of the CuNPs to the bacteria present in the sludge. Further investigation indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased at higher CuNPs concentrations, which was consistent with the deteriorated physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It seems that the physical-chemical properties can be used as an indicator for determining CuNPs toxicity to the bacteria in activated sludge. This work is important because bacteria toxicity effects to the activated sludge caused by nanoparticles may lead to the deteriorated treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment, and it is therefore necessary to find an easy way to indicate this toxicity.

  16. Influence of Copper Nanoparticles on the Physical-Chemical Properties of Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The physical-chemical properties of activated sludge, such as flocculating ability, hydrophobicity, surface charge, settleability, dewaterability and bacteria extracellular polymer substances (EPS), play vital roles in the normal operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The nanoparticles released from commercial products will enter WWTPs and can induce potential adverse effects on activated sludge. This paper focused on the effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on these specific physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It was found that most of these properties were unaffected by the exposure to lower CuNPs concentration (5 ppm), but different observation were made at higher CuNPs concentrations (30 and 50 ppm). At the higher CuNPs concentrations, the sludge surface charge increased and the hydrophobicity decreased, which were attributed to more Cu2+ ions released from the CuNPs. The carbohydrate content of EPS was enhanced to defense the toxicity of CuNPs. The flocculating ability was found to be deteriorated due to the increased cell surface charge, the decreased hydrophobicity, and the damaged cell membrane. The worsened flocculating ability made the sludge flocs more dispersed, which further increased the toxicity of the CuNPs by increasing the availability of the CuNPs to the bacteria present in the sludge. Further investigation indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased at higher CuNPs concentrations, which was consistent with the deteriorated physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It seems that the physical-chemical properties can be used as an indicator for determining CuNPs toxicity to the bacteria in activated sludge. This work is important because bacteria toxicity effects to the activated sludge caused by nanoparticles may lead to the deteriorated treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment, and it is therefore necessary to find an easy way to indicate this toxicity. PMID:24663333

  17. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Nanodispersed Powders Produced by a Plasma-Chemical Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, M.; Vissokov, Grancharov G., IV

    2007-06-01

    This article presents a review on the physical-chemical properties and characteristics of plasma-chemically produced nanodispersed powders (NDP), such as metals, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and catalysts. The plasma-chemical preparation of the powders was carried out in thermal plasma (TP) created by means of high-current electric arcs, plasma jets, high-frequency (HF) discharges, etc. We also discuss certain properties and characteristics of the NDPs, which are determined largely by the conditions of preparation.

  18. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.; Kannapel, M.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues concerning the physical chemical processes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine are discussed. The objectives being to supply the general purpose CFD code PHOENICS and the associated interactive graphics package - GRAFFIC; to demonstrate code usage on SSME related problems; to perform computations and analyses of problems relevant to current and future SSME's; and to participate in the development of new physical models of various processes present in SSME components. These objectives are discussed in detail.

  19. Prototype Commercial Coal/Oil Co-Processing Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    With the successful demonstration of the Co-Processing Process for simultaneously converting and upgrading Ohio coal and Cold Lake atmospheric resid, a hydrotreating program was subcontracted out to Sun Refining and Marketing by Ohio Clean Fuels to define operating conditions that will produce a distillate product meeting 0.05 wt % sulfur and a naphtha product with 1 wppm nitrogen maximum. Two hydrotreating runs were carried out: one on a 350/650{degree}F distillate blend and other on the C5/350{degree}F co-pro naphtha. Both runs scoped process conditions by varying temperature, pressure and space velocity while maintaining hydrogen treat gas rate constant at 1,000 SCF/Barrel. Each run took about 30 days to complete and consisted of a test matrix of 8 conditions and a referee'' condition at the beginning and the end of the run, and as well, several other optimal conditions to define further information. While catalyst life test were originally planned, they were not carried out due to lack of funds. The tests identified hydrotreating conditions that can effectively reduce distillate blend sulfur from 0.55 wt % to as low as 0.15 wt % sulfur. The co-pro naphtha was denitrogenated from 46 wppm to below 1 wppm with mild hydrotreating conditions. There were anomalies in the results in that lower feed space velocities resulted in higher product nitrogen. 3 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Near infrared spectroscopy for determination of various physical, chemical and biochemical properties in Mediterranean soils

    PubMed Central

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Scow, K.M.; Arcenegui, V.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict various physical, chemical and biochemical properties in Mediterranean soils from SE Spain was evaluated. Soil samples (n=393) were obtained by sampling thirteen locations during three years (2003-2005 period). These samples had a wide range of soil characteristics due to variations in land use, vegetation cover and specific climatic conditions. Biochemical properties also included microbial biomarkers based on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross validation was used to establish relationships between the NIR spectra and the reference data from physical, chemical and biochemical analyses. Based on the values of coefficient of determination (r2) and the ratio of standard deviation of validation set to root mean square error of cross validation (RPD), predicted results were evaluated as excellent (r2>0.90 and RPD>3) for soil organic carbon, Kjeldahl nitrogen, soil moisture, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, acid phosphatase activity, β-glucosidase activity and PLFA biomarkers for total bacteria, Gram positive bacteria, actinomycetes, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and total PLFA biomass. Good predictions (0.81physical, chemical and biochemical soil properties for

  1. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Keeton, L. W.; Tam, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to aid the development of current and future SSME type engines, it is necessary to improve the understanding of basic issues related with physical-chemical processes of SSME internal flows. Accomplishments under each of the following specific objectives are described herein: (1) supplying a state-of-the-art CFD code and graphics package; (2) demonstrating code usage on SSME-related problems to NASA MSFC personnel; and (3) performance computations and analysis of problems relevant to current and future SSME's.

  2. Physical-chemical principles underlying RTK activation, and their implications for human disease

    PubMed Central

    He, Lijuan; Hristova, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    RTKs, the second largest family of membrane receptors, exert control over cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In recent years, our understanding of RTK structure and activation in health and disease has skyrocketed. Here we describe experimental approaches used to interrogate RTKs, and we review the quantitative biophysical frameworks and structural considerations that shape our understanding of RTK function. We discuss current knowledge about RTK interactions, focusing on the role of different domains in RTK homodimerization, and on the importance and challenges in RTK heterodimerization studies. We also review our understanding of pathogenic RTK mutations, and the underlying physical-chemical causes for the pathologies. PMID:21840295

  3. Soil Physical, Chemical, and Thermal Characterization, Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graham, David; Kholodov, Alexander; Busey, Bob; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Wilson, Cathy; Moon, Ji-Won

    2017-02-08

    This dataset provides the results of physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of soils at the Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Soil pits were dug from 7-14 September 2016 at designated Intensive Stations 2 through 9 at the Teller Road MM 27 Site. This dataset includes field observations and descriptions of soil layers or horizons, field measurements of soil volumetric water content, soil temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Laboratory measurements of soil properties include gravimetric water content, bulk density, volumetric water content, and total carbon and nitrogen.

  4. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Lang, Andrew C.; Taheri, Mitra; Cunnane, Dan; Karasik, Boris. S.; Xi, X. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  5. Physical, chemical, and toxicological characterization of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    McTernan, W.F.; Hill, S.L.; Blanton, W.E.

    1985-04-01

    A study of the physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of untreated and treated tar sand wastewaters has been completed. One of the waters selected for this study, TS-1S wastewater, was generated during an in situ steam flood experiment conducted by the US Department of Energy. The other waters were generated during laboratory-scale extraction experiments that were designed to test high-pressure steam displacement and reverse combustion as processes for recovering oil from tar sand. One objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of four treatment processes for reducing the contaminant load and toxicity of TS-1S wastewater. The treatment processes included: (1) ferric chloride coagulation, (2) ferric chloride coagulation plus activated carbon adsorption, (3) polymer-assisted flotation, and (4) polymer-assisted flotation plus activated carbon adsorption. According to the results of chemical analyses, the effluents generated by these treatment processes were very similar. However, polymer-assisted flotation plus activated carbon adsorption was most effective for reducing toxicity, whereas ferric chloride coagulation appeared to increase toxicity to at least one of the organisms tested. Thus, standard physicochemical analyses were not adequate indicators of the potential environmental hazards of TS-1S wastewater, as determined by toxicity testing. This study indicated that physical, chemical, and toxicological characterization is necessary to fully assess the potential environmental hazards of tar sand waters or any other chemically complex water. Another objective of this study was to expand the data base for tar sand wastewaters. 18 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Physical-chemical treatment of wastes: a way to close turnover of elements in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenko, Yu A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Zolotukhin, I. G.

    2000-05-01

    "Man-plants-physical-chemical unit" system designed for space stations or terrestrial ecohabitats to close steady-state mineral, water and gas exchange is proposed. The physical-chemical unit is to mineralize all inedible plant wastes and physiological human wastes (feces, urine, gray water) by electromagnetically activated hydrogen peroxide in an oxidation reactor. The final product is a mineralized solution containing all elements balanced for plants' requirements. The solution has been successfully used in experiments to grow wheat, beans and radish. The solution was reusable: the evaporated moisture was replenished by the phytotron condensate. Sodium salination of plants was precluded by evaporating reactor-mineralized urine to sodium saturation concentration to crystallize out NaCl which can be used as food for the crew. The remaining mineralized product was brought back for nutrition of plants. The gas composition of the reactor comprises O 2, N 2, CO 2, NH 3, H 2. At the reactor's output hydrogen and oxygen were catalyzed into water, NH 3 was converted in a water trap into NH 4 and used for nutrition of plants. A special accessory at the reactor's output may produce hydrogen peroxide from intrasystem water and gas which makes possible to close gas loops between LSS components.

  7. Physical-chemical treatment of wastes: a way to close turnover of elements in LSS.

    PubMed

    Kudenko YuA; Gribovskaya, I V; Zolotukhin, I G

    2000-05-01

    "Man-plants-physical-chemical unit" system designed for space stations or terrestrial ecohabitats to close steady-state mineral, water and gas exchange is proposed. The physical-chemical unit is to mineralize all inedible plant wastes and physiological human wastes (feces, urine, gray water) by electromagnetically activated hydrogen peroxide in an oxidation reactor. The final product is a mineralized solution containing all elements balanced for plants' requirements. The solution has been successfully used in experiments to grow wheat, beans and radish. The solution was reusable: the evaporated moisture was replenished by the phytotron condensate. Sodium salination of plants was precluded by evaporating reactor-mineralized urine to sodium saturation concentration to crystallize out NaCl which can be used as food for the crew. The remaining mineralized product was brought back for nutrition of plants. The gas composition of the reactor comprises O2, N2, CO2, NH3, H2. At the reactor's output hydrogen and oxygen were catalyzed into water, NH3 was converted in a water trap into NH4 and used for nutrition of plants. A special accessory at the reactor's output may produce hydrogen peroxide from intrasystem water and gas which makes possible to close gas loops between LSS components.

  8. Influence of Photoinitiator System on Physical-Chemical Properties of Experimental Self-Adhesive Composites.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Marcus Vinicius Loureiro; Moraes, Rita de Cássia Martins; Pfeifer, Carmem; Salgado, Vinícius Esteves; Correr, Ana Rosa Costa; Schneider, Luis Felipe J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of photoinitiator systems on physical-chemical properties of flowable composites. Conventional (CFC), composed by bisphenol-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA)+triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and self-adhesive (SAFC), composed by BisGMA+TEDGMA+bis{2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl} phosphate (2MP), flowable composites were developed. Five photoinitiator systems were tested: camphorquinone (CQ), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB), diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO), phenylbis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (BAPO), CQ+EDMAB+TPO and CQ+EDMAB+BAPO. A two-peak LED was used; degree of conversion (DC) and the maximum polymerization rate (RPmax) were determined by near infrared spectroscopy. For the yellowing degree a spectrophotometer was used. Water sorption (Wsp) was obtained after 30 days of water storage (n=5). Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (a=0.05). BAPO presented the highest DC and RPmax values for both series. SAFCs presented lower DC and RPmax for CQ+EDMAB-based materials. Greater yellowing was observed for SAFCs compared with CFCs, except for BAPO. Greater Wsp was observed for SAFCs compared with CFCs. The photoinitiator did not influence Wsp for CFCs, but TPO and BAPO presented the highest Wsp in SAFCs. The photoinitiator system affected differently the physical-chemical properties of CFCs and SAFCs.

  9. Fibrous materials on polyhydroxybutyrate and ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins basis: physical-chemical and antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhov, A.; Lobanov, A.; Staroverova, O.; Tyubaeva, P.; Zykova, A.; Pantyukhov, P.; Popov, A.; Iordanskii, A.

    2017-02-01

    Ferric iron (III)-based complexes with porphyrins are the homogenous catalysts of auto-oxidation of several biogenic substances. The most perspective carrier for functional low-molecular substances is the polymer fibers with nano-dimensional parameters. Application of natural polymers, poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) or polylactic acid for instance, makes possible to develop fiber and matrice systems to solve ecological problem in biomedicine The aim of the article is to obtain fibrous material on poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) and ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins basis and to examine its physical-chemical and antibacterial properties. The work is focused on possibility to apply such material to biomedical purposes. Microphotographs of obtained material showed that addition of 1% wt. ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins to PHB led to increased average diameter and disappeared spindly structures in comparison with initial PHB. Biological tests of nonwoven fabrics showed that fibers, containing ferric iron (III)-based tetraphenylporphyrins, were active in relation to bacterial test-cultures. It was found that materials on polymer and metal complexes with porphyrins basis can be applied to production of decontamination equipment in relation to pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.

  10. [Fluorescent proteins: physical-chemical properties and application in cell biology].

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, O V; Verkhusha, V V; Kuznetsova, I M; Turoverov, K K

    2007-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria is the most extensively studied and widely used in cell biology protein. At present novel naturally occurring GFP-like proteins have been discovered and enhanced mutants of Aequorea GFP have been created. These mutants differ from wild-type GFP by stability, value of quantum yield, absorption and fluorescence spectra position and photochemical properties. GFP-like proteins are the fast growing family. This review is an attempt to characterize the main groups of GFP-like proteins, describe their structure and mechanisms of chromophore formation and summarize the main trends of their utilization as markers and biosensors in cell and molecular biology.

  11. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system- or site-specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian neural network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regard to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli load estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (load estimator (LOADEST), U.S. Geological Survey) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli load estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli load estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (threefold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that 6 of 13 factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; and biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that

  12. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model

  13. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P; Lesikar, Bruce J

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model

  14. Biological-physical-chemical aspects of a human life support system for a lunar base.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I; Blum, V; Grigoriev, A I; Lisovsky, G M; Manukovsky, N S; Sinyak YuE; Ushakova, S A

    1995-10-01

    To create a life support system based on biological and physical-chemical processes is the optimum solution providing full-valued conditions for existence and efficient work of people at a lunar base. Long-standing experience in experimental research or closed ecosystems and their components allows us to suggest a realistic functional structure of the lunar base and to estimate qualitatively its parameters. The original restrictions are as follows: 1) the basic source of energy to support the biological processes has to be the solar radiation; 2) the initial amount of basic biological elements forming the turnover of substances (C, O, H, P, K, N) has to be delivered from Earth; 3). Moon materials are not to be used in the biological turnover inside the base; 4) the base is to supply the crew fully with atmosphere and water, and with 90% (A scenario) or 40% (B scenario) of food. Experimental data about the plant productivity under the "Moon" rhythm of light and darkness allow us to suggest that the A scenario requires per one human: plant area--40 m2 irradiated during the lunar day by 250-300 W/m2 PAR producing 1250 g of dry biomass a terrestrial day; a heterotrophic component of "biological incineration" of inedible plant biomass (800 g/day) including the aquaculture of fish to produce animal products and contaminating the environment less than birds and mammals, and the culture of edible mushrooms; a component of physical-chemical correction for the LSS environment including the subsystems of: deep oxidation of organic impurities in the atmosphere and of water, organic wastes of human activity and that biological components (420 g/day) CO2 concentration in "Moon" nights, damping O2 in "Moon" days, etc. The stock of prestored or delivered from Earth substances (food additions, seeds, etc.) to be involved in biological turnover is to be about 50 kg/year per man. Increase of the mass of prestored substances per man up to 220 kg/year would reduce twice the plant area

  15. [Comparison of fixation effects of heavy metals between cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement solidification/stabilization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-li; Liu, Jian-guo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yi-ying; Nie, Yong-feng

    2008-04-01

    Both cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes and cement solidification/stabilization could dispose heavy metals by fixation. Different fixation mechanisms lead to different fixation effects. The same amount of heavy metal compounds containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn were treated by the two kinds of fixation technologies. GB leaching test, TCLP tests and sequential extraction procedures were employed to compare the fixation effects of two fixation technologies. The leached concentration and chemical species distribution of heavy metals in two grounded mortar samples were analyzed and the fixation effects of two kinds of technologies to different heavy metals were compared. The results show the fixation effect of cement rotary kiln co-processing technology is better than cement solidification/stabilization technology to As, Pb, Zn. Calcinations in cement rotary kiln and then hydration help As, Pb, Zn contained in hazardous wastes transform to more steady chemical species and effectively dispose these heavy metals compounds. Cr3+ is liable to be converted to much more toxic and more mobile Cr6+ state in cement rotary kiln. And so Cr wastes are more fit for treatment by cement solidification/stabilization technology. The work could provide a basis when choosing disposal technologies for different heavy metals and be helpful to improve the application and development of cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes.

  16. Sustainability of cement kiln co-processing of wastes in India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baidya, Rahul; Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Parlikar, Ulhas V

    2017-07-01

    Co-processing in cement kiln achieves effective utilization of the material and energy value present in the wastes, thereby conserving the natural resources by reducing the use of virgin material. In India, a number of multifolded initiatives have been taken that take into account the potential and volume of waste generation. This paper studies the factors which might influence the sustainability of co-processing of waste in cement kilns as a business model, considering the issues and challenges in the supply chain framework in India in view of the four canonical pillars of sustainability. A pilot study on co-processing was carried out in one of the cement plant in India to evaluate the environmental performance, economical performance, operational performance and social performance. The findings will help India and other developing countries to introduce effective supply chain management for co-processing while addressing the issues and challenges during co-processing of different waste streams in the cement kilns.

  17. Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Movable Boundary Domains under Intensive Physical-Chemical Transformation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garashchenko, A. N.; Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    Results of solving problems of simulating temperature fields in domains with movable boundaries of characteristic zones of intensive physical-chemical and thermomechanical transformations to be realized in materials upon high-temperature heating have been presented. Intumescent fire-protective coatings based on organic and mineral materials are the object of study. Features of numerical realization of input equation systems taking into account, in particular, a dynamics of considerable increase and subsequent decrease of the intumescent layer thickness have been considered. Example calculations for structures of metal and wood protected with various coatings are given. Results of calculating two-dimensional temperature fields in polymer composite square-shaped structures with internal cruciform load-bearing elements have been presented. The intumescent coating is arranged on the external surface of a structure. The solution of the above-listed problems is of important significance to provide fire protection of different-purpose structures and products.

  18. Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition of Bi2Se3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Joseph E.; Weiss, Lauren; Choudhury, Tanushree H.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-10-01

    Bi2Se3 thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) using trimethyl bismuth (TMBi) and Se pellets. A Se-rich environment is created by evaporating Se pellets in the vicinity of the substrate, which is used to suppress the formation of Se vacancies. The effects of pre-cracking temperature and substrate/Se temperature on the growth rate, structural and electrical properties of the Bi2Se3 films were investigated. C-axis oriented films were obtained which show a reduction in the carrier concentration as pre-cracking temperature was increased from 290 °C (1.6×1019 cm-3) to 350 °C (8.4×1018 cm-3). An additional reduction in carrier concentration (7.28×1018 cm-3) was observed on increasing the substrate temperature from 200 to 260 °C.

  19. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  20. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Ross Lake, Snohomish County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Ross Lake in 1975 showed that the lake has no well-defined surface-water inflow and that thermal stratification is well established in summer. The water is of a calcium bicarbonate type, which is typical of lakes in western Washington. Biological productivity in the lake was low, as indicated by low to moderate chlorophyll a concentrations, by the general lack of submerged plants on the lake bottom, and by the moderate dissolved-oxygen depletion in the deeper zones during thermal stratification. The productivity probably was limited by the amount of phosphorus available. Increased productivity and the resulting growth of nuisance plants in the lake can be avoided by limiting phosphate inputs to their present or lesser rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Physical-chemical treatment of rainwater runoff in recovery and recycling companies: Pilot-scale optimization.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, Evelyne; Depuydt, Veerle; Cornelis, Jasper; Chys, Michael; Verliefde, Arne; Van Hulle, Stijin Wim Henk

    2015-01-01

    Pilot-scale optimisation of different possible physical-chemical water treatment techniques was performed on the wastewater originating from three different recovery and recycling companies in order to select a (combination of) technique(s) for further full-scale implementation. This implementation is necessary to reduce the concentration of both common pollutants (such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids) and potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly-chlorinated biphenyls frequently below the discharge limits. The pilot-scale tests (at 250 L h(-1) scale) demonstrate that sand anthracite filtration or coagulation/flocculation are interesting as first treatment techniques with removal efficiencies of about 19% to 66% (sand anthracite filtration), respectively 18% to 60% (coagulation/flocculation) for the above mentioned pollutants (metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls). If a second treatment step is required, the implementation of an activated carbon filter is recommended (about 46% to 86% additional removal is obtained).

  2. Liquid-like sorption water in the upper Martian surface - physical, chemical and possible biological consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, Diedrich T. F.

    2004-03-01

    Sorption water is a constituent of the soil of the upper meters of the Martian surface at mid- and low latitudes (Möhlmann, 2004). This water content can regionally reach values of about 16wt% (Feldman et al., 2003, Mitrofanov et al., 2003). Adsorption water, the physisorbed part of sorption water, can exist in a liquid-like state at temperatures down to -40°C and less. The terrestrial counterpart is the "unfrozen water" in permafrost (Anderson and Tice, 1972). It has partially modified physical, chemical and biological properties if compared to dry frozen soil. Liquid-like water can act as a solvent, and it supports transport processes to become effective. Chemical processes, which are triggered by adsorption water, are shown to be effective under Martian conditions. These processes are energetically driven by photons. Possibilities for a related photon driven bio-chemical Martian iron-carbon cycle are discussed.

  3. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    1999-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1994 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 1981 through 1994. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data include laboratory determinations of nutrients, major ions, and selected metals in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN?s), and total carbon in stream-bottom sediment samples. The biological data consists of benthic macroinvertebrate population analyses and diversity indices. Chester County is undergoing rapid urbanization as agricultural lands are converted to residential, commercial, and industrial areas. The purpose of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream habitat and chemical changes in response to this urbanization.

  4. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2000-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1997 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 43 sites from 1995 through 1997 that constitute a continuation of the program. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data collected include laboratory determinations of nutrients and major ions in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN's), and total carbon in stream-sediment samples. The biological data include benthic-macroinvertebrate populations. The data are presented without interpretation. Chester County is undergoing urbanization as agricultural land is converted to residential developments, commercial areas, and industrial and corporate parks. The major goal of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream changes in response to urbanization.

  5. The Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.

  6. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1969-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents physical, chemical, and biological data collected at 50 sampling sites on selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania from 1969 to 1980. The physical data consist of air and water temperature, stream discharge, suspended sediment, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. The chemical data consist of laboratory determinations of total nutrients, major ions, and trace metals. The biological data consist of total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus bacteriological analyses, and benthicmacroinvertebrate population analyses. Brillouin's diversity index, maximum diversity, minimum diversity, and evenness for each sample, and median and mean Brilloiuin's diversity index, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean were calculated for the benthic-macroinvertebrate data for each site.

  7. Superconducting magnesium diboride coatings for radio frequency cavities fabricated by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolak, M. A.; Tan, T.; Krick, A.; Johnson, E.; Hambe, M.; Chen, Ke; Xi, X. X.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the coating of an inner surface of superconducting radio frequency cavities with a magnesium diboride thin film by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). To simulate a 6 GHz rf cavity, a straight stainless steel tube of 1.5-inch inner diameter and a dummy stainless steel cavity were employed, on which small sapphire and metal substrates were mounted at different locations. The MgB2 films on these substrates showed uniformly good superconducting properties including Tc of 37-40 K, residual resistivity ratio of up to 14, and root-mean-square roughness Rq of 20-30 nm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of coating the interior of cylindrical and curved objects with MgB2 by the HPCVD technique, an important step towards superconducting rf cavities with MgB2 coating.

  8. Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Protein-Based Films and Coatings: An Extensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Joël; Wyrobnik, Tom; Prinz, Tobias; Schmid, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Protein-based films and coatings are an interesting alternative to traditional petroleum-based materials. However, their mechanical and barrier properties need to be enhanced in order to match those of the latter. Physical, chemical, and biochemical methods can be used for this purpose. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the effects of various treatments on whey, soy, and wheat gluten protein-based films and coatings. These three protein sources have been chosen since they are among the most abundantly used and are well described in the literature. Similar behavior might be expected for other protein sources. Most of the modifications are still not fully understood at a fundamental level, but all the methods discussed change the properties of the proteins and resulting products. Mastering these modifications is an important step towards the industrial implementation of protein-based films. PMID:27563881

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Sturgeon Lake, Goodhue County, Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Montz, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Prairie Island Indian Community and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study of Sturgeon Lake (a backwater lake in Navigation Pool 3 of the Mississippi River) during 2003-04 to describe the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. Riparian and shoreline areas surrounding Sturgeon Lake consist primarily of deciduous tree and shrub cover with minimal amounts of commercial or residential land use. Woody debris and aquatic vegetation are the major types of physical habitat suitable for fish and invertebrates. Among 10 bottom-sediment sampling sites, 24 organic wastewater compounds, 1 organochlorine pesticide metabolite (p,p’DDE), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the bottom sediments of Sturgeon Lake. The most prevalent class of compounds detected were polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Other classes of compounds detected include sterols, disinfectants, plastic components, alkylphenols, and fragrances. Three compounds detected (bisphenol A, benzo[a]pyrene, and triclosan) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. Twenty-one and 49 invertebrate taxa were identified from 10 bottom-sediment and 6 woody-debris/vegetation samples, respectively. Most of the taxa were Diptera in the family Chironomidae. The most common invertebrate in terms of density in bottom-sediment samples was the burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia sp.). Trichoptera in the families Hydropsychidae or Polycentropodidae were common in most of the woody-debris samples. The presence of the Hexagenia larvae in samples indicates that the bottom sediments are stable and that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake do not drop to acute or sub-lethal anoxic conditions. Backwater lakes such as Sturgeon Lake are important areas of habitat for aquatic organisms along the Mississippi River, and this report provides baseline physical, chemical, and biological information that resource managers can

  10. A numerical model (MISER) for the simulation of coupled physical, chemical and biological processes in soil vapor extraction and bioventing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathfelder, Klaus M.; Lang, John R.; Abriola, Linda M.

    2000-05-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) systems for remediation of unsaturated zone soils is controlled by a complex combination of physical, chemical and biological factors. The Michigan soil vapor extraction remediation (MISER) model, a two-dimensional numerical simulator, is developed to advance our ability to investigate the performance of field scale SVE and BV systems by integrating processes of multiphase flow, multicomponent compositional transport with nonequilibrium interphase mass transfer, and aerobic biodegradation. Subsequent to the model presentation, example simulations of single well SVE and BV systems are used to illustrate the interplay between physical, chemical and biological processes and their potential influence on remediation efficiency and the pathways of contaminant removal. Simulations of SVE reveal that removal efficiency is controlled primarily by the ability to engineer gas flow through regions of organic liquid contaminated soil and by interphase mass transfer limitations. Biodegradation is found to play a minor role in mass removal for the examined SVE scenarios. Simulations of BV systems suggest that the effective supply of oxygen may not be the sole criterion for efficient BV performance. The efficiency and contaminant removal pathways in these systems can be significantly influenced by interdependent dynamics involving biological growth factors, interphase mass transfer rates, and air injection rates. Simulation results emphasize the need for the continued refinement and validation of predictive interphase mass transfer models applicable under a variety of conditions and for the continued elucidation and quantification of microbial processes under unsaturated field conditions.

  11. Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality.

    PubMed

    Klein, Thomas; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Dahl, Aslög; Bossioli, Elissavet; Baklanov, Alexander; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Agnew, Paul; Karatzas, Kostas D; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  12. Development of novel multifunction directly compressible co-processed excipient by melt granulation technique

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Nidhi; Pandey, Parijat; Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of the present investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional directly compressible co-processed excipient consisting of dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous, polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) and crospovidone using Box-Behnken design. Materials and Methods: The technique of melt granulation was adopted for the preparation of the co-processed excipient. The percentage of crospovidone (5-10% w/w), percentage of PEG 4000 (5-15% w/w) and the heating time (4-12 min) were selected as independent variables. The co-processed granules were evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio and Carr's index. Placebo tablets of co-processed granules were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability and disintegration time. Multiple linear regression was applied to develop mathematical models for hardness, Carr' index and disintegrating time. ANOVA was applied to study the fitting and significance of the model. The optimized batches (BB) were selected for further studies. The selected batches were characterized for particle size distribution, granular friability index, moisture uptake study, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Aceclofenac was selected as model drug for the preparation of tablets. Results: Aceclofenac tablets prepared using co-processed excipients showed better hardness, disintegration time and in vitro drug release as compared to aceclofenac tablets prepared using conventional wet granulation method. Conclusion: The developed co-processed excipient can serve as a novel co-processed excipient for improvement of tableting characteristics. PMID:26682197

  13. Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N) concentration and lowest lignin∶N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin∶N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid mites did not

  14. One- to four-dimensional kernels for virtual screening and the prediction of physical, chemical, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Ksikes, Alexandre; Swamidass, S Joshua; Chen, Jonathan H; Ralaivola, Liva; Baldi, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Many chemoinformatics applications, including high-throughput virtual screening, benefit from being able to rapidly predict the physical, chemical, and biological properties of small molecules to screen large repositories and identify suitable candidates. When training sets are available, machine learning methods provide an effective alternative to ab initio methods for these predictions. Here, we leverage rich molecular representations including 1D SMILES strings, 2D graphs of bonds, and 3D coordinates to derive efficient machine learning kernels to address regression problems. We further expand the library of available spectral kernels for small molecules developed for classification problems to include 2.5D surface and 3D kernels using Delaunay tetrahedrization and other techniques from computational geometry, 3D pharmacophore kernels, and 3.5D or 4D kernels capable of taking into account multiple molecular configurations, such as conformers. The kernels are comprehensively tested using cross-validation and redundancy-reduction methods on regression problems using several available data sets to predict boiling points, melting points, aqueous solubility, octanol/water partition coefficients, and biological activity with state-of-the art results. When sufficient training data are available, 2D spectral kernels in general tend to yield the best and most robust results, better than state-of-the art. On data sets containing thousands of molecules, the kernels achieve a squared correlation coefficient of 0.91 for aqueous solubility prediction and 0.94 for octanol/water partition coefficient prediction. Averaging over conformations improves the performance of kernels based on the three-dimensional structure of molecules, especially on challenging data sets. Kernel predictors for aqueous solubility (kSOL), LogP (kLOGP), and melting point (kMELT) are available over the Web through: http://cdb.ics.uci.edu.

  15. A monolithic 3D integrated nanomagnetic co-processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherer, M.; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, S.; Eichwald, I.; Žiemys, G.; Kiermaier, J.; Csaba, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    As CMOS scaling becomes more and more challenging there is strong impetus for beyond CMOS device research to add new functionality to ICs. In this article, a promising technology with non-volatile ferromagnetic computing states - the so-called Perpendicular Nanomagnetic Logic (pNML) - is reviewed. After introducing the 2D planar implementation of NML with magnetization perpendicular to the surface, the path to monolithically 3D integrated systems is discussed. Instead of CMOS substitution, additional functionality is added by a co-processor architecture as a prospective back-end-of-line (BEOL) process, where the computing elements are clocked by a soft-magnetic on-chip inductor. The unconventional computation in the ferromagnetic domain can lead to highly dense computing structures without leakage currents, attojoule dissipation per bit operation and data-throughputs comparable to state-of-the-art high-performance CMOS CPUs. In appropriate applications and with specialized computing architectures they might even circumvent the bottleneck of time-consuming memory access, as computation is inherently performed with non-volatile computing states.

  16. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Prediction of Physical-Chemical Properties from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzano, Loredana

    2013-03-01

    Polymorphism in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) plays a crucial role both for medical and intellectual property concerns but despite ongoing efforts, experimental and computational investigations of the existence and the physical-chemical properties of the same compound in different forms is still an open question.While comparison between computed and experimental values for properties derived from differences between states is often promising (such as bulk modulus), results are disappointing for absolute values (such as density). Quantum mechanical computational methods describe the systems at 0K, experimentally properties are often evaluated at room temperature. Therefore it is not surprising that results determined from first principles dramatically differ from those obtained experimentally. By applying a quantum mechanical periodic approach that takes into account long range London dispersion forces fitted for solid materials, and by imposing different cell volumes corresponding to different thermodynamic conditions, we show how results from calculations at 0K (structures, vibrational spectra, elastic constants) may be compared to experimental values at higher temperatures, helping to foster a stronger linkage between computational and experimental work on systems such as APIs. Where experimental results are not available, our work represents an innovative approach in addressing the properties of APIs. Our results can also serve as foundation for the developing of new force fields to be adopted within a multi-scale computational approach.

  17. Physical-Chemical Characterization and Formulation Considerations for Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Harsh; Mohapatra, Sarat; Munt, Daniel J; Chandratre, Shantanu; Dash, Alekha

    2016-06-01

    Pure glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) (lipid) and different batches of GMO commonly used for the preparation of GMO-chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), cryo-microscopy, and cryo-X-ray powder diffraction techniques. GMO-chitosan nanoparticles containing poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer in the absence and presence of polymers as crystallization inhibitors were prepared by ultrasonication. The effect of polymers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragits, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG)), surfactants (poloxamer), and oils (mineral oil and olive oil) on the crystallization of GMO was investigated. GMO showed an exothermic peak at around -10°C while cooling and another exothermic peak at around -12°C while heating. It was followed by two endothermic peaks between 15 and 30 C, indicative of GMO melting. The results are corroborated by cryo-microscopy and cryo-X-ray. Significant differences in exothermic and endothermic transition were observed between different grades of GMO and pure GMO. GMO-chitosan nanoparticles resulted in a significant increase in particle size after lyophilization. MDSC confirmed that nanoparticles showed similar exothermic crystallization behavior of lipid GMO. MDSC experiments showed that PVP inhibits GMO crystallization and addition of PVP showed no significant increase in particle size of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) during lyophilization. The research highlights the importance of extensive physical-chemical characterization for successful formulation of SLN.

  18. Combined physical, chemical and biological factors shape Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Karen M; Domis, Lisette N de Senerpont; Wohlrab, Sylke; Krock, Bernd; John, Uwe; van Scheppingen, Yvonne; van Donk, Ellen; Van de Waal, Dedmer B

    2017-03-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally expanding, compromising water quality worldwide. HAB dynamics are determined by a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic factors, and their emergence has often been linked to eutrophication, and more recently to climate change. The dinoflagellate Alexandrium is one of the most widespread HAB genera and its success is based on key functional traits like allelopathy, mixotrophy, cyst formation and nutrient retrieval migrations. Since 2012, dense Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms (up to 4500cellsmL(-1)) have recurred annually in a creek located in the southwest of the Netherlands, an area characterized by intense agriculture and aquaculture. We investigated how physical, chemical and biological factors influenced A. ostenfeldii bloom dynamics over three consecutive years (2013-2015). Overall, we found a decrease in the magnitude of the bloom over the years that could largely be linked to changing weather conditions during summer. More specifically, low salinities due to excessive rainfall and increased wind speed corresponded to a delayed A. ostenfeldii bloom with reduced population densities in 2015. Within each year, highest population densities generally corresponded to high temperatures, low DIN:DIP ratios and low grazer densities. Together, our results demonstrate an important role of nutrient availability, absence of grazing, and particularly of the physical environment on the magnitude and duration of A. ostenfeldii blooms. Our results suggest that predicted changes in the physical environment may enhance bloom development in future coastal waters and embayments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical-chemical characterization of Tunisian clays for the synthesis of geopolymers materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmani, S.; Essaidi, N.; Gouny, F.; Bouaziz, S.; Joussein, E.; Driss, A.; Sdiri, A.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-03-01

    Natural clay materials from Tunisia were examined as an aluminosilicate source for the synthesis of consolidated materials at low temperatures. Three clay samples were collected from the El Kef, Douiret and Gafsa basins and calcined at different temperatures. All of the samples were characterized using chemical and mineralogical analyses, thermogravimetry, dilatometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The chemical (XRF) and mineralogical analyses (XRD and FTIR) indicated that all of the samples contained various amounts of kaolinite and quartz, followed by calcite, mica, palygorskite and gypsum. Curing produced a binder which did not significantly affect the physic-chemical properties of these clays. The obtained materials heterogeneous did not reach the geopolymerization stage, most likely because of their low kaolinite content. The addition of a suitable aluminosilicate to these clays is therefore recommended to produce homogeneous consolidated geopolymers. The synthesized materials obtained after the addition of metakaolin to the formulation to improve reactivity have interesting properties, thereby providing good potential for Tunisian clays in the synthesis of geopolymers.

  20. Evaluation of a rapid physical-chemical method for the determination of extant soluble COD.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Chandran, Kartik; Smets, Barth F; Grasso, Domenico

    2002-02-01

    Characterization of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater is critical for accurate modeling of constituent biotransformation steps. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of a commonly used soluble COD determination technique (coagulation using ZnSO4 at pH 10.5) in relation to three other physical-chemical separation techniques: destabilization with a non-hydrolyzing trivalent cation (LaCl3), sequential filtration, and ultracentrifugation. Samples of deionized water and domestic wastewater were spiked with aliquots of synthetic soluble COD and recoveries using the different separation methods were compared. Although mechanisms of coagulation using LaCl3 and ZnSO4 are different, the mean COD recoveries using these methods were in close agreement. Further, sorption of soluble COD onto zinc hydroxide precipitate flocs appeared to be negligible. The two coagulation methods yielded statistically different (p = 0.05) soluble COD values when applied to nine independent wastewater samples (obtained on nine different days). but the difference was less than 10%. The COD quantified by the coagulation techniques corresponded most closely with the < 1,000 Da molecular weight fraction defined as "truly soluble COD". Centrifugation of wastewater samples amended with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) at 10 mg/L overestimated the soluble COD concentration. Our results confirm that coagulation using either ZnSO4 or LaCI3 is appropriate for the rapid determination of soluble COD fraction in wastewater matrices.

  1. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Savlak, Nazlı; Türker, Burcu; Yeşilkanat, Nazlıcan

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of particle size distribution on physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour for the first time. A pure triploid (AAA group) of Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish (°Brix;0.2, pH;4.73, titratable acidity; 0.56g/100g malic acid, total solids; 27.42%) which was supplied from Gazipaşa, Antalya, Turkey from October 2014 to October 2015 was used. Size fractions of <212, 212-315, 316-500 and 501-700μm were characterized for their physical, functional and antioxidant properties. Particle size significantly effected color, water absorbtion index and wettability. L(∗) value decreased, a(∗) and b(∗) values decreased by increasing particle size (r(2)=-0.94, r(2)=0.72, r(2)=0.73 respectively). Particles under 212μm had the lowest rate of wettability (83.40s). A negative correlation between particle size and wettability (r(2)=-0.75) and positive correlation between particle size and water absorption index (r(2)=0.94) was observed.

  2. Aquatic environmental assessment of Lake Balaton in the light of physical-chemical water parameters.

    PubMed

    Sebestyén, Vitkor; Németh, József; Juzsakova, Tatjana; Domokos, Endre; Kovács, Zsófia; Rédey, Ákos

    2017-09-20

    One of the issues of the Hungarian Water Management Strategy is the improvement and upgrading of the water of Lake Balaton. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) specifies and sets forth the achievement of the good ecological status. However, the assessment of the water quality of the lake as a complex system requires a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation procedure. Measurements were carried out around the Lake Balaton at ten different locations/sites and 13 physical-chemical parameters were monitored at each measurement site.For the interpretation of the water chemistry parameters the Aquatic Environmental Assessment (AEA) method devised by authors was used for the water body of the Lake Balaton. The AEA method can be used for all types of the water bodies since it is flexible and using individual weighting procedure for the water chemistry parameters comprehensive information can be obtain. The AEA method was compared with existing EIA methods according to a predefined criterion system and proved to be the most suitable tool for evaluating the environmental impacts in our study.On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the status of the quality of studied area on the Lake Balaton can be categorized as proper quality (from the outcome of the ten measurement sites this conclusion was reached at seven sites).

  3. Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties observed in the ambient atmosphere during haze pollution conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yisong; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Li; Lv, Yang; Qie, Lili; Xu, Hua

    Aerosol’s properties in the ambient atmosphere may differ significantly from sampling results due to containing of abundant water content. We performed sun-sky radiometer measurements in Beijing during 2011 and 2012 winter to obtain distribution of spectral and angular sky radiance. The measurements are then used to retrieve aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, including single scattering albedo, size distribution, complex refractive indices and aerosol component fractions identified as black carbon, brown carbon, mineral dust, ammonium sulfate-like components and water content inside particle matters. We found that during winter haze condition aerosol is dominated by fine particles with center radius of about 0.2 micron. Fine particles contribute about 93% to total aerosol extinction of solar light, and result in serious decrease of atmospheric visibility during haze condition. The percentage of light absorption of haze aerosol can up to about 10% among its total extinction, much higher than that of unpolluted conditions, that causes significant radiative cooling effects suppressing atmospheric convection and dispersion of pollutants. Moreover, the average water content occupies about one third of the ambient aerosol in volume which suggests the important effect of ambient humidity in the formation of haze pollution.

  4. [Physical, chemical and microbiological quality of concentrated orange juices made in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Cava, R M; Hernández, P

    1996-03-01

    Concentrated fruit juices are a very attractive type of product because of the many advantages they offer for reductions in packing, transportation and storage costs, and in addition, they offer the possibility of consumption outside harvesting time. Due to their potential in the international market, it is necessary to evaluate if they are accomplishing the quality requirements, and to know the different factors that can affect their stability. For this purpose, samples of national products were analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics; the diacetyl test was performed as a measure of the sanitary conditions under processing. The samples analyzed comply with the national standards established by the Comision Venezolana de Normas Industriales (COVENIN N(o) 2395-86 Concentrados de frutas para consumo directo). It is advisable to determine the zero tolerant yeasts population because this type of microorganisms are responsible for spoilage whenever cold storage is interrupted, and because they can not be detected by the official procedures used to detect yeasts.

  5. Physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of Navy oily sludge. Final report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, L.A.

    1985-12-01

    A research program was carried out to sample and characterize, in terms of physical, chemical, and toxicological properties, oily sludges generated by oily waste water and waste oil treatment facilities at ten major Naval installations in the United States. The information generated under this program provides a basis for oily sludge classification and for developing design criteria for treatment and ultimate disposal technology for oily sludges produced at Naval installations. The oily sludges anlayzed indicate that a typical oily sludge is well dispersed, fairly uniform in consistency, and is a stable mixture of oil, suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids, and water. It contains traces of volatile hydrocarbons (usually less than 50 ppm). In spite of the high water content (80 to 90% of the volume), separation of oil from water in sludges is difficult. Some of the collected samples have remained of uniform consistency for a number of months with no indication of phase separation. Organic toxic substances found in the oily sludge include phenolic compounds and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Inorganic priority pollutants were also found and included: nickel, zinc, lead, copper, and chromium. In spite of low oil and sloids content of the oily sludges examined, they do exhibit strong toxic properties. Typically, oily sludges exhibit (on a wet basis) toxicity levels comparable with those of benzene and phenol.

  6. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir, Colorado, 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, M.E.; Edelmann, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir, a main-stem, multipurpose reservoir on the Arkansas River, are described on the basis of data collected from 1985 through 1989. Water quality in the reservoir varies temporally and spatially as a result of seasonality of water quality in the Arkansas River, reservoir stratifi- cation, mixing and flow-through patterns, biological activity, and settling of particulate matter. Thermal stratification typically was strong from May into August. Fall turnover resulted in established well-mixed conditions throughout most of the reservoir from September or October into the spring. Water transparency increased downstream from the inflow as a result of settling of particulate matter. Anoxic conditions were measured in the hypolimnion on several occasions during the summer. The anoxic conditions resulted in relatively large releases of manganese from the bottom sediments into the water column. Concentrations of lead, mercury, and zinc in the bottom sediments were elevated compared to baseline values reported in the literature; metal-mine drainage in the upper Arkansas River Basin is a possible source of these metals. The median concentration of dissolved solids increased between the inflow and outflow from 224 milligrams per liter to 262 milligrams per liter. Phosphorus concentrations were low and potentially limiting to phytoplankton growth. Three species of phytoplankton that are associated with taste-and- odor problems in drinking-water supplies were observed at concentrations exceeding critical taste-and-odor threshold limits.

