Science.gov

Sample records for physics aspects severe

  1. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  2. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  3. Clinical and molecular aspects of severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2005-09-01

    The erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum presents a particularity in relation to other Plasmodium species that infect man. Mature trophozoites and schizonts are sequestered from the peripheral circulation due to adhesion of infected erythrocytes to host endothelial cells. Modifications in the surface of infected erythrocytes, termed knobs, seem to facilitate adhesion to endothelium and other erythrocytes. Adhesion provides better maturation in the microaerophilic venous atmosphere and allows the parasite to escape clearance by the spleen which recognizes the erythrocytes loss of deformability. Adhesion to the endothelium, or cytoadherence, has an important role in the pathogenicity of the disease, causing occlusion of small vessels and contributing to failure of many organs. Cytoadherence can also describe adhesion of infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes, a phenomenon widely known as rosetting. Clinical aspects of severe malaria, as well as the host receptors and parasite ligands involved in cytoadherence and rosetting, are reviewed here. The erythrocyte membrane protein 1 of P. falciparum (PfEMP1) appears to be the principal adhesive ligand of infected erythrocytes and will be discussed in more detail. Understanding the role of host receptors and parasite ligands in the development of different clinical syndromes is urgently needed to identify vaccination targets in order to decrease the mortality rates of this disease.

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Physical aspects of cancer invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiot, Caterina; Pugno, Nicola; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2007-12-01

    Invasiveness, one of the hallmarks of tumor progression, represents the tumor's ability to expand into the host tissue by means of several complex biochemical and biomechanical processes. Since certain aspects of the problem present a striking resemblance with well-known physical mechanisms, such as the mechanical insertion of a solid inclusion in an elastic material specimen (G Eaves 1973 The invasive growth of malignant tumours as a purely mechanical process J. Pathol. 109 233; C Guiot, N Pugno and P P Delsanto 2006 Elastomechanical model of tumor invasion Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 233901) or a water drop impinging on a surface (C Guiot, P P Delsanto and T S Deisboeck 2007 Morphological instability and cancer invasion: a 'splashing water drop' analogy Theor. Biol. Med. Model 4 4), we propose here an analogy between these physical processes and a cancer system's invasive branching into the surrounding tissue. Accounting for its solid and viscous properties, we then arrive, as a unifying model, to an analogy with a granular solid. While our model has been explicitly formulated for multicellular tumor spheroids in vitro, it should also contribute to a better understanding of tumor invasion in vivo.

  5. Clinical Aspects of Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Zammarchi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease. The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea) may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu), dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal. PMID:22708041

  6. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  7. The many aspects of neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-November, over seventy physicists gathered at Fermilab for an informal workshop on the Many Aspects of Neutrino Physics, which dovetailed with and also helped lay the groundwork for the succeeding more narrowly focused conference on Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations. The workshop indeed covered many of the interrelated aspects of neutrino physics: 17 keV neutrinos (experiments, theoretical models, and astrophysical constraints), neutrino properties (double beta decay experiments, neutrino magnetic moments), neutrinos from/as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in cosmology and astrophysics, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. In the following, I provide a brief and thoroughly biased account of only some of the many interesting developments discussed at the workshop.

  8. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    SciTech Connect

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  9. Aspects of String Phenomenology and New Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, I.

    I discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics and cosmology, such the the electroweak, ination, dark energy and Planck scales. In particular, I discuss the physics of extra dimensions and low scale gravity that are motivated from the problem of mass hierarchy, providing an alternative to low energy supersymmetry. I describe their realization in type I string theory with D-branes and I present the main experimental predictions in particle accelerators and their implications in cosmology. I also show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the Standard Model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  10. Some 2-Categorical Aspects in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzygnat, Arthur J.

    2-categories provide a useful transition point between ordinary category theory and infinity-category theory where one can perform concrete computations for applications in physics and at the same time provide rigorous formalism for mathematical structures appearing in physics. We survey three such broad instances. First, we describe two-dimensional algebra as a means of constructing non-abelian parallel transport along surfaces which can be used to describe strings charged under non-abelian gauge groups in string theory. Second, we formalize the notion of convex and cone categories, provide a preliminary categorical definition of entropy, and exhibit several examples. Thirdly, we provide a universal description of the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction as a canonical procedure from states on C*-algebras to representations of C*-algebras equipped with pure state.

  11. A Comprehensive Physical Education Program for the Severely Physically Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, James

    Described is an adaptive comprehensive physical education (PE) program (funded by Title III in 1968) for 48 severly physically handicapped senior high school students in Rochester, New York. Program aims are given to be providing a diversified program of developmental activities in a friendly environment to increase the physical, social, and…

  12. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  13. Medical physics aspects of particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.

  14. Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-15

    elenmet about 20 % fewer grid points, it takes a little less comput- in this regon. ing time. The major difference between these approaches is the...8217 5 10 15’ 20 geometries in this work. Alpha OM 0.7S6 &12 - O - Fig. 2.6 Coefficient of lift versus angle of attack as computed by the overlaid grid ...55,000 points were used in the resulting composite grid in order to resolve the . 20 - flow physics adequately in the boundary layers and wakes. -15 The

  15. Physics aspects of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.; Bateman, G.; Houlberg, W.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.; Colestock, P.; Hughes, M.; Ignat, D.; Izzo, R.; Jardin, S.