  7. Effects of Timber Harvest on River Food Webs: Physical, Chemical and Biological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    I compared physical, chemical and biological characteristics of nine rivers running through three timber harvest regimes to investigate the effects of land use on river ecosystems, to determine whether these corresponded to changes linked with downstream location, and to compare the response of different types of indicator variables. Physical variables changed with downstream location, but varied little with timber harvest. Most chemical variables increased strongly with timber harvest, but not with downstream location. Most biological variables did not vary systematically with either timber harvst or downstream location. Dissolved organic carbon did not vary with timber harvest or downstream location, but correlated positively with salmonid abundance. Nutrient manipulations revealed no general pattern of nutrient limitation with timber harvest or downstream location. The results suggest that chemical variables most reliably indicate timber harvest impact in these systems. The biological variables most relevant to human stakeholders were surprisingly insensitive to timber harvest, however, apparently because of decoupling from nutrient responses and unexpectedly weak responses by physical variables. PMID:22957030

  8. [Study of physical-chemical properties ot endodontic sealant Acroseal when different methods of root canal obturation].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E V; Zubov, S V; Ivanchenko, O N; Poiurovskaia, I Ia; Rusanov, F S

    2009-01-01

    Results of the study of physical-chemical properties of new endodontic sealant Acrosil (Septodent, France) were presented. The results of all used in the experiment tests corresponded with the existing standards. The received data were compared with the corresponding tests of endodontic sealant AH-Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Germany) and were analyzed statistically. The comparison showed higher adhesion properties of Acrosil.

  9. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for four wetland habitats in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data collected during 1992 as part of a project designed to identify microenvironmental factors affecting rates of denitrification in wetlands in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Four wetland habitats were selected for the study--a moss-lichen wetland, a persistent emergent wetland, a scrub-shrub wetland, and a riverine wetland. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each habitat were determined by field measurements and laboratory analyses. Samples were collected in March, June, August, and October. Sediment pH, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential were measured in the field. Sediment samples were analyzed for concentrations of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate and nitrite, ammonia, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, phosphorus, inorganic carbon, and total carbon. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria was determined by a multiple-tube test. The dominant plant species were identified by plant-community analysis. The moss-lichen wetland was characterized by low pH (3.4 to 5.0) and small populations of denitrifying bacteria (70 to 400 per gram of wet soil). The scrub-shrub wetland was also acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0), but supported larger numbers of denitrifying bacteria (510 to 11,000 per gram of wet soil). The number of denitrifying bacteria in the persistent emergent wetland exceeded 1,000,000 per gram of wet soil in early summer and pH in this habitat was higher (5.1 to 6.6) than in the bogs. Riverine wetland pH ranged from 5.4 to 6.9, and the number of denitrifying bacteria ranged from 200 to 11,000 per gram of wet soil.

  11. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  12. Physical-chemical evaluation of hydraulic fracturing chemicals in the context of produced water treatment.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Domen, Jeremy K; Stringfellow, William T

    2016-12-01

    Produced water is a significant waste stream that can be treated and reused; however, the removal of production chemicals-such as those added in hydraulic fracturing-must be addressed. One motivation for treating and reusing produced water is that current disposal methods-typically consisting of deep well injection and percolation in infiltration pits-are being limited. Furthermore, oil and gas production often occurs in arid regions where there is demand for new water sources. In this paper, hydraulic fracturing chemical additive data from California are used as a case study where physical-chemical and biodegradation data are summarized and used to screen for appropriate produced water treatment technologies. The data indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemicals are largely treatable; however, data are missing for 24 of the 193 chemical additives identified. More than one-third of organic chemicals have data indicating biodegradability, suggesting biological treatment would be effective. Adsorption-based methods and partitioning of chemicals into oil for subsequent separation is expected to be effective for approximately one-third of chemicals. Volatilization-based treatment methods (e.g. air stripping) will only be effective for approximately 10% of chemicals. Reverse osmosis is a good catch-all with over 70% of organic chemicals expected to be removed efficiently. Other technologies such as electrocoagulation and advanced oxidation are promising but lack demonstration. Chemicals of most concern due to prevalence, toxicity, and lack of data include propargyl alcohol, 2-mercaptoethyl alcohol, tetrakis hydroxymethyl-phosphonium sulfate, thioglycolic acid, 2-bromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, formaldehyde polymers, polymers of acrylic acid, quaternary ammonium compounds, and surfactants (e.g. ethoxylated alcohols). Future studies should examine the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals in produced water treatment trains to demonstrate removal and clarify interactions

  13. Physical-chemical characterization of binary systems of metformin hydrochloride with triacetyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Corti, Giovanna; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2007-11-05

    Interaction products of metformin hydrochloride (MF.HCl), an oral anti-hyperglycaemic agent highly soluble in water, with triacetyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TAbetaCyD), a hydrophobic CyD derivative practically insoluble in water, were prepared to evaluate their suitability for the development of a sustained-release dosage form of the drug. Equimolar MF.HCl-TAbetaCyD solid compounds were obtained by different techniques, i.e., physical mixing, kneading, co-grinding, sealed-heating, and spray-drying, in order to investigate and compare their effectiveness and influence on the physical-chemical properties of the final products. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the solid-state characterization of the different MF.HCl-TAbetaCyD systems, whereas their in vitro dissolution properties were determined according to the dispersed amount method. According to the results of solid-state studies, the ability of the different preparation methods to promote effective interactions between drug and CyD varied in the order: spray-drying>co-grinding>kneading>sealed-heating approximately physical mixing. The same effectiveness rank order was observed also in dissolution studies. In fact the time to dissolve 100% drug varied increased from 1 min, for pure drug, to 3, 7, 40, 120 up to 420 min for physically mixed, sealed-heated, kneaded, co-ground and spray-dried products, respectively. Thus the drug-TA(CyD products obtained by spray drying and co-grinding were selected as the best candidates for the future development of a suitable prolonged-release oral dosage form of MF.HCl.

  14. Evaluation of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of lake Uluabat, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elmaci, Ayse; Topac, Fatma Olcay; Ozengin, Nihan; Teksoy, Arzu; Kurtoglu, Sudan; Baskaya, Huseyin Savas

    2008-03-01

    Lake Uluabat, known for its scenic beauty and richness of aquatic life, is situated in Marmara Region, Bursa (Turkey). On account of its importance, lake Uluabat was designated by the Ministry of Environment as a Ramsar site in 1998. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of the aquatic ecosystem in lake Uluabat were measured monthly at five stations from February 2003 to January 2004. The results showed that lake Uluabat can be classified as Class I with respect to temperature (16.36 +/- 7.47 degrees C), nitrate nitrogen (0.63 +/- 0.50 mgl(-1)), sodium (9.64 +/- 2.78 mgl(-1)), chloride (20.45 +/- 4.59 mgl(-1)), sulphate (54.80 +/- 29.97 mgl(-1)); as Class II with respect to dissolved oxygen (7.62 +/- 1.99 mgl(-1)), ammonium nitrogen (0.52 +/- 0.49 mgl(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (35.74 +/- 10.66 mgl(-1)), total coliform (2027 MPN100 ml(-1) (average value)); as Class III with respect to pH (8.69 +/- 0.16) and as Class IV with respect to total nitrogen (84.94 +/- 66.13 mgl(-1)), total phosphorus (1.11 +/- 3.01 mgl(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand (21.21 +/- 6.60 mgl(-1)) according to TWPCR (Turkey Water Pollution Control Regulation). The nutrient content of lake waterapparently indicated that lake had an eutrophic characteristic. Phosphorus was determined as a limiting factor in lake. The measured hardness values (140.94 +/- 14.61 CaCO3 mgl(-1)) indicated that lake water was classified as soft/hard during the study period. Eutrophic characteristic of the lake and contaminant accumulation in water will probably affect the future use of the lake. Therefore, pollution parameters must be regularly monitored and evaluated according to aquatic living and local regulations.

  15. Exploration of Novel Co-processed Multifunctional Diluent for the Development of Tablet Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Gohel, M C; Patel, T M; Parikh, R K; Parejiya, P B; Barot, B S; Ramkishan, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL) and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as independent variables and disintegration time was chosen as a dependent variable in simplex lattice design. The co-processed diluent was characterised for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, percentage of fines and dilution potential study. Acetaminophen and metformin were used as poorly compressible model drugs for preparation of tablets. The blend of granules of drug and extra-granular co-processed diluent exhibited better flow as compared to the blend of drug granules and physical mixture of diluents blend. The diluent exhibited satisfactory tableting properties. The tablets exhibited fairly rapid drug release. In conclusion, melt granulation is proposed as a method of preparing co-processed diluent. The concept can be used to bypass patents on excipient manufacturing.

  16. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Directly Compressible Co-processed Excipient by Spray Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sohil I; Nathwani, Sandeep V; Soniwala, Moinuddin M; Chavda, Jayant R

    2016-08-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop and characterize a multifunctional co-processed excipient for improving the compressibility of poorly compressible drugs. Etodolac was used as a model drug. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose monohydrate (lactose), and StarCap 1500 (StarCap) were selected as components of the co-processed excipient. The spray drying method was used for co-processing of excipients. D-optimal mixture design was applied to optimize the proportion of component excipients. Statistical analysis of the D-optimal mixture design revealed that all response variables were significantly affected by the independent variables (p value < 0.05). Optimized composition was obtained from the desirability function. The optimized composition of the co-processed excipient was found to be 30% MCC, 25% lactose, and 45% StarCap. This optimized batch was evaluated for flow properties, compressibility parameters such as Kawakita's and Kuno's equation and Heckel's equation, and dilution potential. Evaluation parameters for flow properties (angle of repose, Carr's index, and Hausner's ratio) suggested excellent flow character. The parameters of Kawakita's and Kuno's equation and Heckel's equation suggested improvement in the compressibility of the model drug. Dilution potential was found to be 40%, and based on that, tablets of the model drug were formulated and evaluated for general evaluation parameters of tablets. All the parameters were found to be within the acceptance criteria which concluded that the multifunctional directly compressible co-processed excipient was prepared successfully that improved the compressibility of the poorly compressible model drug etodolac along with spray drying as an efficient method for the preparation of co-processed excipient.

  17. Microbial community diversity and physical-chemical features of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Alves Junior, Nelson; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Dutilh, Bas; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Rezende, Carlos; Iida, Tetsuya; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Pereira, Renato C; Valle, Rogério; Sawabe, Tomoo; Thompson, Cristiane; Thompson, Fabiano

    2015-03-01

    Microbial oceanography studies have demonstrated the central role of microbes in functioning and nutrient cycling of the global ocean. Most of these former studies including at Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) focused on surface seawater and benthic organisms (e.g., coral reefs and sponges). This is the first metagenomic study of the SAO. The SAO harbors a great microbial diversity and marine life (e.g., coral reefs and rhodolith beds). The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community diversity of the SAO along the depth continuum and different water masses by means of metagenomic, physical-chemical and biological analyses. The microbial community abundance and diversity appear to be strongly influenced by the temperature, dissolved organic carbon, and depth, and three groups were defined [1. surface waters; 2. sub-superficial chlorophyll maximum (SCM) (48-82 m) and 3. deep waters (236-1,200 m)] according to the microbial composition. The microbial communities of deep water masses [South Atlantic Central water, Antarctic Intermediate water and Upper Circumpolar Deep water] are highly similar. Of the 421,418 predicted genes for SAO metagenomes, 36.7 % had no homologous hits against 17,451,486 sequences from the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. From these unique genes from the SAO, only 6.64 % had hits against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. SAO microbial communities share genes with the global ocean in at least 70 cellular functions; however, more than a third of predicted SAO genes represent a unique gene pool in global ocean. This study was the first attempt to characterize the taxonomic and functional community diversity of different water masses at SAO and compare it with the microbial community diversity of the global ocean, and SAO had a significant portion of endemic gene diversity. Microbial communities of deep water masses (236-1,200 m) are highly similar, suggesting that these water

  18. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  19. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  20. Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Particles Collected by Stardust

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft collected dust from the coma of Comet 81P/Wild 2 by impact into aerogel capture cells or into Al-foils. The first direct, laboratory measurement of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of cometary dust grains ranging from <10-15 to ?10-4 g were made on this dust. Deposition of material along the entry tracks in aerogel and the presence of compound craters in the Al-foils both indicate that many of the Wild 2 particles in the size range sampled by Stardust are weakly bound aggregates of a diverse range of minerals. Mineralogical characterization of fragments extracted from tracks indicates that most tracks were dominated by olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, or Fe-sulfides, although one track was dominated by refractory minerals similar to Ca-Al inclusions in primitive meteorites. Minor mineral phases, including Cu-Fe-sulfide, Fe-Zn-sulfide, carbonate and metal oxides, were found along some tracks. The high degree of variability of the element/Fe ratios for S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ga among the 23 tracks from aerogel capture cells analyzed during Stardust Preliminary Examination is consistent with the mineralogical variability. This indicates Wild 2 particles have widely varying compositions at the largest size analyzed (>10 ?m). Because Stardust collected particles from several jets, sampling material from different regions of the interior of Wild 2, these particles are expected to be representative of the non-volatile component of the comet over the size range sampled. Thus, the stream of particles associated with Comet Wild 2 contains individual grains of diverse elemental and mineralogical compositions, some rich in Fe and S, some in Mg, and others in Ca and Al. The mean refractory element abundance pattern in the Wild 2 particles that were examined is consistent with the CI meteorite pattern for Mg, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca, Ti and Mn to 60%, but S/Si and Fe/Si both show a statistically significant

  1. Depleted uranium dust from fired munitions: physical, chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, R E J; Sunder, S

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports physical, chemical and biological analyses of samples of dust resulting from munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) that had been live-fired and had impacted an armored target. Mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that the average atom% of U was 0.198 +/- 0.10, consistent with depleted uranium. Other major elements present were iron, aluminum, and silicon. About 47% of the total mass was particles with diameters <300 microm, of which about 14% was <10 microm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the uranium was present in the sample as uranium oxides-mainly U3O7 (47%), U3O8 (44%) and UO2 (9%). Depleted uranium dust, instilled into the lungs or implanted into the muscle of rats, contained a rapidly soluble uranium component and a more slowly soluble uranium component. The fraction that underwent dissolution in 7 d declined exponentially with increasing initial burden. At the lower lung burdens tested (<15 microg DU dust/lung) about 14% of the uranium appeared in urine within 7 d. At the higher lung burdens tested (~80-200 microg DU dust/lung) about 5% of the DU appeared in urine within 7 d. In both cases about 50% of that total appeared in urine within the first day. DU implanted in muscle similarly showed that about half of the total excreted within 7 d appeared in the first day. At the lower muscle burdens tested (<15 microg DU dust/injection site) about 9% was solubilized within 7 d. At muscle burdens >35 microg DU dust/injection site about 2% appeared in urine within 7 d. Natural uranium (NU) ore dust was instilled into rat lungs for comparison. The fraction dissolving in lung showed a pattern of exponential decline with increasing initial burden similar to DU. However, the decline was less steep, with about 14% appearing in urine for lung burdens up to about 200 microg NU dust/lung and 5% at lung burdens >1,100 microg NU dust/lung. NU also showed both a fast and a more slowly dissolving component. At the higher lung burdens of both

  2. Experimental Increases in Snow Alter Physical, Chemical and Feedback Processes in the High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J.; Arens, S.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R.; Persson, K.

    2006-12-01

    the deep treatment in both ecosystem types and greater photosynthetic gains at the semi-desert site. The CO2 fluxes were smaller and less consistent at the polar desert. Our study indicates that surface processes in the High Arctic are sensitive to winter snow depth and that the resultant changes in physical, chemical and biological processes alter the magnitude and patterns of feedbacks between High Arctic landscapes and the arctic atmosphere.

  3. Experimental Increases in Snow Alter Physical, Chemical and Feedback Processes in the High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J.; Sullivan, P.; Sletten, R.; Arens, S.; Kristenson, H.

    2007-12-01

    showed lower rates of respiration than the deep treatment in both ecosystem types and greater photosynthetic gains at the semi-desert site. Our study indicates that surface processes in the High Arctic are sensitive to winter snow depth and that the resultant changes in physical, chemical and biological processes alter the magnitude and patterns of feedbacks between High Arctic landscapes and the arctic atmosphere.

  4. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge

    2016-01-01

    Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia...

  5. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  6. Novel flame retardants: Estimating the physical-chemical properties and environmental fate of 94 halogenated and organophosphate PBDE replacements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Sühring, Roxana; Serodio, Daniela; Bonnell, Mark; Sundin, Nils; Diamond, Miriam L

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the listing by the Stockholm Convention of PBDEs, an increasing number of "novel" flame retardants (NFRs) are being used in products. The properties that make for desirable flame retardants can also lead to negative health effects, long environmental residence times and an affinity for organic matrices. While NFRs are currently in use, little information is available regarding their physical-chemical properties and environmental fate. In this study, 94 halogenated and organophosphate NFRs were evaluated for their persistence and long-range transport potential. Physical-chemical properties (namely liquid sub-cooled vapor pressure P(l) and solubility S(l), air-water (K(AW)), octanol-water (K(OW)), and octanol-air (K(OA)) partition coefficients) of the NFRs were predicted using three chemical property estimation tools: EPI Suite, SPARC and Absolv. Physical-chemical properties predicted using these tools were generally within 10(2)-10(3) for compounds with molecular weight < 800 g/mol. Estimated physical-chemical properties of compounds with >800 g/mol, and/or the presence of a heteroatom and/or a polar functional group could deviate by up to 10(12). According to the OECD P(OV) and LRTP Screening Tool, up to 40% of the NFRs have a persistence and/or long range transport potential of medium to high level of concern and up to 60% have persistence and or long range transport potential similar to the PBDEs they are replacing. Long range transport potential could be underestimated by the OECD model since the model under-predicts long range transport potential of some organophosphate compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of subsurface organic waste injection near Wilmington, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Malcolm, R.L.; White, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    From May 1968 to December 1972, an industrial organic waste was injected at rates of 100 to 200 gallons per minute (6.3 to 12.6 litres per second) into a sand, gravel, and limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous age by Hercules Inc. located near Wilmington, North Carolina. This report presents both field and laboratory data pertaining to the physical, chemical, and biological effects of waste injection into the subsurface at this particular site, a case history of the operation, predictions of the reactions between certain organic wastes and the aquifer components, and descriptions of the effects of these reactions on the subsurface movement of the wastes. The case history documents a situation in which subsurface waste injection could not be considered a successful means of waste disposal. The first injection well was used only for 1 year due to excessive wellhead pressure build-up above the specified pressure limit of 150 pounds per square inch (10.3 bars). A second injection well drilled as a replacement operated for only 5 months before it too began to have problems with plugging. Upward leakage of waste into shallower aquifers was also detected at several wells in the injection-observation well system. The multiple problems of plugging, high pressures, and waste leakage suggested that the reactive nature of the waste with the aquifer into which it was injected was the primary reason for the difficulties experienced with waste injection. A site study was initiated in June 1971 to investigate waste-aquifer interactions. The first stage of the study determined the hydrogeologic conditions at the site, and characterized the industrial waste and the native ground water found in the injection zone and other aquifers. The injection zone consisted of multiple permeable zones ranging in depth from about 850 to 1,000 feet (259 to 305 metres) below land surface. In addition to the injection zone, aquifers were found near depths of 60, 300, 500, and 700 feet (18, 91, 152

  8. Near infrared spectra are more sensitive to land use changes than physical, chemical and biological soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, C.; Zornoza, R.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.; Scow, K.

    2009-04-01

    We studied the sensibility of the near infrared spectra (NIR) of soils to the changes caused by land use, and we compared with the sensibility of different sets of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. For this purpose, we selected three land uses, constituted by forest, almond trees orchards, and orchards abandoned between 10 and 15 years previously to sampling. Sampling was carried out in four different locations from the province of Alicante (SE Spain). We used discriminant analysis (DA) using different sets of soil properties. The different sets tested in this study using DA were: (1) physical and chemical properties (organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, aggregate stability, water holding capacity, and available Ca, Mg, K and Na), (2) biochemical properties (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and urease, phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities), (3) phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs), (4) physical, chemical and biochemical properties (all properties of the previous sets), and (5) the NIR spectra of soils (scores of the principal components). In general, all sets of properties were sensible to land use. This was observed in the DAs by the separation (more or less clear) of samples in groups defined by land use (irrespective of site). The worst results were obtained using soil physical and chemical properties. The combination of physical, chemical and biological properties enhanced the separation of samples in groups, indicating higher sensibility. It is accepted than combination of properties of different nature is more effective to evaluate the soil quality. The microbial community structure (PLFAs) was highly sensible to the land use, grouping correctly the 100% of the samples according with the land use. The NIR spectra were also sensitive to land use. The scores of the first 5 components, which explained 99.97% of the variance, grouped correctly the 85% of the soil

  9. Monitoring and physical-chemical modeling of conditions of natural surface and underground waters forming in the Kola North.

    PubMed

    Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Masloboev, Vladimir A; Chudnenko, Konstantin V; Bychinsky, Valeriy A; Svetlov, Anton V; Muraviev, Sergey V

    2012-01-01

    Processes of surface and underground water forming in the Khibiny massif have been studied using a physical-chemical model of the "water-rock-atmosphere-organic substance" system. The obtained model solutions are indicative of the fact that formation of surface and underground water of the Khibiny massif takes place on the whole in the framework of the considered system without attracting a hypothetical outside source of pollutants. The results are of practical and methodological importance for assessment of prediction of the man-induced impact on water systems in conditions of Subarctic.

  10. The formation of frangipane horizons and their influence on physical-chemical properties of soils from glass houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, F.; Bulgariu, D.; Avarvarei, I.

    2009-04-01

    reduction of the accessibility of these for cultivated vegetables, and have important consequences on the productivity and on the quality of obtained products. Under these conditions, in the same time with the formation of frangipane horizons, the fast degradation of physical-mechanical and chemical properties of antrosols occurs. The conditions for the frangipane horizons formation are not yet elucidated. Ours experimental results indicate that the formation of frangipane horizons in soils from glass houses is first determined by the intensive technologies used for vegetables cultivation, by the application of a supra-dimensional irrigation system, the maintaining of high and relatively constants humidity state and temperatures (in comparison with un-protected soils). The nature of parental material has also, an important influence on the physical-chemical and mineralogical properties of frangipane horizons and these control the formation and spatial extension rates of these horizons. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Romanian Ministry of Education and Research (Project PNCDI 2-D5 no. 51045/07).

  11. Experimental and modeling studies of the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition of superconducting magnesium diboride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamborn, Daniel Ray

    MgB2, with a Tc of 39 K, is a promising material for superconducting electronics and high field magnet applications. The development of deposition processes for MgB2 has been hampered by the unusually high Mg overpressure required for phase stability at elevated temperatures. Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD), a process developed at Penn State, combines thermal decomposition of B2H6 gas with an evaporative Mg flux to deposit MgB2 and is able to provide sufficient Mg overpressure for high temperature MgB2 growth. The HPCVD process does, however, have limitations arising from the original reactor configuration. The substrate and Mg supply are heated on the same inductively heated susceptor, which prevents independent temperature control and limits both the size of substrates and the amount of Mg available for growth. This in turn limits the usable range of deposition parameters such as substrate temperature and restricts the growth time which is problematic for thick films and coatings. The goals of this study were to develop an improved understanding of the HPCVD deposition process and design a new HPCVD reactor that addresses and improves upon the limitations of the original configuration. A combination of computational fluid dynamics simulations and growth experiments were used to study the HPCVD process in the original reactor. A transport and chemistry model for the growth of boron films from B2H6 was developed and used to evaluate new reactor configurations. The simple chemistry model consists of the gas-phase decomposition of B2H6 to BH 3, the adsorption of BH3 onto an activated site to form a BH2-Site complex and the transformation of the complex into a boron film and the growth rates from this model were in quantitative agreement with experimental data. A vertical dual-heater reactor configuration which was interchangeable with the original configuration was then developed to provide independent temperature control of the substrate and Mg

  12. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  13. Coupling centrality and authority of co-processing model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhanli; Li, Huibin

    2016-04-01

    Coupling centrality and authority of co-processing model on complex networks are investigated in this paper. As one crucial factor to determine the processing ability of nodes, the information flow with potential time lag is modeled by co-processing diffusion which couples the continuous time processing and the discrete diffusing dynamics. Exact results on master equation and stationary state are obtained to disclose the formation. Considering the influence of a node to the global dynamical behavior, coupling centrality and authority are introduced for each node, which determine the relative importance and authority of nodes in the diffusion process. Furthermore, the experimental results on large-scale complex networks confirm our analytical prediction.

  14. Physical, Chemical and Biological Characteristics in Habitats of High and Low Presence of Anopheline Larvae in Western Kenya Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Ndenga, Bryson A.; Simbauni, Jemimah A.; Mbugi, Jenard P.; Githeko, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Characteristics of aquatic habitats determine whether mosquitoes will oviposit, hatch, develop, pupate and successfully emerge into adults or not, thus influencing which mosquito species will occupy a habitat. This study determined whether physiochemical and biological characteristics differ between habitats with high and low presence of anopheline larvae. Methods Physical, chemical and biological characteristics were evaluated in selected habitats twice per month within three highland valleys in western Kenya. Aquatic macro-organisms were sampled using a sweep-net. Colorimetric methods were used to determine levels of iron, phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and nitrite in water samples. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was used to compare parameters between the two categories of anopheline presence. Results Habitats with high anopheline presence had greater abundance of mosquito aquatic stages and tadpoles and two times more levels of nitrate in water, whereas habitats with low anopheline presence had wider biofilm cover and higher levels of iron in water. Conclusion Habitats of high and low presence of anopheline larvae, which differed in a number of physical, chemical and biological characteristics, were identified in valleys within western Kenya highlands. Differences in habitat characteristics are critical in determining the number of anopheline larvae that will fully develop and emerge into adults. PMID:23110145

  15. A Comprehensive and Critical Compilation, Evaluation, and Selection of Physical-Chemical Property Data for Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nanqin; Wania, Frank; Lei, Ying D.; Daly, Gillian L.

    2003-12-01

    Accurate physical-chemical properties (aqueous solubility SW, octanol-water partition coefficient KOW, vapor pressure P, Henry's law constant H, octanol-air partition coefficient KOA, octanol solubility SO) are of fundamental importance for modeling the transport and fate of organic pollutants in the environment. Energies of phase transfer are used to describe the temperature dependence of these properties. When trying to quantify the behavior of contaminant mixtures such as the polychlorinated biphenyls, consistent physical-chemical properties are required for each individual congener. A complete set of temperature dependent property data for sixteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-3, 8, 15, 28, 29, 31, 52, 61, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 155, 180, 194) was derived, based on all experimentally obtained values reported for these congeners in the literature. Log mean values derived from the experimental data were adjusted to yield an internally consistent set of data for each congener. These adjusted data also show a greater degree of interhomologue consistency, which can be illustrated with the help of simple quantitative structure-property relationships that use molar mass and the number of chlorine substitutions in ortho-positions as descriptors. The extent of the required adjustment gives an indication of the uncertainty of the averaged measured values and is typically lower than might be expected from the range of the reported measured values.

  16. Novel Nanotechnology of TiO2 Improves Physical-Chemical and Biological Properties of Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Cibim, Daniela Dellosso; Saito, Miki Taketomi; Giovani, Priscila Alves; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches; Pecorari, Vanessa Gallego Arias; Gomes, Orisson Ponce; Nociti-Junior, Francisco Humberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of glass ionomer cement (GIC) added with TiO2 nanotubes. TiO2 nanotubes [3%, 5%, and 7% (w/w)] were incorporated into GIC's (Ketac Molar EasyMix™) powder component, whereas unblended powder was used as control. Physical-chemical-biological analysis included energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), surface roughness (SR), Knoop hardness (SH), fluoride-releasing analysis, cytotoxicity, cell morphology, and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Parametric or nonparametric ANOVA were used for statistical comparisons (α ≤ 0.05). Data analysis revealed that EDS only detected Ti at the 5% and 7% groups and that GIC's physical-chemical properties were significantly improved by the addition of 5% TiO2 as compared to 3% and GIC alone. Furthermore, regardless of TiO2 concentration, no significant effect was found on SR, whereas GIC-containing 7% TiO2 presented decreased SH values. Fluoride release lasted longer for the 5% and 7% TiO2 groups, and cell morphology/spreading and ECM composition were found to be positively affected by TiO2 at 5%. In conclusion, in the current study, nanotechnology incorporated in GIC affected ECM composition and was important for the superior microhardness and fluoride release, suggesting its potential for higher stress-bearing site restorations. PMID:28611845

  17. Phytoplankton and physical-chemical conditions in selected rivers and the coastal zone of Lake Michigan, 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Schelske, C.L.; Feldt, L.E.; Simmons, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A very large data set was obtained on the nearshore environment of Lake Michigan during 1972. The data set is probably unique in that samples were collected and analyzed for a number of physical-chemical parameters and for phytoplankton standing crop and species composition. Phytoplankton identified during the study totaled 431 taxa of which 306 were diatoms, which serves to illustrate the magnitude of available data. Results are presented for eleven different transects sampled in April and for three of these transects which were sampled in September. In addition, transects for the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, and Grand Rivers were sampled four or five times and each of these rivers were sampled from seven to eleven times in July. Data collected with depth presented in this report include water temperature. Secchi disc transparency, pH, specific conductance, dissolved reactive silica, nitrate nitrogen, and total phosphorus as physical-chemical variables. On transects samples with depth were obtained at stations 0, .2, .8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, 13, 26, and 52 km from shore, although the stations from 13 to 52 km were not sampled on every transect. Data related to phytoplankton include species composition and abundance, species diversity, chlorophyll a, and rates of carbon fixation. All these data were obtained only at 2 meters.

  18. Physical/chemical closed-loop water-recycling for long-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.; Wydeven, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Water needs, water sources, and means for recycling water are examined in terms appropriate to the water quality requirements of a small crew and spacecraft intended for long duration exploration missions. Inorganic, organic, and biological hazards are estimated for waste water sources. Sensitivities to these hazards for human uses are estimated. The water recycling processes considered are humidity condensation, carbon dioxide reduction, waste oxidation, distillation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, carbon sorption, and electrochemical oxidation. Limitations and applications of these processes are evaluated in terms of water quality objectives. Computerized simulation of some of these chemical processes is examined. Recommendations are made for development of new water recycling technology and improvement of existing technology for near term application to life support systems for humans in space. The technological developments are equally applicable to water needs on earth, in regions where extensive water ecycling is needed or where advanced water treatment is essential to meet EPA health standards.

  19. Physical/chemical closed-loop water-recycling for long-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.; Wydeven, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Water needs, water sources, and means for recycling water are examined in terms appropriate to the water quality requirements of a small crew and spacecraft intended for long duration exploration missions. Inorganic, organic, and biological hazards are estimated for waste water sources. Sensitivities to these hazards for human uses are estimated. The water recycling processes considered are humidity condensation, carbon dioxide reduction, waste oxidation, distillation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, carbon sorption, and electrochemical oxidation. Limitations and applications of these processes are evaluated in terms of water quality objectives. Computerized simulation of some of these chemical processes is examined. Recommendations are made for development of new water recycling technology and improvement of existing technology for near term application to life support systems for humans in space. The technological developments are equally applicable to water needs on earth, in regions where extensive water ecycling is needed or where advanced water treatment is essential to meet EPA health standards.

  20. Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Douglas G Fox; J. Christopher Bernabo; Betsy Hood

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines include a large number of specific measures to characterize the existing condition of wilderness resources. Measures involve the atmospheric environment, water chemistry and biology, geology and soils, and flora. Where possible, measures are coordinated with existing long-term monitoring programs. Application of the measures will allow more effective...

  1. Comparative physical, chemical and biological assessment of simple and titanium-doped ovine dentine-derived hydroxyapatite coatings fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Mihailescu, N.; Popescu, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Çetin, G.; Gunduz, O.; Oktar, F. N.; Popa, A. C.; Kuncser, A.; Besleaga, C.; Stan, G. E.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the synthesis by Pulsed Laser Deposition of simple and Ti doped hydroxyapatite thin films of biological (ovine dentine) origin. Detailed physical, chemical, mechanical and biological investigations were performed. Morphological examination of films showed a surface composed of spheroidal particulates, of micronic size. Compositional analyses pointed to the presence of typical natural doping elements of bone, along with a slight non-stoichiometry of the deposited films. Structural investigations proved the monophasic hydroxyapatite nature of both simple and Ti doped films. Ti doping of biological hydroxyapatite induced an overall downgrade of the films crystallinity together with an increase of the films roughness. It is to be emphasized that bonding strength values measured at film/Ti substrate interface were superior to the minimum value imposed by International Standards regulating the load-bearing implant coatings. In vitro tests on Ti doped structures, compared to simple ones, revealed excellent biocompatibility in human mesenchymal stem cell cultures, a higher proliferation rate and a good cytocompatibility. The obtained results aim to elucidate the overall positive role of Ti doping on the hydroxyapatite films performance, and demonstrate the possibility to use this novel type of coatings as feasible materials for future implantology applications.

  2. Fortification with iron chelate and substitution of sucrose by sucralose in light uvaia sherbet (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess): physical, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Tales Márcio de Oliveira; Pereira, Cristina Guimarães; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iron fortified light uvaia sherbet, with low sucrose content, was developed and its physical, chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The central composite rotational design (CCRD), applicable to the response surface methodology, was used to analyze the formulations. In the formulations, in addition of iron fortification (9 to 15 mg/100 g), the sucrose was substituted by micronized sucralose in a proportion of 66-94 %. The responses were analyzed with respect to changes in pH, total solids, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, calories, overrun, nucleation and thawing temperatures, rheological parameters and sensory attributes. Protein contents and acidity were similar in all formulations. There was a reduction of over 25 % in the caloric value. The rheological results showed pseudoplastic behavior and significant viscosity differences among the tested sherbets. In the overrun and thawing behavior results the sucrose concentration had a significant influence as the formulations with substitution by 28 g of sucralose/kg of sucrose showed greater air incorporation. In the flavor attribute there was not significance in relation to the iron fortification. Sherbets prepared with substitution of sucrose by sucralose and fortified with iron showed good acceptability, more stability and more resistant to thawing.

  3. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Keeton, L. W.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The efforts to adapt CHAM's computational fluid dynamics code, PHOENICS, to the analysis of flow within the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) aft-platform seal cavity of the SSME are summarized. In particular, the special purpose PHOENICS satellite and ground station specifically formulated for this application are listed and described, and the preliminary results of the first part two-dimensional analyses are presented and discussed. Planned three-dimensional analyses are also briefly outlined. To further understand the mixing and combustion processes in the SSME fuelside preburners, a single oxygen-hydrogen jet element was investigated.

  4. Luminescent Diamond Nanoparticles: Physical, Chemical and Biological Aspects of the Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Ashcheulov, Petr; Kovalenko, Alexander; Záliš, Stanislav; Ledvina, Miroslav; Mičová, Júlia

    2015-02-01

    Biosensors based on nanodiamonds are able to penetrate through the cell membrane in a targeted manner and probe changes in real-time in the inner cellular space. In this work we performed exclusive theoretical and experimental study of nanodiamond particles adjusted for application in optically-traceable intracellular nanodiamond sensors. Theoretical and experimental study of specific optical properties of high-pressure high-temperature nanodiamonds containing NV- and NV0 centres were performed. The results are supported by theoretical modeling. The final result of this study was detection of luminescence ND in living cells and in vivo application od luminiscence NDs in chicken embryo, showing the detectability of luminescence ND using a standard confocal microscope. On the level of in cells selectivity numerous clusters of ND particles were present within the cytoplasm and at the same time no particles were absent in the nucleus-ND particles can be used as imaging or delivery system for specific cell parts targeting. From our study we can say that biosensors based on nanodiamonds (NDs) are able to penetrate through the cell membrane in a targeted manner and probe changes in the inner cellular space.

  5. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils.

  6. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    PubMed Central

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Arístegui, J.; Alonso-González, I. J.; Hernández-León, S.; Blanco, M. J.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Gelado-Caballero, M. D.; Eugenio, F.; Marcello, J.; de Armas, D.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Montero, M. F.; Laetsch, D. R.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Ramos, A.; Ariza, A. V.; Comas-Rodríguez, I.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

  7. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Magdalena Santana-Casiano, J.; González-Dávila, Melchor

    2014-05-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments.

  8. The effects of different levels of orange fiber and fat on microbiological, physical, chemical and sensorial properties of sucuk.

    PubMed

    Yalinkiliç, Bariş; Kaban, Güzin; Kaya, Mükerrem

    2012-04-01

    The effects of orange fiber and fat levels on the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage) were investigated. Different levels of orange fiber (0, 2 and 4%) were added to sucuk batters with different levels of fat (10, 15 and 20%). Sucuk samples were analyzed during ripening. Lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus and pH value were effected very significantly by orange fiber. Orange fiber caused a decrease in residual nitrite levels and an increase in the TBARS values. L(∗) and b(∗) values of sucuk samples increased with the use of fiber. Fiber use also decreased the cooking loss. No statistically significant difference was found between control and 2% fiber groups in terms of texture, color, odor taste and general acceptability scores. While fat levels had significant effects on cooking loss, taste and L(∗) values, ripening time effected all analyzed parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Santana-Casiano, J M; Arístegui, J; Alonso-González, I J; Hernández-León, S; Blanco, M J; Rodríguez-Santana, A; Hernández-Guerra, A; Gelado-Caballero, M D; Eugenio, F; Marcello, J; de Armas, D; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Montero, M F; Laetsch, D R; Vélez-Belchí, P; Ramos, A; Ariza, A V; Comas-Rodríguez, I; Benítez-Barrios, V M

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments.

  10. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for 30 Urbanizing Streams in the North Carolina Piedmont Ecoregion, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, E.M.; Moorman, Michelle; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Harned, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides summarized physical, chemical, and biological data collected during a study of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment study. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of streams across a gradient of urban intensity. Thirty sites were selected along an urbanization gradient that represents conditions in the North Carolina Piedmont ecoregion, including the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, and Oxford. Data collected included streamflow variability, stream temperature, instream chemistry, instream aquatic habitat, and collections of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. In addition, ancillary data describing land use, socioeconomic conditions, and urban infrastructure were compiled for each basin using a geographic information system analysis. All data were processed and summarized for analytical use and are presented in downloadable data tables, along with the methods of data collection and processing.

  11. Assessment of the differences in the physical, chemical and phytochemical properties of four strawberry cultivars using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Šamec, Dunja; Maretić, Marina; Lugarić, Ivana; Mešić, Aleksandar; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Duralija, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide established strawberry cultivar 'Albion' and three recently introduced cultivars in Europe: 'Monterey', 'Capri', and 'Murano', grown hydroponically, were studied to ascertain the influence of cultivar and harvesting date on the physical, chemical, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of their fruits. Interrelationships of investigated parameters and these cultivars were investigated by the statistical approach of principal component analysis (PCA). Results indicated that cultivar had a more significant effect on the analyzed parameters than harvesting date. Thus grouping of the variables in a PCA plot indicated that each cultivar has specific characteristics important for consumer or industrial use. Cultivar 'Monterey' was the richest in phytochemical contents and consequently in antioxidant activity, 'Albion' showed the highest contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity content and ascorbic acid, 'Capri' had the highest value of firmness, while 'Murano' had lighter color in comparison to others. Potential use of these cultivars has been assessed according to these important measured attributes.

  12. Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of HA-Subtyping in the Level of Physic-Chemical Characteristics of Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  13. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, Volumes, and Physical-chemical Properties of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Daiss, R.; Williams, L.; Singer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base fluid, proppant, and additives. Additives, comprised of one or more chemicals, are serve a specific engineering purpose (e.g., friction reducer, scale inhibitor, biocide). As part of the USEPA's Draft Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, we investigated the different types, volumes injected, and physical-chemical properties of HF fluid chemicals. The USEPA identified 1,076 chemicals used in HF fluids, based on 10 sources covering chemical use from 2005 to 2013. These chemicals fall into different classes: acids, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, bases, hydrocarbon mixtures, polysaccharides, and surfactants. The physical-chemical properties of these chemicals vary, which affects their movement through the environment if spilled. Properties range from fully miscible to insoluble, from highly hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. Most of these chemicals are not volatile. HF fluid composition varies from site to site depending on a range of factors. No single chemical or set of chemicals are used at every site. A median of 14 chemicals are used per well, with a range of four to 28 (5th and 95th percentiles). Methanol was the chemical most commonly reported in FracFocus 1.0 (72% of disclosures), and hydrotreated light petroleum distillates and hydrochloric acid were both reported in over half the disclosures. Operators store chemicals on-site, often in multiple containers (typically in 760 to 1,500 L totes). We estimated that the total volume of all chemicals used per well ranges from approximately 10,000 to 110,000 L. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the USEPA.

  14. Complex, Dynamic Combination of Physical, Chemical and Nutritional Variables Controls Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sandy Beach Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J.; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  15. Understanding the undelaying mechanism of HA-subtyping in the level of physic-chemical characteristics of protein.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  16. A Study of Physical-Chemical Effects on the Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere During Forbush Decrease Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, W.; Pacini, A. A.; Echer, E.; Echer, M. P. D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a study about some possible physical-chemical changes on the Southern hemisphere atmosphere, in Brazil, due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) flux decreases (Forbush Decreases). Galactic Cosmic Rays are energetic particles that come from interstellar medium and arrive on the Earth isotropically and continuously. These particles interact with atmosphere constituents and induce the ionization of the neutral atmosphere. It is known that the presence of ions on the troposphere can change the vapor condensation patterns, since some ions can behave like cloud condensation nuclei. So, there is a work hypothesis, that the GCR flux decrease can cause some change on the physical-chemical of the atmosphere. We have investigated this possible effect, using three periods of Forbush Decrease effects (Nov/01, Oct/03 e Jul/12) with different magnitudes, on three different latitudinal range of Brazilian sector, Porto Alegre (30.08o S , YY O); Brasília (15.75o S , YY O) and Belém (1.46o S , YY O). The atmospheric effects are assessed by analysis of the temperature, pressure, humidity and aerossol data profiles, since the surface up to stratosphere. We have also studied, for comparison, high latitude atmosphere by atmospheric data from Jokioinen - Filand (60.8o N , 23.5o E) for the same three FDs. Then, our aim with this study is to investigate possible GCR decreases effects in the lower atmosphere at high, medium and low latitudes. The results obtained in this study will be compared with previous published works.

  17. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  18. Kinetic and physical-chemical study of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin containing carvacrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; de Carvalho, Yasmim Maria Barbosa Gomes; Soares Santana, Dayanne Valéria; Lima, Bruno Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; de Aquino, Thiago Mendonça; Sabino, Adilson Rodrigues; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Grangeiro-Júnior, Severino; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Carvacrol is a good natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent; however, its poor aqueous solubility and high volatility limit its application in food systems. Different methods of complexation have been used to preserve aromas in food products and complexation in cyclodextrins (CDs) is among the most efficient ways. In the present study, we investigated the complexation efficiency of carvacrol in β-CD using methods different from those already reported in the literature for this compound. The supramolecular structure of the carvacrol/β-CD complex was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), docking, complexation efficiency, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and Karl Fischer titration. Results clearly showed the formation of a supramolecular complex in which the guest molecule, carvacrol, was entrapped inside the cavity of the host, β-CD mainly by slurry method. These results contribute to other studies involving this type of system.

  19. Morphological and physical - chemical issues of metal nanostructures used in medical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duceac, L. D.; Velenciuc, N.; Dobre, E. C.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years applications of nanotechnology integrated into nanomedicine and bio-nanotechnology have attracted the attention of many researchers from different fields. Processes from chemical engineering especially nanostructured materials play an important role in medical and pharmaceutical development. Fundamental researches focused on finding simple, easily accomplished synthesis methods, morphological aspects and physico-chemical advanced characterization of nanomaterials. More over, by controlling synthesis conditions textural characteristics and physicochemical properties such as particle size, shape, surface, porosity, aggregation degree and composition can be tailored. Low cytotoxicity and antimicrobial effects of these nanostructured materials makes them be applied in medicine field. The major advantage of metal based nanoparticles is the use either for their antimicrobial properties or as drug-carriers having the potential to be active at low concentrations against infectious agents.

  20. Preparation, physical-chemical characterization, and cytocompatibility of polymeric calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Khashaba, Rania M; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R; Missimer, David M; Rutherford, Ronny L; Chutkan, Norman B; Borke, James L

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5-12 min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications.

  1. Influence of biochar on the physical, chemical and retention properties of an amended sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; De Pasquale, Claudio; Parrino, Francesco; Crescimanno, Giuseppina

    2017-04-01

    Soil porosity plays an important role in soil-water retention and water availability to crops, potentially affecting both agricultural practices and environmental sustainability. The pore structure controls fluid flow and transport through the soil, as well as the relationship between the properties of individual minerals and plants. Moreover, the anthropogenic pressure on soil properties has produced numerous sites with extensive desertification process close to residential areas. Biochar (biologically derived charcoal) is produced by pyrolysis of biomasses under low oxygen conditions, and it can be applied for recycling organic waste in soils and increase soil fertility, improving soil structure and enhancing soil water storage and soil water movement. Soil application of biochar might have agricultural, environmental and sustainability advantages over the use of organic manures or compost, as it is a porous material with a high inner surface area. The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the possible application of biochar from forest residues, derived from mechanically chipped trunks and large branches of Abies alba M., Larix decidua Mill., Picea excelsa L., Pinus nigra A. and Pinus sylvestris L. pyrolysed at 450 °C for 48h, to improve soil structural and hydraulic properties (achieving a stabilization of soil). Different amount of biochar were added to a desertic sandy soil, and the effect on soil porosity water retention and water available to crops were investigated. The High Energy Moisture Characteristic (HEMC) technique was applied to investigate soil-water retention at high-pressure head levels. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of N2 on external surfaces were also determined in order to investigate micro and macro porosity ratio. Both the described model of studies on adsorption-desorption experiments with the applied isotherms model explain the increasing substrate porosity with a particular attention to the macro and micro

  2. Supramolecular disassembly of facially amphiphilic dendrimer assemblies in response to physical, chemical, and biological stimuli.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Krishna R; Guo, Jing; Munkhbat, Oyuntuya; Rangadurai, Poornima; Thayumanavan, S

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Supramolecular assemblies formed from spontaneous self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules are explored as biomimetic architectures and for applications in areas such as sensing, drug delivery, and diagnostics. Macromolecular assemblies are usually preferred, compared with their simpler small molecule counterparts, due to their low critical aggregate concentrations (CAC) and high thermodynamic stability. This Account focuses on the structural and functional aspects of assemblies formed from dendrimers, specifically facially amphiphilic dendrons that form micelle or inverse micelle type supramolecular assemblies depending on the nature of the solvent medium. The micelle type assemblies formed from facially amphiphilic dendrons sequester hydrophobic guest molecules in their interiors. The stability of these assemblies is dependent on the relative compatibility of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalities with water, often referred to as hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). Disruption of the HLB, using an external stimulus, could lead to disassembly of the aggregates, which can then be utilized to cause an actuation event, such as guest molecule release. Studying these possibilities has led to (i) a robust and general strategy for stimulus-induced disassembly and molecular release and (ii) the introduction of a new approach to protein-responsive supramolecular disassembly. The latter strategy provides a particularly novel avenue for impacting biomedical applications. Most of the stimuli-sensitive supramolecular assemblies have been designed to be responsive to factors such pH, temperature, and redox conditions. The reason for this interest stems from the fact that certain disease microenvironments have aberrations in these factors. However, these variations are the secondary imbalances in biology. Imbalances in protein activity are the primary reasons for most, if not all, human pathology. There have been no robust strategies in stimulus

  3. Preparation, Physical-Chemical Characterization, and Cytocompatibility of Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Cements

    PubMed Central

    Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R.; Missimer, David M.; Rutherford, Ronny L.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5–12 min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications. PMID:21941551

  4. Coated phosphate grains: Proxy for physical, chemical, and ecological changes in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, Peir K.; Grimm, Kurt A.

    2003-09-01

    Irrespective of geologic age, Phanerozoic coated phosphate grains deposited beneath productive surface waters in organic-rich paleoenvironments are of only two types. Unconformity-bounded grains contain internal discordances and erosional surfaces, attributable to multiple episodes of phosphogenesis and sedimentary reworking during periods of stratigraphic condensation. Redox-aggraded grains consist of concordant concentric phosphate laminae that are intimately interlayered with circumgranular layers containing pyrite, chamosite, or barite, recording in situ diagenetic mineralization driven by changes in pore-water redox potential. Such changes can be attributed to variations in biological oxygen demand within suboxic pore-water environments resulting from fluctuations in sedimentation rate of organic carbon. Redox-aggraded grains are thus sensitive indicators of variations in organic carbon export and record changes in primary productivity and/or ecological dynamics of the surface ocean. This concept of coated-grain formation necessitates a long residence time just below the sediment-water interface. If sedimentation rate is too high, grains are rapidly buried and so removed from the zone of active phosphate precipitation. Coated phosphate grains can therefore be considered the granular equivalents of condensed beds. These concepts are equally applicable to the interpretation of other types of coated grains and concretions that contain Eh-sensitive minerals, such as iron-bearing ooids and polymineralic concretions.

  5. Combined physical-chemical and biological treatment of poorly biodegradable industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; Zaror, Claudio; Carrasco, Virginia; Mondaca, Maria Angelica; Mansilla, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be implemented. In this context, this paper presents experimental results on the application of a combined sequential ozonation-activated carbon-biological system to treat effluents containing chlorinated aromatic contaminants from chlorine based pulp bleaching. The experimental system consisted of an ozone bubble column reactor (0.3 dm3), an activated carbon fixed bed reactor (0.2 dm3), and an aerobic bioreactor (20 dm3). Ozone was produced from pure O2 using a generator rated at 2 mmol O3 h(-1). The bleaching effluent was pretreated and fed into the aerated sequencing batch bioreactor containing preconditioned biological sludge (3-4 g VSS dm(-3)), and cultured for 24 h. Samples of raw and treated effluents were assayed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), using standard techniques. The presence of potential genotoxic activity in untreated and treated samples was assessed using the Ames tests. Results show that biological treatment of raw samples could not remove mutagenic activity on its own. On the other hand, ozonation followed by activated carbon treatment and biological treatment successfully removed genotoxicity in all cases. Reductions in BOD, COD, TOC, AOX, and phenols by biological treatment increased when samples were pretreated with ozone/activated carbon.

  6. Bench-scale co-processing. Technical progress report No. 23, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gatsis, J.G.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-07-01

    UOP`s second co-processing contract, DE-AC22-87PC79818, began in April 1988. The major objective of this contract is to establish a database for the optimization of the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: employment of more effective catalysts and utilization of improved catalytic environments. These two mechanisms are defined in the contract Statement of Work. Work on Task 2.0, Laboratory Support, and Task 4.0, process Assessment, was carried out. A design basis for the process assessment task was established and cost estimation of the UOP co-processing scheme was initiated.

  7. Material and Compression Properties of Cedrela odorata Gum Co-Processed with Plantain Starch and Microcrystalline Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Adetunji, Oladapo Adewale; Odeniyi, Michael Ayodele

    2016-01-01

    Many excipients used in tableting exhibit some undesirable properties such as poor flow, cohesion and lubricating characteristics, thus necessitating some modification to achieve the desired product. The objective of this study was to enhance the material, flow and compressional properties of Cedrela odorata gum (COG) (Family: Meliaceae) by co-processing with plantain starch (PS) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The COG was co-processed with PS (or MCC) by physical co-grinding at ratio 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 4, and characterized using morphological analysis, swelling index viscosity measurements, particle size analysis and FTIR spectra. The material, flow and compressional properties of the co-processed excipients were also evaluated. Results were analyzed using mean and standard deviation of data. There was a decrease in the degree of agglomeration of COG and a reduction in the size of the powdered gum. The co-processed excipients were more spherical than the native excipients. The COG had the highest viscosity, while MCC and COG : PS (1 : 2) showed the highest and lowest degrees of swelling at 27.0 ± 0.05°C respectively. Water absorption capacity of the component excipients improved with co-processing COG : MCC increasing from 171.8 ± 1.54 (1 : 1) to 214.8 ± 1.07 (1 : 2), while COG : PS increased from 95.2 ± 0.08 (1 : 1) to 206.2 ± 0.13. There was a decrease in the percentage solubility of the co-processed excipients with the highest and lowest solubility observed in COG (54.1 ± 0.07%) and PS (3.7 ± 0.16%), respectively. The FTIR spectra indicate no significant interaction between the excipients. The poor flow of the component excipients did not improve with co-processing; however, there was a significant increase in compressibility. Generally, COG co-processed with MCC showed better compression properties when compared with COG co-processed with PS. Co-processing of COD with MC or PS enhanced the characters of the component excipients, thus making the

  8. Evaluation of co-processed excipients used for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) using novel disintegration apparatus.

    PubMed

    Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Krupa, Anna; Skorka, Tomasz; Niwinski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The compendial method of evaluation of orodispersible tablets (ODT) is the same disintegration test as for conventional tablets. Since it does not reflect the disintegration process in the oral cavity, alternative methods are proposed that are more related to in vivo conditions, e.g. modified dissolution paddle apparatus, texture analyzer, rotating shaft apparatus, CCD camera application, or wetting time and water absorption ratio measurement. In this study, three different co-processed excipients for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets were compared (Ludiflash, Pharmaburst, F-Melt). The properties of the prepared tablets such as tensile strength, friability, wetting time and water absorption ratio were evaluated. Disintegration time was measured using the pharmacopoeial method and the novel apparatus constructed by the authors. The apparatus was based on the idea of Narazaki et al., however it has been modified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied for the analysis of the disintegration mechanism of prepared tablets. The research has shown the significant effect of excipients, compression force, temperature, volume and kind of medium on the disintegration process. The novel apparatus features better correlation of disintegration time with in vivo results (R(2) = 0.9999) than the compendial method (R(2) = 0.5788), and presents additional information on the disintegration process, e.g. swelling properties.

  9. Incorporation of digestate selectively affects physical, chemical and biochemical properties along with CO2 emissions in two contrasting agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Petrovičová, Beatrix; Zumbo, Antonino; Romeo, Maurizio; Gullì, Tommaso; Martire, Luigi; Monti, Michele; Gelsomino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil incorporation of digestate represents a common practice to dispose the solid residues from biogas producing plants. Although the digestate constitutes a residual biomass rich in partially decomposed organic matter and nutrients, whose content is often highly variable and unbalanced, its potential fertilizer value can vary considerably depending on the recipient soil properties. The aim of the work was to assess short-term changes in the fertility status of two contrasting agricultural soils in Southern Italy (Calabria), olive grove on a clay acid soil (Typic Hapludalfs) and citrus grove on a sandy loam slightly calcareous soil (Typic Xerofluvents), respectively located along the Tyrrhenian or the Ionian coast. An amount of 30 t ha-1 digestate was incorporated into the soil by ploughing. Unamended tilled soil was used as control. The following soil physical, chemical and biochemical variables were monitored during the experimental period: aggregate stability, pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the mineralization quotient (qM). Moreover, in the olive grove soil CO2 emissions have been continuously measured at field scale for 5 months after digestate incorporation. Digestate application in both site exerted a significant positive effect on soil aggregate stability with a greater increase in clay than in sandy loam soil. Over the experimental period, digestate considerably affected the nutrient availability, namely Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, along with the electrical conductivity. The soil type increased significantly the soil N-NH4+ content, which was always higher in the olive than in citrus grove soil. N-NO3- content was markedly increased soon after the organic amendment, followed by a seasonal decline more evident in the sandy loam soil. Moreover, soil properties as CaCO3 content and the pH selectively affected the Olsen-P dynamics. No appreciable

  10. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg−1·year−1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:K, and −3.23 mg·cm−3·year−1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: −4.10 mg·kg−1·year−1; pH: −0.0061 unit·year−1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g−1·year−1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g−1 year−1; N:K: −0.242 mg·g−1·year−1; EC: 0.169 μS·cm−1·year−1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

  11. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-04-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg(-1)·year(-1) for SOM, 438.9 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:P, 5.3 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:K, and -3.23 mg·cm(-3)·year(-1) for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0-80-cm soil profile (P: -4.10 mg·kg(-1)·year(-1); pH: -0.0061 unit·year(-1); C:N: 167.1 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); K:P: 371.5 mg·g(-1) year(-1); N:K: -0.242 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); EC: 0.169 μS·cm(-1)·year(-1)), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance.

  12. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  13. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING LORATADINE TABLETS MANUFACTURED WITH CO-PROCESSED MIXTURES.

    PubMed

    Amelian, Aleksandra; Szekalska, Marta; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Zofia; Basa, Anna; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop orally disintegrated tablets (ODT) with loratadine using Parteck ODT and Ludiflash--new commercially available tableting excipients based on co-processed mannitol. ODT containing loratadine were prepared with 3% addition of various superdisintegrants (AcDiSol, Kollidon CL-F and Kollidon CL-SF) by direct compression method. Obtained tablets were characterized for friability, pore structure, and wetting and disintegration time measured by four independents methods. In order to identify possible interactions between loratadine and the excipients, differential scanning calorimetry was used. The results showed that all formulated ODT were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties (friability < 1%), the uniform content of the drug substance and pleasant mouth feeling. Disintegration time below 30 s was observed in formulations with crospovidones as disintegrant.

  14. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. The specific objectives include examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components in retarding or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by studies of the carbonaceous residues by such techniques as diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. During this reporting period work focused on identification of mechanisms of coke formation. The objective of this task is to identify those compounds or components which are specifically responsible for initiating coke formation.

  15. Bench-scale co-processing, January 1, 1989--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Nafis, D.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Lea, C.; Miller, M.A.

    1989-08-23

    This is the fourth quarterly report. Objective is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme developed under previous Contract DE-AC22-84PC70002. Emphasis will be given to defining and improving the catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery techniques. Pilot plant modification work and several shakedown runs were completed during this quarter. However, complete analytical results are not yet available for these runs. This report covers the economic implications of the catalyst studies completed to date. Three main issues are discussed for the design of a commercial slurry-catalyst system: which catalyst (Mo or V) is more economical; what is the optimum catalyst concentration; and should the catalyst be used once-through or recovered and recycled.

  16. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 9, March 1, 1990--June 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Liu, L.L.; Lea, C.L.; Miller, M.A.

    1990-10-08

    This is the ninth quarterly report. Objective is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery. During this quarter, a temperature survey was completed with the reference V catalyst and liquid recycle. Objective of this study was to determine whether the improved high-severity performance observed for the Mo catalyst with liquid recycle was also possible with the reference V catalyst. In Run 5, a temperature-space velocity study was performed with the V catalyst but without liquid recycle. In that run, plant operability dropped dramatically above 425 C. Recycle was added in Run 21, but the temperature was kept constant at the reference 426 C. This report covers results of bench-scale Run 29, which examined combined effects of liquid recycle and increased temperature.

  17. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  18. An interdisciplinary physical-chemical approach for characterization of arsenic in a calciner residue dump in Cornwall (UK).

    PubMed

    van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Arcon, Iztok; Glass, Hylke-Jan

    2006-02-01

    During the later stages of hard-rock mining in Cornwall, UK, widespread processing and refining of arsenic in purpose-built calciners resulted in severe, localized contamination of soils with arsenic. Several physical-chemical techniques were applied to characterize arsenic in a calciner residue dump: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), sequential extraction combined with hyphenated speciation methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) methods such as XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure). Arsenic was predominantly present in pentavalent form, bound to amorphous or poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe (probably alpha-hematite). A small amount of a non-classified crystalline iron arsenate phase was found, viz. Fe2(As(AsO4)3). There was also evidence for the presence of some arsenate bound to quartz (alpha-SiO2). The overall results make us believe that the normally assumed relative safety, from a mobility point of view, is questionable since only a small fraction of arsenic is found in a crystalline iron arsenate form.

  19. Characterisation of microbial communities in relation to physical-chemical parameters during in situ aeration of waste material.

    PubMed

    Mellendorf, Maren; Huber-Humer, Marion; Gamperling, Oliver; Huber, Pia; Gerzabek, Martin H; Watzinger, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates changes in waste microbial community composition and biomass during in situ aeration in laboratory-scale columns over 32 weeks. Microbial profiles were assessed in solid and leachate samples in relation to physical-chemical parameters using phospholipid ester linked fatty acid (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) analysis and parameters such as pH, EC, TC, TOC, TN, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), COD and the biochemical parameter BOD(5). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the individual PLFAs and PLELs indicated a change in community composition and biomass over the operation period, which could be differentiated in the three phases (i) anaerobic, (ii) aeration start and (iii) extended aeration. PCA revealed that aeration and pH values were the most influential parameters on microbial dynamics. There was a marked decrease of ubiquitous microorganisms, some Gram negative bacterial groups and methanogenic archaea, but a consecutive increase of Gram positive microbial groups along with a rapid reduction of organics after aeration start. Those in situ aeration effects on microbial community composition and C conversion were stable throughout the laboratory set-up of 32 weeks.

  20. The facts that the physical-chemical properties of modern tablets distinguish them from natural food lumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.; Reshetnikov, A.; Kopylov, M.; Kasatkin, A.; Baymurzin, D.; Gabdrafikov, R.

    2017-02-01

    It was found that pharmaceutical companies produce drugs in tablet form, physical or physical-chemical properties that are radically different from those of the properties of natural food lumps, in that adult converts food in our mouth before swallowing. It was shown that the conventional shape, color, size, volume, specific gravity, hardness, osmotic and acid activity of modern tablets impair the physical and physicochemical properties of the liquid contents of the stomach is much stronger than such “building” materials, such as chalk, clay, sand, river pebbles and gravel. The results showed, that the value of the specific hardness, deforming tablets, can distinguish modern tablets from each other by more than 5000 times. Therefore, introduction tablets inside without information of ability injuring their action leads to the fact that soft and “unsalted” tablets almost nothing damage, and too “salty” and solid tablets damage the gums, lips, tongue, teeth and dental structures. To reduce the traumatic action tablets offered standardize osmoticity, corrosion and hardness within the range of safe values for soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity and improve standard introduction of tablets in the mouth.

  1. Membranes as programmable matter: modulating physical-chemical behavior in lipid ensembles derived from archaea and eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Sean Fitzpatrick

    Lipid membranes are of general interest to the scientific community due to their roles as cellular membranes, and because of their interesting material properties, such as tendencies to self-assemble into two- and three-dimensional structures. Further, there is interest in using lipid membranes as a self-assembling template or substrate for other materials, such as membrane proteins. The work presented here explores the physical-chemical interactions in and around artificial lipid membranes. In the first two chapters, lipid membranes are investigated as a form of programmable matter that responds to environmental changes. These responses manifest as two- and three-dimensional reorganization. In the subsequent chapters, the lipids of an extremophilic archaeon are examined in synthetic configurations to 1) identify how ensembles of lipids originating from organisms of different domains on the tree of life may behave in similar ways, and 2) to examine how the lipids of a desiccation-tolerant organism may be used to create robust lipid (bilayer) membranes that do not rely on liquid water to retain their structure. These collected findings expand how living membranes may be modulated or reorganized in vivo, and also suggest new ways to create programmable lipid-based materials.

  2. iSS-PC: Identifying Splicing Sites via Physical-Chemical Properties Using Deep Sparse Auto-Encoder.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-Chun; Wang, Peng; Qiu, Wang-Ren; Xiao, Xuan

    2017-08-15

    Gene splicing is one of the most significant biological processes in eukaryotic gene expression, such as RNA splicing, which can cause a pre-mRNA to produce one or more mature messenger RNAs containing the coded information with multiple biological functions. Thus, identifying splicing sites in DNA/RNA sequences is significant for both the bio-medical research and the discovery of new drugs. However, it is expensive and time consuming based only on experimental technique, so new computational methods are needed. To identify the splice donor sites and splice acceptor sites accurately and quickly, a deep sparse auto-encoder model with two hidden layers, called iSS-PC, was constructed based on minimum error law, in which we incorporated twelve physical-chemical properties of the dinucleotides within DNA into PseDNC to formulate given sequence samples via a battery of cross-covariance and auto-covariance transformations. In this paper, five-fold cross-validation test results based on the same benchmark data-sets indicated that the new predictor remarkably outperformed the existing prediction methods in this field. Furthermore, it is expected that many other related problems can be also studied by this approach. To implement classification accurately and quickly, an easy-to-use web-server for identifying slicing sites has been established for free access at: http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSS-PC.

  3. [Dependence of the genotypic characteristics of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans on the physical, chemical, and electrophysical properties of pyrites].

    PubMed

    Tupikina, O V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Karavaĭko, G I

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of physical, chemical, and electrophysical properties of two pyrites, pyrite 1, which had hole-type (p-type) conductivity, and pyrite 2, with electron-type (n-type) conductivity, on the genotypic characteristics of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains TFV-1 and TFBk, which were isolated from different substrates. After the adaptation of the strains to the pyrites at a pulp density of 1%, pulsed-field electrophoresis revealed changes in the chromosomal DNA of strain TFV-1 adapted to pyrite 1 and strain TFBk adapted to either of the pyrite types. In pyrite-adapted strain TFBk, the plasmid composition was the same as after growth on a medium containing ferrous iron, whereas, in strain TFV-1, changes in plasmid sizes or both in plasmid sizes and plasmid number occurred. After an increase in the density of the pyrite 2 pulp from 1 to 10%, the plasmid number increased from three to four, and, after an increase in the density of the pyrite 1 pulp from 1 to 7%, the plasmid number increased from two to six.

  4. Effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina-Alejandra; Rodríguez, Diana-Catalina; López, Daniela; Peñuela, Gustavo; Vidal, Gladys

    2013-08-01

    Differences in biodegradability can affect the treatment of slurry before its use in spraying. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on different biological treatment technologies. This research involved monthly sampling (number/composition) for 1 year of 24 swine farms (16%), cattle farms (38%), and mixed swine and cattle farms (46%). The results obtained showed differences in feeding (3 l water kg(-1) food for cattle and 5 l water kg(-1) food for swine) and assimilation (0.6 kg food kg (-1) milk produced and 3 kg kg(-1) weight gain), which may influence the generation of slurry (57 l animal(-1)d(-1) in cattle and 31 l animal(-1) d(-1) in swine) and its composition. In addition, the composition of swine slurry [23 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1), 3 g total nitrogen (TN) l(-1)] is significantly different (P < 0.01) to cattle slurry (4 g COD l(-1), 0.3 g TN l(-1)). Finally, the composition and the S index applied to swine slurry [COD N(-1) = 8, biological oxygen demand (BOD)5 COD(-1) = 0.3, S index > 0] and cattle slurry (COD N(-1) = 16, BOD5 COD(-1) = 0.6, S index < 0) show a difference on the biodegradability of both slurries. Suitability of anaerobic and aerobic treatment was assessed based on the findings.

  5. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  6. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L(-1) for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  7. Physical, Chemical, Ecological, and Age Data and Trench Logs from Surficial Deposits at Hatch Point, Southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Miller, Mark E.; Yount, James C.; Reheis, Marith C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Belnap, Jayne; Lamothe, Paul J.; McGeehan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methodology for physical, chemical and ecological measurements of sediment, soil, and vegetation, as well as age determinations of surficial deposits at Hatch Point, Canyon Rims area, Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah. The results presented in this report support a study that examines geomorphic and soil factors that may influence boundaries between shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the study area. Shrubland ecosystems dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and grassland ecosystems dominated by native perennial grasses (for example, Hilaria jamesii and Sporabolis sp.) are high-priority conservation targets for the Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and other resource managers because of their diversity, productivity, and vital importance as wildlife habitat. These ecosystems have been recognized as imperiled on a regional scale since at least the mid-1990s due to habitat loss (type conversions), land-use practices, and invasive exotic plants. In the Intermountain West, the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is recognized as one of the most pervasive and serious threats to the health of native sagebrush and grassland ecosystems through effects on fire regimes and resource conditions experienced by native species.

  8. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20-25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg-Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg-Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm-2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  9. Optimizing the physical-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) on Cu(II) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Shirley; Sorial, George A; Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; McAvoy, Drew C

    2014-08-30

    Systematic experiments of copper adsorption on 10 different commercially available nanomaterials were studied for the influence of physical-chemical properties and their interactions. Design of experiment and response surface methodology was used to develop a polynomial model to predict maximum copper adsorption (initial concentration, Co=10mg/L) per mass of nanomaterial, qe, using multivariable regression and maximum R-square criterion. The best subsets of properties to predict qe in order of significant contribution to the model were: bulk density, ID, mesopore volume, tube length, pore size, zeta-charge, specific surface area and OD. The highest experimental qe observed was for an alcohol-functionalized MWCNT (16.7mg/g) with relative high bulk density (0.48g/cm(3)), ID (2-5nm), 10-30μm long and OD<8nm. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) showed poor adsorptive capacity associated to stacked-nanoplatelets, but good colloidal stability due to high functionalized surface. Good adsorption results for pristine SWCNT indicated that tubes with small diameter were more associated with good adsorption than functionalized surface. XPS and ICP analysis explored surface chemistry and purity, but pHpzc and zeta-charge were ultimately applied to indicate the degree of functionalization. Optimum CNT were identified in the scatter plot, but actual manufacturing processes introduced size and shape variations which interfered with final property results.

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Rivera, Mick

    1993-01-01

    This report contains physical, chemical, and biological data associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area collected during the late 1980's. The data were collected in support of the u.S. Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program in the Western United States to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxics in irrigation-induced drainage. The data have been used to support interpretations in several recent publications. This data report is the companion to a comprehensive U.S. Geological Survey interpretive report that describes the geochemical and biological pathways of potential toxics, especially selenium, in the study area. The report contains data on concentra- tions of a broad suite of trace elements in soil, irrigation (Colorado River) water, drainwater, surface water (including the Salton Sea), ground- water, aquatic plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, bird eggs, and turtle eggs. Included, also, are light stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur), tritium, and radiocarbon data for selected aqueous samples and organochlorine-pesticide concentrations in biota. Geochemical samples were collected from more than 100 drainwater-collection sites, several surface- water locations, 15 fields, 3 multiple-depth lysimeter and piezometer installations, and the Alamo River Delta on the southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, and from laboratory evaporations of Colorado River water. Biological samples were collected from 39 sites, including 16 Salton Sea shore locations, 5 streams, 7 freshwater impound- ments, 11 drainwater ditches, and 2 additional locations in the Imperial Valley. (USGS)

  11. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota. PMID:27313139

  12. Physical, chemical and pedogenetical properties of soil in relation with altitude at Kazdagi upland black pine forest.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Orhan; Tecomen, Huseyin Baris

    2009-05-01

    In this study an attempt was made to investigate the physical, chemical and pedogenetical soil properties of black pine forests at over 1400 metre (m) altitude of Kazdagi mountainous uplands. Soil profiles (37 numbers) were dug, examined and sampled considering the horizons and soil volume weight, fine soil weight, stoniness, pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and pedogenesis alterations were tried to be explored in relation with elevating altitude. While the altitude increased, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen values decreased at A horizon, and pH decreased at Bw horizons. Soil volume weight, fine soil weight, stoniness values of A horizon has positively and strong correlation with elevation with the coefficient values 0.699, 0.518 and 0.573 respectively at 0.01 significance. The highest regression values between altitude and volume weight, soil organic carbon contents (%) and soil total nitrogen contents (%) were detected with R2 coefficients 0.489, 0.295 and 0.247 for A and 0.556, 0.311 and 0.286 for Bw horizons respectively. The achieved results reveal that the elevation effect is remarkable in particular for the uppermost soil horizons. Furthermore the soil generation in fact functions well up to 1550 m altitude at Kazdagi mountainous land where we determined that at upper elevations Inceptisols replace with Alfisols in comparison with each other.

  13. Glucose-based surfactants with hydrogenated, fluorinated, or hemifluorinated tails: synthesis and comparative physical-chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Abla, Maher; Durand, Grégory; Pucci, Bernard

    2008-11-07

    (Hemi)fluorinated hydrophobic chains have been found to minimize the denaturating propensity of surfactants toward membrane proteins. The work reported herein deals with the synthesis of a new series of non-ionic glucose-based surfactants endowed with a hybrid hemifluorocarbon chain. The convergent synthesis is based on a one-pot reduction/alkylation of hemifluorinated thioacetate and glucosylated trishydroxymethyl acrylamidomethane using NaBH4 in methanol. This "mild" alkylation was studied in order to improve yields and to pass up the use of an excess of commercially unavailable hemifluorinated thiols. The physical-chemical properties in aqueous solution of this novel series were studied by surface tension measurement and dynamic light scattering (DLS), as well as their behavior upon reverse-phase chromatography, and were compared with those of their hydrogenated and perfluorinated analogues. The atypical effect of the additional ethyl tip to the fluorinated chain was demonstrated by higher critical micellar concentration values and abnormal hydrophobicities measured by reverse-phase chromatography. Moreover, according to Israelachvili's concept, DLS studies showed that surfactants bearing bulkier polar head self-assemble into small and well-defined aggregates, suggesting the formation of spherical micelles rather than the cylindrical ones usually observed with classical fluorinated surfactants.

  14. MgB2UltrathinFilms Fabricated by Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition and Subsequent Ion Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthaeus; Tan, Teng; Cunnane, Daniel; Karasik, Boris; Xi, Xiaoxing

    Hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers are a great tool for measuring high-resolution spectroscopy at Terahertz frequencies. MgB2offers a higher critical temperature (39 K) compared to commonly used Nb and NbN and boasts a shorter intrinsic electron-phonon relaxation time, giving rise to a broader intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth. We have fabricated high quality ultrathin MgB2films using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) and employing ion milling to achieve thickness down to 2 nm. The thinnest achieved films show high Tc of 28 K with residual resistivity below 28 µ Ωcm and high critical current Jcof 1x106 A/cm2at 20 K. As a result of the employed low angle ion milling process, the films remain well connected even after being thinned down since the initial thick films offer a better connectivity than as-grown thin films. The established process offers a way to realize MgB2 based HEB mixers of extremely low thickness and therefore small local oscillator power requirements and increased IF bandwidth.

  15. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  16. Dissolved and colloidal organic nitrogen removal from wastewater treatment plants effluents and reject waters using physical-chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Czerwionka, K; Makinia, J

    2014-01-01

    Four physical-chemical processes were compared in terms of the efficiencies of dissolved and colloidal organic nitrogen (DON and CON) removal from the secondary effluents (SE) and reject water from full-scale biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems. Adsorption on activated carbon was most efficient and allowed removal from the SE of up to 80% and 100% of DON and CON, respectively. High efficiencies of DON removal from SE (up to 55%) were also obtained when using coagulation with iron(III) chloride and calcium hydroxide at final pH = 11.0-11.5. The efficiency of DON removal from thickening waste activated sludge (TWAS) reject water, obtained using coagulation with iron(III) chloride, was comparable with the efficiency for the SE. The efficiency of this process with regard to the sludge digester liquors (SDL) was significantly higher, i.e., 65-70% for both DON and CON. The ion exchange process with strongly acidic cation exchange resin (without pH correction) resulted in a relatively small efficiency of DON removal (<15%), and negligible efficiency of CON removal (<10%). Furthermore, ultrafiltration (0.015 μm) of SE and TWAS reject water resulted in a relatively low efficiency of DON removal (10-13% and 10-20% respectively). Ultrafiltration was found to be more effective for DON removal from SDL (41-68%).

  17. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  18. Variations and factors that influence the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-09-05

    Pilot studies of unintentionally produced pollutants should be performed before waste being co-processed in cement kilns. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation and emission from cement kilns co-processing sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and waste acid, however, have not previously been studied. Here, PCNs were analyzed in stack gas samples and solid samples from different stages of three cement production runs. PCN destruction efficiencies were higher when waste was co-processed (93.1% and 88.7% in two tests) than when waste was not co-processed (39.1%), so co-processing waste would not increase PCN outputs. The PCN concentrations were higher in particle samples from the C1 preheater and stages at back end of kiln than in particle samples from other stages, suggesting that cyclone preheater and back end of kiln should be focused for controlling PCN emissions. Besides that, based on the variation of PCN concentrations and corresponding operating conditions in different stages, the temperature, feeding materials, and chlorine content were suggested as the main factors influencing PCN formation. The PCN homologue and congener profiles suggested chlorination and dechlorination were the main PCN formation and decomposition pathways, and congeners CN-23, CN-46, and CN-59 appear to be appropriate indicators of PCNs emitted from coal-burning sources.

  19. Comparison of the fixation effects of heavy metals by cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement based solidification/stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junli; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yiying; Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Jinhui

    2009-06-15

    Cement rotary kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes and cement based solidification/stabilization could both immobilize heavy metals. The different retention mechanisms of the two technologies lead to different fixation effects of heavy metals. The same amount of heavy metal compounds were treated by the two types of fixation technologies. Long-term leaching test (160 days), the maximum availability leaching test (NEN 7341) and a modified three-step sequential extraction procedure, proposed by the Commission of the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) were employed to compare the fixation effects of the two fixation technologies. The leaching concentrations in NEN 7341 and long-term leaching tests were compared with identification standard for hazardous wastes (GB5085.3-1996) and drinking water standard (GB5749-2005). The results indicate that the leaching concentrations of the long-term leaching test and NEN 7341 test were lower than the regulatory limits and the leached ratios were small. Both cement based solidification/stabilization and cement rotary kiln co-processing could effectively fix heavy metals. Calcination in a cement rotary kiln and the following hydration that follows during cement application could fix As, Cd, Pb and Zn more effectively and decrease the release to the environment. Cement solidification/stabilization technology has better effect in immobilizing Cr and Ni. Cr wastes are more fitful to be treated by cement solidification/stabilization.

  20. pRNAm-PC: Predicting N(6)-methyladenosine sites in RNA sequences via physical-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi; Xiao, Xuan; Yu, Dong-Jun; Jia, Jianhua; Qiu, Wang-Ren; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-03-15

    Just like PTM or PTLM (post-translational modification) in proteins, PTCM (post-transcriptional modification) in RNA plays very important roles in biological processes. Occurring at adenine (A) with the genetic code motif (GAC), N(6)-methyldenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most common and abundant PTCMs in RNA found in viruses and most eukaryotes. Given an uncharacterized RNA sequence containing many GAC motifs, which of them can be methylated, and which cannot? It is important for both basic research and drug development to address this problem. Particularly with the avalanche of RNA sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is highly demanded to develop computational methods for timely identifying the N(6)-methyldenosine sites in RNA. Here we propose a new predictor called pRNAm-PC, in which RNA sequence samples are expressed by a novel mode of pseudo dinucleotide composition (PseDNC) whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross covariance transformations. It was observed via a rigorous jackknife test that, in comparison with the existing predictor for the same purpose, pRNAm-PC achieved remarkably higher success rates in both overall accuracy and stability, indicating that the new predictor will become a useful high-throughput tool for identifying methylation sites in RNA, and that the novel approach can also be used to study many other RNA-related problems and conduct genome analysis. A user-friendly Web server for pRNAm-PC has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/pRNAm-PC, by which users can easily get their desired results without needing to go through the mathematical details.

  1. Modeling pCO{sub 2} in the upper ocean: A review of relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    The pCO{sub 2} of the surface ocean is controlled by a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Modeling surface ocean pCO{sub 2} is analogous to modeling sea surface temperature (SST), in that sea surface pCO{sub 2} is affected by fluxes across the air-sea interface and by exchange with deeper water. However, pCO{sub 2} is also affected by chemical and biological processes which have no analog in SST. Seawater pCO{sub 2} is buffered by pH equilibrium reactions between the species CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3}-, and CO{sub 3}{sup =}. This effect provides an effective reservoir for CO{sub 2} in seawater that is 10 times larger than it would be for an unbuffered gas. The equilibrium between dissolved and atmospheric CO{sub 2} is sensitive to temperature, tending to higher pCO{sub 2} in warmer water. Biological export of carbon as sinking particles maintains a gradient of pCO{sub 2}, with lower values near the surface (this processes is called the {open_quotes}biological pump{close_quotes}). In most of the ocean, biological activity removes all of the available nutrients from the surface water; that is, the rate of carbon export in these locations is limited by the rate of nutrient supply to the euphotic zone. However, in much of the high-latitude oceans, primary production does not deplete the euphotic zone of nutrients, a fact to which the atmospheric pCO{sub 2} is extraordinarily sensitive. Understanding the limits to phytoplankton growth in the high latitudes, and how these limits might change under different climatic regimes, is essential to prediction of future ocean uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}.

  2. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanju; Price, Carson

    2015-10-01

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO)1, (PPy/ErGO)1, (PAni/GO)1 and (PPy/GO)1. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, Cs, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent Cs of ≥350 F g-1 as compared with constituents (˜70 F g-1) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g-1 that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine electrochemical (re)activity of surface ion adsorption sites

  3. Study of the influence of physical, chemical and biological conditions that influence the deterioration and protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Bethencourt, Manuel; Fernández-Montblanc, Tomás; Izquierdo, Alfredo; González-Duarte, Manuel María; Muñoz-Mas, Cristian

    2017-09-11

    Two wrecks related to the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) were studied. Following the guidelines of the UNESCO-2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach based on the development of four of the thirty-six Rules of this international agreement was applied. A non-destructive survey technique was developed to obtain information from the scattered cannons and anchors without altering their condition (Rule 4). The work performed provided information about the origin of both wrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, two ships of the line of the French Navy, and allowed to characterize the state of conservation at each site without jeopardizing their future conservation in the marine environment. In addition, measurements of the main physical, chemical and biological variables allowed correlating the conservation status at each site with the marine environmental conditions (Rule 15). Thus, in Fougueux shipwreck large iron objects are corroding at a higher rate (between 0.180 and 0.246mmpy) due to high sediment remobilization and transport induced by waves at this site, causing damage by direct mechanical effect on metallic material and by removing the layer of corrosion products developed on the artefacts. Meanwhile artillery on Bucentaure site, covered with thick layers of biological concretion, is well preserved, with lower corrosion rates (0.073 to 0.126mmpy), and archaeological information is guaranteed. Finally, the effectiveness of the cathodic protection as a temporary measure for in situ conservation (Rule 1) was evaluated on a cannon. The use of a sacrificial anode after 9months reduced the average corrosion rate (from 0.103 to 0.064mmpy) and the percent of corrosion rate in 37.9%. These results are very useful for developing a decision making system of the Site Management Program, based on predictive models of artefacts permanence and risk factors in the marine environment (Rule 25). Copyright

  4. The 3-dimentional Distribution through Physical-Chemical-Mineralogical Characteristics of Subsurface Heterogeneity in Tailings of Guryoung Mine, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y.; Park, E.; Song, Y.; Moon, H.

    2005-12-01

    To build an efficient way of handling potential risk associated with a closed mining site with abandoned waste rock and finely crushed mill tailing, detailed characterization on the site is crucial. Among the items to be characterized, mineral characteristics, particle distribution and surface/groundwater flow relationship, shape existence of heavy metal and discriminating the sulfide mineral oxidation and second minerals formation due to the rain or surface water environment may reveal very important aspects of the contaminated site such as kinds and level of contamination, contaminant generation in the event of precipitations, contaminant reaction/transport in the vadose zone, etc. Guryoung mine site in Korea, which is consistent with the purpose of this research, was selected as a research area. In order to illustrate and describe a geological heterogeneity, three-dimensional Coupled Markov chain (CMC) was used. The sampling site was constructed as elemental data using GPS. The sample's analytic data of physical-chemical-mineralogical aspects and cation exchange capacity were built as the database. The result is following: In oxidation zone (0.43 to 1.00 m), the particle contained more than 10 percent of clayey due to the weathering, and the pH was below 3 by oxidation of pyrite. The presence of jarosite, gypsum and goethite was confirmed. The cation exchange capacity was analyzed greater than 10 meq per 100 mg. In transition zone, sandy contained greater percentage, and its pH was 3 to 5. Metals and heavy metals extracted using 0.1 N HCl had the highest concentration, and pyrite took the greatest percentage. In primary zone, sandy contained the greatest percentage at the top but silt took over as going down. The pH was neutral, 5 to 8. Also calcite was identified as second mineral due to the reduction of primary zone. These results were built as database, and applying CMC, the three-dimensional distribution of tailing was confirmed.

  5. Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.

    PubMed

    González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2010-01-01

    To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint.

  6. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanju Price, Carson

    2015-10-15

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO){sub 1}, (PPy/ErGO){sub 1}, (PAni/GO){sub 1} and (PPy/GO){sub 1}. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, C{sub s}, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent C{sub s} of ≥350 F g{sup −1} as compared with constituents (∼70 F g{sup −1}) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g{sup −1} that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine

  7. Co-Processed Chitin-Mannitol as a New Excipient for Oro-Dispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Daraghmeh, Nidal; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT). The excipient (Cop–CM) consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w) and produced by roll compaction (RC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were used to characterize Cop–CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop–CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a) for Cop–CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661) than that of mannitol (0.576) due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818). Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop–CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop–CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets. PMID:25830680

  8. [Release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Fei; Huang, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Xia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-15

    Clinker was produced by Simulating cement calcination test, and concrete samples were also prepared according to national standard GB/T 17671-1999. Long-term cumulative release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln was researched through leaching test which refers to EA NEN 7371 and EA NEN 7375, and one-dimensional diffusion model which is on the base of Fick diffusion law. The results show that availabilities of heavy metals are lower than the total amounts in concrete. The diffusion coefficients of heavy metals are different (Cr > As > Ni > Cd). During 30 years service, the cumulative release amounts of Cr, As, Ni and Cd are 4.43 mg/kg, 0.46 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratios of release which is the division of cumulative release amount and availability are 27.0%, 18.0%, 3.0% and 0.2%, respectively. The most important influence factor of cumulative release amount of heavy metal is the diffusion coefficient, and it is correlative to cumulative release amount. The diffusion coefficient of Cr and As should be controlled exactly in the processing of input the cement-kiln.

  9. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Wang, Mei

    2017-05-01

    Co-incineration of sewage sludge in cement kilns can be used for its disposal. In the present study, samples were collected from three cement production runs where sewage sludge and other wastes (e.g. municipal solid waste, waste acid and wet sewage sludge) were co-processed. The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The dioxin-like (dl)-PCB concentrations in the stack gases from run 1, 2, and 3 were 344.6, 548.7, and 104.3 pg m(-3), respectively. The toxic equivalency (TEQs) values for runs 1, 2, and 3 were 5.6, 8.9, and 0.7 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. Calculation of net emissions for the three runs indicated that the co-incineration of other waste in addition to sewage sludge in cement kilns would not increase emission of the dl-PCBs. PCB concentrations in samples from the suspension boiler and humidifier tower, kiln-end bag filter, and cyclone preheater were much higher than those in samples from the kiln head area, indicating that these stages will be important for controlling PCB formation. Chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-77, CB-105 and CB-118 were the major dl-PCB congeners, CB-52, CB-101 were the major indicator PCB congeners, and tetra-CB to hexa-CB were the major homologues for the total input or output materials.

  10. A study of a co-processed dry binder composed of microcrystalline cellulose and glycerol monostearate.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Muchová, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    The paper studies the co-processed dry binder LubriToseTM MCC from the viewpoint of energy evaluation of the compression process, strength and disintegration time of tablets. The results were compared with the identical evaluation of physical mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose with several types of lubricants. LubriTose MCC showed the lowest value of energy for friction, the highest value of energy accumulated by the tablet, and the highest plasticity of all tableting materials under study. There were no marked differences in the values of the energy of decompression. The tensile strength of tablets from LubriTose MCC was lower than in those from the mixture of Vivapur® 12 and glycerol monostearate, in the compression forces of 4 and 5 kN it was comparable with the tensile strength of tablets from Vivapur 12 with Poloxamer 407. Disintegration time of tablets from LubriTose MCC was shorter than that of those from Vivapur 12 with glycerol monostearate at the compression force of 3 kN, in the case of the compression forces of 4 and 5 kN no statistically significant difference was found between the values of these tableting materials.

  11. Screening of Polish Fir Honeydew Honey Using GC/MS, HPLC-DAD, and Physical-Chemical Parameters: Benzene Derivatives and Terpenes as Chemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr M; Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Tuberoso, Carlo I G

    2017-09-01

    GC/MS of headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and solvent extractives along with targeted HPLC-DAD of Polish fir (Abies alba Mill.) honeydew honey (FHH), were used to determine the chemical profiles and potential markers of botanical origin. Additionally, typical physical-chemical parameters were also assigned. The values determined for FHH were: conductivity (1.2 mS/cm), water content (16.7 g/100 g), pH (4.5), and CIE chromaticity coordinates (L* = 48.4, a* = 20.6, b* = 69.7, C* = 72.9, and h° = 73.5). FHH contained moderate-high total phenolic content (533.2 mg GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (1.1 mmol TEAC/kg) and (3.2 mmol Fe(2+) /kg) in DPPH and FRAP assays. The chemical profiles were dominated by source plant-originated benzene derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (up to 8.7 mg/kg, HPLC/honey solution), methyl syringate (up to 14.5%, GC/solvent extracts) or benzaldehyde (up to 43.7%, GC/headspace). Other markers were terpenes including norisoprenoid (4-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-4-(3-oxobut-1-enyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one, up to 20.3%, GC/solvent extracts) and monoterpenes, mainly linalool derivatives (up to 49%, GC/headspace) as well as borneol (up to 5.9%, GC/headspace). The application of various techniques allowed comprehensive characterisation of FHH. 4-Hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-4-(3-oxobut-1-enyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one, coniferyl alcohol, borneol, and benzaldehyde were first time proposed for FHH screening. Protocatechuic acid may be a potential marker of FFH regardless of the geographical origin. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data from groundwater in the watershed of Mirror Lake, and in the vicinity of Hubbard Brook, near West Thornton, New Hampshire, 1983 to 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, James W.; Harte, Philip T.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Johnson, Carole D.; Goode, Daniel J.; Wood, Warren W.; Buso, Donald C.; Likens, Gene E.; Winter, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the hydrogeologic setting of Mirror Lake near West Thornton, New Hampshire (43° 56.5’ N, 71° 41.5’ W), includes the study of the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of groundwater in the vicinity of the lake and nearby Hubbard Brook. Presented here are those physical, chemical, and isotopic data for the period 1983 to 1997. Data were collected from observation wells installed in glacial drift and bedrock, as well as from one domestic well in the general area of the lake and Hubbard Brook. Also presented are data for Mirror Lake for August 1, 1993, to place groundwater data in context with chemical and isotopic characteristics of the lake.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy for Analysis of Co-processed Ibuprofen and Magnesium Trisilicate at Milling and Freeze Drying.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Manoj; Mishra, Satyaki; Sahoo, Rudra N; Mallick, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of interactions of ibuprofen and magnesium trisilicate after co-processing has been carried out by infrared spectroscopy. Dry-state ball-milling and, aqueous state kneading and freeze-drying were performed. FTIR spectroscopy of co-processed materials described acid-base reaction between the carboxylic acid containing ibuprofen to a significant extent. Increased absorbance of carboxylate peak accompanied by a consistently reduced absorbance of the carbonyl acid peak was evident. Absorbance of carboxylate peak was more in freeze-dried sample compared to milled product. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ibuprofen and magnesium trisilicate in the co-processed material has been suggested. Inhibition of crystal morphology has been noticed in the photomicrographs of both the products. DSC report has shown absence or significantly decreased melting endotherm representing almost complete amorphization of ibuprofen. Release of drug increased greatly after co-processing in comparison to crystalline ibuprofen. Freeze-dried samples have improved drug release more significantly compared to ball-milled samples.

  14. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria Across Physical-Chemical Gradients in San Francisco Bay Estuary Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, A. C.; Francis, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    A combination of recent metagenomic analyses and the cultivation of a novel, ammonia-oxidizing, marine crenarchaeota revealed the first evidence for nitrification within the Archaeal domain. Further genetic and metagenomic studies demonstrated the presence of ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaea in diverse marine and terrestrial environments. These discoveries challenge the currently accepted view of the global nitrogen cycle and validate the need for further research on microbial diversity and function. In particular, it is imperative to reexamine the microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation in marine and estuarine sediments, where this process plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen. Using phylogenetic analyses of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene sequences, we examined the distribution and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in San Francisco Bay, the largest estuary on the West coast of the United States. The highly impacted bay, encompassing nearly 178,000 km2, effectively connects two estuaries with varying physical-chemical characteristics to the Pacific Ocean. We recovered archaeal and bacterial amoA genes from 11 sites distributed throughout the bay, spanning the northern and southern estuaries and the central region where they connect to the ocean. Richness estimates varied considerably across all sites examined, with archaeal amoA estimates being generally higher than bacterial amoA. Several of the bacterial amoA libraries were represented by fewer than 3 genotypes. Archaeal amoA sequences were phylogenetically diverse and grouped within previously described sediment and soil/sediment clusters. Several sequences were closely related to the only cultivated AOA, Nitrosopumilus maritimus. Both the archaeal and bacterial amoA sequences showed significant regional specificity. Distinct populations exist in the northern and southern estuaries and sequences from the northernmost and southernmost sites

  16. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring

  17. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    For detailed reconstructions of atmospheric metal deposition using peat cores from bogs, a comprehensive protocol for working with peat cores is proposed. The first step is to locate and determine suitable sampling sites in accordance with the principal goal of the study, the period of time of interest and the precision required. Using the state of the art procedures and field equipment, peat cores are collected in such a way as to provide high quality records for paleoenvironmental study. Pertinent field observations gathered during the fieldwork are recorded in a field report. Cores are kept frozen at -18 degree C until they can be prepared in the laboratory. Frozen peat cores are precisely cut into 1 cm slices using a stainless steel band saw with stainless steel blades. The outside edges of each slice are removed using a titanium knife to avoid any possible contamination which might have occurred during the sampling and handling stage. Each slice is split, with one-half kept frozen for future studies (archived), and the other half further subdivided for physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses. Physical parameters such as ash and water contents, the bulk density and the degree of decomposition of the peat are determined using established methods. A subsample is dried overnight at 105 degree C in a drying oven and milled in a centrifugal mill with titanium sieve. Prior to any expensive and time consuming chemical procedures and analyses, the resulting powdered samples, after manual homogenisation, are measured for more than twenty-two major and trace elements using non-destructive X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. This approach provides lots of valuable geochemical data which documents the natural geochemical processes which occur in the peat profiles and their possible effect on the trace metal profiles. The development, evaluation and use of peat cores from bogs as archives of high-resolution records of atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and trace

  18. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data Used to Study Urbanizing Streams in Nine Metropolitan Areas of the United States, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise M.P.; Bell, Amanda H.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Coles, James F.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Falcone, James A.; Sprague, Lori A.; Bryant, Wade L.; Peppler, Marie C.; Stephens, Cory; McMahon, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This report documents and summarizes physical, chemical, and biological data collected during 1999-2004 in a study titled Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems, undertaken as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data-collection methods and data processing are described in this report for streamflow; stream temperature; instream chemistry; instream aquatic habitat; and algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Data summaries prepared for analytical use are presented in downloadable data tables.

  19. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  20. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Melt-in-Mouth Tablets of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride Using Novel Co-processed Superdisintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Ladola, M. K.; Gangurde, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, a novel multifunctional co-processed superdisintegrants consisting of crospovidone and Kyron T-314 were fabricated by solvent evaporation method to develop melt-in-mouth tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. The simple physical blends and co-processed mixture of superdisintegrants were characterized for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies by FTIR spectroscopy. Melt-in-mouth tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride were prepared using the physical blends and co-processed mixture of superdisinterants and were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, drug content, in vitro drug release and accelerated stability study at 40±2° temperature and 75±5% relative humidity. Among the tablets evaluated, formulation F-X prepared by adding co-processed superdisintegrants in ratio of 1:1 showed minimum in vitro dispersion time of 9.71±0.021 s, in vitro disintegration time of 5.70±0.117 s and higher amount of drug release of 99.695±0.29% at the end of 1 min. Formulation F-X was emerged as the overall best formulation based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared with the tablets obtained from conventional method of manufacture as well as with marketed preparation. Analysis of drug release data indicated that formulation F-X followed first order kinetics. This study revealed that the co-processed mixture of superdisintegrants have excellent flow properties, high compressibility, render low disintegration time to tablets and have better binding properties as compared to physical blends of superdisintegrants. These materials can be a good substitute for inert superdisintegrants, which are normally used in tablet manufacturing. PMID:25425756

  2. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Williams, Christopher; Price, Lynn

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe international best practices for pre-processing and coprocessing of MSW and sewage sludge in cement plants, for the benefit of countries that wish to develop co-processing capacity. The report is divided into three main sections. Section 2 describes the fundamentals of co-processing, Section 3 describes exemplary international regulatory and institutional frameworks for co-processing, and Section 4 describes international best practices related to the technological aspects of co-processing.

  4. Formulation and dissolution kinetics study of hydrophilic matrix tablets with tramadol hydrochloride and different co-processed dry binders.

    PubMed

    Komersová, Alena; Lochař, Václav; Myslíková, Kateřina; Mužíková, Jitka; Bartoš, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present the possibility of using of co-processed dry binders for formulation of matrix tablets with drug controlled release. Hydrophilic matrix tablets with tramadol hydrochloride, hypromellose and different co-processed dry binders were prepared by direct compression method. Hypromelloses Methocel™ K4M Premium CR or Methocel™ K100M Premium CR were used as controlled release agents and Prosolv® SMCC 90 or Disintequik™ MCC 25 were used as co-processed dry binders. Homogeneity of the tablets was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The release of tramadol hydrochloride from prepared formulations was studied by dissolution test method. The dissolution profiles obtained were evaluated by non-linear regression analysis, release rate constants and other kinetic parameters were determined. It was found that matrix tablets based on Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Methocel™ Premium CR cannot control the tramadol release effectively for >12h and tablets containing Disintequik™ MCC 25 and Methocel™ Premium CR >8h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Choice of a method and a type of device for water decontamination and warming within physical-chemical life support systems].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I; Il'in, V K; Starkova, L V

    2008-01-01

    The review has been undertaken within project Mars-500 supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences and aimed to make choice of a method and associated device for effective decontamination and warming potable water for humans during long confinement and isolation. Analysis of the literary data and patent specifications of chemical, physical and hybrid methods of water decontamination and warming guided the choice of energy of ultrahigh frequencies (UHF). Also, a waveguide-coaxial UHF-device implementing this method was proposed. Ease of the UHF energy transformation to heat, reliability, friendliness and impart attractiveness to the method in the eye of developers of long-operating physical-chemical life support systems.

  6. Effect on the nasal bioavailability of co-processing drug and bioadhesive carrier via spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Vervaet, C; Foreman, P; Adriaensens, P; Carleer, R; Remon, J P

    2009-09-08

    A mucoadhesive combination of a maize starch (Amioca, mainly consisting of amylopectine) and a cross-linked acrylic acid-based polymer (Carbopol 974P) was spray-dried with metoprolol tartrate (used as model molecule) in order to develop a powder suitable for nasal drug delivery via a one-step manufacturing process. The bioavailability of metoprolol tartrate after nasal administration of this powder to rabbits was compared with powders manufactured via other procedures: (a) freeze-drying of a dispersion prepared using the co-spray-dried powder, (b) freeze-drying of a dispersion prepared using a physical mixture of drug and mucoadhesive polymers. After co-processing via spray-drying a low bioavailability (BA 10.8+/-2.3%) was obtained, whereas manufacturing procedures based on freeze-drying yielded a higher BA: 37.9+/-12.8% using the co-processed powder and 73.6+/-24.9% using the physical mixture. The higher bioavailability was due to the deprotonation of poly(acrylic acid) during neutralisation of the dispersion prior to freeze-drying. This induced repulsion of the ionised carboxyl groups and a lower interaction between poly(acrylic acid) and starch, creating a less compact matrix upon hydration of the polymer and allowing an easier escape of metoprolol tartrate from the matrix. This study showed that co-processing of a mucoadhesive Amioca/Carbopol 974P formulation with metoprolol tartrate via co-spray-drying did not provide any added value towards the bioavailability of the drug after nasal administration of the mucoadhesive powder.

  7. High energy ball milling and supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation as co-processing methods to improve dissolution of tadalafil.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Anna; Descamps, Marc; Willart, Jean-François; Jachowicz, Renata; Danède, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Tadalafil (TD) is a crystalline drug of a high melting point (Tm=299°C) and limited solubility in water (<5μg/mL). These properties may result in reduced and variable bioavailability after oral administration. Since the melting of TD is followed by its decomposition, the drug processing at high temperatures is limited. The aim of the research is, therefore, to improve the dissolution of TD by its co-processing with the hydrophilic polymer Soluplus® (SL) at temperatures below 40°C. In this study, two methods, i.e. high energy ball-milling and supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation (scCO2) are compared, with the aim to predict their suitability for the vitrification of TD. The influence of the amount of SL and the kind of co-processing method on TD thermal properties is analyzed. The results show that only the high energy ball milling process makes it possible to obtain a completely amorphous form of TD, with the characteristic X-ray 'halo' pattern. The intensity of the Bragg peaks diminishes for all the formulations treated with scCO2, but these samples remain crystalline. The MDSC results show that high energy ball milling is capable of forcing the mixing of TD and SL at a molecular level, providing a homogeneous amorphous solid solution. The glass transition temperatures (Tg), determined for the co-milled formulations, range from 79°C to 139°C and they are higher than Tg of pure SL (ca. 70°C) and lower than Tg of pure TD (ca. 149°C). In contrast to the co-milled formulations which are in the form of powder, all the formulations after scCO2 impregnation form a hard residue, sticking to the reaction vessel, which needs to be ground before analysis or further processing. Finally, the dissolution studies show that not only has SL a beneficial effect on the amount of TD dissolved, but also both co-processing methods make the dissolution enhancement of TD possible. After co-processing by scCO2, the amount of TD dissolved increases with the decreasing amount

  8. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. VII. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of DDT and Its Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    respectively.11@ No information was retrieved for m,p-DDE. Reptiles . No quantitative toxicity data were recovered, but Stickel has stated that the box...against loss of reptiles through land application of DDT is summarized by McKee and Wolfe." * Direct treatment of ponds at DDT concentrations of 2 ppm or...34 Spermatogenesis in Bald Eagles Experimentally Fed a Diet Containing DDT," Condor 68:497-502 (1966). 94. Hickey, J.J. and D.W. Anderson, "Chlorinated

  9. [Selection of the SHF discharge type for the processing of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in a physical-chemical life support system].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I

    2004-01-01

    Compared are contrasted are moving, stationary, and combined SHF-discharges, methods of discharge generation and diagnostics of the discharge temperature, electron concentration in the discharge tube. and SHF contribution. A combination of the SHF and arc discharges was selected for prototyping the carbon dioxide and hydrogen processor within a physical-chemical life support system. To sustain temperature in the interval between 1000 and 3500 degrees C to support the initial Bosch reaction, a low-power (30-50 mA) glow discharge will be used instead of the continuous current arc (3-5 A). This combination increases plasma efficiency and is suitable for designing a non-inertia air supply within the space life support system.

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  11. Bioaccumulation Behavior of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Influence of Physical-Chemical Properties and Biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-09-11

    The factors influencing bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic organisms are not well understood. The present study involved a comprehensive laboratory investigation to assess the bioaccumulation behavior of several PPCPs in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). The studied PPCPs included several ionogenic organic compounds (IOCs) such as weak acids and weak bases. Experiments involved two exposure groups (high and low) and a control group, with a 6 day aqueous exposure, followed by a 7 day depuration phase under flow-through conditions. Uptake rate constants (ku) ranged between 0.19 and 8610 L·kg(-1)·d(-1), while depuration rate constants (kd) ranged between 0.14 and 5.14 d(-1) in different fish tissues. Steady-state bioconcentration factor (BCFss) values varied widely among the studied PPCPs, ranging from 0.09 to 6,460. In many cases, BCFss values of individual PPCPs differed substantially among different fish tissues. Positive linear relationships were observed between log BCFss values and physical-chemical properties such as octanol-water distribution coefficients (log Dow), membrane-water distribution coefficients (log Dmw), albumin-water distribution coefficients (log DBSAw), and muscle protein-water distribution coefficients (log Dmpw), indicating the importance of lipid-, phospholipid-, and protein-water partitioning. The results also showed that for many PPCPs, the estimated whole-body metabolism rate constant (km) values were comparable to the observed depuration rate (kd), indicating that metabolism plays a major role in the overall elimination of these compounds in zebrafish. An exception was sertraline, which exhibited a kd value (0.4-0.5 d(-1)) that was much higher than the estimated whole-body km (0.03 d(-1)). Overall, the results help to better understand the influence of physical-chemical properties and biotransformation on bioaccumulation behavior of these contaminants of concern in aquatic organisms.

  12. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics and estimates of annual constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fossum, Kenneth D.; O'Day, Christie M.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Monical, Jim E.

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in Maricopa County were monitored to (1) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of stormwater from areas having different land uses, (2) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of streamflow from areas that receive urban stormwater, and (3) estimate constituent loads in stormwater. Urban stormwater and streamflow had similar ranges in most constituent concentrations. The mean concentration of dissolved solids in urban stormwater was lower than in streamflow from the Salt River and Indian Bend Wash. Urban stormwater, however, had a greater chemical oxygen demand and higher concentrations of most nutrients. Mean seasonal loads and mean annual loads of 11 constituents and volumes of runoff were estimated for municipalities in the metropolitan Phoenix area, Arizona, by adjusting regional regression equations of loads. This adjustment procedure uses the original regional regression equation and additional explanatory variables that were not included in the original equation. The adjusted equations had standard errors that ranged from 161 to 196 percent. The large standard errors of the prediction result from the large variability of the constituent concentration data used in the regression analysis. Adjustment procedures produced unsatisfactory results for nine of the regressions?suspended solids, dissolved solids, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable cadmium, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, total recoverable zinc, and storm runoff. These equations had no consistent direction of bias and no other additional explanatory variables correlated with the observed loads. A stepwise-multiple regression or a three-variable regression (total storm rainfall, drainage area, and impervious area) and local data were used to develop local regression equations for these nine constituents. These equations had standard errors from 15 to 183 percent.

  13. Stability and maturity of biowaste composts derived by small municipalities: Correlation among physical, chemical and biological indices.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Torres-Lozada, P; Marmolejo-Rebellon, L F; Hoyos, L V; Gonzales, S; Barrena, R; Komilis, D; Sanchez, A

    2015-10-01

    Stability and maturity are important criteria to guarantee the quality of a compost that is applied to agriculture or used as amendment in degraded soils. Although different techniques exist to evaluate stability and maturity, the application of laboratory tests in municipalities in developing countries can be limited due to cost and application complexities. In the composting facilities of such places, some classical low cost on-site tests to monitor the composting process are usually implemented; however, such tests do not necessarily clearly identify conditions of stability and maturity. In this article, we have applied and compared results of stability and maturity tests that can be easily employed on site (i.e. temperature, pH, moisture, electrical conductivity [EC], odor and color), and of tests that require more complex laboratory techniques (volatile solids, C/N ratio, self-heating, respirometric index, germination index [GI]). The evaluation of the above was performed in the field scale using 2 piles of biowaste applied compost. The monitoring period was from day 70 to day 190 of the process. Results showed that the low-cost tests traditionally employed to monitor the composting process on-site, such as temperature, color and moisture, do not provide consistent determinations with the more complex laboratory tests used to assess stability (e.g. respiration index, self-heating, volatile solids). In the case of maturity tests (GI, pH, EC), both the on-site tests (pH, EC) and the laboratory test (GI) provided consistent results. Although, stability was indicated for most of the samples, the maturity tests indicated that products were consistently immature. Thus, a stable product is not necessarily mature. Conclusively, the decision on the quality of the compost in the installations located in developing countries requires the simultaneous use of a combination of tests that are performed both in the laboratory and on-site.

  14. Development of co-processed excipients in the design and evaluation of atorvastatin calcium tablets by direct compression method

    PubMed Central

    Pusapati, Ravi Teja; Kumar, MVR Kalyan; Rapeti, Siva Satyanandam; Murthy, TEGK

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Co-processed excipients were prepared to improve the process ability and efficacy of commonly used excipients and to impart multi-functional qualities to the excipients and hence that the tablets with the desired attributes can be produced. In this study, acacia and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) were used to prepare a co-processing excipient suitable for the preparation of atorvastatin calcium tablets. Acacia is used as binder and CaCO3 as filler. CaCO3 also acts as alkalizer and thus suitable to improve the dissolution rate of pH dependent soluble drugs like atorvastatin. Materials and Methods: The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and the physical properties of tablets such as hardness, friability and dissolution profiles of tablets were evaluated. Acacia was used in the form of mucilage. Various ratios of the co-processing excipients were formulated by granulation technique and the blend properties were evaluated by their Hausner's ratio and Carr's index values. Based on the Kawakita plots, it was found that the formulation with 3% acacia mucilage (0.9 mg acacia and 26.6 mg of CaCO3) showed good fluidity and the formulations with 4% (1.27 mg of acacia and 26.23 mg of CaCO3) and 5% acacia mucilage (1.62 mg of acacia and 25.88 mg of CaCO3) showed more cohesiveness. The formulations include 1-5% of the acacia mucilage as the binding agent. Results: The granules of formulations with low percentage of acacia mucilage (1% and 2%) failed the test for friability. The granules of the formulations with pure acacia (F1) and pure CaCO3 (F2) showed passable flow properties. Conclusion: The formulation with 3% acacia mucilage (F3, 0.9 mg acacia and 26.6 mg of CaCO3) showed least dissolution time (<1 min) and is found as the best formulation among the other formulations containing 4% (F4, 1.27 mg of acacia and 26.23 mg of CaCO3) and 5% (F5, 1.62 mg of acacia and 25.88 mg of CaCO3) acacia mucilage. PMID:25006555

  15. Concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls at different process stages of cement kilns co-processing waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Yang, Lili; Zhan, Jiayu; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Li; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    Cement kilns can be used to co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. However, this might increase emission of organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Knowledge of PCB concentrations and homolog and congener patterns at different stages in this process could be used to assess the possibility of simultaneously controlling emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and "dioxin-like" compounds. To date, emissions from cement kilns co-processing fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators have not been analyzed for PCBs. In this study, stack gas and particulate samples from two cement kilns co-processing waste incinerator fly ash were analyzed for PCBs. The average total tri- to deca-chlorinated biphenyl (∑3-10PCB) concentration in the stack gas samples was 10.15ngm(-3). The ∑3-10PCB concentration ranges in particulate samples from different stages were 0.83-41.79ngg(-1) for cement kiln 1and0.13-1.69ngg(-1) for cement kiln 2. The ∑3-10PCB concentrations were much higher in particulate samples from the suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and kiln back-end bag filters than in particulate samples from other stages. For these three stages, PCBs contributed to 15-18% of the total PCB, PCDD/F, and polychlorinated naphthalene toxic equivalents in stack gases and particulate matter. The PCB distributions were similar to those found in other studies for PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes, which suggest that it may be possible to simultaneously control emissions of multiple organic pollutants from cement kilns. Homolog patterns in the particulate samples were dominated by the pentachlorobiphenyls. CB-105, CB-118, and CB-123 were the dominant dioxin-like PCB congeners that formed at the back-end of the cement kiln. A mass balance of PCBs in the cement kilns indicated that the total mass of PCBs in the stack gases and clinker was about half the mass of PCBs in the raw materials.

  16. Effect of sucrose and pectin addition on physical, chemical, thermal and rheological properties of frozen/thawed pineapple pulps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; Prado, Mônica Elisabeth Torres; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Pectin (0-1.0 g/100 mL) and sucrose (0-20 g/100 mL) were added to pineapple pulp to improve their rheological properties, thermal properties and stability after freezing and thawing processes. The properties of the mixes were characterized before and after freezing and thawing. Samples were frozen at -20°C, and the freeze concentration was evaluated every 60 min. The thawing rate was evaluated at 19°C and quantified by photographic editing and image analysis software. The thawing rates and values for the freeze concentration were leveled out at pectin concentrations above 0.5 g/100 mL pectin, which indicated that pectin functions to maintain structural homogeneity during freezing. In the thawed samples, the plastic viscosity values were leveled out from pectin concentrations (0.25-0.75 g/100 mL) as the sucrose concentration increased when compared to unfrozen samples. The differences between the rheological parameters of the unfrozen and frozen/thawed pulps, the higher yield stress values after thawing were attributed to the size of suspended particles in the pulp. Applications can specify formulations of frozen products containing pectin, where these properties can be handled after thawing the product.

  17. Methodologies for the quantitative estimation of toxicant dose to cigarette smokers using physical, chemical and bioanalytical data.

    PubMed

    St Charles, Frank Kelley; McAughey, John; Shepperd, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Methodologies have been developed, described and demonstrated that convert mouth exposure estimates of cigarette smoke constituents to dose by accounting for smoke spilled from the mouth prior to inhalation (mouth-spill (MS)) and the respiratory retention (RR) during the inhalation cycle. The methodologies are applicable to just about any chemical compound in cigarette smoke that can be measured analytically and can be used with ambulatory population studies. Conversion of exposure to dose improves the relevancy for risk assessment paradigms. Except for urinary nicotine plus metabolites, biomarkers generally do not provide quantitative exposure or dose estimates. In addition, many smoke constituents have no reliable biomarkers. We describe methods to estimate the RR of chemical compounds in smoke based on their vapor pressure (VP) and to estimate the MS for a given subject. Data from two clinical studies were used to demonstrate dose estimation for 13 compounds, of which only 3 have urinary biomarkers. Compounds with VP > 10(-5) Pa generally have RRs of 88% or greater, which do not vary appreciably with inhalation volume (IV). Compounds with VP < 10(-7) Pa generally have RRs dependent on IV and lung exposure time. For MS, mean subject values from both studies were slightly greater than 30%. For constituents with urinary biomarkers, correlations with the calculated dose were significantly improved over correlations with mouth exposure. Of toxicological importance is that the dose correlations provide an estimate of the metabolic conversion of a constituent to its respective biomarker.

  18. Methodologies for the quantitative estimation of toxicant dose to cigarette smokers using physical, chemical and bioanalytical data

    PubMed Central

    McAughey, John; Shepperd, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed, described and demonstrated that convert mouth exposure estimates of cigarette smoke constituents to dose by accounting for smoke spilled from the mouth prior to inhalation (mouth-spill (MS)) and the respiratory retention (RR) during the inhalation cycle. The methodologies are applicable to just about any chemical compound in cigarette smoke that can be measured analytically and can be used with ambulatory population studies. Conversion of exposure to dose improves the relevancy for risk assessment paradigms. Except for urinary nicotine plus metabolites, biomarkers generally do not provide quantitative exposure or dose estimates. In addition, many smoke constituents have no reliable biomarkers. We describe methods to estimate the RR of chemical compounds in smoke based on their vapor pressure (VP) and to estimate the MS for a given subject. Data from two clinical studies were used to demonstrate dose estimation for 13 compounds, of which only 3 have urinary biomarkers. Compounds with VP > 10−5 Pa generally have RRs of 88% or greater, which do not vary appreciably with inhalation volume (IV). Compounds with VP < 10−7 Pa generally have RRs dependent on IV and lung exposure time. For MS, mean subject values from both studies were slightly greater than 30%. For constituents with urinary biomarkers, correlations with the calculated dose were significantly improved over correlations with mouth exposure. Of toxicological importance is that the dose correlations provide an estimate of the metabolic conversion of a constituent to its respective biomarker. PMID:23742081

  19. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  20. Physical, chemical and in vitro biological profile of chitosan hybrid membrane as a function of organosiloxane concentration.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Lopes, Maria Ascensão; Santos, José Domingos; Costa, Maria Adelina; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to prepare chitosan-silicate hybrid for use in a medical application and evaluated the physico-chemical properties and osteocompatibility of the hybrids as a function of gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) concentration. Chitosan-silicate hybrids were synthesized using GPTMS as the reagent for cross-linking of the chitosan chains. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (29)Si CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the ninhydrin assay were used to analyze the structures of the hybrids, and stress-strain curves were recorded to estimate their Young's modulus. The swelling ability, contact angle and cytocompatibility of the hybrids were investigated as a function of the GPTMS concentration. A certain fraction of GPTMS in each hybrid was linked at the epoxy group to the amino group of chitosan, which was associated with the change in the methoxysilane group of GPTMS due to hybridization. The cross-linking density was around 80% regardless of the volume of GPTMS. As the content of GPTMS increased, the water uptake decreased and the hydrophilicity of the hybrids increased except when the content exceeded amolar ratio of 1.5, when it caused a decrease. The values of the mechanical parameters assessed indicated that significant stiffening of the hybrids was obtained by the addition of GPTMS. The adhesion and proliferation of the MG63 osteoblast cells cultured on the chitosan-GPTMS hybrid surface were improved compared to those on the chitosan membrane, regardless of the GPTMS concentration. Moreover, human bone marrow osteoblast cells proliferated on the chitosan-GPTMS hybrid surface and formed a fibrillar extracellular matrix with numerous calcium phosphate globular structures, both in the presence and in the absence of dexamethasone. Therefore, the chitosan-GPTMS hybrids are promising candidates for basic materials that can promote bone regeneration because of their controllable composition (chitosan/GPTMS ratio).

  1. Descriptive sensory profiling and physical/chemical analyses of warmed-over flavour in pork patties from carriers and non-carriers of the RN(-) allele.

    PubMed

    Byrne, D V; O'Sullivan, M G; Bredie, W L P; Andersen, H J; Martens, M

    2003-02-01

    Descriptive sensory profiling was carried out to evaluate warmed-over flavour (WOF) development in cooked, chill-stored and reheated pork patties derived from the meat (Musculus longissimus dorsi) of carriers (RN(-)/rn(+)) and non-carriers (rn(+)/rn(+)) of the RN(-) gene. Patties were oven-cooked at 150 and 170 °C and chill-stored for up to 5 days to facilitate warmed-over flavour (WOF) development. In addition, thawing losses, cooking losses, pH and TBARS were measured in the cooked pork patties. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate changes in the physical/chemical measurements due to the experimental design variables (storage days, cooking temperature and genotype) and multivariate ANOVA-partial least squares regression (APLSR) was used to determine relationships between the design variables and the sensory and physical/chemical data. WOF was found to involve the development of lipid oxidation derived nuance off-flavour and odour notes, e.g. rancid-like flavour and linseed oil-like odour, in association with a concurrent decrease in 'meatiness' as described by, e.g. cooked pork meat-like flavour. Cooking temperature was described by roasted-like and caramel-like odours and samples from carriers of the RN(-) gene were described as more 'sour' and 'metallic'. Thawing and cooking losses were found to be significantly (P <0.05) higher in meat from carriers of the RN(-) gene versus non-carriers. pH was negatively related to samples from carriers of the RN(-) gene. However, the measured pH in RN(-) carriers could not be significantly ascribed as lower in non-carriers in the freshly cooked meat samples. TBARS were found to be significant (P <0.05) predictors of the sensory terms related to the lipid oxidation aspect of WOF. Moreover, TBARS were significantly (P <0.05) higher in meat from RN(-) gene carriers but, significantly (P <0.05) lower in meat cooked at high oven temperatures (170 °C). The former effect was postulated as related to pH and the

  2. Applied group theory applications in the engineering (physical, chemical, and medical), biological, social, and behavioral sciences and in the fine arts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A generalized applied group theory is developed, and it is shown that phenomena from a number of diverse disciplines may be included under the umbrella of a single theoretical formulation based upon the concept of a group consistent with the usual definition of this term.

  3. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads ( P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  4. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Methods and Data from the Urban Land-Use-Gradient Study, Des Plaines and Fox River Basins, Illinois, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adolphson, Debbie L.; Arnold, Terri L.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2001-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 46 sites in the Fox and Des Plaines River Basins as part of the upper Illinois River Basin study of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data, collected from 1999 to 2001, will be used to determine the effects of urbanization on streams in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. To examine the possible effects of urbanization on stream-water quality, the sampling sites were selected to represent a gradient of land use changing from agriculture into urban. Urban land use for the selected sites ranged from less than 1 percent urban to 92 percent urban. Data-collection methods are presented in the text portion of this report. Physical characteristics of the stream that were collected include descriptive and qualitative habitat and geomorphic measures. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), 11 major ions, 46 wastewater indicators, pH, and specific conductance. Aquatic communities were sampled to identify and quantify populations of selected algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. There were 72 unique fish species collected at all of the sites. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa collected at all the sites ranged from 15 to 48. The data and the associated data documentation are presented on a CD-ROM included with this report.

  5. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  6. Case studies on the physical-chemical parameters' variation during three different purification approaches destined to treat wastewaters from food industry.

    PubMed

    Ghimpusan, Marieta; Nechifor, Gheorghe; Nechifor, Aurelia-Cristina; Dima, Stefan-Ovidiu; Passeri, Piero

    2016-07-26

    The paper presents a set of three interconnected case studies on the depuration of food processing wastewaters by using aeration & ozonation and two types of hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (MBR) approaches. A secondary and more extensive objective derived from the first one is to draw a clearer, broader frame on the variation of physical-chemical parameters during the purification of wastewaters from food industry through different operating modes with the aim of improving the management of water purification process. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), total nitrogen, specific nitrogen (NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-)) total phosphorous, and total surfactants were the measured parameters, and their influence was discussed in order to establish the best operating mode to achieve the purification performances. The integrated air-ozone aeration process applied in the second operating mode lead to a COD decrease by up to 90%, compared to only 75% obtained in a conventional biological activated sludge process. The combined purification process of MBR and ozonation produced an additional COD decrease of 10-15%, and made the Total Surfactants values to comply to the specific legislation.

  7. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  8. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected between 1990 and 1992 as part of a detailed study by the U.S. Department of Interior of the effects of irrigation drainage on aquatic resources in the Klamath Basin of California and Oregon. Most of the sites for data collection were in and around the upper and lower sump of Tule Lake, in the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and along major drains in Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. The physical and chemical data consist of particle-size determinations and concentrations of carbon, mercury, arsenic, chlorophenoxy acid, and organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides in bottom sediment; and concentrations of organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides, major and trace inorganic constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in water. Continuous dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc- tance, and temperature data from selected sites in 1991 and 1992 are presented in graphical form to summarize the diel water-quality conditions. The biological data consists of concentrations of inorganic constituents and organochlorine pesticides in tissue, invertebrate and fish population surveys, fish health surveys, frog call surveys, egg shell thickness of avian eggs, and in situ and static toxicity bioassay data collected in 1991 and 1992 using aquatic bacteria, plants, invertebrates, fish, and bird species as test organisms.

  9. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Middle Green River basin, Utah 1988-89, with selected data for 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peltz, Lorri A.; Waddell, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in the middle Green River basin, eastern Utah, between 1988 and 1989, as part of a detailed study of the effects of irrigation drainage on wetland areas. Data-collection efforts were concentrated in the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area near Jensen, and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge near Ouray. Data also were collected from Ashley Creek near Vernal, Pelican Lake near Ouray, and in Pariette Wetlands near Myton. A limited quantity of data collected during earlier studies (1982-87), funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, also is included. This report contains data needed to assess the effects of selenium and other potentially toxic contaminants on streams and wetlands. Data consist of concentrations of trace elements and common elements in samples of water, sediment, plants, waterfowl, birds, fish, and invertebrates. Other data presented in the report are ground-water levels, surface-water discharges, radiochemical constituents in water, analyses of organochlorine compounds in biota, and morphonetric measurements of biota.

  11. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Boise River from Veterans Memorial Parkway, Boise to Star, Idaho, October 1987 to March 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities were detrimental to aquatic communities. Cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cyanide, lead, nickel, and silver concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Arsenic, copper, and zinc were detected in concentrations less than chronic toxicity criteria. Concentrations of trace elements in bottom material generally were small and could not be attributed to effluents from wastewater treatment facilities. From October to December 1987, mean density of benthic invertebrates colonizing artificial substrates was from 6,100 individuals/substrate downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility to 14,000 individuals per substrate downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility. From January to March 1988 , mean density of benthic invertebrates colonizing artificial substrates was from 7,100 individuals per substrate downstream from the West Boise facility to 10,000 individuals per substrate near Star. Insect communities upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coeffients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. Distribution of mayflies indicates that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  12. Magnetotransport phenomena in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin film topological insulators grown by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Raj; Hunte, Frank; Brom, Joseph E.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2015-02-14

    Intrinsic defects in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulators tend to produce a high carrier concentration and current leakage through the bulk material. Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films were grown by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates with high Se vapor pressure to reduce the occurrence of Se vacancies as the main type of defect. Consequently, the carrier concentration was reduced to ∼5.75 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} comparable to reported carrier concentration in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films. Magnetotransport measurements were performed on the films and the data were analyzed for weak anti-localization using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The estimated α and l{sub ϕ} values showed good agreement with the symplectic case of 2-D transport of topological surface states in the quantum diffusion regime. The temperature and angular dependence of magnetoresistance indicate a large contribution of the 2-D surface carriers to overall transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin film.

  13. Influence of moderate pre-oxidation treatment on the physical, chemical and phosphate adsorption properties of iron-containing activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Shi, Mo; Li, Jihua; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    A novel adsorbent based on iron oxide dispersed over activated carbon (AC) were prepared, and used for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions. The influence of pre-oxidation treatment on the physical, chemical and phosphate adsorption properties of iron-containing AC were determined. Two series of ACs, non-oxidized and oxidized carbon modified by iron (denoted as AC-Fe and AC/O-Fe), resulted in a maximum impregnated iron of 4.03% and 7.56%, respectively. AC/O-Fe showed 34.0%-46.6% higher phosphate removal efficiency than the AC-Fe did. This was first attributed to the moderate pre-oxidation of raw AC by nitric acid, achieved by dosing Fe(II) after a pre-oxidation, to obtain higher iron loading, which is favorable for phosphate adsorption. Additionally, the in-situ formed active site on the surface of carbon, which was derived from the oxidation of Fe(II) by nitric acid dominated the remarkably high efficiency with respect to the removal of phosphate. The activation energy for adsorption was calculated to be 10.53 and 18.88 kJ/mol for AC-Fe and AC/O-Fe, respectively. The results showed that the surface mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion were simultaneously occurring during the process and contribute to the adsorption mechanism.

  14. The response of Carlos Botelho (Lobo, Broa) Reservoir to the passage of cold fronts as reflected by physical, chemical, and biological variables.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Arantes Júnior, J D; Tundisi, J E; Manzini, N F; Ducrot, R

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes and discusses the impacts of the passage of cold fronts on the vertical structure of the Carlos Botelho (Lobo-Broa) Reservoir as demonstrated by changes in physical, chemical, and biological variables. The data were obtained with a continuous system measuring 9 variables in vertical profiles in the deepest point of the reservoir (12 m) coupled with climatological information and satellite images, during a 32-day period in July and August, 2003. During periods of incidence of cold fronts the reservoir presented vertical mixing. After the dissipation of the cold fronts a period of stability followed with thermal, chemical, and biological (chlorophyll-a) stratification. Climatological data obtained during the cold front passage showed lower air temperature, higher wind speed and lower solar radiation. The response of this reservoir can exemplify a generalized process in all shallow reservoirs in the Southeast Brazil and could have several implications for management, particularly in relation to the phytoplankton population dynamics and development of cyanobacterial blooms. Using this as a basis, a predictive model will be developed with the aim of advancing management strategies specially for the drinking water reservoirs of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo.

  15. Development of Magnetically Excited Flexural Plate Wave Devices for Implementation as Physical, Chemical, and Acoustic Sensors, and as Integrated Micro-Pumps for Sensored Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, W. K.; Mitchell, M. A.; Graf, D. C.; Shul, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    The magnetically excited flexural plate wave (mag-FPW) device has great promise as a versatile sensor platform. FPW's can have better sensitivity at lower operating frequencies than surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Lower operating frequency simplifies the control electronics and makes integration of sensor with electronics easier. Magnetic rather than piezoelectric excitation of the FPW greatly simplifies the device structure and processing by eliminating the need for piezoelectric thin films, also simplifying integration issues. The versatile mag-FPW resonator structure can potentially be configured to fulfill a number of critical functions in an autonomous sensored system. As a physical sensor, the device can be extremely sensitive to temperature, fluid flow, strain, acceleration and vibration. By coating the membrane with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), or polymer films with selective absorption properties (originally developed for SAW sensors), the mass sensitivity of the FPW allows it to be used as biological or chemical sensors. Yet another critical need in autonomous sensor systems is the ability to pump fluid. FPW structures can be configured as micro-pumps. This report describes work done to develop mag-FPW devices as physical, chemical, and acoustic sensors, and as micro-pumps for both liquid and gas-phase analytes to enable new integrated sensing platform.

  16. Microbial, physical-chemical and sensory spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to study spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method. Samples were packaged under vacuum into polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 70°C/12h, chilled at 3°C and stored at 2°C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) colour, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. The results showed that sensory spoilage preceded microbiological spoilage of sous vide pork loin. Counts bellow 1logcfu/g of psychrotrophs, anaerobic psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were detected in any control week, while moderate counts (2-3logcfu/g) of moulds and yeasts were found. Minor changes in water activity, lipid oxidation, CIELab colour, hardness, cohesiveness or gumminess were associated with spoilage of pork loin, only decreases of lactic acid, springiness and shear force were observed. The pork loin was unacceptable after 10 weeks. This loss of acceptance was mainly due to the deterioration of meaty flavour and odour, although the loss of appearance, juiciness and firmness also contributed. Moderate warmed-over and rancidity were detected. The sensory analysis was the most effective method for determining the shelf life of the sous vide pork-based dishes.

  17. A study of a new co-processed dry binder based on spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Sináglová, Pavla

    2013-06-01

    The paper studies the compressibility and disintegration time of tablets from the co-processed dry binder DisintequikTM MCC in combination with two lubricants at two concentrations in dependence on compression force. It also compares identical parameters in the physical mixtures of the spray-dried lactose Flowlac® 100 and the microcrystalline cellulose Microcel® MC-102 in the ratios of 9 : 1, 8 : 2 and 7 : 3, again in combination with two lubricants of two concentrations at one compression force. The lubricants employed are magnesium stearate and poloxamer 407 in concentrations of 1% and 2%. Compressibility is evaluated by means of energy balance of compression and tensile strength of tablets. DisintequikTM MCC shows higher values of total energy of compression due to higher values of the energy accumulated by the tablet, higher plasticity, higher strength and a longer disintegration time of tablets than the physical mixture of spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose of a corresponding content. .

  18. Chapter B. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Responses of Streams to Increasing Watershed Urbanization in the Piedmont Ecoregion of Georgia and Alabama, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s effort to assess the physical, chemical, and biological responses of streams to urbanization, 30 wadable streams were sampled near Atlanta, Ga., during 2002?2003. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural factors such as geology, altitude, and climate while representing a range of urban development. A multimetric urban intensity index was calculated using watershed land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables that are highly correlated with population density. The index was used to select sites along a gradient from low to high urban intensity. Response variables measured include stream hydrology and water temperature, instream habitat, field properties (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity), nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations, and characterization of algal, invertebrate and fish communities. In addition, semipermeablemembrane devices (SPMDs)?passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?were used to evaluate water-quality conditions during the 4 weeks prior to biological sampling. Changes in physical, chemical, and biological conditions were evaluated using both nonparametric correlation analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and associated comparisons of dataset similarity matrices. Many of the commonly reported effects of watershed urbanization on streams were observed in this study, such as altered hydrology and increases in some chemical constituent levels. Analysis of water-chemistry data showed that specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and pesticides increased as urbanization increased. Nutrient concentrations were not directly correlated to increases in development, but were inversely correlated to percent forest in the watershed. Analyses of SPMD-derived data showed that

  19. Biopharmaceutical applications of nanogold

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Fars K.; Radwan, Awwad A.; Alsarra, Ibrahim A.

    2010-01-01

    The application of nanogold in biopharmaceutical field is reviewed in this work. The properties of nanogold including nanogold surface Plasmon absorption and nanogold surface Plasmon light scattering are illustrated. The physical, chemical, biosynthesis methods of nanogold preparation are presented. Catalytic properties as well as biomedical applications are highlighted as one of the most important applications of nanogold. Biosensing, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of gold nanoparticles are evaluated. Moreover, gold nanoparticles in drugs, biomolecules and proteins’ delivery are analyzed. Gold nanoparticles for the site-directed photothermal applications are reviewed as the most fruitful research area in the future. PMID:24936133

  20. Characterisation of landfill leachate by EEM-PARAFAC-SOM during physical-chemical treatment by coagulation-flocculation, activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Oloibiri, Violet; De Coninck, Sam; Chys, Michael; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2017-11-01

    The combination of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and self-organizing maps (SOM) is shown to be a powerful tool in the follow up of dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal from landfill leachate by physical-chemical treatment consisting of coagulation, granular activated carbon (GAC) and ion exchange. Using PARAFAC, three DOM components were identified: C1 representing humic/fulvic-like compounds; C2 representing tryptophan-like compounds; and C3 representing humic-like compounds. Coagulation with ferric chloride (FeCl3) at a dose of 7 g/L reduced the maximum fluorescence of C1, C2 and C3 by 52%, 17% and 15% respectively, while polyaluminium chloride (PACl) reduced C1 only by 7% at the same dose. DOM removal during GAC and ion exchange treatment of raw and coagulated leachate exhibited different profiles. At less than 2 bed volumes (BV) of treatment, the humic components C1 and C3 were rapidly removed, whereas at BV ≥ 2 the tryptophan-like component C2 was preferentially removed. Overall, leachate treated with coagulation +10.6 BV GAC +10.6 BV ion exchange showed the highest removal of C1 (39% - FeCl3, 8% - PACl), C2 (74% - FeCl3, 68% - PACl) and no C3 removal; whereas only 52% C2 and no C1 and C3 removal was observed in raw leachate treated with 10.6 BV GAC + 10.6 BV ion exchange only. Analysis of PARAFAC-derived components with SOM revealed that coagulation, GAC and ion exchange can treat leachate at least 50% longer than only GAC and ion exchange before the fluorescence composition of leachate remains unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Step-changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Gulf of Maine, as documented by the GNATS time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balch, William M.; Drapeau, D.T.; Bowler, B.C.; Huntington, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    We identify step-changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) using the Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS), a series of oceanographic measurements obtained between September 1998 and December 2010 along a transect in the GoM running from Portland, ME, to Yarmouth, NS. GNATS sampled a period of extremes in precipitation and river discharge (4 of the 8 wettest years of the last century occurred between 2005 and 2010). Coincident with increased precipitation, we observed the following shifts: (1) decreased salinity and density within the surface waters of the western GoM; (2) both reduced temperature and vertical temperature gradients in the upper 50 m; (3) increased colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentrations and particle scattering in the western GoM; (4) increased concentrations of nitrate and phosphate across all but the eastern GoM; (5) increased silicate, particularly in the western GoM, with a sharp increase in the ratio of silicate to dissolved inorganic nitrogen; (6) sharply decreased carbon fixation by phytoplankton; (7) moderately decreased chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) in the central GoM and (8) decreased POC- and PIC-specific growth rates. Gulf-wide anomaly analyses suggest that (1) the surface density changes were predominantly driven by temperature, (2) dissolved nutrients, as well as POC/PON, varied in Redfield ratios and (3) anomalies for salinity, density, CDOM, particle backscattering and silicate were significantly correlated with river discharge. Precipitation and river discharge appear to be playing a critical role in controlling the long-term productivity of the Gulf of Maine by supplying CDOM and detrital material, which ultimately competes with phytoplankton for light absorption.

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Hahn, D.A.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because of concerns about potential effects of irrigation drainage on fish and wildlife resources and on human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior initiated a program in 1985 to assess water-quality problems associated with Federal irrigation projects in the Western United States. Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected for a detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, during 1991-92. This report lists onsite measurements and concen- trations of major constituents, trace elements, and stable isotopes for surface-water- and ground-water-sampling sites. Insecticide data collected in the Grand Valley are presented. Ranges of specific-conductance measurements and dissolved- oxygen concentrations for selected wells and a daily record of water-level altitude and specific conduc- tance for a well in the Grand Valley are presented. The report presents historical water-level and dissolved-solids data for two wells in the Grand Valley. Concentrations of trace elements, major constituents, total carbon, and organic carbon in bottom-sediment, bedrock, and in aquifer-sediment samples and semiquantitative data on clay and bulk mineralogy of samples of the Mancos Shale are presented. The report contains selenium-speciation data for selected water and bottom-sediment samples and selected aquifer-test results. Biological samples collected in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley included aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, and bird eggs. The report lists concentrations of trace elements in biological samples collected in 1991-92. A limited number of biological samples were analyzed for pesticides, PCB's, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Integration of Biological, Physical/Chemical and Energy Efficient Systems in the CELSS Antarctic Analog: Performance of Prototype Systems and Issues for Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Lamparter, Richard; Bates, Maynard; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle, and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for waste treatment, water recycle, resource recovery and crop production are being evaluated in a testbed at Ames Research Center. The combined performance of these biological and physical/chemical systems as an integrated function in support of the human habitat will be discussed. Overall system performance will be emphasized. The effectiveness and efficiency of component technologies will be discussed in the context of energy and mass flow within the system and contribution to achieving a mass and energy conservative system. Critical to the discussion are interfaces with habitat functions outside of the closed-loop life support: the ability of the system to satisfy the life support requirements of the habitat and the ability to define input requirements. The significance of analog functions in relation to future Mars habitats will be discussed.

  4. Effect of the closure type on the evolution of the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Rosé wine.

    PubMed

    Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Motta, Silvia; Bonello, Federica; Cravero, Maria Carla; Marulli, Concezio; Bosso, Antonella

    2013-02-01

    The present work studied the effect of the kind of closure (a screw cap, a natural cork, and 2 synthetic closures) on the evolution of the oxygen content and on the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo rosé wine during the 1st 12 mo of bottle aging. The chemical analyses concerned the parameters more involved in the oxidative reactions (SO(2) , acetaldehyde, phenols, wine color), as well as the main fermentative volatile compounds. The kind of closure influenced the oxygen content in wines, free and total SO(2) concentration, and wine color (color intensity and hue). During bottle aging, free and total SO(2) concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with absorbance at 420 nm (A420), whereas the correlations with A520 were weak. Probably, the limited extent of the variations in red color (A520), when varying SO(2) concentration, were due to the low pH of this rosé wine. No effect of the kind of closure on phenols and the main fermentative volatile compounds was observed. The wines bottled with cork closures (N trials), after 12 mo of storage, had higher color intensity and hue, measured by spectrophotometry, and were visually distinguished from the other trials for the more intense pink reflections. On the whole, under the conditions of this work, all the used closures guaranteed a good preservability to the rosè wines during the 1st year of bottle aging, and the changes in composition did not significantly affect wine sensory characteristics. Therefore, these synthetic closures can represent an alternative to the cork closures for a medium to long term bottle aging of these wines.

  5. Integration of Biological, Physical/Chemical and Energy Efficient Systems in the CELSS Antarctic Analog: Performance of Prototype Systems and Issues for Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Lamparter, Richard; Bates, Maynard; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle, and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for waste treatment, water recycle, resource recovery and crop production are being evaluated in a testbed at Ames Research Center. The combined performance of these biological and physical/chemical systems as an integrated function in support of the human habitat will be discussed. Overall system performance will be emphasized. The effectiveness and efficiency of component technologies will be discussed in the context of energy and mass flow within the system and contribution to achieving a mass and energy conservative system. Critical to the discussion are interfaces with habitat functions outside of the closed-loop life support: the ability of the system to satisfy the life support requirements of the habitat and the ability to define input requirements. The significance of analog functions in relation to future Mars habitats will be discussed.

  6. Physical modification and characterization of starch using pregelatinization and co-process of various tubers from Yogyakarta as an excipient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaluddin, Rizki; Prasetya, Arif Widya; Nugraha, Yayan; Suweleh, Mohammad Fahmi; Kusuma, Aris Perdana; Indrati, Oktavia

    2017-03-01

    Starch is an economical excipient that is used in oral dosage form. It has poor compressibility and flowability. Pregelatinization and co-process as a physical modification technique have been conducted widely; nevertheless, the single modification shows a limitation. This study aims to assess and characterize the starch result of the modification of various tubers by a combination of modification methods. The starches from various tubers were extracted by sedimentation. Starch pregelatinization was conducted by manufacturing a starch suspension and was heated at 55°C for 70 minutes, and then it was mixed using concentrations HPMC k15 of 2, 3, and 4% (w/w) of the starch weight. The evaluations that were conducted are general identification, amylose concentration, physical properties, and physicochemical identification. The obtained starch of the extraction was 10-18% of the fresh tubers, with the concentration of amylose around 21-37%. The shape and particle size of the starch affected the amylose concentration. The starch modification showed an improvement of the granules physical properties by addition of HPMC. The amylose concentration of yam starch was 37.60% and showed the optimum modification result in the addition of HPMC 4%. There were no changes in the physicochemical properties of the result of IR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The melting point of yam starch-HPMC 4% was 151.24°C with reduction of the maximum weight at 328.52°C. This study indicated that the yam starch has the highest amylose concentration with optimum granules result of the modification in addition of HPMC 4% that could be used as an alternative excipient.

  7. Fast pyrolysis oil from pinewood chips co-processing with vacuum gas oil in an FCC unit for second generation fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; de Almeida, Marlon B. B.; Mendes, Fabio Leal; Casavechia, Luiz Carlos; Talmadge, Michael S.; Kinchin, Christopher M.; Chum, Helena L.

    2016-10-15

    Raw bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of pine woodchips was co-processed with standard Brazilian vacuum gasoil (VGO) and tested in a 200 kg•h-1 fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) demonstration-scale unit using a commercial FCC equilibrium catalyst. Two different bio-oil/VGO weight ratios were used: 5/95 and 10/90. Co-processing of raw bio-oil in FCC was shown to be technically feasible. Bio-oil could be directly co-processed with a regular gasoil FCC feed up to 10 wt%. The bio-oil and the conventional gasoil were cracked into valuable liquid products such as gasoline and diesel range products. Most of the oxygen present in the bio-oil was eliminated as water and carbon monoxide as these yields were always higher than that of carbon dioxide. Product quality analysis shows that trace oxygenates, primarily alkyl phenols, in FCC gasoline and diesel products are present with or without co-processing oxygenated intermediates. The oxygenate concentrations increase with co-processing, but have not resulted in increased concerns with quality of fuel properties. The presence of renewable carbon was confirmed in gasoline and diesel cuts through 14C isotopic analysis, showing that renewable carbon is not only being converted into coke, CO, and CO2, but also into valuable refining liquid products. Thus, gasoline and diesel could be produced from lignocellulosic raw materials through a conventional refining scheme, which uses the catalytic cracking process. As a result, the bio-oil renewable carbon conversion into liquid products (carbon efficiency) was approximately 30%, well above the efficiency found in literature for FCC bio-oil upgrading.

  8. Fast pyrolysis oil from pinewood chips co-processing with vacuum gas oil in an FCC unit for second generation fuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; de Almeida, Marlon B. B.; Mendes, Fabio Leal; ...

    2016-10-15

    Raw bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of pine woodchips was co-processed with standard Brazilian vacuum gasoil (VGO) and tested in a 200 kg•h-1 fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) demonstration-scale unit using a commercial FCC equilibrium catalyst. Two different bio-oil/VGO weight ratios were used: 5/95 and 10/90. Co-processing of raw bio-oil in FCC was shown to be technically feasible. Bio-oil could be directly co-processed with a regular gasoil FCC feed up to 10 wt%. The bio-oil and the conventional gasoil were cracked into valuable liquid products such as gasoline and diesel range products. Most of the oxygen present in the bio-oil wasmore » eliminated as water and carbon monoxide as these yields were always higher than that of carbon dioxide. Product quality analysis shows that trace oxygenates, primarily alkyl phenols, in FCC gasoline and diesel products are present with or without co-processing oxygenated intermediates. The oxygenate concentrations increase with co-processing, but have not resulted in increased concerns with quality of fuel properties. The presence of renewable carbon was confirmed in gasoline and diesel cuts through 14C isotopic analysis, showing that renewable carbon is not only being converted into coke, CO, and CO2, but also into valuable refining liquid products. Thus, gasoline and diesel could be produced from lignocellulosic raw materials through a conventional refining scheme, which uses the catalytic cracking process. As a result, the bio-oil renewable carbon conversion into liquid products (carbon efficiency) was approximately 30%, well above the efficiency found in literature for FCC bio-oil upgrading.« less

  9. Reducing mechanical activation-induced amorphisation of salbutamol sulphate by co-processing with selected carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Vincent; Amharar, Youness; Gallagher, Kieran H; Corcoran, Sarah; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-11-18

    The unintentional generation of amorphous character in crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is an adverse consequence of mechanical activation during dosage form manufacture. In this study, we assess and compare the ability of low glass transition temperature (Tg) dicarboxylic acids to mitigate amorphisation of a model API, salbutamol sulphate (SS), on both co-milling and co-mixing. SS processed alone, as well as co-milled and co-mixed composites of the API with glutaric acid (GA), adipic acid (AA) and pimelic acid (PA) were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Milling and dry mixing of SS both resulted in pXRD amorphous materials. No amorphous content of SS was detected by DVS on co-milling with 50% (w/w) GA, while amorphisation was more than halved, relative to the API milled alone, on co-milling with 50% (w/w) AA and PA, respectively. Co-mixing with each excipient also resulted in a decrease in API amorphicity, although the extent of reduction was considerably less compared to the co-milling experiments. The solubility (Solexcipient) of each excipient in amorphous SS was determined by thermal methods. No further reduction in API amorphisation was achieved on co-mixing with 50% (w/w) excipient, compared to concentrations corresponding to the solubility of each excipient in the amorphous API (SolGA=36%, SolAA=21%, SolPA=22%). PXRD confirmed gradual dissolution over time of GA in amorphous SS on co-mixing. In contrast to co-mixing, co-milling SS at excipient weight fractions above their respective solubilities in the amorphous drug resulted in further reductions in API amorphisation. This is thought to be due to the generation of a molecular dispersion of amorphous API, supersaturated with excipient, thereby leading to a more pronounced composite Tg lowering effect. The results indicate that co-processing with low Tg excipients is an effective strategy at

  10. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Wang, Pu; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may become a useful

  11. On Exact and Inexact Differentials and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, L. A. B.; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2017-01-01

    Considering the important role played by mathematical derivatives in the study of physical-chemical processes, this paper discusses the different possibilities and formulations of this concept and its application. In particular, in Chemical Thermodynamics, we study exact differentials associated with the so-called state functions and inexact…

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of freshwater and marine algal biomass: A novel approach to produce distillate fuel fractions through blending and co-processing of biocrude with petrocrude.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, Melcureraj; Meenakshisundaram, Arunachalam; Renganathan, Sahadevan; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Lewis, David Milton; Nallasivam, Jaganathan; Bhaskar, Sailendra

    2016-03-01

    Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels.

  13. Corrosion of stainless steels in the riser during co-processing of bio-oils in a fluid catalytic cracking pilot plant

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Keiser, J. R.; Leonard, D. N.; ...

    2017-01-31

    Co-processing of bio-oils with conventional petroleum-based feedstocks is an attractive initial option to make use of renewable biomass as a fuel source while leveraging existing refinery infrastructures. But, bio-oils and their processing intermediates have high concentrations of organic oxygenates, which, among their other negative qualities, can result in increased corrosion issues. A range of stainless steel alloys (409, 410, 304L, 316L, 317L, and 201) was exposed at the base of the riser in a fluid catalytic cracking pilot plant while co-processing vacuum gas oil with pine-derived pyrolysis bio-oils that had been catalytically hydrodeoxygenated to ~ 2 to 28% oxygen. Wemore » studied the processing using a catalyst temperature of 704 °C, a reaction exit temperature of 520 °C, and total co-processing run times of 57–75 h. External oxide scaling 5–30 μm thick and internal attack 1–5 μm deep were observed in these short-duration exposures. The greatest extent of internal attack was observed for co-processing with the least stabilized bio-oil, and more so for types 409, 410, 304L, 316L, 317L stainless steel than for type 201. Finally, the internal attack involved porous Cr-rich oxide formation, associated with local Ni-metal enrichment and S-rich nanoparticles, primarily containing Cr or Mn. Implications for alloy selection and corrosion are discussed.« less

  14. Influence of land use changes on soil physical, chemical and biological atributes in a family farming settlement in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Miguel; de Pierri Castilho, Selene Cristina; Camilo Bedano, José; Dominguez, Anahi; Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Nascimento Delgado Oliveira, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Soil knowledge and the changes in its attributes due to land use modifications in the Amazon region is important for decision making by family farmers. These farmers have to choose sustainable land use management practices for their survival in the region and, for soil and forest conservation. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. The objective of this research is to understand the relations between soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, and how these relations change with modifications in land use. This information is important for defining best management practices for family farming in the region. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. 40 cm pits were opened with five replicates in three landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope). Sampling periods were July/2012 (dry season); January/2013 (beginning of rainy season) and march/2013 (rainy season). Samples were taken for soil particle size analysis, bulk density, particle density, moisture, porosity, water retention, chemical, litter dry matter and macrofauna analysis. Statistical analysis techniques were performed uni and multivariate. No significant differences were observed in the particle size distribution of the studied soils. The soils presented sandy surface horizons with an increase of clay in depth in both land use systems. Soil bulk density values were higher in the surface horizons and, in general, in the pasture toposequence. Differences were also observed in the soil moisture content and litter dry matter which were higher under the native forest, and in the pH and organic matter values which were higher in the pasture. Higher water retention capacity was observed in the surface horizons of the forest when compared to the pasture, corroborating the higher values of macroporosity observed in the forest soils. Due to higher moisture content

  15. Physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Tolhuaca geothermal system, southern Andes, Chile: Insights into the interplay between hydrothermal alteration and brittle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Reich, Martin; Arancibia, Gloria; Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Cembrano, José; Driesner, Thomas; Lizama, Martin; Rowland, Julie; Morata, Diego; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Tardani, Daniele; Campos, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we unravel the physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of the active Tolhuaca geothermal system in the Andes of southern Chile. We used temperature measurements in the deep wells and geochemical analyses of borehole fluid samples to constrain present-day fluid conditions. In addition, we reconstructed the paleo-fluid temperatures and chemistry from microthermometry and LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions taken from well-constrained parageneses in vein samples retrieved from a ~ 1000 m borehole core. Based on core logging, mineralogical observations and fluid inclusions data we identify four stages (S1-S4) of progressive hydrothermal alteration. An early heating event (S1) was followed by the formation of a clay-rich cap in the upper zone (< 670 m) and the development of a propylitic alteration assemblage at greater depth (S2). Boiling, flashing and brecciation occurred later (S3), followed by a final phase of fluid mixing and boiling (S4). The evolution of hydrothermal alteration at Tolhuaca has produced a mineralogical, hydrological and structural vertical segmentation of the system through the development of a low-permeability, low-cohesion clay-rich cap at shallow depth. The quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions and borehole fluids reveal a significant change in chemical conditions during the evolution of Tolhuaca. Whereas borehole (present-day) fluids are rich in Au, B and As, but Cu-poor (B/Na ~ 100.5, As/Na ~ 10- 1.1, Cu/Na ~ 10- 4.2), the paleofluids trapped in fluid inclusions are Cu-rich but poor in B and As (B/Na ~ 10- 1, As/Na ~ 10- 2.5, Cu/Na ~ 10- 2.5 in average). We interpret the fluctuations in fluid chemistry at Tolhuaca as the result of transient supply of metal-rich, magmatically derived fluids where As, Au and Cu are geochemically decoupled. Since these fluctuating physical and chemical conditions at the reservoir produced a mineralogical vertical segmentation of the system that affects the mechanical and

  16. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  17. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    also suggest that the central star of about 1.5 M_sun initial mass is terminating its PN evolution onto the white dwarf cooling track. The most notable aspect of the HerPlaNS analysis is simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in the target PN, which can properly determine relative abundances of these components as a function of position in the shell, allowing us to investigate the mass loss history. With this NASA ADAP proposal, we request funding to continue the simultaneous probing of all the PN components for the rest of 10 HerPlaNS target PNs and 13 other PNs in the Herschel Science Archive for which a full complement of the analysis can be performed (plus the remaining 29 PNs in the archive for which partial analysis is possible, for the sake of completeness). Our goals are to perform (1) broadband thermal dust emission fitting to establish the dust mass distribution in the target PNs and (2) farIR line diagnostics to establish the mass distribution of each of the ionized, atomic, and molecular gas components in the target PNs, so that we can create empirically-sound gasto-dust mass ratio maps which permit us to investigate the possibility of time variations in the gas-to-dust mass ratio over the course of mass loss history. We will also perform photoionization modeling using (py)CLOUDY and MOCASSIN to establish 3-D physical/chemical stratification within the nebulae as a manifestation of mass-loss modulations over the course of mass loss history. Our analysis is also assisted by optical data obtained through slit-scan mapping at the Gemini-North and South as well as the Subaru Telescope that are presently on-going (plus, spectral mapping with the Hubble Space Telescope and IFU observations at VLT, pending approval). Together with the farIR data, we can iteratively bootstrap line diagnostics so that we can determine the (Te, ne) profiles completely self-consistently without any prior assumptions.

  18. Bio-Carbon Accounting for Bio-Oil Co-Processing: 14C and 13C/12C

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, Claudia I.; Li, Zhenghua; Vance, Zachary

    2016-06-21

    This is a powerpoint presentation on bio-carbon accounting for bio-oil co-processing. Because of the overlapping range in the stable C isotope compositions of fossil oils and biooils from C3-type feedstocks, it is widely thought that stable isotopes are not useful to track renewable carbon during co-production. In contrast, our study demonstrates the utility of stable isotopes to: • capture a record of renewable carbon allocation between FCC products of co-processing • record changes in carbon apportionments due to changes in reactor or feed temperature Stable isotope trends as a function of percent bio-oil in the feed are more pronounced when the δ13C of the bio-oil endmember differs greatly from the VGO (i.e., it has a C4 biomass source–corn stover, switch grass, Miscanthus, sugarcane– versus a C3 biomass source– pine, wheat, rice, potato), but trends on the latter case are significant for endmember differences of just a few permil. The correlation between measured 14C and δ13C may be useful as an alternative to carbon accounting, but the relationship must first be established for different bio-oil sources.

  19. Co-processing CH4 and oxygenates on Mo/H-ZSM-5: 2. CH4-CO2 and CH4-HCOOH mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Jeremy; Hong, Do-Young; Bhan, Aditya

    2013-08-07

    Co-processing of formic acid or carbon dioxide with CH4 (FA/CH4 = 0.01-0.03 and CO2/CH4 = 0.01-0.03) on Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts at 950 K with the prospect of kinetically coupling dehydrogenation and deoxygenation cycles results instead in a two-zone, staged bed reactor configuration consisting of upstream oxygenate/CH4 reforming and downstream CH4 dehydroaromatization. The addition of an oxygenate co-feed (oxygenate/CH4 = 0.01-0.03) causes oxidation of the active molybdenum carbide catalyst while producing CO and H2 until completely converted. Forward rates of C6H6 synthesis are unaffected by the introduction of an oxygenate co-feed after rigorously accounting for the thermodynamic reversibility caused by the H2 produced in oxygenate reforming reactions and the fraction of the active catalyst deemed unavailable for CH4 DHA. All effects of co-processing oxygenates with CH4 can be construed in terms of an approach to equilibrium.

  20. Recent evolution of the physical-chemical characteristics of a Site of National Interest-the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea)-and changes over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Martina; De Vittor, Cinzia; Comici, Cinzia; Relitti, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Alabiso, Giorgio; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo of Taranto, classified as a 'Site of National Interest' (SIN), is a semi-enclosed basin divided into two inlets with lagoon features and sea influences, seriously affected by anthropic activities. In the framework of the RITMARE project, a study has been carried out to evaluate the functionality of this ecosystem. As part of this work, measurements of the water abiotic parameters were performed in order to assess the physical-chemical features of this area after the activation, in the last decade, of treatment plants for various urban and industrial dumping. Seawater intrusions and continental inputs, as well as several submarine freshwater springs, clearly affect physical-chemical characteristics of the water column in the two inlets. This finding suggests that small-scale patterns in water circulation have the potential to influence the chemical properties of the seawater. The comparison with a 20-year dataset reveals a drastic decrease in nutrient concentrations after the year 2000, validating the functionality of the treatment plants. The reduction of nutrient inputs into the basin (up to -90 % in the first inlet characterized by lower hydraulic residence time) has changed the biogeochemical characteristics of the Mar Piccolo from being relatively eutrophic to moderately oligotrophic.

  1. Heavy oil/plastic co-processing - subtask 4.1. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a low-temperature thermal decomposition process to alleviate the problems associated with disposal of waste plastics and at the same time generate a product stream in the gasoline boiling range for use in the refining and petrochemical industries. The technology being developed by WRI is significantly different from conventional thermal decomposition processes used to recover distillates from waste plastics. The key to this difference is the application of a decomposition initiator concept that allows operation of the process at temperatures below those used in other thermal decomposition processes. The WRI technology utilizes the decomposition initiator to enhance thermal decomposition of waste plastics in the presence of a low-value heavy oil at temperatures below those normally used for thermal decomposition. Operation of the process at lower temperatures produces higher yields of distillate product and lower yields of gaseous and char products than conventional processes. The activity of the initiator was identified in earlier research studying the thermal decomposition of polymers. This activity was observed to result in a decrease in the temperature required to thermally decompose plastics in the presence of a heavy oil. These early experiments indicated that the initiator was native to the plastics matrix, but the identity and possible mode of action were not determined. This study was undertaken to identify the active initiator in the plastics matrix and define its activity. The experiments performed in this study were conducted in a batch-type reactor. The particular elements of the activity that were addressed included: (1) the kinetics of the reaction, (2) the effects of diluting the plastics with the heavy oil, and (3) the effects of using different types of heavy oil.

  2. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing: Quarterly technical progress report, 1 December 1988--28 February 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H. H.; Tomic, J.

    1989-03-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. The specific objectives include the examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components on retardation or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by optical microscopy of carbonaceous residues and instrumental analyses such as FTIR and /sup 13/C NMR. During this reporting period the objectives of the work were to obtain baseline FTIR and /sup 13/C NMR spectra of the coals to be used in the project, and to obtain samples of petroleum residua for use in the project. It was also intended to begin separation of the petroleum residua by sequential elution by solvents chromatography (SESC).

  3. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. The specific objectives include examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components in retarding or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by studies of the carbonaceous residues by such techniques as diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. During this reporting period work focused on identification of mechanisms of coke formation. The objective of this task is to identify those compounds or components which are specifically responsible for initiating coke formation.

  4. Field pilot study on emissions, formations and distributions of PCDD/Fs from cement kiln co-processing fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Li; Li, Chunping; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2015-12-15

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate formation, distribution and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns that co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). Stack gas and particulate samples from multiple stages in the process were collected and analyzed for PCDD/Fs. Stack emissions of PCDD/Fs were below the European Union limit for cement kilns (0.1 ng TEQ m(-3)). PCDD/F concentrations in particulates from the cyclone preheater outlet, suspension preheater boiler, humidifier tower, and back-end bag filter were much higher than in other samples, which suggests that these areas are the major sites of PCDD/F formation. Comparison of PCDD/F homolog and congener profiles from different stages suggested that tetra- and penta-chlorinated furans were mainly formed during cement kiln co-processing of MSWI fly ash. Three lower chlorinated furan congeners, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, were identified as dominant contributors to the toxic equivalents (TEQ) of the PCDD/Fs. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in particulates was correlated with chloride content, which is consistent with its positive effect on PCDD/F formation. This could be mitigated by pretreating the feedstock to remove chloride and metals. Mass balance indicated that cement kilns eliminated about 94% of the PCDD/F TEQ input from the feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MgCO3·3H2O and MgO complex nanostructures: controllable biomimetic fabrication and physical chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoming; Cao, Huaqiang; Yin, Gui; Yin, Jiefu; Lu, Yuexiang; Li, Baojun

    2011-03-21

    In this paper, we report a method of biomimetic synthesis of MgCO(3)·3H(2)O and MgO Viburnum opulus-like complex nanostructures with superhydrophobicity and adsorption properties. The MgCO(3)·3H(2)O complex nanostructures can be obtained by changing experimental parameters, including concentrations of reactants (dextran and MgCl(2)), molar ratios of reactants, and reaction time. The phase structure of as-synthesized samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology and structure are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The MgCO(3)·3H(2)O complex nanostructures exhibited superhydrophobicity, due to their unique superstructures, and was proved by the contact angle (CA) measurement. We also show that a simple calcination of these unusually shaped MgCO(3)·3H(2)O results in spontaneous formation of MgO complex nanostructures while the unique shape can be maintained, and the as-synthesized MgO nanostructures show excellent adsorption property. These unique structures and properties will open up a wide range of potential applications in material and environmental protection.

  6. Effects of lipid composition and preparation conditions on physical-chemical properties, technological parameters and in vitro biological activity of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Calvagno, Maria Grazia; Celia, Christian; Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Iannone, Michelangelo; Castelli, Francesco; Doldo, Patrizia; Frest, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    various applications of potential therapeutic relevance can be envisaged for liposomes.

  7. Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks in Lab and Field: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects of Fluids (Detecting a Biosurfactant Additive in a Field Irrigation Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Spetzler, Hartmut

    2006-05-01

    We have been exploring a new technology that is based on using low-frequency seismic attenuation data to monitor changes in fluid saturation conditions in two-fluid phase porous materials. The seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of energy due to the hysteresis of resistance to meniscus movement (changes in surface tension, wettability) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). This technology has potential applications to monitoring changes in (1) leakage at buried waste sites, (2) contaminant remediation, and (3) flooding during enhanced petroleum recovery. We have concluded a three year field study at the Maricopa Agricultural Center site of the University of Arizona. Three sets of instruments were installed along an East-West line perpendicular to the 50m by 50m inigation site. Each set of instruments consisted of one three component seismometer and one tiltmeter. Microseisms and solid Earth-tides served as strain sources. The former have a power peak at a period of about 6 seconds and the tides have about two cycles per day. Installation of instruments commenced in late summer of 2002. The instruments operated nearly continuously until April 2005. During the fall of 2003 the site was irrigated with water and one year later with water containing 150 ppm of a biosurfactant additive. This biodegradable additive served to mimic a class of contaminants that change the surface tension of the inigation fluid. Tilt data clearly show tidal tilts superimposed on local tilts due to agricultural irrigation and field work. When the observed signals were correlated with site specific theoretical tilt signals we saw no anomalies for the water irrigation in 2003, but large anomalies on two stations for the surfactant irrigation in 2004. Occasional failures of seismometers as well as data acquisition systems contributed to less than continuous coverage. These data are noisier than the tilt data, but do also show possible

  8. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Prototype commercial coal/oil co-processing plant: A project proposed by Ohio Ontario Clean Fuels, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Ohio Ontario Clean Fuels, Inc., project will demonstrate a technology that produces clean liquid fuels from high-sulfur, high-nitrogen, Ohio bituminous coal, and poor-quality petroleum residuum. This project is intended to demonstrate the technical, environmental, and economic advantages of co-processing coal and residuum oil versus the utilization of these resources separately. The prototype commercial plant for this demonstration will produce approximately 7250 barrels per day (BPD) of middle distillate and 4,500 BPD of naphtha for a total liquid fuel production of 11,750 BPD. Other fuel products include approximately 340 BPD of propane, 190 BPD of butane, and 185 tons per day (TPD) of flaked bottoms. Other products also include 57 TPD of sulfur and 14 TPD of ammonia. The main feed materials for this facility will be 800 TPD of high-sulfur Ohio No. 5/6 coal and 8675 BPD of Cold Lake heavy crude oil. The demonstration will be conducted at the partially utilized site of a currently active steel distribution facility. This site is serviced by oil and gas pipelines and other important utilities. Milestone schedule is presented for the project which extends for eighty-six months.

  9. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized. Research topics include: Molar enthalpies of formation of BaCmO{sub 3} and BaCfO{sub 3}; luminescence of europium oxychloride at various pressures; and anti-stokes luminescence of selected actinide (III) compounds. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Desertomycin: purification and physical-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Dolak, L A; Reusser, F; Baczynskyj, L; Mizsak, S A; Hannon, B R; Castle, T M

    1983-01-01

    Desertomycin was isolated from Streptomyces macronensis Dietz sp. nov. UC 8271. Extensive spectroscopic work led us to place desertomycin in the macrocyclic lactone family which contains monazomycin, scopafungin, primycin, azalomycin F4a and niphithricins A and B. The apparent molecular formula was determined by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy to be C57H109NO24 (MW = 1,191). Mild acid hydrolysis yielded mannose but contrary to published reports, glutamic acid is not a constituent of desertomycin.

  11. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700??C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S2 and O2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must seriously consider metastable equilibria; those most likely involve redox disequilibrium among the sulfur species in solution and perhaps also involve organic compounds. ?? 1981.

  12. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92, with selected data for 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Knapton, J.R.; Palawski, D.U.

    1994-01-01

    Physical chemical, and biological data were collected in the lower Sun River area of west-central Montana during 1990-92 as part of a U.S. Department of the Interior detailed study of the extent, magnitude, sources, and potential biological impacts of contaminants associated with irrigation drainage. Physical and chemical data were collected from areas within and near the Sun River Irrigation Project and from wetland areas receiving irrigation drainage. Biological data were collected from areas in and near Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Additional biological data were collected previously during 1987-89 as part of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service program. This report presents data for selenium and other potentially toxic constituents in solid-phase, water, and biological media. Data consist of concentrations of major and trace elements in soil and drill cores; concen- trations of major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in ground water and surface water; and trace-element concentrations in bottom sediment and biological tissue. Hydrogeologic data for domestic and test wells and daily streamflow data for selected sites also are included.

  13. [Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-Yong; Wang, Li-Hai; Sun, Mo-Long

    2013-07-01

    Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May, 2011. In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively. Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content (R = 0.687), and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R = 0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees, but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%. No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.

  14. Synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and electrochemical performance of GdBaCo2-xNixO5+δ (x = 0-0.8) as cathode materials for IT-SOFC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Bogicevic, C.; Bouffanais, Y.; Giot, M.; Hernandez, O.; Dezanneau, G.

    2013-11-01

    GdBaCo2-xNixO5+δ (x = 0-0.8) cathode materials have been synthesized by a citrate-gel modified chemical route, by which we have achieved a high level of substitution up to x = 0.8. Oxygen stoichiometry at room temperature has been determined by iodometry and the structural evolution as a function of Ni content has been extracted from XRD patterns analysis. All compounds are orthorhombic at room temperature and a DSC analysis reveals that the high-temperature orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is observed at lower temperature as Ni substitution increases. Three compositions, with x = 0, 0.3 and 0.6, were then chosen for further characterization: high-temperature XRD has been performed confirming the abovementioned structural evolution with temperature and allowing to determine that Ni doping diminishes slightly the thermal expansion coefficient. According to 4-probe measurements, we show that these compounds present a high electronic conductivity, suitable for cathode materials. Finally, electrochemical characterization has been performed by AC impedance spectroscopy with symmetric cells using composite electrode showing an improvement of performance at intermediate substitution levels.

  15. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  16. Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels mimic native tissue microenvironment due to their porous and hydrated molecular structure. An emerging approach to reinforce polymeric hydrogels and to include multiple functionalities focuses on incorporating nanoparticles within the hydrogel network. A wide range of nanoparticles, such as carbon-based, polymeric, ceramic, and metallic nanomaterials can be integrated within the hydrogel networks to obtain nanocomposites with superior properties and tailored functionality. Nanocomposite hydrogels can be engineered to possess superior physical, chemical, electrical, and biological properties. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the field of nanocomposite hydrogels with emphasis on biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In particular, we discuss synthesis and fabrication of nanocomposite hydrogels, examine their current limitations and conclude with future directions in designing more advanced nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24264728

  17. Graphene electrochemistry: an overview of potential applications.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Dale A C; Banks, Craig E

    2010-11-01

    Graphene, a 2D nanomaterial that possesses spectacular physical, chemical and thermal properties, has caused immense excitement amongst scientists since its freestanding form was isolated in 2004. With research into graphene rife, it promises enhancements and vast applicability within many industrial aspects. Furthermore, graphene possesses a vast array of unique and highly desirable electrochemical properties, and it is this application that offers the most enthralling and spectacular journey. We present a review of the current literature concerning the electrochemical applications and advancements of graphene, starting with its use as a sensor substrate through to applications in energy production and storage, depicting the truly remarkable journey of a material that has just come of age.

  18. Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Badwan, Adnan A.; Rashid, Iyad; Al Omari, Mahmoud M.H.; Darras, Fouad H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC) excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25810109

  19. Medicinal applications of fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Bakry, Rania; Vallant, Rainer M; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Szabo, Zoltan; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2007-01-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. It is inferred that size, hydrophobicity, three-dimensionality and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization make them a potential therapeutic agent. The study of biological applications has attracted increasing attention despite the low solubility of carbon spheres in physiological media. The fullerene family, and especially C60, has appealing photo, electrochemical and physical properties, which can be exploited in various medical fields. Fullerene is able to fit inside the hydrophobic cavity of HIV proteases, inhibiting the access of substrates to the catalytic site of enzyme. It can be used as radical scavenger and antioxidant. At the same time, if exposed to light, fullerene can produce singlet oxygen in high quantum yields. This action, together with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerene and DNA bases, can be used to cleave DNA. In addition, fullerenes have been used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery systems. Also they are used for serum protein profiling as MELDI material for biomarker discovery. In this review we report the aspects of medicinal applications of fullerenes. PMID:18203430

  20. Phage-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rebecca; Choi, Dong Shin; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology enable us to manipulate and produce materials with molecular level control. In the newly emerging field of bionanomedicine, it is essential to precisely control the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials. Among other biological building blocks, viruses are a promising nanomaterial that can be functionalized with great precision. Since the production of viral particles is directed by the genetic information encapsulated in their protein shells, the viral particles create precisely defined sizes and shapes. In addition, the composition and surface properties of the particles can be controlled through genetic engineering and chemical modification. In this manuscript, we review the advances of virus-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications in three different areas: phage therapy, drug delivery and tissue engineering. By exploiting and manipulating the original functions of viruses, viral particles hold great possibilities in these biomedical applications to improve human health.

  1. Nanoporous alumina as templates for multifunctional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, C. T.; Leitao, D. C.; Proenca, M. P.; Ventura, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Araujo, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its manufacturing and size tailoring ease, porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates are an elegant physical-chemical nanopatterning approach and an emergent alternative to more sophisticated and expensive methods currently used in nanofabrication. In this review, we will describe the ground work on the fabrication methods of PAA membranes and PAA-based nanostructures. We will present the specificities of the electrochemical growth processes of multifunctional nanomaterials with diversified shapes (e.g., nanowires and nanotubes), and the fabrication techniques used to grow ordered nanohole arrays. We will then focus on the fabrication, properties and applications of magnetic nanostructures grown on PAA and illustrate their dependence on internal (diameter, interpore distance, length, composition) and external (temperature and applied magnetic field intensity and direction) parameters. Finally, the most outstanding experimental findings on PAA-grown nanostructures and their trends for technological applications (sensors, energy harvesting, metamaterials, and biotechnology) will be addressed.

  2. Applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in food science.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs hold a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in the field.

  3. Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science

    SciTech Connect

    HUang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J.; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2007-02-01

    Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decade, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs have a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation, and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and the electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in this field.

  4. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  5. Switchable electrode interfaces controlled by physical, chemical and biological signals.

    PubMed

    Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2012-02-01

    Electrode interfaces functionalized with various signal-responsive materials have been designed to allow switchable properties of the modified electrodes. External signals of different nature (electrical potential, magnetic field, light, chemical/biochemical inputs) were applied to reversibly activate-deactivate the electrode interfaces upon demand. Multifunctional properties of the modified interfaces have allowed their responses to complex combinations of external signals. Further increase of their complexity has been achieved by integrating the signal-responsive interfaces with unconventional biomolecular computing systems logically processing multiple biochemical signals. This approach has resulted in electrochemical systems controlled by complex variations of biomarkers corresponding to different physiological conditions, thus allowing biological control over electronic systems. The switchable electrodes have been integrated with various "smart" biosensing and signal-processing systems and have been used to assemble biofuel cells producing power on demand.

  6. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Schulze-Makuch, Alexander; Houtkooper, Joop M

    2015-07-17

    Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe.

  7. Physical-chemical quality of onion analyzed under drying temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Arifin, U. F.; Sasongko, S. B.

    2017-03-01

    Drying is one of conventional processes to enhance shelf life of onion. However, the active compounds such as vitamin and anthocyanin (represented in red color), degraded due to the introduction of heat during the process. The objective of this research was to evaluate thiamine content as well as color in onion drying under different temperature. As an indicator, the thiamine and color was observed every 30 minutes for 2 hours. Results showed that thiamine content and color were sensitvely influenced by the temperature change. For example, at 50°C for 2 hours drying process, the thiamine degradation was 55.37 %, whereas, at 60°C with same drying time, the degradation was 74.01%. The quality degradation also increased by prolonging drying time.

  8. The Physical, Chemical and Toxicological Properties of Navy Oily Sludge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    m % .A Data Sources Samples of various types of oily sludges were collected at ten S...Factor Negative Negative Test Value .... 36 -,S+, " ’ ’ , ’+° . ’ + + ’ - ’’" + " ° ,+ o ++ ’’ ’ ’,+• + " ’ ’ ’ " • m + + ° .° . ’. . " + " t...Solids .(15 m7n) M Craney Island, VA 93 1.3 1.2 Fuel Depot 18 1.4 0.9 Pearl Harbor, HI 24 0.9 1.5 NSC 19 0.9 6.2 Manchester, WA 22 2.4 2.8 NSC 33 2.6

  9. The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of EFB fuel briquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    The abundance of empty fruit bunches (EFB) from oil palm mill made them an economically attractive and viable source of energy nowadays. Converting pyrolyzed EFB into densified solid fuel (briquette) could overcome the troublesome of using raw material which has low energy density and lack of uniform properties for domestic and industrial energy utilization. In this work, EFB is pyrolyzed at 400°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours to obtain char and pyrolysis liquid needed. Char is prepared as a main source for the briquette mixture, meanwhile the pyrolysis liquid acts as the binder. Both char and pyrolysis liquid were mixed at various percentage of concentrations; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40, and then manually compressed at 10MPa for at least 10 minutes. The results of the properties found that the proportion of 60:40 mixtures has the highest density value of approximately around 0.95 g/cm3, with largest weight loss of production up to 4.83%. The increased pyrolysis liquid added into the mixture has seemly lowered the energy value of the briquette from 23.13 to 21.23 MJ/kg. In the burning test determination, briquettes mixture of 70:30 was found to generate the highest temperature up to 483°C compared to others, and could retain a temperature of 100°C for at least 10 minutes after the flame was gradually put out by itself.

  10. Physical-Chemical Studies on Rodlike Polymer Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-20

    Scientific research indicated by *: 145. Refractive Indices Dispersion and Order of Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Polymers, H. Mattoussi, M. Srinivassarao, P...Polymer, M. Srinivassarao and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 223, 99 (1992). * 147. Birefringence and Dispersion of Uniaxial Media, H. Mattoussi, M...Condensation and Commentary of "Shear Rheology and Shear-Induced Textures of a Thermotropic Copolvesteramide" by T. De’N~ve, P. Navard and M. Klman

  11. Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Important Mississippi Soils

    Treesearch

    R. R. Bruce; W. A. Raney; W. M. Broadfoot; H. B. Vanderford

    1958-01-01

    To realize the crop production potential of soils it is necessary to first have a knowledge of their chemical, physical and biological properties and reactions and then to so alter these properties and reactions to effect a medium optimum for plant growth. In the past, soils have been classified primarily on the basis of physical characteristics observable in the field...

  12. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  13. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Schulze-Makuch, Alexander; Houtkooper, Joop M.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe. PMID:26193325

  14. Physical-Chemical Properties of Articulated Rodlike Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Metzger, Ph.D. Thesis , Carnegie-Mellon University, 1979. 76 Table 1 Sample Preparation for PBO Copolymers Preparation 1. stock solution in MSA 5. emission...uncentrifuged * centrifuged 209 m .I . QDO 00- 0 00 5 /5 °..o... bon% 0 , a Om 0 0 0CCDcQ 0 0. 0 o g.w o0 0o.mo0 9. 000D•00 T 0 1-A 00%00,0000 Figure

  15. Control of Dermatomycoses by Physical, Chemical and Biological Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-31

    SoI’.ent A ‘!~‘enL t~ 4 ..I’~.- , t A ~-~~k .i~t 11 ErRC .atex-ol In op-~a- 0 8 I) 0.414 0 271. ?~~~—94rr tenoid) Untdex ~ ifia~,1e spot 0 3 . ( 4 0...414 , 438, 44i (41 4 , 437 4t140 ~-Ca otene 0 57 00’.’ ~~~ (1.49 431. 4Sd~ 487 (45 4 . 40” I ~-Carotcn e 0.61 0.14 0.84 0.53 3 ~9. 421 ( 3 79 , 4 ...U) OCT 78 H J BLUMENTHAL, T HASHIMOTO N00014—76—C—0376 UNCLASSIFIED TR— 3 NL ~~~~~ °I !:S PDfløuum OflUDflDL~ H

  16. Physical-chemical limits for the stability of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, E. W.

    Water is an indispensable prerequisite for the existence of life. Only in an aqueous environment can biomolecules take up their native, tertiary structure and organize themselves into higher aggregates like multienzyme complexes or cell-organelles. In most of these processes interactions between biomolecules and water play an important role. The influence of pressure and temperature upon intramolecular interactions of biopolymers and biopolymer-water interactions are discussed. Because of fast hydrolysis biomolecules should be unstable at T >= 500 K. Hydrostatic pressure leads to an accelerated hydrolysis. The p, T-dependence of hydrophobic interactions suggest an even lower upper boundary around T ~ 400 K. In the modelsystem t-butanol/water compression weakens hydrophobic interactions. However, within the modest pressure range p <= 120 MPa observed on earth hydrostatic pressure does not seem to limit the stability of biomolecules at temperatures below 400 K severely.

  17. [Gel-emulsion systems. I. Physical-chemical characterisation].

    PubMed

    Szucs, Mária; Budai, Szabolcs; Eros, István

    2008-01-01

    Emulsion gels prepared with polyacrylic acid-alkyl acrylate diblock copolymer surfactants were studied. It was supposed that the polymer surfactants surrounding the oil droplets formed a microgel structure and this structure stabilized the emulsions sterically. This assumption was verified by thermoanalytic investigation. The effect of polymer concentration and the amount of oil on the rheological characteristics, the rate of water evaporation and droplet size distribution was analysed. It was established that gel emulsions had viscoelastic the properties, the viscosity increased exponentially with increasing emulsifier concentration and amount of oil. Water was present in two forms: i) in microgel surrounding oil droplets and ii) in dispersion medium. The distribution of droplet size was generally a monodisperse one, the average droplet size decreased with polymer concentration.

  18. [Physical, chemical and biological properties of food modified starches].

    PubMed

    Gapparov, M M; Sokolov, A I; Martynova, E A; Kulikova, O S; Bessonov, V V; Berketova, L V

    2007-01-01

    Aim of work was to compare the chemical and biological properties of starches modified by adipinic acid acetylation. Starches in question were: native maize starch "Novation 4600"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the cold swelling "Prejeflo CH 20"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the cold swelling "Prejeflo CH 40"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the hot swelling "Clearam CH 2020". The differences between starches were connected with number of cross-cut lacings in the structure, and with abilities to be gelatinized in the cold water. Rate of hydrolysis and water-retaining capacities were higher for cold swelling starches which contained the smaller number of resistance fractions. Acetyl value of cold swelling starches was higher under elevation of cross-cut lacing.

  19. Physical-Chemical Properties of Articulated Rodlike Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-29

    compositions are (see Table 10), 20/80, ; 30/70, ; 40/60, 50/50, ; 70/30, ; and 80/20, Figure 36: 82 The viscosity of the nylon-66 polymer used as a function...Polymers 44 Table 8: Retardation and Relaxation Spectra 45 Table 9: Leslie Coefficient for Rodlike Polymers 71 Table 10: Compositions of PBT-Nylon...phase offers the possibility to prepare a molecular composite in which the rodlike chains are dispersed among the flexible chains. Since such an

  20. An ontology on property for physical, chemical, and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-01-01

    Current metrological literature, including the International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM 1993), presents a special language slowly evolved without consistent use of the procedures of terminological work; furthermore, nominal properties are excluded by definition. Both deficiencies create problems in fields, such as laboratory medicine, which have to report results of all types of property, preferably in a unified systematic format. The present text aims at forming a domain ontology around "property", with intensional definitions and systematic terms, mainly using the terminological tools--with some additions--provided by the International Standards ISO 704, 1087-1, and 10241. "System" and "component" are defined, "quantity" is discussed, and the generic concept "property" is given as 'inherent state- or process-descriptive feature of a system including any pertinent components'. Previously, the term 'kind-of-quantity' and quasi-synonyms have been used as primitives; the proposed definition of "kind-of-property" is 'common defining aspect of mutually comparable properties'. "Examination procedure", "examination method", "examination principle", and "examination" are defined, avoiding the term 'test'. The need to distinguish between instances of "characteristic", "property", "type of characteristic", "kind-of-property", and "property value" is emphasized; the latter is defined together with "property value scale". These fundamental concepts are presented in a diagram, and the effect of adding essential characteristics to give expanded definitions is exemplified. Substitution usually leads to unwieldy definitions, but reveals circularity as does exhaustive consecutive listing of defining concepts. The top concept may be generically divided according to many terminological dimensions, especially regarding which operators are allowed among the four sets =, not equal to; <, >; +, -; and x, :. The coordinate concepts defined are termed by the modifiers 'nominal', 'ordinal', 'differential', and 'rational' before '...property'. Other possibilities are given, based on the literature, especially the stepwise division into "nominal property" and "quantity"; "ordinal quantity" and "unitary quantity"; "differential unitary quantity" and "rational unitary quantity". As top concepts, , , , , and are i.a. divided homologously to . The term 'observation' and the modifiers 'qualitative', 'semi-quantitative', and 'quantitative' are avoided. "Metrological unit" and "system of metrological units" are defined together with a number of specific concepts. Some problems with characteristics of "SI unit" are discussed and an alternative system shown. The conceptions of "metrological dimension" are outlined, leading to a definition and specific concepts. The generally accepted IUPAC/IFCC syntax for designations of instantiated properties is 'System (specification)--Component(specification); kind-of-property (specification)', and' 'dedicatedkind-of-property" is defined as 'kind-of-property with given sort of system and any pertinent sorts of component'. The related systematic terms may be generated according to ENV 1614 using generative patterns from ENV 12264. The elements of the appellation and examination result of a singular rational property are diagrammed. Finally, the possibilities of representing properties and their results by the formalisms of relation and function from Set Theory and Object-Oriented Analysis are exemplified.

  1. Physical-Chemical Studies of Solutions Processing of Nematic Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-08

    be used in the preparation of molecular composites . The system has h-en studied prevIousiv, principally with respect to its use in the formation of...filmq [6]. A single phase of the three component solutions is an essential requirement in the preparation of A molecular composite . Accordingly, ternary...discussed in the preceding section [51. Such aggregation could have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties a molecular composite processed fr

  2. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangpeng; Li, Qingtao; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm MQ

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver particles (NSPs), are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs’ biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed. PMID:24876773

  3. Synthesis and biomedical applications of aerogels: Possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Hajar; Durães, Luisa; García-González, Carlos A; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Portugal, António; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are an exceptional group of nanoporous materials with outstanding physicochemical properties. Due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, aerogels are recognized as promising candidates for diverse applications including, thermal insulation, catalysis, environmental cleaning up, chemical sensors, acoustic transducers, energy storage devices, metal casting molds and water repellant coatings. Here, we have provided a comprehensive overview on the synthesis, processing and drying methods of the mostly investigated types of aerogels used in the biological and biomedical contexts, including silica aerogels, silica-polymer composites, polymeric and biopolymer aerogels. In addition, the very recent challenges on these aerogels with regard to their applicability in biomedical field as well as for personalized medicine applications are considered and explained in detail.

  4. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    PubMed

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  5. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  6. The utility of superparamagnetic contrast agents in MRI: theoretical consideration and applications in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Bjørnerud, Atle; Johansson, Lars

    2004-11-01

    This review will discuss the in vivo physical chemical relaxation properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. Various parameters such as size, magnetization, compartmentalization and water exchange effects and how these alter the behavior of the iron oxide particles in an in vitro vs an in vivo situation with special reference to the cardiovascular system will be exemplified. Furthermore, applications using iron oxide particles for vascular, perfusion and viability imaging as well as assessment of the inflammatory status of a given tissue will be discussed.

  7. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  8. A facile TiO2/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yiming; Fan, Rong; Lewis, Rosmala

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO2/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO2/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties.

  9. Biological applications of graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-03-25

    Graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. However, the lower water-solubility and the irreversible aggregation due to the strong π-π stacking hinder the wide application of graphene nanosheets in biomedical field. Thus, graphene oxide (GO), one derivative of graphene, has been used more frequently in the biological system owing to its relatively higher water solubility and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been demonstrated that nanomaterials with different functional groups on the surface can be used to bind the drug molecules with high affinity. GO has different functional groups such as H, OH and O on its surface; it can be a potential candidate as a drug carrier. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene like structures are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles spin polarized calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on DNA/RNA nucleobases on graphene oxide. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene oxide by applied charging.

  10. Self-assembly of hyperbranched polymers and its biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinyao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2010-11-02

    Hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) are highly branched macromolecules with a three-dimensional dendritic architecture. Due to their unique topological structure and interesting physical/chemical properties, HBPs have attracted wide attention from both academia and industry. In this paper, the recent developments in HBP self-assembly and their biomedical applications have been comprehensively reviewed. Many delicate supramolecular structures from zero-dimension (0D) to three-dimension (3D), such as micelles, fibers, tubes, vesicles, membranes, large compound vesicles and physical gels, have been prepared through the solution or interfacial self-assembly of amphiphilic HBPs. In addition, these supramolecular structures have shown promising applications in the biomedical areas including drug delivery, protein purification/detection/delivery, gene transfection, antibacterial/antifouling materials and cytomimetic chemistry. Such developments promote the interdiscipline researches among surpramolecular chemistry, biomedical chemistry, nano-technology and functional materials.

  11. Recent advances in applications of nanomaterials for sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linnan; Qi, Xiaoyue; Li, Xianjiang; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-01-01

    Sample preparation is a key step for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace analytes in complicated matrix. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology in material science, numerous nanomaterials have been developed with particularly useful applications in analytical chemistry. Benefitting from their high specific areas, increased surface activities, and unprecedented physical/chemical properties, the potentials of nanomaterials for rapid and efficient sample preparation have been exploited extensively. In this review, recent progress of novel nanomaterials applied in sample preparation has been summarized and discussed. Both nanoparticles and nanoporous materials are evaluated for their unusual performance in sample preparation. Various compositions and functionalizations extended the applications of nanomaterials in sample preparations, and distinct size and shape selectivity was generated from the diversified pore structures of nanoporous materials. Such great variety make nanomaterials a kind of versatile tools in sample preparation for almost all categories of analytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphene: a versatile nanoplatform for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, with its excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, holds tremendous potential for a wide variety of biomedical applications. As research on graphene-based nanomaterials is still at a nascent stage, due to the very short time span since its initial report in 2004, a focused review on this topic is timely and necessary. In this feature review, we first summarize the results from toxicity studies of graphene and its derivatives. Although literature reports have mixed findings, we emphasize that the key question is not how toxic graphene itself is, but how to modify and functionalize it and its derivatives so that they do not exhibit acute/chronic toxicity, can be cleared from the body over time, and thereby can be best used for biomedical applications. Next, we discuss in detail the exploration of graphene-based nanomaterials for tissue engineering, molecular imaging, and drug/gene delivery applications. The future of graphene-based nanomaterials in biomedicine looks brighter than ever, and it is expected that they will find a wide range of biomedical applications with future research effort and interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22653227

  13. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  14. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  15. Nanosilver: a nanoproduct in medical application.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Schluesener, H J

    2008-01-04

    Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine. However, only few nanoproducts are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nanosilver particles are generally smaller than 100nm and contain 20-15,000 silver atoms. At nanoscale, silver exhibits remarkably unusual physical, chemical and biological properties. Due to its strong antibacterial activity, nanosilver coatings are used on various textiles but as well as coatings on certain implants. Further, nanosilver is used for treatment of wounds and burns or as a contraceptive and marketed as a water disinfectant and room spray. Thus, use of nanosilver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications and due to increasing exposure toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. In sharp contrast to the attention paid to new applications of nanosilver, few studies provide only scant insights into the interaction of nanosilver particle with the human body after entering via different portals. Biodistribution, organ accumulation, degradation, possible adverse effects and toxicity are only slowly recognized and this review is focusing on major questions associated with the increased medical use of nanosilver and related nanomaterials.

  16. DNA-incorporating nanomaterials in biotechnological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, A.; van der Lelie, D.; Chi, C.; Gang, O.

    2010-02-01

    The recently developed ability to controllably connect biological and inorganic objects on a molecular scale opens a new page in biomimetic methods with potential applications in biodetection, tissue engineering, targeted therapeutics and drug/gene delivery. Particularly in the biodetection arena, a rapid development of new platforms has largely been stimulated by a spectrum of novel nanomaterials with physical properties that offer efficient, sensitive and inexpensive molecular sensing. Recently, DNA-functionalized nano-objects have emerged as a new class of nanomaterials that can be controllably assembled in predesigned structures. Such DNA-based nanoscale structures might provide a new detection paradigm due to their regulated optical, electrical and magnetic responses, chemical heterogeneity and high local biomolecular concentration. The specific biorecognition DNA and its physical-chemical characteristics allows for an exploitation of DNA-functionalized nanomaterials for sensing of nucleic acids, while a broad tunability of DNA interactions permits extending their use for detection of proteins, small molecules and ions. We discuss the progress that was achieved in the last decade in the exploration of new detection methods based on DNA-incorporating nanomaterials as well as their applications to gene delivery. The comparison between various detection platforms, their sensitivity and selectivity, and specific applications are reviewed.

  17. Metamaterial Absorber Based Multifunctional Sensor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Z.; Mamedov, A. M.; Ozbay, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study metamaterial based (MA) absorber sensor, integrated with an X-band waveguide, is numerically and experimentally suggested for important application including pressure, density sensing and marble type detecting applications based on rectangular split ring resonator, sensor layer and absorber layer that measures of changing in the dielectric constant and/or the thickness of a sensor layer. Changing of physical, chemical or biological parameters in the sensor layer can be detected by measuring the resonant frequency shifting of metamaterial absorber based sensor. Suggested MA based absorber sensor can be used for medical, biological, agricultural and chemical detecting applications in microwave frequency band. We compare the simulation and experimentally obtained results from the fabricated sample which are good agreement. Simulation results show that the proposed structure can detect the changing of the refractive indexes of different materials via special resonance frequencies, thus it could be said that the MA-based sensors have high sensitivity. Additionally due to the simple and tiny structures it could be adapted to other electronic devices in different sizes.

  18. Cellulose as a Scaffold for Self-Assembly: From Basic Research to Real Applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; He, Junhui

    2016-11-29

    Cellulose has received a tremendous amount of attention both in academia and industry owing to its unique structural features, impressive physical-chemical properties, and wide applications. This natural polymer is originally used for packaging, paper, lightweight composites, and so forth and is now being developed for various new areas, such as antibacterial treatment, catalysis, water purification and separation, and biological and environmental analysis. In the current article, we summarize the recent developments in the self-assembly of cellulose with various species including metal ions and metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Then we highlight several key application areas of cellulose-based composites by reviewing the recent representative literature in each area. A significant part of this review demonstrates some exciting innovations for a wide range of practical applications of cellulose-based composites. Some challenges are also discussed with a view toward future developments.

  19. [Application of THz technology to nondestructive detection of agricultural product quality].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-ying; Ge, Hong-yi; Lian, Fei-yu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shan-hong

    2014-08-01

    With recent development of THz sources and detector, applications of THz radiation to nondestructive testing and quality control have expanded in many fields, such as agriculture, safety inspection and quality control, medicine, biochemistry, communication etc. Compared with other detection technique, being a new kind of technique, THz radiation has low energy, good perspectivity, and high signal-to-noise ratio, and thus can obtain physical, chemical and biological information. This paper first introduces the basic concept of THz radiation and the major properties, then gives an extensive review of recent research progress in detection of the quality of agricultural products via THz technique, analyzes the existing shortcomings of THz detection and discusses the outlook of potential application, finally proposes the new application of THz technique to detection of quality of stored grain.

  20. Glyconanoparticles: multifunctional nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    García, Isabel; Marradi, Marco; Penadés, Soledad

    2010-07-01

    Metal-based glyconanoparticles (GNPs) are biofunctional nanomaterials that combine the unique physical, chemical and optical properties of the metallic nucleus with the characteristics of the carbohydrate coating. The latter characteristics comprise a series of advantages that range from ensuring water solubility, biocompatibility and stability to targeting properties. The selection of suitable carbohydrates for specifically targeting biomarkers opens up the possibility to employ metallic GNPs in diagnostics and/or therapy. Within the vast nanoscience field, this review intends to focus on the advances of multifunctional and multimodal GNPs, which make use of the 'glycocode' to specifically address pathogens or pathological-related biomedical problems. Examples of their potential application in antiadhesion therapy and diagnosis are highlighted. From the ex vivo diagnostic perspective, it can be predicted that GNPs will soon be used clinically. However, the in vivo application of metallic GNPs in humans will probably need more time. In particular, major concerns regarding nanotoxicity need to be exhaustively addressed. However, it is expected that the sugar shell of GNPs will lower the intrinsic toxicity of metal nanoclusters better than other non-natural coatings.

  1. Per aspera ad astra: application of Simplex QSAR approach in antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Muratov, Eugene N; Artemenko, Anatoly G; Varlamova, Ekaterina V; Polischuk, Pavel G; Lozitsky, Victor P; Fedchuk, Alla S; Lozitska, Regina L; Gridina, Tat'yana L; Koroleva, Ludmila S; Sil'nikov, Vladimir N; Galabov, Angel S; Makarov, Vadim A; Riabova, Olga B; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela; Kuz'min, Victor E

    2010-07-01

    This review explores the application of the Simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS) QSAR approach in antiviral research. We provide an introduction to and description of SiRMS, its application in antiviral research and future directions of development of the Simplex approach and the whole QSAR field. In the Simplex approach every molecule is represented as a system of different simplexes (tetratomic fragments with fixed composition, structure, chirality and symmetry). The main advantages of SiRMS are consideration of the different physical-chemical properties of atoms, high adequacy and good interpretability of models obtained and clear procedures for molecular design. The reliability of developed QSAR models as predictive virtual screening tools and their ability to serve as the basis of directed drug design was validated by subsequent synthetic and biological experiments. The SiRMS approach is realized as the complex of the computer program 'HiT QSAR', which is available on request.

  2. Biocatalytic production of D-tagatose: A potential rare sugar with versatile applications.

    PubMed

    Jayamuthunagai, J; Gautam, P; Srisowmeya, G; Chakravarthy, M

    2017-11-02

    D-tagatose is a naturally existing rare monosaccharide having prebiotic properties. Minimal absorption, low metabolizing energy, and unique clinical properties are the characteristics of D-tagatose. D-tagatose gained international attention by matching the purpose of alternate sweeteners that is much needed for the control of diabetes among world population. Recent efforts in understanding tagatose bioconversion have generated essential information regarding its production and application. This article reviews the evolution of D-tagatose as an important rare sugar by appreciable improvements in production results and its significant applications resulted of its unique physical, chemical, biological, and clinical properties thus considering it an appropriate product for requisite improvements in technical viability. Based on current knowledge and technology projections, the commercialization of D-tagatose rare sugar as food additive is close to reality.

  3. Iron triad (Fe, Co, Ni) nanomaterials: structural design, functionalization and their applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Guo, Lin

    2015-10-07

    The structure and the composition are two key factors that influence the physical, chemical, and other properties of materials. Correspondingly, structural design and functionalization with inorganic or organic materials provide efficient routes to enhancing some properties. Herein, iron triad nanomaterials, with a wide range of applications in energy, environment and other fields, were chosen as the target materials. This paper reviews various approaches for designing three typical structures (hollow and porous, ultrathin two-dimensional, and complex three-dimensional structures) of iron triad nanomaterials with high specific surface areas as well as their feasible functionalization for special purposes. Furthermore, some amazing work in recent years is introduced and discussed, especially in the energy field including energy transfer, conversion and storage, and in the environment field, including the adsorption and removal of harmful inorganic ions and organic pollutants. This review aims at developing potential applications of the nanomaterials using structural adjustment and functionalization to overcome their intrinsic shortcomings and enhance their performance.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of poly(4-vinyl pyridine-co-styrene)/FHAP nanocomposite, and its biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanalakshmi, C. P.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Narayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Among the composite materials, ceramic/polymer possesses significant advantages of high mechanical reliability and excellent biocompatibility for applications in load-bearing areas. In this work, PVPCS(Poly (4-vinyl pyridine-co-styrene))/FHAp nanocomposites of varying weight percentages were synthesized and characterized physical-chemically by XRD, FTIR, 31P NMR, TGA, DTA, and FE-SEM and biologically by antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory assays for evaluating their potential use for biomedical applications. The results indicated that the size and crystallinity of FHAp nanoparticles decrease with increase in PVPCS concentration in the composite. SEM confirmed the presence of FHAp nano rod crystals in PVPCS matrix. The nano PVPCS20/FHAp demonstrated the highest antifungal and antibacterial activity and favorable inhibition of human cell hemolysis. The designed PVPCS/FHAp nanocomposites constitute promising candidates for biomedical applications.

  5. Secondary co-processing of coal and petroleum naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.A.; Jones, M.A.; Lohring, R.

    1993-12-31

    Straight-run distillate derived from North Sea (Brent) crude oil and coal-derived distillate obtained from the 200 tpd coal liquefaction pilot plant at Bottrop, Essen (Germany) have been used to prepare light distillate refining feedstocks. Coal-derived naphtha was hydrotreated along and as a 50% blend with petroleum naphtha to reduce its nitrogen and sulphur content to levels acceptable for catalytic reformer feedstocks. The hydrotreating conditions required were similar to those used in the conventional oil refining industry. The hydrotreated coal-derived naphthas were catalytically reformed alone and as blends with petroleum naphtha. The coal-derived naphthas reformed very readily to high octane blendstocks at conditions markedly less severe than those necessary for the petroleum naphtha. As would be expected, the conditions required to reform blends were intermediate between those of the end members. However, the results indicate potential yield advantages when co-reforming blends as compared with reforming the end members separately and blending the products.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Co-processing for Unsteady Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    across processes. Other work includes improvement to the table-based clipper and surface LIC filters described in more detail below...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Distribution Statement A: Distribution is approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. • Table-Based Clipper : We...developed an efficient Table-Based Clipper (vtkTableBasedClipDataSet) as an improved alternative to the existing filter (vtkClipDataSet). This new method

  7. Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng

    1995-12-31

    A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

  8. Co-processing of agriculture and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Biomass and bio-processed waste are potential candidates for co-liquefaction with coal. Specific materials used here include sawdust and poultry manure. Liquefaction experiments were run on each of these materials, separately and with coal, using tetralin as solvent at 350{degrees}C and 1000 psi(cold) hydrogen pressure for 1h. Total conversion was monitored, as well as conversion to asphaltenes, oils and gases. All the biomass samples are converted to oils and gases under the reaction conditions. Poultry manure seems to convert coal more completely, and to produce more oils and gases, than conventional liquefaction.

  9. Co-processing of residual oil and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Audeh, C.A.

    1983-04-05

    Visbreaking a mixture of petroleum residuum, coal and catalytic cracking catalyst under conditions severe enough to effect conversion but not so severe as to produce substantial quantities of coke produces a range of products including gaseous olefins and gasoline distillate. The solids recovered from the visbreaking operation can be processed to produce a synthesis gas of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

  10. Polymer-Enriched 3D Graphene Foams for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Kit; Xiong, Gordon Minru; Zhu, Minmin; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Castro Neto, Antonio Helio; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-04-22

    Graphene foams (GFs) are versatile nanoplatforms for biomedical applications because of their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, the brittleness and inflexibility of pristine GF (pGF) are some of the important factors restricting their widespread application. Here, a chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted method was used to synthesize 3D GFs, which were subsequently spin-coated with polymer to produce polymer-enriched 3D GFs with high conductivity and flexibility. Compared to pGF, both poly(vinylidene fluoride)-enriched GF (PVDF/GF) and polycaprolactone-enriched GF (PCL/GF) scaffolds showed improved flexibility and handleability. Despite the presence of the polymers, the polymer-enriched 3D GF scaffolds retained high levels of electrical conductivity because of the presence of microcracks that allowed for the flow of electrons through the material. In addition, polymer enrichment of GF led to an enhancement in the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds when the scaffolds were exposed to simulated body fluid. Between the two polymers tested, PCL enrichment of GF resulted in a higher in vitro mineralization nucleation rate because the oxygen-containing functional group of PCL had a higher affinity for Ca-P deposition and formation compared to the polar carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond in PVDF. Taken together, our current findings are a stepping stone toward future applications of polymer-enriched 3D GFs in the treatment of bone defects as well as other biomedical applications.

  11. Radio-nanomaterials for biomedical applications: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weifei; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-01

    The incorporation of radioactive isotope(s) into conventional nanomaterials can bring extra properties which are not possessed by original materials. The resulting radioactive nanomaterials (radio-nanomaterials), with added physical/chemical properties, can be used as important tools for different biomedical applications. In this review, our goal is to provide an up-to-date overview on these applications using radio-nanomaterials. The first section illustrates the utilization of radionanomaterials for understanding of in vivo kinetics of their parent nano-materials. In the second section, we focus on two primary applications of radio-nanomaterials: imaging and therapeutic delivery. With various methods being used to form radio-nanomaterials, they can be used for positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging. Therapeutic isotopes-loading radio-nanomaterials can possess selective killing efficacy of diseased cells (e.g. tumor cells) and can provide promises for certain isotopes which are not able to be used in a conventional manner. The successful and versatile biomedical applications of radio-nanomaterials warrants further investigations of those materials and their optimizations can pave the way to future imaging guidable, personalized treatments in patients.

  12. New Perspectives on Biomedical Applications of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; de Almeida Roger, Jessica; Vianello, Fabio

    2017-06-16

    Iron oxide nanomaterials are considered promising tools for improved therapeutic efficacy and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. Accordingly, engineered iron oxide nanomaterials are increasingly proposed in biomedicine, and the interdisciplinary researches involving physics, chemistry, biology (nanotechnology) and medicine have led to exciting developments in the last decades. The progresses of the development of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored physico-chemical and surface properties produced a variety of clinically relevant applications, spanning from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, to in vitro diagnostics. Notwithstanding the well-known conventional synthetic procedures and their wide use, recent advances in the synthetic methods open the door to new generations of naked iron oxide nanoparticles possessing peculiar surface chemistries, suitable for other competitive biomedical applications. New abilities to rationally manipulate iron oxides and their physical, chemical, and biological properties, allow the emersion of additional possibilities for designing novel nanomaterials for theranostic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Multifunctional Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Shi, Ye; Pan, Lijia; Yu, Guihua

    2017-07-18

    Conductive polymers have attracted significant interest over the past few decades because they synergize the advantageous features of conventional polymeric materials and organic conductors. With rationally designed nanostructures, conductive polymers can further exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and optical properties because of their confined dimensions at the nanoscale level. Among various nanostructured conductive polymers, conductive polymer gels (CPGs) with synthetically tunable hierarchical 3D network structures show great potential for a wide range of applications, such as bioelectronics, and energy storage/conversion devices owing to their structural features. CPGs retain the properties of nanosized conductive polymers during the assembly of the nanobuilding blocks into a monolithic macroscopic structure while generating structure-derived features from the highly cross-linked network. In this Account, we review our recent progress on the synthesis, properties, and novel applications of dopant cross-linked CPGs. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which molecules with multiple functional groups are adopted as cross-linkers to cross-link conductive polymer chains into a 3D molecular network. These cross-linking molecules also act as dopants to improve the electrical conductivity of the gel network. The microstructure and physical/chemical properties of CPGs can be tuned by controlling the synthetic conditions such as species of monomers and cross-linkers, reaction temperature, and solvents. By incorporating other functional polymers or particles into the CPG matrix, hybrid gels have been synthesized with tailored structures. These hybrid gel materials retain the functionalities from each component, as well as enable synergic effects to improve mechanical and electrical properties of CPGs. We then introduce the unique structure-derived properties of the CPGs. The network facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the

  14. Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Attarad; Zafar, Hira; Zia, Muhammad; ul Haq, Ihsan; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Ali, Joham Sarfraz; Hussain, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs. PMID:27578966

  15. Fe/Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, Amandeep; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2009-10-01

    The physical properties of nanoparticles, including size, composition and surface chemistry, greatly influence biological and pharmacological properties and, ultimately, their clinical applications. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used for applications such as MRI contrast agents, drug delivery via magnetic targeting and hyperthermia due to their chemical stability and biocompatibility; however, enhancing the saturation magnetization (Ms) of nanoparticles would produce greater sensitivity. Our design strategy involves a bottom-up wet chemistry approach to the synthesis of Fe nanoparticles. Specific advantages of Fe are the high value of Ms (210 emu/g in bulk) coupled with low toxicity; however, Fe nanoparticles must be protected from oxidation, which causes a dramatic reduction in Ms. To circumvent oxidation, Fe nanoparticles are coated with a Au shell that prevents the oxidation of the magnetic core and also provides the nanoparticles with plasmonic properties for optical stimulation. Ligands of various functionalities can be introduced through the well established Au-thiol surface chemistry for different biomedical applications while maintaining the magnetic functionality of the Fe core. In this presentation, we will discuss the physical, chemical and magnetic properties of our Fe/Au nanoparticles and their resistance to oxidation.

  16. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-09-13

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.

  17. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology.

    PubMed

    Maia, Bruno; Cunha, Joao P A R

    2011-12-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1(st), 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.

  18. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs. PMID:27649147

  19. Recent Advances in Preparation, Structure, Properties and Applications of Graphite Oxide.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Pionteck, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Graphite oxide, also referred as graphitic oxide or graphitic acid, is an oxidized bulk product of graphite with a variable composition. However, it did not receive immense attention until it was identified as an important and easily obtainable precursor for the preparation of graphene. This inspired many researchers to explore facts related to graphite oxide in exploiting its fascinating features. The present article culminates up-dated review on different preparative methods, morphology and characterization of physical/chemical properties of graphite oxide by XRD, XPS, FTIR, Raman, NMR, UV-visible, and DRIFT analyses. Finally, recent developments on intercalation and applications of GO in multifaceted areas of catalysis, sensor, supercapacitors, water purification, hydrogen storage and magnetic shielding etc. has also been reviewed.

  20. High molecular weight bioemulsifiers, main properties and potential environmental and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-05-01

    High molecular weight bioemulsifiers are amphipathic polysaccharides, proteins, lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, or complex mixtures of these biopolymers, produced by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are characterized by highly structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively and/or emulsify hydrophobic compounds. Emulsan, fatty acids, phospholipids, neutral lipids, exopolysaccharides, vesicles and fimbriae are among the most popular high molecular weight bioemulsifiers. They have great physic-chemical properties like tolerance to extreme conditions of pH, temperature and salinity, low toxicity and biodegradability. Owing their emulsion forming and breaking capacities, solubilization, mobilization and dispersion activities and their viscosity reduction activity; they possess great environmental application as enhancer of hydrocarbon biodegradation and for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Besides, they are applied in biomedical fields for their antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities and involvement in immune responses.

  1. Recent development and biomedical applications of self-healing hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Adokoh, Christian K; Narain, Ravin

    2017-08-23

    Hydrogels are of special importance, owing to their high-water content and various applications in biomedical and bio-engineering research. Self-healing properties is a common phenomenon in living organisms. Their endowed property of being able to self-repair after physical/chemical/mechanical damage to fully or partially its original properties demonstrates their prospective therapeutic applications. Due to complicated preparation and selection of suitable materials, the application of many host-guest supramolecular polymeric hydrogels are so limited. Thus, the design and construction of self-repairing material are highly desirable for effectively increase in the lifetime of a functional material. However, recent advances in the field of materials science and bioengineering and nanotechnology have led to the design of biologically relevant self-healing hydrogels for therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the recent development of self-healing hydrogels for biomedical application. Areas covered: The strategies of making self-healing hydrogels and their healing mechanisms are discussed. The significance of self-healing hydrogel for biomedical application is also highlighted in areas such as 3D/4D printing, cell/drug delivery, as well as soft actuators. Expert opinion: Materials that have the ability to self-repair damage and regain the desired mechanical properties, have been found to be excellent candidate materials for a range of biomedical uses especially if their unique characteristics are similar to that of soft-tissues. Self-healing hydrogels have been synthesized and shown to exhibit similar characteristics as human tissues, however, significant improvement is required in the fabrication process from inexpensive and nontoxic/non-hazardous materials and techniques, and, in addition, further fine-tuning of the self-healing properties are needed for specific biomedical uses.

  2. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  3. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2014-06-01

    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  4. Marine extremophiles: a source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-04-03

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  5. Application of Unmanned Aircraft System Instrumentation to Study Coastal Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, R. B.; Osburn, C. L.; Smith, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal evaluation of key geochemical cycles is in strong need for thorough spatial data to address diverse topics. In many field studies we find that fixed station data taken from ship operations does not provide complete understanding of key research questions. In complicated systems where there is a need to integrate physical, chemical and biological parameters data taken from research vessels needs to be interpreted across large spatial areas. New technology in Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) instrumentation coupled with ship board data can provide the thorough spatial data needed for a thorough evaluation of coastal sciences. This presentation will provide field data related to UAS application in two diverse environments. One study focuses on the flux of carbon dioxide and methane from Alaskan Arctic tundra and shallow Beaufort Sea coastal region to the atmosphere. In this study gas chemistry from samples is used to predict the relative fluxes to the atmosphere. A second study applies bio-optical analyses to differentiate between Gulf of Mexico coastal water column DOC and Lignin. This wide range of parameters in diverse ecosystems is selected to show current capability for application of UAS and the potential for understanding large scale questions about climate change and carbon cycling in coastal waters.

  6. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Electrochemical stability of binary TiNb for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, K. M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Alves Claro, A. P. R.; Marino, C. E. B.

    2017-07-01

    The Ti-Nb alloy binary system has been widely studied with regard to biomedical applications due to the high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties of the alloys. Regarding physical-chemical stability, Ti-Nb alloys maintain the properties of Ti metal, which is highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive media due to a spontaneous stable oxide layer (TiO2) formed on its surface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the Ti-40Nb alloy in artificial blood. The thermodynamic stability was studied using the open circuit potential technique and the corrosion resistance was assessed by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicated that the Ti-40Nb alloy has high corrosion resistance and good thermodynamic stability, with an OCP of around  -485 mV, and the alloy remained electrochemically stable in potentiodynamic conditions with initial and final potentials of  -1.0 V to  +2.0 Vsce, respectively, in low current densities (~µA cm-2) with an absence of hysteresis, aspure Ti. The results obtained showed that this specific alloy has the potential to be used in biomedical applications.

  8. Properties of zirconium carbide for nuclear fuel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Yutai; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul; Nozawa, Takashi; Snead, Lance L.

    2013-10-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a potential coating, oxygen-gettering, or inert matrix material for advanced high temperature reactor fuels. ZrC has demonstrated attractive properties for these fuel applications including excellent resistance against fission product corrosion and fission product retention capabilities. However, fabrication of ZrC results in a range of stable sub-stoichiometric and carbon-rich compositions with or without substantial microstructural inhomogeneity, textural anisotropy, and a phase separation, leading to variations in physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The effects of neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures, currently only poorly understood, are believed to be substantially influenced by those compositional and microstructural features further adding complexity to understanding the key ZrC properties. This article provides a survey of properties data for ZrC, as required by the United States Department of Energy's advanced fuel programs in support of the current efforts toward fuel performance modeling and providing guidance for future research on ZrC for fuel applications.

  9. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Navya, P N; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  10. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navya, P. N.; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  11. Applications analysis report: Silicate Technology Corporation's solidification/stabilization technology for organic and inorganic contaminants in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, E.

    1992-12-01

    The STC demonstration was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program in November, 1990, at the Selma Pressure Treating (SPT) wood preserving site in Selma, California. The SPT site was contaminated with both organics, predominantly pentachlorophenol (PCP), inorganics, mainly arsenic, chromium, and copper. Extensive sampling and analyses were performed on the waste both before and after treatment to compare physical, chemical, and leaching characteristics of raw and treated wastes. STC's contaminated soil treatment process was evaluated based on contaminant mobility measured by numerous leaching tests, structural integrity of the solidified material, measured by physical and engineering tests and morphological examinations; and economic analysis, using cost information supplied by STC and the results of the SITE demonstration, the vendor's design and test data, and other laboratory and field applications of the technology. It discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, as well as estimated costs of the technology.

  12. Technological properties of amazonian oils and fats and their applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Carolina Vieira; Rodrigues, Antonio Manoel da Cruz; de Oliveira, Pedro Danilo; da Silva, Dayala Albuquerque; da Silva, Luiza Helena Meller

    2017-04-15

    The application of lipids to food production is dependent on their physical, chemical, and nutritional properties. In this study, pracaxi oil, passion fruit oil, cupuassu fat, and palm stearin underwent physicochemical analyses and were combined at ratios of 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 to assess their potential applications in the food industry. Pracaxi oil, passion fruit oil, and cupuassu fat had interesting fatty acid profiles from a nutritional standpoint, displaying the lowest atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices (0.02 and 0.14; 0.12 and 0.34; 0.16 and 0.65), respectively. Palm stearin had high thermal stability (7.23h). The primary applications of the blends obtained in this study are in table and functional margarine, particularly the pracaxi-stearin and passion fruit-stearin 40:60 and 50:50, pracaxi-cupuassu 60:40 and 70:30, and passion fruit-cupuassu 40:60 blends. The results suggest new industrial applications, especially for pracaxi and passion fruit oils, which are commonly applied in the cosmetic industry.

  13. Miniaturization of aqueous two-phase extraction for biological applications: From micro-tubes to microchannels.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ruben R G; Silva, Daniel F C; Fernandes, Pedro; Azevedo, Ana M; Chu, Virginia; Conde, João P; Aires-Barros, M Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) is a biocompatible liquid-liquid (L-L) separation technique that has been under research for several decades towards the purification of biomolecules, ranging from small metabolites to large animal cells. More recently, with the emergence of rapid-prototyping techniques for fabrication of microfluidic structures with intricate designs, ATPE gained an expanded range of applications utilizing physical phenomena occurring exclusively at the microscale. Today, research is being carried simultaneously in two different volume ranges, mL-scale (microtubes) and nL-scale (microchannels). The objective of this review is to give insight into the state of the art at both microtube and microchannel-scale and to analyze whether miniaturization is currently a competing or divergent technology in a field of applications including bioseparation, bioanalytics, enhanced fermentation processes, catalysis, high-throughput screening and physical/chemical compartmentalization. From our perspective, both approaches are worthy of investigation and, depending on the application, it is likely that either (i) one of the approaches will eventually become obsolete in particular research areas such as purification at the preparative scale or high-throughput screening applications; or (ii) both approaches will function as complementing techniques within the bioanalytics field.

  14. A Review on the Synthesis and Applications of Mesostructured Transition Metal Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ronghe; Ding, Yunjie

    2013-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to extending the range of the elemental composition of mesoporous materials since the pioneering work of the M41S family of ordered mesoporous silica by Mobil researchers. The synthesis of transition metal-containing mesostructured materials with large surface area and high porosity has drawn great attention for its potential applications in acid and redox catalysis, photocatalysis, proton conducting devices, environmental restoration and so on. Thus, various transition metals-containing mesoporous materials, including transition metal-substituted mesoporous silicates, mesostructured transition metal oxides and transition metal phosphates (TMP), have been documented in the literature. Among these, mesostructured TMP materials are less studied, but possess some unique features, partly because of the easy and facile functionalization of PO4 and/or P–OH groups, rendering them interesting functional materials. This review first introduced the general synthesis strategies for manufacturing mesostructured TMP materials, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the respective method; then, we surveyed the ongoing developments of fabrication and application of the TMP materials in three groups on the basis of their components and application fields. Future perspectives on existing problems related to the present synthesis routes and further modifying of the functional groups for the purpose of tailoring special physical-chemical properties to meet wide application requirements were also provided in the last part. PMID:28809304

  15. Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Alge, Daniel L; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-12-02

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ultrathin nanomaterials with a high degree of anisotropy and chemical functionality. Research on 2D nanomaterials is still in its infancy, with the majority of research focusing on elucidating unique material characteristics and few reports focusing on biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent rapid advances in 2D nanomaterials have raised important and exciting questions about their interactions with biological moieties. 2D nanoparticles such as carbon-based 2D materials, silicate clays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide enhanced physical, chemical, and biological functionality owing to their uniform shapes, high surface-to-volume ratios, and surface charge. Here, we focus on state-of-the-art biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials as well as recent developments that are shaping this emerging field. Specifically, we describe the unique characteristics that make 2D nanoparticles so valuable, as well as the biocompatibility framework that has been investigated so far. Finally, to both capture the growing trend of 2D nanomaterials for biomedical applications and to identify promising new research directions, we provide a critical evaluation of potential applications of recently developed 2D nanomaterials.

  16. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Jimin; Feng, Guowei; Shen, Jie; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), as an essential signaling molecule, participates in various physiological processes such as cardiovascular homeostasis, neuronal transmission, immunomodulation, and tumor growth. The multiple role of NO in physiology and pathophysiology has triggered a massive interest in the strategies of delivering exogenous NO for biomedical applications. Hence, different kinds of NO prodrugs have been developed up to date, including diazeniumdiolates, S-nitrosothiol, metal-nitrosyl, nitrobenzene, and so on. However, the clinical application of these low molecular weight NO donors has been restricted due to the problems of burst release, low payloads, and untargeted delivery. The delivery of NO by biomaterialbased carrier offers a beneficial strategy to realize the controlled and sustained delivery of NO to the targeted tissues or organs. In detail, NO-donor prodrugs have been attached and loaded to diverse biomaterials to fabricate nanoparticles, hydrogels, and coating platforms by means of physical, chemical, or supramolecular techniques. These NO-releasing biomaterials hold promise for a number of biomedical applications ranging from therapy of the ischemic disease and several types of cancer to cardiovascular devices and wound dressing. First, surface coating with NO-releasing biomaterials could mimic the physiological function of vascular endothelium, therefore promoting vascularization and improving the patency of cardiovascular implants. Next, because NO also mediates many important processes that take place after cutaneous injury, NO-releasing biomaterials could serve as ideal wound dressing to accelerate tissue regeneration. Finally, biomaterials enable localized delivery of high dose of NO to tumors in a sustained manner, thus generating potent tumoricidal effect. In this review, we will summarize the progress of different NO-releasing biomaterials, and highlight their biomedical applications with a hope to inspire new perspectives in the area of

  17. Building model analysis applications with the Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability (JUPITER) API

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, E.R.; Hill, M.C.; Poeter, E.; Doherty, J.E.; Babendreier, J.

    2008-01-01

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input and output conventions allow application users to access various applications and the analysis methods they embody with a minimum of time and effort. Process models simulate, for example, physical, chemical, and (or) biological systems of interest using phenomenological, theoretical, or heuristic approaches. The types of model analyses supported by the JUPITER API include, but are not limited to, sensitivity analysis, data needs assessment, calibration, uncertainty analysis, model discrimination, and optimization. The advantages provided by the JUPITER API for users and programmers allow for rapid programming and testing of new ideas. Application-specific coding can be in languages other than the Fortran-90 of the API. This article briefly describes the capabilities and utility of the JUPITER API, lists existing applications, and uses UCODE_2005 as an example.

  18. Optical carrier-based microwave interferometers for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Wang, Hanzheng; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai

    2014-06-01

    Optical fiber interferometers (OFIs) have been extensively utilized for precise measurements of various physical/chemical quantities (e.g., temperature, strain, pressure, rotation, refractive index, etc.). However, the random change of polarization states along the optical fibers and the strong dependence on the materials and geometries of the optical waveguides are problematic for acquiring high quality interference signal. Meanwhile, difficulty in multiplexing has always been a bottleneck on the application scopes of OFIs. Here, we present a sensing concept of optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) by reading optical interferometric sensors in microwave domain. It combines the advantages from both optics and microwave. The low oscillation frequency of the microwave can hardly distinguish the optical differences from both modal and polarization dispersion making it insensitive to the optical waveguides/materials. The phase information of the microwave can be unambiguitly resolved so that it has potential in fully distributed sensing. The OCMI concept has been implemented in different types of interferometers (i.e., Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Fabry-Perot) among different optical waveguides (i.e., singlemode, multimode, and sapphire fibers) with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and low polarization dependence. A spatially continuous distributed strain sensing has been demonstrated.

  19. Nuclear molecular imaging with nanoparticles: radiochemistry, applications and translation

    PubMed Central

    Abou, D S; Pickett, J E

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides considerable insight into biological processes for greater understanding of health and disease. Numerous advances in medical physics, chemistry and biology have driven the growth of this field in the past two decades. With exquisite sensitivity, depth of detection and potential for theranostics, radioactive imaging approaches have played a major role in the emergence of molecular imaging. At the same time, developments in materials science, characterization and synthesis have led to explosive progress in the nanoparticle (NP) sciences. NPs are generally defined as particles with a diameter in the nanometre size range. Unique physical, chemical and biological properties arise at this scale, stimulating interest for applications as diverse as energy production and storage, chemical catalysis and electronics. In biomedicine, NPs have generated perhaps the greatest attention. These materials directly interface with life at the subcellular scale of nucleic acids, membranes and proteins. In this review, we will detail the advances made in combining radioactive imaging and NPs. First, we provide an overview of the NP platforms and their properties. This is followed by a look at methods for radiolabelling NPs with gamma-emitting radionuclides for use in single photon emission CT and planar scintigraphy. Next, utilization of positron-emitting radionuclides for positron emission tomography is considered. Finally, recent advances for multimodal nuclear imaging with NPs and efforts for clinical translation and ongoing trials are discussed. PMID:26133075

  20. Nanotechnology applications in the forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Moon; Charles R. Frihart; Theodore Wegner

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the study and engineering of matter at the dimensions of 1 to 100 nanometers, where the physical, chemical, or biological properties are fundamentally different from those of the bulk material. By expanding our understanding and control of matter at such levels, new avenues in product development can be opened. Nanoscale-based science has...

  1. 40 CFR 264.190 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  2. 40 CFR 265.190 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...

  3. 40 CFR 264.190 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  4. 40 CFR 265.190 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...

  5. 40 CFR 265.190 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...

  6. 40 CFR 264.190 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  7. Recent physical-chemical anomalies and associated ecological responses in southern California kelp forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. J.; Reed, D.; Washburn, L.; Bell, T. W.; Blanchette, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Time series data collected by the Santa Barbara Coastal Long-Term Ecological Research program on giant kelp forests and the environmental factors that influence them provide a unique opportunity to examine the extent and ecological consequences of recent anomalies in physical and chemical properties of a shallow water benthic marine ecosystem. Positive temperature anomalies have been recorded in all but two months since early 2013 with deviations ranging as high as 3.8 oC above the 14-year monthly mean, which is unprecedented in the time series. Positive anomalies in salinity (DS) were also observed every month since late 2012 and DS exceeded 0.3 for several months in 2013 and 2014. Positive DS values occurred in previous years, but were weaker and shorter in duration. Apart from 1-2 months, anomalies in nitrate, phosphate, and silicate turned consistently negative in late 2012. However, comparable anomalies in these nutrients occurred earlier in the record, especially before 2008 for nitrate and phosphate. Anomalies in key ecological characteristics of giant kelp forests associated with the large positive temperature anomalies have been much less striking. Water column chlorophyll a, the standing biomass of giant kelp and densities of many kelp forest consumers have been lower than normal in recent years, but not markedly so compared to other years in the time series. Shorter time series data on pigment concentrations in giant kelp revealed a declining trend in recent years, consistent with the below normal levels observed in kelp tissue nitrogen. The most dramatic change in kelp forests that coincided with the onset of the temperature anomalies was observed in sea stars, which first showed signs of a wasting disease in fall of 2013. The disease spread rapidly from north to south and by spring 2014 infections were prevalent throughout southern California. Large corresponding increases in the abundance of starfish prey have yet to be observed.

  8. Physical, chemical, and biological methods for the removal of arsenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lim, K T; Shukor, M Y; Wasoh, H

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid which is widely distributed in nature. It is normally present as arsenate under oxic conditions while arsenite is predominant under reducing condition. The major discharges of arsenic in the environment are mainly due to natural sources such as aquifers and anthropogenic sources. It is known that arsenite salts are more toxic than arsenate as it binds with vicinal thiols in pyruvate dehydrogenase while arsenate inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation process. The common mechanisms for arsenic detoxification are uptaken by phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporins, and active extrusion system and reduced by arsenate reductases via dissimilatory reduction mechanism. Some species of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms use arsenic oxyanions for their regeneration of energy. Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. Detoxification operons are a common form of arsenic resistance in microorganisms. Hence, the use of bioremediation could be an effective and economic way to reduce this pollutant from the environment.

  9. Physical, chemical and biological properties of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure including bedding material can be a valuable fertilizer, yet numerous, poorly characterized, environmental factors control its quality. The objective was to determine whether moisture content (MC), nutrient value (ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total po...

  10. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial evaluation of a composite material containing quaternary ammonium salt for braces cementation.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Mari Miura; Ferreira, Fábio Augusto de Souza; Müller, Karina Cogo; Lima, Debora Alves Nunes Leite; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Imasato, Hidetake; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara Pereira; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    2017-04-01

    The antibiofilm effect of iodide quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (IQAMS) in Transbond XT Light Cure Adhesive resin used for braces cementation was evaluated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed IQAMS formation and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) revealed that as coating, the quaternary ammonium groups from IQAMS were homogeneously dispersed throughout the surface. When incorporated, the composite material presented homogeneous dispersion throughout the resin. Assays with Streptococcus mutans demonstrated enhanced antibiofilm effect for the IQAMS coated resin, with much lower colony-forming units (CFU), in comparison to incorporated IQAMS. Such a difference was assigned to low availability of quaternary ammonium groups at the surface of resin when IQAMS was incorporated, hindering its antibiofilm effect. Additionally, the incorporation of IQAMS led to slight decrease in ultimate bond strength (UBS) and shear bond strength (SBS), in comparison to the neat commercial resin. Thus, the synthesized IQAMS displays great potential as antibiofilm coating or sealant to prevent oral infections in brackets during orthodontic treatment.

  11. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Sediments From the Great Salt Lake via FFF-ICP- MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. W.; Diaz, X.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation may be the major effective mechanism of selenium removal from the water column of the Great Salt Lake if there is a permanent sequestration of selenium in deposited sediment. However, re-suspension and re-solubilization of selenium into the water column may also release deposited selenium back to the water column. To quantify these processes the settling phase must be characterized in terms of makeup (e.g. biological versus mineral), size (molecular to particulate), and the selenium burden must be apportioned among these various molecular to particulate fractions in the settling phase. Water column samples were fractionated among dissolved, molecular and particulate sizes using centrifugation and fluid flow fractionation (FFF) and the associated selenium was measured using ICP-MS. This talk presents the results of characterization of the water column via these techniques, and relates these results to results from characterization of deposited sediment.

  12. Physical-chemical and biological characterization of different preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin

    PubMed Central

    Natal, Fabio Luis Nogueira; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; de Almeida, Beatriz Elane; de Oliveira, João Ezequiel; Bartolini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation with commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) produces extremely variable responses in domestic animals, ranging from excessive stimulation to practically no stimulation, when applied on the basis of their declared unitage. This study was conducted to analyze four commercial preparations from different manufacturers via reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) in comparison with a reference preparation and an official International Standard from the World Health Organization. The peaks obtained by this qualitative and quantitative physical–chemical analysis were compared using an in vivo bioassay based on the ovarian weight gain of prepubertal female rats. The RP-HPLC data showed one or two peaks close to a main peak (tR = 27.9 min), which were related to the in vivo bioactivity. Commercial preparations that have this altered peak showed very little or no in vivo activity, as demonstrated by rat ovarian weight and in peripubertal gilts induced to ovulate. Overall, these findings indicate that RP-HPLC can be a rapid and reliable tool to reveal changes in the physicochemical profile of commercial eCG that is apparently related to decreased biological activity of this hormone. PMID:27297410

  13. [Physical, chemical and biological study of dust from large-scale pig farms].

    PubMed

    Raszyk, J

    1986-04-01

    Dust deposition in 16 halls of two large pig-fattening farms with dry or wet feeding systems was analyzed. In the halls with wet feeding the samples contained maximally 28 dust particles up to 10 micron and 17 particles up to 5 micron per cm3 of air, in the halls with dry feeding 220 particles smaller than 10 micron and 205 particles smaller than 5 micron per cm3 of air. The total amino acid content in the dust deposition was 17.440 +/- 1.820 g per 100 g of sample and the content of nitrogen compounds (N X X 6.25, %), was 24.170 +/- 2.910. The contents of chemical elements were as follows (mg per kg): zinc 448 +/- 151; manganese 109.9 +/- 49.5; copper 40.5 +/- 12.1; lead 4.77 +/- +/- 4.79; chromium 1.64 +/- 1.47; cadmium 1.61 +/- 1.62; mercury 0.36 +/- 0.39. Chlorinated carbohydrates and triazine and diazine herbicides were present in the following amounts (mg per kg): HCB 0.0023 +/- 0.0021; Lindane 0.0058 +/- 0.0079; DDE 0.0048 +/- +/- 0.0024; DDT 0.0065 +/- 0.0015; Simazine 0.060 +/- 0.020; Atrazine 0.083 +/- 0.059; Prometryn 0.093 +/- 0.040; Chloridazon 0.036 +/- 0.008; Terbutryn 0.085 +/- 0.029. The content of aflatoxin B1 was 12.89 +/- 9.31 micrograms per kg and the maximum amount of polychlorinated biphenyls was 8 mg per kg. Nitrovin was found out only in the dust of two halls: 4.0 and 7.9 mg per kg. The dust deposition also contained 21 genera and species of moulds, six species of mites, numerous saprophytic bacteria and, in some cases, Staphylococcus aureus. For the time being, no viruses have been detected in the dust samples.

  14. Enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Rajeshkannan, V; Perumal, P

    2014-11-01

    Partially degraded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. Of various fungi screened, strain MF12 was found efficient in degrading HDPE by weight loss and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometric analysis. Strain MF12 was selected as efficient HDPE degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. Among those different media used, basal minimal medium (BMM) was suitable for the HDPE degradation by strain MF12. Strain MF12 was subjected to 28S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Aspergillus terreus MF12. HDPE degradation was carried out using combinatorial physical and chemical treatments in conjunction to biological treatment. The high level of HDPE degradation was observed in ultraviolet (UV) and KMnO4/HCl with A. terreus MF12 treatment, i.e., FT10. The abiotic physical and chemical factors enhance the biodegradation of HDPE using A. terreus MF12.

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of compounds used in hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Stringfellow, William T; Domen, Jeremy K; Camarillo, Mary Kay; Sandelin, Whitney L; Borglin, Sharon

    2014-06-30

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF), a method to enhance oil and gas production, has become increasingly common throughout the U.S. As such, it is important to characterize the chemicals found in HF fluids to evaluate potential environmental fate, including fate in treatment systems, and human health impacts. Eighty-one common HF chemical additives were identified and categorized according to their functions. Physical and chemical characteristics of these additives were determined using publicly available chemical information databases. Fifty-five of the compounds are organic and twenty-seven of these are considered readily or inherently biodegradable. Seventeen chemicals have high theoretical chemical oxygen demand and are used in concentrations that present potential treatment challenges. Most of the HF chemicals evaluated are non-toxic or of low toxicity and only three are classified as Category 2 oral toxins according to standards in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals; however, toxicity information was not located for thirty of the HF chemicals evaluated. Volatilization is not expected to be a significant exposure pathway for most HF chemicals. Gaps in toxicity and other chemical properties suggest deficiencies in the current state of knowledge, highlighting the need for further assessment to understand potential issues associated with HF chemicals in the environment.

  16. Physical, chemical and biological characterization of six biochars produced for the remediation of contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Denyes, Mackenzie J; Parisien, Michèle A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2014-11-28

    The physical and chemical properties of biochar vary based on feedstock sources and production conditions, making it possible to engineer biochars with specific functions (e.g. carbon sequestration, soil quality improvements, or contaminant sorption). In 2013, the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) made publically available their Standardized Product Definition and Product Testing Guidelines (Version 1.1) which set standards for physical and chemical characteristics for biochar. Six biochars made from three different feedstocks and at two temperatures were analyzed for characteristics related to their use as a soil amendment. The protocol describes analyses of the feedstocks and biochars and includes: cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area (SSA), organic carbon (OC) and moisture percentage, pH, particle size distribution, and proximate and ultimate analysis. Also described in the protocol are the analyses of the feedstocks and biochars for contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals and mercury as well as nutrients (phosphorous, nitrite and nitrate and ammonium as nitrogen). The protocol also includes the biological testing procedures, earthworm avoidance and germination assays. Based on the quality assurance / quality control (QA/QC) results of blanks, duplicates, standards and reference materials, all methods were determined adequate for use with biochar and feedstock materials. All biochars and feedstocks were well within the criterion set by the IBI and there were little differences among biochars, except in the case of the biochar produced from construction waste materials. This biochar (referred to as Old biochar) was determined to have elevated levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead, and failed the earthworm avoidance and germination assays. Based on these results, Old biochar would not be appropriate for use as a soil amendment for carbon sequestration, substrate quality improvements or remediation.

  17. Cementitious backfill with high sulfur content: Physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Benzaazoua, M.; Ouellet, J.; Servant, S.; Newman, P.; Verburg, R.

    1999-05-01

    Use of cemented backfill in underground mining is common practice. The major economical benefits include increased recovery of ore and a reduction in the volume of waste requiring surface disposal. This paper presents new studies into the behavior of cemented backfill, namely, the chemical and mineralogical changes (weathering) with time that affect the mechanical strength of the fill. The weathering mechanism typically consists of sulfate attack. This process can occur rapidly during curing and depends on the binding agents used. The reaction involves dissolution of hydrated calcium phases followed by formation of expansive phases resulting in the degradation of the backfill`s mechanical properties. The use of fly ash, which is resistant to sulfate attack, generally reduces any strength deterioration. These phenomena are illustrated with a case study that demonstrates the influence of these alterations on the long-term mechanical properties of a cemented paste backfill sampled in situ.

  18. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting such actions. Illegal discharges of oil from ships are often limited in size and scattered but, surprisingly, their sum is higher than that from oil spills, and they may create a chronic impact of oil in certain areas. For instance littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills, like the coasts of the Bay of Algeciras (near the Strait of Gibraltar), are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as during the Prestige accident (2002) (Morales-Caselles et al., 2007). Oil discharges may be also accidental. According to the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd (ITOPF) a lot of pollutions are due to a combination of factors that lead to groundings, collisions, structural failures, fires and explosions.

  19. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  20. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  1. Asparagusate dehydrogenases and lipoyl dehydrogenase from asparagus mitochondria. Physical, chemical, and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Egami, F

    1976-06-25

    Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have been obtained in homogeneous state from asparagus mitochondria. They are flavin enzymes with 1 mol of FAD/mol of protein. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have s20,w of 6.22 S, 6.39 S, and 5.91 S, respectively, and molecular weights of 111,000, 110,000, and 95,000 (sedimentation equilibrium) or 112,000, 112,000, and 92,000 (gel filtration). They are slightly acidic proteins with isoelectric points of 6.75, 5.75, and 6.80. Both asparagusate dehydrogenases catalyzed the reaction Asg(SH)2 + NAD+ equilibrium AsgS2 + NADH + H+ and exhibit lipoyl dehydrogenase and diaphorase activities. Lipoyl dehydrogenase is specific for lipoate and has no asparagusate dehydrogenase activity. NADP cannot replace NAD in any case. Optimum pH for substrate reduction of the three enzymes are near 5.9. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II have Km values of 21.5 mM and 20.0 mM for asparagusate and 3.0 mM and 3.3 mM for lipoate, respectively. Lipoyl dehydrogenase activity of asparagusate dehydrogenases is enhanced by NAD and surfactants such as lecithin and Tween 80, but asparagusate dehydrogenase activity is not enhanced. Asparagusate dehydrogenases are strongly inhibited by mercuric ion, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. Amino acid composition of the three enzymes is presented and discussed.

  2. Physical, Chemical and Engineering Properties of Residual Limestone Soils and Clays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-02

    District (Yucatan) 47 - 52 Montmorillonite clays from Block Fault Basins west of Chetumal (Yucatan) 53 - 79 Northern Guatemala (Peten District) NOTE...47 BLACK CLAYS EXPOSED ON CHETUMAL -ESCARCEGA HIGHWAY AT KM-ill 48 SAME AS ABOVE, SAMPLE COLLECTED AT KM-160 49 SAME AS ABOVE, SAMPLE COLLECTED AT KM...188 50 SAME AS ABOVE, COLLECTED 5 KILOMETERS WEST OF CHETUMAL INTERSECTION 51 SAME AS ABOVE, COLLECTED 8 KILOMETERS WEST OF CHETUMAL INTERSECTION. 52

  3. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Morello, Elisabetta B; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.

  4. Interacting physical, chemical and biological forcing of phytoplankton thin-layer variability in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John P.; McManus, Margaret A.; Sullivan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 Layered Organization in the Coastal Ocean (LOCO) field program in Monterey Bay, California, we integrated intensive water column surveys by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with satellite and mooring data to examine the spatiotemporal scales and processes of phytoplankton thin-layer development. Surveying inner to outer shelf waters repeatedly between August 18 and September 6, the AUV acquired 6841 profiles. By the criteria: [(1) thickness ≤3 m at the full-width half-maximum, (2) peak chlorophyll at least twice the local background concentrations, and (3) a corresponding peak in optical backscattering], thin layers were detected in 3978 (58%) of the profiles. Average layer thickness was 1.4 m, and average intensity was 13.5 μg l -1 above (3.2 x) background. Thin layers were observed at depths between 2.6 and 17.6 m, and their depths showed diurnal vertical migration of the layer phytoplankton populations. Horizontal scales of thin-layer patches ranged from <100 m to>10,000 m. A thin-layer index (TLI), computed from layer frequency, intensity and thinness, was highest in mid-shelf waters, coincident with a frontal zone between bay waters and an intrusion of low-salinity offshore waters. Satellite observations showed locally enhanced chlorophyll concentrations along the front, and in situ observations indicated that phytoplankton may have been affected by locally enhanced nutrient supply in the front and concentration of motile populations in a convergence zone. Minimum TLI was furthest offshore, in the area most affected by the intrusion of offshore, low-chlorophyll waters. Average thin-layer intensity doubled during August 25-29, in parallel with warming at the surface and cooling within and below the thermocline. During this apparent bloom of thin-layer populations, density oscillations in the diurnal frequency band increased by an order of magnitude at the shelfbreak and in near-bottom waters of the inner shelf, indicating the role of internal tidal pumping from Monterey Canyon onto the shelf. This nutrient transport process was mapped by the AUV. Peak TLI was observed on August 29 during a nighttime survey, when phytoplankton were concentrated in the nutricline. Empirical orthogonal function decomposition of the thin-layer particle size distribution data from this survey showed that throughout the inner to outer shelf survey domain, the layers were dominated by phytoplankton having a cross-section of ˜50 μm. This is consistent with the size of abundant Akashiwo sanguinea cells observed microscopically in water samples. During a subsequent and stronger intrusion of low-salinity offshore waters, spatially-averaged vertical density stratification decreased by > 50%, and phytoplankton thin layers disappeared almost completely from the AUV survey domain.

  5. Rheology and physical-chemical characteristics of the solutions of the medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.

    2015-04-01

    In the laboratory studied the dynamics of rheology of water solutions with plasma- inflammatory and antiseptic funds when mixing them with blood, plasma and pus under the influence of the following physical and chemical factors of local interaction: gravity, specific gravity, temperature, relative viscosity, internal pressure, sparkling water, total concentration of the ingredients, surface activity, volume of acid and osmotic activity of medicines. Found that the rheology of biological liquids improve hyperthermic, highly alkaline and highly carbonated solution medicines. For the dilution of pus, dense festering mass of sulfur plugs and tear stones invited to apply heated to +39 - +42°C with aqueous solution of 0.5 - 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 - 10% sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide to excess pressure 0.2 ATM.

  6. Physical, Chemical, and Ice-nucleating Properties of BC-Containing PM from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Lodoysamba, S.; Veghte, D. P.; Schill, G. P.; Freedman, M. A.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Due to frequent wintertime temperature inversions and smoke emitted from individual stoves and coal-fired power plants to meet high heating demands during the sub-arctic winter, the annual average PM10 concentration in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is one of the highest in the world. With winter daily PM10 averages reaching as high as 4000 micrograms per cubic meter, the pollution has had devastating health effects for the 1.3 million living in Ulaanbaatar. Studies estimate that 10-25% of deaths in Ulaanbaatar are attributable to the high PM10 levels. At present, there is little information on BC levels, the chemical and physical characteristics of the PM, or its ice-nucleating ability. These data are essential for assessing the direct and indirect effects of PM and BC on regional climate. We present the preliminary results from our ongoing yearlong field campaign which include: rough particle size distribution (for particles < 1μm) and elemental composition on a particle-by-particle basis as a function of month as measured through EDS and TEM analysis of collected samples, ice-nucleating ability of collected samples as observed using an ice nucleation chamber and Raman spectroscopy, BC concentrations on fast timescales from micro-aethalometer measurements, and size distribution (for particles > 2μm) and composition on a particle-by-particle basis via Raman spectral mapping and optical microscopy.

  7. Study of the structure of polyphenylsiloxanes containing the metal-ions by physical-chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapkin, N. P.; Razov, V. I.; Korochentsev, V. V.; Tokar, E. A.; Gardionov, S. V.; Panasenko, A. E.; Khal'chenko, I. G.; Balanov, M. I.; Slobodyuk, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    The study of the structure of polylphenylsiloxanes containing magnesium, cobalt, nickel, and zinc has been performed by the methods of PAS, XRD, and XPS. Using the XRD data, the areas of cross-section of polymer molecules (according to the Miller-Boyer method) and coherent scattering (CS) volumes have been calculated. The data of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) allowed calculation of the specific volumes of positron (Ve+) and positronium (Vps) ;traps;. A direct proportional dependence of the volume of the ;trap;, in which single positron annihilation takes place, on the positron lifetime and an inverse dependence on the density of metal-siloxanes have was demonstrated. The number of positron annihilations per elementary unit volume has been calculated. Here, for polycobaltphenyl-siloxane and polyphenyl-siloxane the number of oxane fragments, in which annihilation takes place, is equal to 3, whereas for polynickel- and polyzincphenyl-siloxane it is equal to 4. The number of elementary units (e.u.) in the CS volume for magnesium, cobalt, and polyphenyl-siloxane is equal to 10, while for nickel and zinc - to 12, which must be related to higher density in case of nickel-siloxane and to larger CS volume for zinc-siloxane. The T3 and T2 values in the 29Si NMR spectrum for polyphenyl-siloxane coincide with the respective data for polynickel- and polycobaltphenyl-siloxanes and differ significantly from those for polyzincphenyl-siloxane. The increase of the number of T1-and T2-fragments for zinc is related to the increase of the percentage of octahedral polyhedra of these ions, while for nickel and cobalt - to a greater degree, to the tetrahedral structure of these ions. The study of polyzincphenyl-siloxane by the method of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been performed, and the presence of two types of zinc atoms has been demonstrated: the content of zinc atoms with 2p3/2 was 64.3%; the content of those with 2p1/2 was 35.7%. The latter corresponds to the content of the tetrahedral surrounding of T1 and T2 silicon atoms in the 29Si NMR spectrum.

  8. Nutrient Uptake and Metabolism Along a Large Scale Tropical Physical-Chemical Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromboni, F.; Neres-Lima, V.; Saltarelli, W. A.; Miwa, A. C. P.; Cunha, D. G. F.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient spiraling is a whole-system approach for estimating nutrient uptake that can be used to assess aquatic ecosystems' responses to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts. Historically research on nutrient dynamic uptake in streams has focused on single nutrient dynamics and only rarely the stoichiometric uptake has been considered and linked to carbon metabolism driven by autotrophic and heterotrophic production. We investigated the relationship between uptake of phosphate (PO43-), nitrate (NO3-) ammonium (NH4+) and total dissolve nitrogen (DIN)/ PO43-; and gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in six relatively pristine streams with differences regarding canopy cover and physical characteristics, located in a large scale gradient from tropical Atlantic Forest to an Atlantic forest/Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) transition. We carried out whole stream instantaneous additions of PO43-, NO3- and NH4+ added to each stream in combination, using the TASCC (Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization) method. Metabolism measurements were performed in the same streams right after uptake was measured, using one-station open channel method and re-aeration estimations for those sites. We found different background concentrations in the streams located in the Atlantic forest compared with the transition area with Cerrado. In general PO43- and NO3- uptake increased with the decreasing of canopy cover, while a positive relation with background concentration better explained NH4+uptake. DIN/PO43- uptake increased with increasing R and NEP. Little work on functional characteristics of pristine streams has been conducted in this region and this work provides an initial characterization on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics as well as their stoichiometric uptake in streams.

  9. A physical chemical approach to understanding cellular dysfunction in type II diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranker, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    The conversion of soluble protein into b-sheet rich amyloid fibers is the hallmark of a number of serious diseases. Precursors for many of these systems (e.g. Ab from Alzheimer's disease) reside in close association with a biological membranes. Membrane bilayers are reported to accelerate the rate of amyloid assembly. Furthermore, membrane permeabilization by amyloidogenic peptides can lead to toxicity. Given the b-sheet rich nature of mature amyloid, it is seemingly paradoxical that many precursors are either intrinsically b-helical, or transiently adopt an a-helical state upon association with membrane. We have investigated these phenomena in islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). IAPP is a 37-residue peptide hormone which forms amyloid fibers in individuals with type II diabetes. We report here the discovery of an oligomeric species that arises through stochastic nucleation on membranes, and results in disruption of the lipid bilayer. These species are stable, result in all-or-none leakage, and represent a definable protein/lipid phase that equilibrates over time. To characterize the reaction pathway of assembly, we apply an experimental design that includes ensemble and single particle evaluations in vitro and correlate these with quantitative measures of cellular toxicity.

  10. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  11. Physical, chemical and biological processes in Lake Vostok and other Antarctic subglacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Siegert, M J; Ellis-Evans, J C; Tranter, M; Mayer, C; Petit, J R; Salamatin, A; Priscu, J C

    2001-12-06

    Over 70 lakes have now been identified beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Although water from none of the lakes has been sampled directly, analysis of lake ice frozen (accreted) to the underside of the ice sheet above Lake Vostok, the largest of these lakes, has allowed inferences to be made on lake water chemistry and has revealed small quantities of microbes. These findings suggest that Lake Vostok is an extreme, yet viable, environment for life. All subglacial lakes are subject to high pressure (approximately 350 atmospheres), low temperatures (about -3 degrees C) and permanent darkness. Any microbes present must therefore use chemical sources to power biological processes. Importantly, dissolved oxygen is available at least at the lake surface, from equilibration with air hydrates released from melting basal glacier ice. Microbes found in Lake Vostok's accreted ice are relatively modern, but the probability of ancient lake-floor sediments leads to a possibility of a very old biota at the base of subglacial lakes.

  12. Development of new materials and structures based on managed physical-chemical factors of local interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states that assigning certain physical and chemical characteristics to pills and medical drugs solutions can substitute for the development of new drugs (which is essentially equivalent to the creation of new medicines). It is established that the purposeful change of physical and chemical characteristics of the standard ("old") materials (in other words, the known substances) is fundamental for the production of solid and liquid medicines, which allows us to get "new" structures and materials. The paper shows that assigning new physical and chemical properties to "old" materials and their further usage for the production of tablets and solutions from the "old" and well-known medicines can turn even very "old" medicine into very "novel" (moreover, even very fashionable) one with unprecedented (fantastic) pharmacological activity and new mechanisms of action.

  13. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; Santos, Ravely Lucena; Júnior, Fernando José de Lima Ramos; da Silva, Karla Monik Alves; de Souza, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity. PMID:27579215

  14. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Methods for the Removal of Arsenic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K. T.; Shukor, M. Y.; Wasoh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid which is widely distributed in nature. It is normally present as arsenate under oxic conditions while arsenite is predominant under reducing condition. The major discharges of arsenic in the environment are mainly due to natural sources such as aquifers and anthropogenic sources. It is known that arsenite salts are more toxic than arsenate as it binds with vicinal thiols in pyruvate dehydrogenase while arsenate inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation process. The common mechanisms for arsenic detoxification are uptaken by phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporins, and active extrusion system and reduced by arsenate reductases via dissimilatory reduction mechanism. Some species of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms use arsenic oxyanions for their regeneration of energy. Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. Detoxification operons are a common form of arsenic resistance in microorganisms. Hence, the use of bioremediation could be an effective and economic way to reduce this pollutant from the environment. PMID:24696853

  15. Selected bibliography of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic literature for the waters surrounding Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Eldredge, L.G.; Kropp, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant has been proposed to be built at Guam. A study of the impact of such a plant would be needed, since the movement of deep, cold water into shallow, warm water may have significant effects on the biota and the surrounding physical environment. No comprehensive overview of the ocean at Guam exists. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, contracted the Guam Natural Energy Institute at the University of Guam Marine Laboratory to carry out a review of the existing oceanoraphic data and scientific literature about the ocean water surrounding the island of Guam. This selected bibliography of 262 titles is the initial product of the contract. This bibliography includes the major literature pertaining to the ocean at Guam. It is selected for numerous reasons. Many titles appear in at least two forms - thesis or technical report and journal article. The published article is preferentially cited. A great deal of information is in manuscript or unpublished form which will be printed at a later date.

  16. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  17. Laboratory measurements of physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of Lake Chicot sediment waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    Reflectance, chromaticity, diffuse attenuation, beam attenuation, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of lake bottom sediment. Mixture concentrations range from 5 ppm to 700 ppm by weight of total suspended solids in filtered deionized tap water. Upwelled reflectance is a nonlinear function of remote sensing wave lengths. Near-infrared wavelengths are useful for monitoring highly turbid waters with sediment concentrations above 100 ppm. It is found that both visible and near infrared wavelengths, beam attenuation correlates well with total suspended solids ranging over two orders of magnitude.

  18. Physical-Chemical Basis of the Protection of Slowly Frozen Human Erythrocytes by Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Rall, W. F.; Mazur, Peter; Souzu, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M. L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13:9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23:89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of the liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT50) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT50 for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT50 corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing. PMID:667300

  19. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (p<0.05) effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  20. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  1. Physical, Chemical and Biological Data, CLIMAX I Expedition, 19 September-28 September 1968.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    Mr. D. L. Alverson, Base Dir. Buenos Aires, Argentina Northwest Fisheries Center Dr. Donn S. Gorsline National Marine Fisheries Biblioteca Department...Villa Obregon, D. F., San Francisco, Calif. 94118 Pacific Missile Range Mexico Point Mugu, Calif. 93041 University of California Biblioteca Serials...Street Dr. Yuan-Hui Li Durban, Natal, South Africa Biblioteca Hoffman Laboratory Unidad de Ciencias Marinas Harvard University Library, Research

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington, 1963-67

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.; Stoner, J.D.

    1972-01-01

    This report describes the significant results to 1967 of a comprehensive study that began in 1963 to evaluate what changes take place in an estuary as the loads .of raw and partially treated industrial and municipal wastes are replaced by effluent from a secondary treatment plant. The study area is the Duwamish River estuary, about 18.3 river kilometers long. At mean sea level the estuary has a water-surface area of about 1 square mile and a mean width of 440 feet. At the lowest and highest recorded tides, the volume of the estuary is about 205 and 592 million cubic feet, respectively. The estuary is well stratified (salt-wedge type) at fresh-water inflows greater than 1,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), but when inflow rates are less than 1,000 cfs the lower 5.6 kilometers of the estuary grades into the partly mixed type. The crosschannel salinity distribution is uniform for a given location and depth. Salinity migration is controlled by tides and fresh-water inflow. At fresh-water inflow rates greater than 1,000 cfs, water in the upper 8.4 kilometers of the estuary is always fresh regardless of tide. At inflow rates less than 600 cfs and tide heights greater than 10 feet; some salinity has been detected 16.1 kilometers above the mouth of the estuary. Studies using a fluorescent dye show that virtually no downward mixing into the salt wedge occurs; soluble pollutants introduced at the upper end of the estuary stay in the surface layer (5-15 ft thick). On the basis of dye studies when fresh-water inflow is less than 400 cfs, it is estimated that less than 10 percent of a pollutant will remain in the estuary a minimum of 7 days. Longitudinal dispersion coefficients for the surface layer have been determined to be on the order of 100-400 square feet per second. Four water-quality stations automatically monitor DO (dissolved oxygen), water temperature, pH, and specific conductance; at one station solar radiation also is measured. DO concentration in the surface layer decreases almost linearly in a downstream direction. Minimum DO concentration in the surface layer is usually greater than 4 rag/1 (milligrams per liter). The smallest DO values are consistently recorded in the bottom layer at the station 7.7 kilometers above the mouth; monthly means of less than 3 mg/1 of DO have occurred at this point. Manual sampling shows that the DO sag in the bottom layer oscillates between 7.7 and 10.4 kilometers above the mouth of the estuary. Multiple-regression analysis shows that the surface DO content can be estimated from the fresh-water inflow and water temperature. Tidal exchange and fresh-water inflow indirectly control the bottom DO content. Information available from previous studies failed to indicate a progressive decrease in DO content during the period 1949-56, but data from the present study suggest a slight general decrease in the annual minimum DO concentrations in both the upper and lower layers. Average nitrate concentration in fresh water at station 16.2 has increased progressively since 1964, by amounts greater than those which can be attributed to the Renton Treatment Plant, 4.3 kilometers upstream from station 16.2. The BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in both surface and bottom layers is generally less than 4 rag/1 of oxygen, but values greater than 6 rag/1 have been measured during a period of phytoplankton bloom. Phytoplankton blooms can occur during periods of minimum tidal exchange and fresh-water inflows of less than 300 cfs if solar radiation and water temperature are optimum. Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) do not control the occurrence of a bloom, because sufficient quantities of these nutrients are always present. Nutrients in the treated effluent may increase the biomass of the bloom. Trace-element studies have not defined any role that these elements may play in algal growth. The inflowing fresh water contains principally calcium and bicarbonate and has a dissolved-solids content ra

  3. Gaseous deposition to snow 2. Physical-chemical model for SO/sub 2/ deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, R.C.; Valdez, M.P.; Dawson, G.A.

    1987-08-20

    A diffusion/reaction model of SO/sub 2/ uptake by snow containing liquid water is used to examine the snowpack processes controlling accumulation of dissolved S(IV) and S(VI). Surface deposition velocity v/sub d/ (defined as overall accumulation rate divided by surface SO/sub 2/ concentration) depends on the amount of liquid water in the snow, the time scale considered, the rate of S(IV) to S(VI) conversion in the aqueous phase, and the SO/sub 2/ concentration. In the absence of any oxidation, v/sub d/ for dense snow (specific gravity 0.4) with a moderate liquid water mass fraction (X/sub m/ = 0.01) and SO/sub 2/ concentration of 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) is calculated to be 0.026 cm s/sup -1/ after 6 hours. Deposition velocity increases by a factor of 3.2 for each tenfold increase in X/sub m/ and by a factor of 2.5--3.2 for each tenfold decrease in time. SO/sub 2/ penetration into the snowpack is about 5 cm for the 6--hour case. In the presence of air containing 30 ppbv ozone and otherwise identical conditions, 80% of the accumulated sulfur is as S(VI), and the calculated v/sub d/ is 0.036 cm s/sup -1/. A further tenfold increase in ozone concentration gives only a 70% increase in v/sub d/. A similar dependence is calculated for oxygen (catalyzed by Fe(III)) as oxidant, but that for hydrogen peroxide is much stronger and almost linear. A tenfold increase in SO/sub 2/ concentration (with ozone at 30 ppb) results in a 2.3-fold decrease in v/sub d/. Wet snow with a liquid water mass fraction of about 0.1 gives a deposition velocity at 20 ppb SO/sub 2/ of 0.12 cm s/sup -1/, with a penetration of only 2 cm. Calculated and observed uptakes of SO/sub 2/ by snow are in good agreement. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  4. Physical chemical studies of dispersed aluminosilicate wastes for obtaining the burned building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuriev, I. Y.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, G. G.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Kosmachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of the studies that determined that grinding can be one of the ways to modify aluminosilicate wastes. The optimal grinding modes were defined in laboratory conditions. Physical and chemical studies of modified ashes were carried out by means of X-ray phase analysis, differential thermal analysis and microscopy. The results have shown that modified ashes of thermal power stations when being applied in production of ceramic brick influence positively the processing properties of raw materials and the ready products.

  5. Investigating and parameterizing physical, chemical, and thermodynamic dependencies of ice nuclei concentrations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Liu, X.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Carpenter, J. M.; Branson, M.; Moehler, O.; Glen, A.; Brooks, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observations of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) concentrations have been compiled into a new parameterization that relates IN abundance to temperature and the size distribution of ambient aerosols (DeMott et al. 2010). We show cases of positive performance of the proposed parameterization in predicting ice formation in case studies of cloud formation and evolution, and also show consistency with new ice nuclei data not used in the development of the parameterization. Nevertheless, atmospheric evidence also suggests remaining critical needs which, when met, are expected to lead to improvement in the parameterization. First, there is a need for new ambient data at modestly supercooled temperatures, including cases of high total particle concentrations. Second, observations are needed to quantify the influence of varied aerosol source regions/compositions and aerosol aging on IN activity. The size-dependence in the parameterization probably reflects the dominance of dust and biological particles as IN, but this must be tested directly, and the possibilities of additional IN types such as black carbon should be further explored. With respect to the role of atmospheric processing, much of our present conceptualization of aging impacts on ice nuclei has come from recent laboratory studies. Therefore, we also explore here the consistency of laboratory data collected for untreated and processed mineral dust particles with atmospheric data collected for more general ice nuclei populations, and suggest observational strategies for studying aging effects in the atmosphere. DeMott, P.J., A. J. Prenni, X. Liu, M. D. Petters, C H. Twohy, M. S. Richardson, T. Eidhammer, S. M. Kreidenweis, and D. C. Rogers, 2010: Predicting global atmospheric ice nuclei distributions and their impacts on climate, Accepted to Proc. Natnl. Acad. Sci., 107 (25), 11217-11222.

  6. Soil physical, chemical and gas-flux characterization from Picea mariana stands near Erickson Creek, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a particularly important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest, and fire-return intervals and fire severity appear to have increased since the late 1900s in North America. In addition to the immediate release of stored C to the atmosphere through organic-matter combustion, fire also modifies soil conditions, possibly affecting C exchange between terrestrial and atmospheric pools for decades after the burn. The effects of fire on ecosystem C dynamics vary across the landscape, with topographic position and soil drainage functioning as important controls. The data reported here contributed to a larger U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, published in the journal Ecosystems by O'Donnell and others (2009). To evaluate the effects of fire and drainage on ecosystem C dynamics, we selected sample sites within the 2003 Erickson Creek fire scar to measure CO2 fluxes and soil C inventories in burned and unburned (control) sites in both upland and lowland black spruce (Picea mariana) forests. The results of this study suggested that although fire can create soil climate conditions which are more conducive to rapid decomposition, rates of C release from soils may be constrained after fire by changes in moisture and (or) substrate quality that impede rates of decomposition. Here, we report detailed site information, methodology, and data (in spreadsheet files) from that study.

  7. An analysis of the physical, chemical, optical, and historical impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the physical characteristics and photochemical aftereffects of the 1908 Tunguska explosive cometary meteor, whose physical manifestations are consistent with a five million ton object's entry into the earth's atmosphere at 40 km/sec. Aerodynamic calculations indicate that the shock waves emanating from the falling meteor could have generated up to 30 million tons of nitric oxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere. A fully interactive one-dimensional chemical-kinetics model of atmospheric trace constituents is used to estimate the photochemical consequences of such a large NO injection. The 35-45% hemispherical ozone depletion predicted by the model is in keeping with the 30 + or - 15% ozone variation reported for the first year after the Tunguska fall. Attention is also given to the optical anomalies which followed the event for indications of NO(x)-O(x) chemiluminescent emissions, NO2 solar absorption, and meteoric dust turbidity, along with possible climate changes due to the nearly one million tons of pulverized dust deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere by the meteor.

  8. Physical-chemical determinant properties of biological communities in continental semi-arid waters.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; de Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra; de Paula Filho, Francisco José; Filho, José Hamilton Costa; da Silva, Merivalda Doroteu

    2016-08-01

    Throughout human history, water has undergone changes in quality. This problem is more serious in dry areas, where there is a natural water deficit due to climatic factors. The aims of this study, therefore, were (i) to verify correlations between physical attributes, chemical attributes and biological metrics and (ii) from the biological attributes, to verify the similarity between different points of a body of water in a tropical semi-arid region. Samples were collected every 2 months, from July 2009 to July 2011, at seven points. Four physical attributes, five chemical attributes and four biological metrics were investigated. To identify the correlations between the physicochemical properties and the biological metrics, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were applied. Nine classes of phytoplankton were identified, with the predominance of species of cyanobacteria, and ten families of macroinvertebrates. The use of HCA resulted in the formation of three similar groups, showing that it was possible to reduce the number of sampling points when monitoring water quality with a consequent reduction in cost. Group I was formed from the waters at the high end of the reservoir (points P1, P2 and P3), group II by the waters from the middle third (points P4 and P5), and group III by the waters from the lower part of the reservoir (points P6 and P7). Richness of the phytoplanktons Cyanophyceae, Chorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae was the attribute which determined dissimilarity in water quality. Using CCA, it was possible to identify the spatial variability of the physicochemical attributes (TSS, TKN, nitrate and total phosphorus) that most influence the metrics of the macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton present in the water. Low macroinvertebrate diversity, with a predominance of indicator families for deterioration in water quality, and the composition of phytoplankton showing a predominance of cyanobacteria, suggests greater attention to the management of water resources.

  9. Physical, chemical, and thermal interactions in the Pleasant Bay Layered Gabbro-Diorite Intrusion, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, K.; Algeo, J.

    2012-12-01

    The approximately 3 km thick Pleasant Bay Layered Intrusion (PBLI) is interpreted to have formed (420 Ma) by repeated intrusions of gabbroic magma into a partly solidified dioritic magma chamber (Wiebe, 1993; Waight et. al., 2001) during the earliest stage of the Acadian orogeny (Tucker et. al., 2001). Typical field relationships in the PBLI include gradational gabbro-diorite layers of variable thicknesses with pipes of silicic composition intruding along the chilled lower contacts of gabbroic layers, chilled gabbroic blobs encased within diorite, and composite dikes consisting of intermingled gabbro blobs of rounded and/or angular geometries within a dioritic or granitic matrix. Detailed studies of similar relationships in the nearby Isle au Haut Igneous Complex (IHIC) have indicated that where diorite underlies gabbro, residual silicic melt was extracted from the underlying partly solidified diorite by compaction and migrated upwards to form a thin layer of buoyant melt that underwent a Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) type instability producing the silicic pipes which were subsequently arrested by solidification of the overlying gabbro (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; Patwardhan & Marsh, 2011). Whereas in the IHIC pipes typically are 11-12 cm in diameter and spaced ~30 cm apart, instability features in the PBLI occur at varying scales with pipe diameters commonly ranging from 4 to 100 cm and pipe spacing varying between 20 to 150 cm. Strong compositional differences between the gabbro (~48 wt.% SiO2), diorite (~57 wt.% SiO2), and pipes (~66 wt.% SiO2) correspond to significant differences in estimated density, liquid viscosity, and temperature (near liquidus gabbro: 2.68 g/cm3, 102.3 poise, 1210 oC, partly crystallized diorite: 2.61 g/cm3, 990 oC, and silicic melt derived from partly crystallized diorite: 2.36 g/cm3, 105 poise). The thickness of the buoyant silicic layer and the ascent rate of the pipes emanating from this layer are calculated using estimated viscosity ratios and density differences together with field measurements of pipe radii and spacing. Rapid solidification of the gabbro along its lower contact accompanied by an increase in viscosity slowed down the ascent of the pipes and ultimately arrested them in their present state. Petrographic analyses of samples taken across the gabbro-diorite contacts and pipe-gabbro contacts indicate significant differences in the occurrence and abundance of hydrous phases, notably biotite and hornblende, between the chilled gabbro contacts and bulk of the gabbro, the underlying diorite, and the pipes. SEM-EDS analyses also reveal changes in mineral compositions within a few mm of the pipe-gabbro and gabbro-diorite contacts (e.g. drop in plagioclase An content in chilled gabbro surrounding pipes). These observations suggest transfer of water from the diorite and/or pipes into anhydrous gabbro as well as physical transfer of crystals across these boundaries. Quantifying the mineral and chemical differences along the pipe-gabbro and gabbro-diorite contacts in the context of the timescales of R-T instability and solidification reveal the in situ rates of physical and chemical exchange between these magmas. (Special thanks to Dr. Robert Wiebe for assistance with fieldwork, and to Dr. Chris Daniel for assistance with SEM analyses.)

  10. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical, chemical, and antioxidant activity characterization of pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) fruits.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, Leticia; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Joaquín-Cruz, Elvia

    2013-12-01

    Fruits with red and orange flesh of the columnar cactus pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) were studied to evaluate physical characteristics, total soluble solids, betalains and soluble phenols content, and antioxidant activity. Fruits had, in average, weight of 179.0 g, 9.8 °Brix, 9.4 % carbohydrates, 1.25 % protein, 0.11 % ethereal extract, 0.60 % crude fiber, and 0.62 % ash. Also, fruits resulted rich in Fe (22.8-27.8 mg/kg). Hue angle and contents of betacyanins, betaxanthins (μg/g dry sample), and total soluble phenols (mg GAE/g fresh sample) were 19.8°, 2860.0, 3210.0, and 1.6 in the red material, and 28.9°, 470.0, 2670.0, and 1.2, respectively, in the orange fruit. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the red material, since the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) technique reported 1090.6 and 735.4 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh in red and orange fruits, respectively, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay reported 7.84 and 5.16 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh, respectively. The chromatographic profile showed five betalains in red fruits, but only four of them were observed in those orange fleshed.

  12. Removal efficiency and toxicity reduction of 4-chlorophenol with physical, chemical and biochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Dams, R; Christofi, N; Gómez, E; Gómez, J L

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophenols are well-known priority pollutants and many different treatments have been assessed to facilitate their removal from industrial wastewater. However, an absolute and optimum solution still has to be practically implemented in an industrial setting. In this work, a series ofphysical, chemical and biochemical treatments have been systematically tested for the removal of 4-chlorophenol, and their results have been compared in order to determine the most effective treatment based on removal efficiency and residual by-product formation. Chemical treatments based on advanced oxidation processes (AOP) produced the best results on rate and extent of pollutant removal. The non-chemical technologies showed advantages in terms of complete (in the case of adsorption) or easy (enzymatic treatments) removal of toxic treatment by-products. The AOP methods led to the production of different photoproducts depending on the chosen treatment. Toxic products remained in most cases following treatment, though the toxicity level is significantly reduced with combination treatments. Among the treatments, a photochemical method combining UV, produced with a KrCl excilamp, and hydrogen peroxide achieved total removal of chlorophenol and all by-products and is considered the best treatment for chlorophenol removal.

  13. Physical-Chemical Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides in the Saturated Zone Using Colloidal Buffers - 12515

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yenjung; Borden, Robert C.; Alperin, Ed

    2012-07-01

    There are numerous acidic plumes throughout the DOE complex and the nation as a whole. Low aquifer pH is a major concern since many important radionuclides (Pu, Ra, Sr, Tc) and metals (Cd, Co, Cs, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) strongly sorb to iron hydroxides and aluminosilicates under neutral to alkaline conditions, but are mobile in acidic plumes. To effectively use natural and enhanced attenuation (NEA) for management of these contaminants, we must be able to raise aquifer pH and maintain it at background levels until the external acid loading to the aquifer has dissipated. Geochemical modeling showed that a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) formed by injection of colloidal Mg(OH){sub 2} would last much longer than colloidal Ca(OH){sub 2} due to the much lower solubility of Mg(OH){sub 2}. Assuming a 1,000 meq/L suspension of colloidal Mg(OH)2 could be effectively distributed, the PRB could last over twenty years before rejuvenation was required. Preliminary bench-scale treatability studies were conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of increasing the aquifer pH using a colloidal pH buffer. Laboratory studies demonstrated that three different colloidal Mg(OH){sub 2} suspensions (concentration varied from 1,000 to 1,250 meq/L) could be transported through the columns packed with aquifer sand without significant permeability loss. The time before suspension breakthrough into the column effluent varied with surface treatment, indicating the Mg(OH)2 retention and PRB longevity could be controlled by varying the suspension surface treatment. (authors)

  14. Urban waste compost: Effects on physical, chemical, and biochemical soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Giusquiani, P.L.; Gigliotti, G.; Businelli, D.

    1995-01-01

    A long-term field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the additions of urban waste compost on the physical and chemical properties and enzymatic activities in a calcareous soil (Fluventic Xerochrept). Total Porosity (pores >50 pm measured on thin soil sections from undisturbed samples by image analysis) was greater in the plots treated with compost than the control plots due to a larger amount of elongated pores. In the amended plots total and humified organic C, Pb, Cu, and Zn showed a significant increase compared with nonamended plots. Enzymatic activities (L-asparaginase, arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and alkaline phosphomonoesterase) were significantly enhanced by the compost addition thus indicating no inhibiting influence of the heavy metals present. The increased levels of the arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly correlated with total porosity: the first three with pores ranging from 50 to 1000 {mu}m, mainly with pores 50 to 200 {mu}m in size and phosphomonoesterase only with pores whose size was <500 {mu}m. L-asparaginase activity was not correlated with porosity. Only arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, and phosphodiesterase were negatively correlated with bulk density. 44 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Physical-chemical properties of furosemide nanocrystals developed using rotation revolution mixer.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Sávio Fujita; Takatsuka, Takayuki; Tavares, Guilherme Diniz; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros; Wang, Hui; Vehring, Reinhard; Löbenberg, Raimar; Bou-Chacra, Nádia Araci

    2016-11-01

    Recently, several approaches have been reported to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of furosemide, a class IV drug. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of them proposed nanocrystals. In the last decade, nanocrystals successfully addressed solubility issues by increasing surface area and saturation solubility, both leading to an increase in the dissolution rate of poor water soluble drugs. The preparation of furosemide nanocrystals was by a rotation revolution mixer method. Size distribution and morphology were performed using laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and low frequency shift-Raman spectroscopy allowed investigating the thermal properties and crystalline state. Solubility saturation and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) studies were conducted. The thermal analysis revealed lower melting range for the nanocrystals comparing to furosemide. Moreover, a slight crystalline structure change to the amorphous state was observed by XRD and confirmed by low frequency shift Raman. The particle size was reduced to 231 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.232, a 30-fold reduction from the original powder. Finally, the saturation solubility and IDR showed a significant increase. Furosemide nanocrystals showed potential for development of innovative formulations as an alternative to the commercial products.

  16. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Deysiane Oliveira; Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; Santos, Ravely Lucena; Júnior, Fernando José de Lima Ramos; da Silva, Karla Monik Alves; de Souza, Fabio Santos; Macêdo, Rui Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity.

  17. Synthesis of Aerosol Physical, Chemical, and Radiative Properties from Various Sources: Consistency and Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telg, H.; McComiskey, A. C.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Collins, D. R.; Watson, T. B.; Kassianov, E.; Flynn, C. J.; Fast, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol direct radiative forcing is determined from a set of optical properties - aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter - which can be obtained from a range of different measurement techniques. Every technique has unique limitations, thus uncertainty and bias in radiative forcing estimates can vary depending on the measurement approach used. Given that a small fraction of these observations are most widely used for climate change studies, a comprehensive assessment of the interrelationship among all measurements would be of benefit. We present a synthesis of ARM aerosol products from ground-based in situ and remote sensing techniques together with AERONET and satellite observations with the goal of testing these products for consistency. Physical (size distribution) and chemical composition data are used to derive aerosol optical properties and the results are compared to observations from the nephelometer and PSAP instruments as well as derived products from the ground-based radiometers. Dependence on humidity related particle growth is included in the analysis. We furthermore present results from a closure study in which the above properties are used to derive surface broadband shortwave radiative fluxes from a model and compared to the analogous measurements. To obtain the latter we reconstruct vertical profiles of aerosol properties by combining ground-based in-situ aerosol measurements with remotely sensed vertical information of atmospheric properties. The primary objective of this work is to provide greater confidence in the characterization of aerosol optical properties in different regimes in order to better constrain observationally-based and modeled aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Understanding how aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing vary, and covary, in different regions of the globe can improve assumptions required for retrievals and products from satellite-based observations. Understanding how these radiative quantities covary with chemical composition can help to relate that information to processes parameterized in models that address the climate impact of aerosols.

  18. Physical, Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Two Bovine Enterovirus Plaque Variants

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, H.; Parsons, J. A.; Addison, Judith; York, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Large plaque (4LP) and small plaque (4SP) variants were derived from a parent bovine virus strain by serial plaque passage. Both 4LP and 4SP were resistant to chloroform and stabilized at 50°C for one hour by 1.0 M magnesium chloride. Both 4LP and 4SP had buoyant densities in cesium chloride of 1.36 gm/ml. Antigenically, 4LP and 4SP were reciprocally cross neutralizable. The nucleic acid of 4LP was shown to be ribonucleic acid (RNA) by resistance of its infectivity to deoxynuclease (DNase) but not ribonuclease (RNase) and by increased incorporation of [3H]-uridine into cytoplasmic RNA in cells of virus infected cultures. In growth characteristics, both 4LP and 4SP had maximum adsorption times of 75 to 90 minutes but 4LP had more rapid replication and release rates and yielded nearly twice as many infectious units per cell as 4SP. The differences in growth properties correlated directly with the differential in plaque diameter which was 40-50%. PMID:4340347

  19. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pehuen cellulosic husk and its pehuen-starch based composites.

    PubMed

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Carrasco, C; Bouza, R

    2012-11-06

    Pehuen cellulosic husk was characterized and employed as reinforcement for composite materials. In this research, thermoplastic pehuen starch (TPS) and TPS/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites, reinforced with 5 and 10% of pehuen husk, were prepared by melt-blending. Comparative samples of pehuen TPS and TPS/PLA/PVA blend were also studied. Physical, thermal, structural and mechanical properties of composites were evaluated. Pehuen husk mainly consists of cellulose (50 wt%), hemicellulose (30 wt%) and lignin (14 wt%). In respect to lipids, this husk has only a 0.6 wt%. Its surface is smooth and damage-free and it is decomposed above 325 °C. The incorporation of pehuen husk improved considerably the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the studied composites, mainly in TPS composites. Their thermal stability enhances since biofiber hinders the "out-diffusion" of volatile molecules from the polymer matrix, while mechanical properties could raise due to the natural affinity between husk and starch in the pehuen seed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Depth resolved core physical-chemical data from Site 0 and AB transect, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    Yuxin Wu; Craig Ulrich; Baptiste Dafflon; Robin Lopez; Chunwei Chou; Tim Kneafsey

    2017-09-11

    This is a compilation of the physical and chemical data for cores collected at the NGEE-arctic site 0 and ABCD plots. The datasets are depth-resolved and down to ~ 4m below ground surface for some cores. The specific depths for each core where samples were analyzed vary from core to core.

  1. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  2. Potential use of microwave treatment on fresh-cut carrots: physical, chemical and microbiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Colelli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The effect of microwave treatments (900 and 750 W for 45 and 60 s) on the microbial, physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh-cut carrot slices and the contents of several bioactive compounds was studied. Carrot samples were stored for 7 days at 5 °C. The microwaving of fresh-cut carrots reduced the initial respiration rate (8.6 CO2 mL kg(-1) h(-1)) by 55-74% compared with untreated samples, although the rates then increased during storage. The initial pH (6.7), titratable acidity (0.036%), soluble solid content (8.2 °Brix) and shelf-life of the samples did not differ greatly from those of the untreated samples. Microwaving prevented the incipient whitening and surface dryness during storage. In general, no significant changes in phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity (5.5 µmol t-cinnamic acid kg(-1) h(-1)), total phenolics (TP, 81.3 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg(-1) fresh weight (FW)) or total antioxidant capacity (TAC, 74.2 µmol Trolox equivalent kg(-1) FW) were observed on the processing day or over storage. However, the mildest treatment (750 W for 45 s) caused TP and TAC enhancements of 118 and 394% respectively after 7 days of shelf-life. Microwave treatments reduced the initial microbial loads of the samples by up to 1.8 log units, although their microbial growth was greater than that of the untreated samples throughout storage. Mild microwave treatments such as 750 W/45 s and 750 W/60 s are a good sustainable alternative to the use of NaOCl; however, combining them with other sanitizing techniques is needed to control microbial growth throughout the shelf-life of fresh-cut carrot slices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Physical, chemical and sensorial parameters for lambs of different groups, slaughtered at different weights.

    PubMed

    Landim, Aline Vieira; Castanheira, Marlos; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Pacheco, Aline; Cardoso, Maximiliano Tadeu Memória; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2011-08-01

    The object of this experiment was to study physicochemical and sensorial traits in the 11th and 13th ribs of 24 Santa Ines (SI), 24 1/2 Ile de France × 1/2 Santa Inês (ILE × SI) and 8 1/2 Texel × 1/2 Santa Inês (TE × SI), slaughtered at different weights (30, 35, 40 and 45 kg, respectively). Subjective measurements (marbling, colour and texture) were carried out on the Longissimus dorsi, as well as initial pH (0 h) and final pH (24 h) after slaughter. The experiment was in a 3 × 4 factorial design and analysed using general linear model and correlation procedures in SAS®. Breed group did not influence colour (3.32), shear force (3.57 kg-force (kgf)) or loss in cooking (24.05%) of the L. dorsi, but slaughter weight affected these, with stronger colour, tougher meat and greater loss in cooking as slaughter weight increased. For sensorial analysis, the L. dorsi were cut, identified and evaluated by 30 untrained judges using a linear scale. Significant differences were detected in preference (6.61 points), tenderness (6.32 points), succulence (6.33 points) and flavour (7.08 points) of the meat from different breed groups and slaughter weights. For preference, all meats were well accepted although the crossbred animals slaughtered at 45 kg were less acceptable.

  4. Granular activated carbons from broiler manure: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabel M; Marshall, Wayne E

    2005-04-01

    Broiler manure produced at large concentrated facilities poses risks to the quality of water and public health. This study utilizes broiler litter and cake as source materials for granular activated carbon production and optimizes conditions for their production. Pelletized manure samples were pyrolyzed at 700 degrees C for 1 h followed by activation in an inert atmosphere under steam at different water flow rates, for a period ranging from 15 to 75 min. Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant, yields varied from 18% to 28%, surface area varied from 253 to 548 m2/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.13 to 1.92 mmol Cu2+/g carbon. Best overall performing carbons were steam activated for 45 min at 3 ml/min. Comparative studies with commercial carbons revealed the broiler cake-based carbon as having the highest copper ion efficiency.

  5. Reactive nitrogen in turfgrass systems: relations to soil physical, chemical, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Caiyan; Bowman, Daniel; Rufty, Thomas; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Turfgrass systems contribute to the loading of reactive N to water and air via runoff, leaching, and gas emission. Yet, a comprehensive approach has never been developed to assess N loss potential from turfgrass systems. We used pools and production of reactive N (inorganic N, extractable organic N, and NO) to estimate N loss potential and hypothesized that this potential could be predicated by basic soil properties. A total of 68 soil samples were taken from 17 bermudagrass sites in North Carolina. Basic soil properties were analyzed, including soil C and N, C:N ratio, microbial biomass, moisture, pH, and percent silt/clay/sand. Soil samples varied most widely in texture, followed by soil C and N, microbial biomass, moisture, pH, and C:N ratio. The pools of extractable organic N and inorganic N were comparable, indicating that soluble organic N should be considered as a pathway of N loss from turfgrass. Turfgrass with large pools and production of reactive N was characterized by high soil C and N, microbial biomass, and moisture. Because soil C and N accumulate over time after turfgrass establishment, turfgrass age could be a suitable practical indicator of N loss potential and thus could be used to implement changes in management. Pools and production of reactive N in liquid and gas phases were well correlated, suggesting that if a turfgrass system has a high potential of N loss via leaching and runoff, it may also be of a high potential for NO emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Alteration of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Endotoxin by Treatment with Mild Alkali

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, M.; Milner, K. C.; Ribi, E.; Rudbach, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Treatment with alkali is one of several methods for removing fatty acids from bacterial endotoxins and, in the process, detoxifying the material. Saponification of fatty acid esters is the major detectable chemical change produced by alkali; however, kinetic studies of mild alkaline hydrolysis of endotoxin failed to correlate rates of detoxification with rates of loss of ketodeoxyoctonates, heptose, O-acetyl groups, or fatty acid esters. The alterations occurring during the critical stages of hydrolysis apparently changed the essential chemical conformation of endotoxic particles before cleavage of a significant amount of material took place. The rates of both saponification and detoxification were markedly increased by carrying out the reaction in media of ethyl alcohol or dimethylsulfoxide instead of water. Images PMID:4887496

  7. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The report is divided into six sections: spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of Np and Pu in carbonate solutions, delocalization of 5f electrons in Bk and Cf metals under pressure, spectra of lanthanides and actinides in DMSO/sub 2/, relativistic multiple scattering calculations for metal complexes containing heavy atoms, L x rays in Bk and Cf metals, and solution calorimetry of Bk oxides. (DLC)

  8. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite - Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, Michael

    2005-06-01

    During the seventh year of the current grant (DE-FG02-05ER63966) we completed an exhaustive study of cold calcination and began work on the development of tank fill materials to fill empty tanks and control residuals. Cold calcination of low and high NOx low activity waste (LAW) SRS Tank 44 and Hanford AN-107 simulants, respectively with metallic Al + Si powders was evaluated. It was found that a combination of Al and Si powders could be used as reducing agents to reduce the nitrate and nitrite content of both low and high NOx LAW to low enough levels to allow the LAW to be solidified directly by mixing it with metakaolin and allowing it to cure at 90 C. During room temperature reactions, NOx was reduced and nitrogen was emitted as N2 or NH3. This was an important finding because now one can pretreat LAW at ambient temperatures which provides a low-temperature alternative to thermal calcination. The significant advantage of using Al and Si metals for denitration/denitrition of the LAW is the fact that the supernate could potentially be treated in situ in the waste tanks themselves. Tank fill materials based upon a hydroceramic binder have been formulated from mixtures of metakaolinite, Class F fly ash and Class C flue gas desulphurization (FGD) ash mixed with various concentrations of NaOH solution. These harden over a period of hours or days depending on composition. A systematic study of properties of the tank fill materials (leachability) and ability to adsorb and hold residuals is under way.

  9. Tissue repair strength using chitosan adhesives with different physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Mahns, David A; Mawad, Damia; Wuhrer, Richard; Fania, David; Frost, Samuel J; Loebbe, Christian; Lauto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A range of chitosan-based biomaterials have recently been used to perform sutureless, laser-activated tissue repair. Laser-activation has the advantage of bonding to tissue through a non-contact, aseptic mechanism. Chitosan adhesive films have also been shown to adhere to sheep intestine strongly without any chemical modification to chitosan. In this study, we continue to investigate chitosan adhesive films and explore the impact on the tissue repair strength and tensile strength characteristics of four types of adhesive film based on chitosan with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Results showed that adhesives based on chitosan with medium molecular weight achieved the highest bonding strength, tensile strength and E-modulus when compared to the other adhesives.

  10. The Complex Physical-Chemical Interaction of Fracking Fluids with Gas Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, L. M.; Engelder, T.; Bryndzia, T.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical aspects of hydrofracturing might seem straight forward: Inject a fluid with sand and some chemicals, recover the injected water now contaminated with chemicals from the shale, and produce gas. But there are some complications that turn out to be very interesting. First of all, it is possible to recover only about 20% of the injected water. Secondly, the fresh injected water (1-5 kppm) has been turned into a very saline bine (~200 kppm). It's easy to say the water has just been imbibed into the gas-filled dry shale, like water into a dry sponge, except the organic parts of the shale which host nearly all the porosity are hydrophobic. The shale is strongly oil wet; nevertheless it imbibes water. It's easy to say the water just mixed with water in the shale and became salty, but there is almost no water in the shale, and no salt either. How the water becomes salty begs easy explanation. The talk will quantitatively discuss these issues in light of experiments we have carried out, concluding that powerful capillary and osmotic forces draw fracking water into the shale while making the return waters salty. How this is achieved will certainly tell us something about the fracture network and its connections. The practical implication is that hydrofracture fluids will be locked into the same "permeability jail" that sequestered overpressured gas for over 200 million years. If one wants to dispose of fracking waters, one could probably not choose a safer way to do so that to inject them into a gas shale.

  11. Differences and commonalities in physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of Zanzibari geophagic soils.

    PubMed

    Young, Sera L; Wilson, M Jeffrey; Hillier, Stephen; Delbos, Evelyne; Ali, Said M; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The function of human geophagy has long been questioned. We sought to test hypotheses concerning its potential physiological effects through analysis of soils and patterns in geophagy behavior. Eleven samples of geophagic soils consumed by pregnant women on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, were characterized according to their color, texture, major element chemistry, trace element chemistry, bulk mineralogy, and clay mineralogy. An epidemiological study (N = 2367) and ethnographic interviews (N = 57) on Pemba yielded information about geophagic behaviors and socio-demographic and biological characteristics of those who consumed earth. The soils varied widely in color, ranging from light red to white through various shades of brown and yellow, and texture ranged from clay to sand. Major element chemistry of the soils also varied greatly; most were low in Fe and Ca. Trace elements, whether of biological or non-biological significance, were uniformly low when compared with normal ranges of mineral soils. The sole commonality among the samples is that all clay fractions were dominated by a kaolin mineral: kaolinite, halloysite, or a mixture of both. Geophagy behavior also varied greatly, with one major exception: a greater proportion of pregnant women (7.1%) and young children (4.5%) consumed earth than non-pregnant women (0.2%) or men (0%). The presence of kaolin mineral in all samples, its palliative and detoxifying properties, and the highest prevalence of geophagy among those most biologically vulnerable suggest that geophagy may be a protective behavior.

  12. Predictive microbiology for cosmetics based on physicals, chemicals and concentration parameters.

    PubMed

    Ghalleb, S; De Vaugelade, S; Sella, O; Lavarde, M; Mielcarek, C; Pense-Lheritier, A-M; Pirnay, S

    2015-02-01

    Challenge test (CT) is essential to assure the efficiency of the preservative system in products. A previous study realized by our staff in 2012, carried out to evaluate the influence of three parameters (ethanol, pH and water) on the microbiological cosmetics products conservation. Following this work, a correlation between aw (based on the glycerine concentration) and the selected parameter has been demonstrated. In the present study, smaller limits of ethanol, pH and glycerine were applied to determinate CT necessity. Sixteen stables O/W cosmetics creams with different concentration of ethanol (1-19%), glycerine (3-16%) and different pH (6-11) were formulated. To evaluate the efficiency of the different formulations, CTs were performed according to the International Standard ISO 11930:2012. To determine the influence of the parameters, a D-optimal plan generated by Design Expert(®) was applied. Design of Experiments software offers to plan, estimate and control the statistics and models for factorial and no-factorial designs. Challenge tests results show that 10 formula passed criteria A, two passed criteria B and four are not conform. Mostly, an ethanol concentration higher than 16% exempts products of CT. It has been shown that an ethanol concentration between 10.5% and 16%, and an glycerine concentration >10%; or if the ethanol concentration is between 5% and 10.5%, glycerine is >6% and pH is ≥10, the CT is not required. Ethanol has a significant impact on conservation and especially when it is correlated with glycerine and pH. Finally, a glycerine concentration higher than 16% exempts products of CT. Following the analysis of the different concentration, a correlation between glycerine and ethanol that directly influence microbiological protection of cosmetics products has been established. Indeed, by controlling ethanol, pH and glycerine, many products may be exempted from the CT. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Solvation thermodynamics and the physical-chemical meaning of the constant in Abraham solvation equations.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M

    2012-04-01

    Abraham solvation equations find widespread use in environmental chemistry. Until now, the intercept in these equations was determined by fitting experimental data. To simplify the determination of the coefficients in Abraham solvation equations, this study derives theoretical expressions for the value of the intercept for various partition processes. To that end, a modification of the description of the Ben-Naim standard state into the van der Waals volume is proposed. Differences between predicted and fitted values of the Abraham solvation equation intercept for the enthalpy of solvation, the entropy of solvation, solvent-water partitioning, air-solvent partitioning, partitioning into micelles, partitioning into lipid membranes and lipids, and chromatographic retention indices are comparable to experimental uncertainties in these values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

    2008-01-01

    The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits.

  15. [Investigation of intermetalloid hydrogen sorption-desorption in physical-chemical life support system].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I

    2007-01-01

    A hydrogen accumulating alloy was tested for safe sorption and storage of electrolyzed hydrogen within life support system. The alloy of choice was intermetalloid LaNi5 absorbing and desorbing hydrogen at approximately room temperature and pressure A of 20 atm. Sorption was evaluated at hydrogen pressure A of 0.1; 0.2 and 0.3 atm. The rate of desorption was controlled at 2.0 l/min to maintain the standard carbon dioxide and hydrogen feed into the processor. Results of the investigation lead to the main conclusion that the hydrogen accumulating alloy can be an integral component of a new generation of life support systems.

  16. [Uhf desorption of carbon dioxide from zeolite in physical/chemical human life support systems].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I

    2005-01-01

    Experimental tests showed that volumetric no-contact immediate SHF heating (a resonating chamber for approx. 30 liter with a 500 W generator operating at 2450 Hz) makes possible to desorb carbon dioxide from zeolite and to extract water from silica gel within a short time. The process included air pre-dehydration with silica gel and concurrent heating of carbon dioxide and water adsorbents. Simplicity of the SHF energy lead-in is an obvious advantage in the context of intensification and flexible control of regenerative technologies offering the challenge for designing components of adaptive (self-adjusting) life support systems.

  17. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  18. Reutilization of Tacrolimus Extracted from Expired Prograf® Capsules: Physical, Chemical, and Pharmacological Assessment.

    PubMed

    Binkhathlan, Ziyad; Badran, Mohamed M; Alomrani, Abdullah; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Alghonaim, Mohammed; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether tacrolimus extracted and purified from the commercial capsules (Prograf® 5 mg) have retained its original quality and activity beyond the capsules expiration date in order to be reused for research purposes after extraction. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method was developed and validated for the quantification of tacrolimus, using cyclosporine A as an internal standard (IS). Moreover, a combination of analytical methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess the quality of extracted/purified tacrolimus. Suppression of murine peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were also assessed. The data obtained showed no detectable differences in the quality profile between the authentic sample and extracted drug. Also, the results showed that the extracted/purified tacrolimus was able to suppress T cell proliferation, induced by concanavalin A, indicating the retained pharmacological activity. We proved that tacrolimus extracted/purified from expired Prograf® capsuled retains its purity and immunosuppressive activity and can be reused for research and possibly in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  19. Effects of physical, chemical, and botanical characteristics of peat on carbon gas fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, A.; Dinel, H.; Levesque, P.E.M.

    1994-12-31

    Peatland ecosystems may contribute about 65% of all natural methane emission to the atmosphere. During May-June 1988, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with the static chamber method at the surface of a basin swamp and at three depths. The daily average fluxes of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} at the surface of the swamp ranged from 1.146 to 2.178 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and from 1.966 to 7.242 mmol m{sup -2}d{sup -1}, respectively. These amounts of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} corresponded to 0.02-0.03% of what was released from the 45 to 60-cm depth when exposed to atmospheric pressure. Statistically significant correlations between physical and botanical peat properties and trapped CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} and water flow suggest that outgassing of trapped CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are closely associated with the peat matrix, peat properties, hydraulic potential, temperature, and concentration gradients. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under the common burnt cane management. The green cane soil also presented different profiles compared to the control soil, but to at a lesser degree. PMID:22873209

  1. Physical, chemical, biological, and biotechnological sciences are incomplete without each other

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques could not separate plasma lipoproteins which are now known as cholesterol- containing, heart-disease related macromolecules in human blood. Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory successfully separated plasma lipoproteins using equilibrium den...

  2. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  3. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical, Chemical and Biological Characterization of Six Biochars Produced for the Remediation of Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Denyes, Mackenzie J.; Parisien, Michèle A.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of biochar vary based on feedstock sources and production conditions, making it possible to engineer biochars with specific functions (e.g. carbon sequestration, soil quality improvements, or contaminant sorption). In 2013, the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) made publically available their Standardized Product Definition and Product Testing Guidelines (Version 1.1) which set standards for physical and chemical characteristics for biochar. Six biochars made from three different feedstocks and at two temperatures were analyzed for characteristics related to their use as a soil amendment. The protocol describes analyses of the feedstocks and biochars and includes: cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area (SSA), organic carbon (OC) and moisture percentage, pH, particle size distribution, and proximate and ultimate analysis. Also described in the protocol are the analyses of the feedstocks and biochars for contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals and mercury as well as nutrients (phosphorous, nitrite and nitrate and ammonium as nitrogen). The protocol also includes the biological testing procedures, earthworm avoidance and germination assays. Based on the quality assurance / quality control (QA/QC) results of blanks, duplicates, standards and reference materials, all methods were determined adequate for use with biochar and feedstock materials. All biochars and feedstocks were well within the criterion set by the IBI and there were little differences among biochars, except in the case of the biochar produced from construction waste materials. This biochar (referred to as Old biochar) was determined to have elevated levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead, and failed the earthworm avoidance and germination assays. Based on these results, Old biochar would not be appropriate for use as a soil amendment for carbon sequestration, substrate quality improvements or remediation. PMID:25489663

  5. The physical-chemical properties of substance of the bright fireball EN171101 Turyi Remety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Belevtsev, Rudolf; Sobotovich, Emlen; Spivak, Svitlana; Churyumova, Tetyana

    2015-03-01

    In 2007-2011 searches were conducted for mineralogical and geochemical studies of the soil in the region of fall down of a bright fireball EN171101 ``Turyi Remety`` matter in Perechyn district of Transcarpathian. In the assumed location of the fall of a meteorite material for analysis was taken from the bottom of streams of Transcarpathian Mountains. In this matter we have been found numerous small magnetic spheres (microspherul) and fused segments, which have enough large sizes - up to 5 mm in diameter, which probably are fragments of the Turyi Remety meteoroid. One of the known signs of fireballs are sand-sized magnetic balls (by diameter 0.1-1.0 mm), which are often found in the magnetic concentrate fraction. This small balls, together with fragments of fused iotsit (FeO) are formed during the ablation of the meteoroid, and their sizes decreases during the motion of the meteoroid in the Earths atmosphere. From the east to the west, the radius of the balls in the study area decreased from an average of 0.7-0.5 mm to 0.1-0.3 mm. The sizes of such balls, as glowing molten particles of the meteoroid, are in good agreement with calculations based on the energy loss of the Turyi Remety meteoroid. This confirms the cosmic origin of these found small balls. Pre-calculated physical parameters of the Turyi Remety meteoroid are the velocity, mass, kinetic energy, the resistance force during ablation, the average fireball particle radius along trajectory path of a meteoroid fragments depending from the mass and size. Rapid mass loss of the meteoroid in more than 10 times, stronger, shorter ablation and damping fireball at the high altitude say about instability and the participation of the meteoroid gas in ablation. Perhaps the presence of ice, and other fireball gases in the meteoroid composition shows that its composition was close to comet one or to a chondrite with ice (gas hydrates). Especially likely gaseous hydrates of heavy gases such as CO2, H2S, hydrocarbons (propane, butane, etc.).

  6. The Role of Physical-Chemical Factors in Structuring Subtidal Marine and Estuarine Benthos.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    benthic habitats and environmental factors that structure them will focus on the east coast and Gulf of Mexico estuarine system. Contrasts and...34 Benthic Infaunal Variability on a Transect in the Gulf of Mexico ," Estur. Coastal Mar. Sci., 10:1-14. Fonseca, M. S., Kenworthy, W. J., Homziak, J...Kings- ton 1978; Flint and Holland 1980). In general, transect studies of shelf benthos from the east coast and Gulf of Mexico have shown that density

  7. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (p<0.05) effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  9. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-01-01

    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, that is, 97.55, 97.5, 89.35, 80.75, 96.04, 91.52, and 98.6% reduction from the zero time value for COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and fecal coliforms, respectively. After 20 days' time, the treated water was free of almost all nutrients and microbial pollutants. Hence, increasing hydraulic retention time was found to ameliorate the operational competence of HCW. Thus HCW can serve as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and can be scaled up for small communities in the developing countries. PMID:23724336

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for two sites on the upper Kenai River, Alaska, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Ness, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected and stream characteristics were documented from two sites along the upper Kenai River in the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. These data were collected to describe the current status of the sites and to provide baseline information from which changes in the future could be evaluated. Physical characteristics included channel geometry surveys, and measurements of channel widths and water discharge at each site. Chemical data included stream water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, E. coli and fecal coliform counts, and nutrient concentration. Data on concentrations of trace elements and various organic compounds in bed sediments and the tissue of slimy sculpin were also collected. Biological characteristics were evaluated using measurements of the bacteria, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  11. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  12. Heavy metal content in sediments along the Calore river: relationships with physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, G; Papa, S; Sagnella, E; Fioretto, A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, trace metals contents (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) and physico-chemical parameters (nitrogen, organic and inorganic carbon, pH and particle size) in sediments samples along the Calore river were analyzed in two seasons. Sediment samples were collected in ten sites upstream and downstream of the city of Benevento and its industrial area, the confluence of Sabato and Tammaro tributaries, and the confluence of Calore and Volturno rivers. The highest contents of trace metals were found, generally, in the sites immediately downstream of industrial area and of Benevento city. The sites on the Tammaro and Sabato also showed relatively high contents of Ni and, only for Sabato sites, of Cr, and Fe. With the exception of Cd, the heavy metal contents were highest in the last site of Calore river, which therefore is a source of pollution to the Volturno river. Besides the sites downstream of Benevento city showed the higher pH values and also the highest contents of fine particles size and organic matter. Positive correlations among trace metals, organic substance, particle size sediments were found. The data obtained in this study were analyzed with reference to Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines and indicated moderate-to-high pollution by some trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu).

  13. Physical, Chemical and Proteomic Evidence of Potato Suberin Degradation by the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Streptomyces scabiei

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Carole; Sidibé, Amadou; Jabloune, Raoudha; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Monga, Ernest; Bernards, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Potato peels consist of a tissue called phellem, which is formed by suberized cell layers. The degradation of suberin, a lipidic and recalcitrant polymer, is an ecological process attributed to soil fungal populations; however, previous studies have suggested that Streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of potato common scab, possesses the ability to degrade suberin. In the present study, S. scabiei was grown in medium containing suberin-enriched potato phellem as the sole carbon source and its secretome was analyzed periodically (10- to 60-d-old cultures) with a special focus on proteins potentially involved in cell wall degradation. Although the amount and diversity of proteins linked to polysaccharide degradation remained high throughout the experiment, their abundance decreased over time. In contrast, proteins dedicated to lipid metabolism represented a small fraction of the secretome; however, their abundance increased during the experiment. The lipolytic enzymes detected may be involved in the degradation of the aliphatic fraction of suberin because the results of optical and transmission electron microscopy examinations revealed a loss in the integrity of suberized tissues exposed to S. scabiei cells. Chemical analyses identified a time period in which the concentration of aliphatic compounds in potato phellem decreased and the sugar concentration increased; at the end of the 60-d incubation period, the sugar concentration in potato phellem was significantly reduced. This study demonstrated the ability of S. scabiei to degrade the aliphatic portion of suberin. PMID:27853060

  14. Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnesium Diboride Inside 3.9 GHz Mock Cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Namhoon; Withanage, Wenura K.; Tan, Teng; ...

    2016-12-21

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is considered a candidate for the next generation superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities due to its higher critical temperature Tc (40 K) and increased superheating field (Hsh) compared to other conventional superconductors. These properties can lead to reduced BCS surface resistance (RBCSS) and residual resistance (Rres), according to theoretical studies, and enhanced accelerating field (Eacc) values. Here, we investigated the possibility of coating the inner surface of a 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with MgB2 by using a hybrid physical-vapor deposition (HPCVD) system designed for this purpose. To simulate the actual 3.9 GHz SRF cavity, we also employedmore » a stainless steel mock cavity for the study. The film qualities were characterized on small substrates that were placed at the selected positions within the cavity. MgB2 films on stainless steel foils, niobium pieces, and SiC substrates showed transition temperatures in the range of 30-38 K with a c-axis-oriented crystallinity observed for films grown on SiC substrates. Dielectric resonator measurements at 18 GHz resulted in a quality factor of over 30 000 for the MgB2 film grown on a SiC substrate. Furthermore, by employing the HPCVD technique, a uniform film was achieved across the cavity interior, demonstrating the feasibility of HPCVD for MgB2 coatings for SRF cavities.« less

  15. Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnesium Diboride Inside 3.9 GHz Mock Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Namhoon; Withanage, Wenura K.; Tan, Teng; Wolak, Matthaeus A.; Nassiri, Alireza; Xi, Xiaoxing

    2016-12-21

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is considered a candidate for the next generation superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities due to its higher critical temperature Tc (40 K) and increased superheating field (Hsh) compared to other conventional superconductors. These properties can lead to reduced BCS surface resistance (RBCSS) and residual resistance (Rres), according to theoretical studies, and enhanced accelerating field (Eacc) values. Here, we investigated the possibility of coating the inner surface of a 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with MgB2 by using a hybrid physical-vapor deposition (HPCVD) system designed for this purpose. To simulate the actual 3.9 GHz SRF cavity, we also employed a stainless steel mock cavity for the study. The film qualities were characterized on small substrates that were placed at the selected positions within the cavity. MgB2 films on stainless steel foils, niobium pieces, and SiC substrates showed transition temperatures in the range of 30-38 K with a c-axis-oriented crystallinity observed for films grown on SiC substrates. Dielectric resonator measurements at 18 GHz resulted in a quality factor of over 30 000 for the MgB2 film grown on a SiC substrate. Furthermore, by employing the HPCVD technique, a uniform film was achieved across the cavity interior, demonstrating the feasibility of HPCVD for MgB2 coatings for SRF cavities.

  16. Supramolecular dendritic polymers: from synthesis to applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Supramolecular dendritic polymers (SDPs), which perfectly combine the advantages of dendritic polymers with those of supramolecular polymers, are a novel class of non-covalently bonded, highly branched macromolecules with three-dimensional globular topology. Because of their dynamic/reversible nature, unique topological structure, and exceptional physical/chemical properties (e.g., low viscosity, high solubility, and a large number of functional terminal groups), SDPs have attracted increasing attention in recent years in both academic and industrial fields. In particular, the reversibility of non-covalent interactions endows SDPs with the ability to undergo dynamic switching of structure, morphology, and function in response to various external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, light, stress, and redox agents, which further provides a flexible and robust platform for designing and developing smart supramolecular polymeric materials and functional supramolecular devices. The existing SDPs can be systematically classified into the following six major types according to their topological features: supramolecular dendrimers, supramolecular dendronized polymers, supramolecular hyperbranched polymers, supramolecular linear-dendritic block copolymers, supramolecular dendritic-dendritic block copolymers, and supramolecular dendritic multiarm copolymers. These different types of SDPs possess distinct morphologies, unique architectures, and specific functions. Benefiting from their versatile topological structures as well as stimuli-responsive properties, SDPs have displayed not only unique characteristics or advantages in supramolecular self-assembly behaviors (e.g., controllable morphologies, specific performance, and facile functionalization) but also great potential to be promising candidates in various fields. In this Account, we summarize the recent progress in the synthesis, functionalization, and self-assembly of SDPs as well as their potential

  17. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical

  18. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    PubMed

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  19. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H.; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  20. Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic composition, for example, (14)C/(12)C, (13)C/(12)C, (2)H/(1)H, (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, of the elements of matter is heterogeneous. It is ruled by physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Isotopes can be employed to follow the fate of mineral and organic compounds during biogeochemical transformations. The determination of the isotopic composition of organic substances occurring at trace level in very complex mixtures such as sediments, soils and blood, has been made possible during the last 20 years due to the rapid development of molecular level isotopic techniques. After a brief glance at pioneering studies revealing isotopic breakthroughs at the molecular and intramolecular levels, this paper reviews selected applications of compound-specific isotope analysis in various scientific fields.

  1. Applications of a new ecosystem model to study the dynamics of phytoplankton and nutrients in the Ariake Sea, west coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Hang, Nguyen Thi; Cao Don, Nguyen; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present the development and application of a new ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model to describe the important physical, chemical and biological processes of an ecosystem in the marine environment, the Ariake Sea in the west coast of Kyushu, Japan. The model was calibrated and validated using in-situ field measurements from various monitoring stations in the sea. The presented results covered the period from January 1991 to December 2000. The results showed that chlorophyll- a, nutrients and dissolved oxygen levels varied seasonally in response to weather and boundary condition. Through this study, the model was shown to be able to handle the flooding and drying processes that usually exist and play an essential role over the estuarine-tidal flats of the sea.

  2. Frontiers of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Part 2. Perturbation methods, fields of applications, and types of analytical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Noteworthy experimental practices, which are advancing forward the frontiers of the field of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, are reviewed with the focus on various perturbation methods currently practiced to induce spectral changes, pertinent examples of applications in various fields, and types of analytical probes employed. Types of perturbation methods found in the published literature are very diverse, encompassing both dynamic and static effects. Although a sizable portion of publications report the use of dynamic perturbatuions, much greater number of studies employ static effect, especially that of temperature. Fields of applications covered by the literature are also very broad, ranging from fundamental research to practical applications in a number of physical, chemical and biological systems, such as synthetic polymers, composites and biomolecules. Aside from IR spectroscopy, which is the most commonly used tool, many other analytical probes are used in 2D correlation analysis. The ever expanding trend in depth, breadth and versatility of 2D correlation spectroscopy techniques and their broad applications all point to the robust and healthy state of the field.

  3. Land Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater land application, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as the history, development, philosophy, design, models, and case studies of land application. A list of 41 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  5. A Review of Heating and Temperature Control in Microfluidic Systems: Techniques and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Malloggi, Florent; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the different techniques developed over the last decade to regulate the temperature within microfluidic systems. A variety of different approaches has been adopted, from external heating sources to Joule heating, microwaves or the use of lasers to cite just a few examples. The scope of the technical solutions developed to date is impressive and encompasses for instance temperature ramp rates ranging from 0.1 to 2,000 °C/s leading to homogeneous temperatures from −3 °C to 120 °C, and constant gradients from 6 to 40 °C/mm with a fair degree of accuracy. We also examine some recent strategies developed for applications such as digital microfluidics, where integration of a heating source to generate a temperature gradient offers control of a key parameter, without necessarily requiring great accuracy. Conversely, Temperature Gradient Focusing requires high accuracy in order to control both the concentration and separation of charged species. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction requires both accuracy (homogeneous temperature) and integration to carry out demanding heating cycles. The spectrum of applications requiring temperature regulation is growing rapidly with increasingly important implications for the physical, chemical and biotechnological sectors, depending on the relevant heating technique. PMID:26835667

  6. Application of hyperspectral imaging in food safety inspection and control: a review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is a great public concern, and outbreaks of food-borne illnesses can lead to disturbance to the society. Consequently, fast and nondestructive methods are required for sensing the safety situation of produce. As an emerging technology, hyperspectral imaging has been successfully employed in food safety inspection and control. After presenting the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper provides a comprehensive review on its application in determination of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food products. Additionally, other studies, including detecting meat and meat bone in feedstuffs as well as organic residue on food processing equipment, are also reported due to their close relationship with food safety control. With these applications, it can be demonstrated that miscellaneous hyperspectral imaging techniques including near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, and Raman hyperspectral imaging or their combinations are powerful tools for food safety surveillance. Moreover, it is envisaged that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as an alternative technique for conventional methods in realizing inspection automation, leading to the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems at the utmost.

  7. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  8. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Helena; Silva, Rafael M; Dumont, Vitor C; Neves, Juliana S; Mansur, Herman S; Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M.

    1997-04-30

    This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

  10. APPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPTUAL MODEL (THE BIOLOGICAL CONDITION GRADIENT) TO DEFINE AQUATIC REFERENCE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Clean Water Act currently offers no definitions to interpret the Act's objective to "restore and maintain physical, chemical and biological integrity of the Nation's waters". Operative definitions, independent of differences in assessment methodologies, are nee...

  11. Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Fedotov, Sergei; Horsthemke, Werner

    Reaction-transport equations have found many applications to biological processes of interest in medicine and microbiology. Examples range from cancer invasion to virus dispersal and transport in spiny dendrites.

  12. Stability and chemical equilibrium of amphibole in calc-alkaline magmas: an overview, new thermobarometric form