    1986-11-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is a proposed modest-size ignition experiment designed to study the physics of alpha-particle heating. The basic concept is to achieve ignition in a modest-size minimum cost experiment by using a high plasma density to achieve the condition of ntau/sub E/ approx. 2 x 10/sup 20/ sec m/sup -3/ required for ignition. The high density requires a high toroidal field (10 T). The high toroidal field allows a large plasma current (10 MA) which improves the energy confinement, and provides a high level of ohmic heating. The present CIT design also has a gigh degree of elongation (k approx. 1.8) to aid in producing the large plasma current. A double null poloidal divertor and a pellet injector are part of the design to provide impurity and particle control, improve the confinement, and provide flexibility for impurity and particle control, improve the confinement, and provide flexibility for improving the plasma profiles. Since auxiliary heating is expected to be necessary to achieve ignition, 10 to 20 MW of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF) is to be provided.

  16. Physical Aspects of Photodynamic Corneal Collagen Crosslinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfield, Julia

    2012-02-01

    Healthy vision depends on the stability of the shape of the cornea, which provides most of the lens power of the optical system of the eye. Diseases in which the cornea progressively undergoes irregular deformation over time (e.g., keratoconus) can be treated clinically by inducing additional protein-protein crosslinks using a photosensitizing drug and a tailored dose of light. Unfortunately, the treatment moving through clinical trials is toxic to cells in and on the cornea. A path to a safer treatment is offered by the nanostructure of the corneal stroma---reminiscent of a HEX phase in block copolymers with 30nm diameter collagen cylinders spaced 60nm center-to-center in a hydrogel matrix of proteoglycans and water. We show that using a photosensitizing drug that sequesters itself in the collagen fibrils can minimize the toxicity of therapeutic protein-protein cross-linking. Photorheology and transport measurements are used to quantify the parameters of a simple physical model that is useful for optimizing clinical protocols.

  17. Aspects of the Cognitive Model of Physics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    Various aspects of the cognitive model of physics problem solving are discussed in detail including relevant cues, encoding, memory, and input stimuli. The learning process involved in the recognition of familiar and non-familiar sensory stimuli is highlighted. Its four components include selection, acquisition, construction, and integration. The…

  18. (The latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.

    1990-09-24

    The author was one of 26 invited lecturers to discuss the latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry. He interacted extensively with other lecturers and many participants from developing countries. He also visited with the Director of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Source now under construction in Trieste, Italy.

  19. [Health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Lehnert, T; Konnopka, A; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H

    2011-01-01

    Physical-mental comorbidity is often associated with worse clinical and psychosocial outcomes, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization. The following article is dedicated to the health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity. It presents basic theoretical and methodological aspects of cost-of-illness studies and economic evaluations related to physical-mental comorbidity, which are explained and discussed for the practical example of comorbid depression in diabetes mellitus. The results show that mental comorbidity in diabetes is associated with increased healthcare costs, which can in part be attributed to an increased somatic health service use. Appropriate interventions can lower these excess costs. Economic evaluations assessing the effectiveness of interventions for depressive diabetics have shown that overall health can be improved and costs saved. However, especially in health economics, mental comorbidity in somatic diseases has not been comprehensively investigated and further research is warranted.

  20. Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.

  1. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world.

  2. Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility in gender roles, social conventions, moral rules, and physical laws.

    PubMed

    Levy, G D; Taylor, M G; Gelman, S A

    1995-04-01

    Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility regarding transgressions across several domains (masculine and feminine gender roles, moral rules, social etiquette, and physical law) were assessed in 24 4-year-olds, 40 8-year-olds, and 46 college undergraduates. Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility yielded distinctly different patterns of response. Data indicated an age-related increase in flexibility on traditional measures (i.e., traditional rule flexibility, cultural relativity) for transgressions in all domains, except physical laws. In contrast, subjects in all age groups were consistently negative in their evaluations of transgressions in moral rules, etiquette, and masculine gender roles. Female subjects viewed masculine gender role transgressions with greater flexibility and less negativity than did male subjects. Results demonstrate the multidimensional character of flexibility development in different social and physical domains. Results suggest that masculine and feminine gender roles and social etiquette may not fall within a common domain of social convention.

  3. Screening for Physical Problems in Classrooms for Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Richard; Knapczyk, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    The authors present a screening device with which teachers of severely handicapped students may detect the presence of a physical problem. The screening approach covers vision, auditory problems, seizures, orthopedic problems, and pain. (CL)

  4. Physical aspects of heterogeneities in multi-component lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2014-06-01

    Ever since the raft model for biomembranes has been proposed, the traditional view of biomembranes based on the fluid-mosaic model has been altered. In the raft model, dynamical heterogeneities in multi-component lipid bilayers play an essential role. Focusing on the lateral phase separation of biomembranes and vesicles, we review some of the most relevant research conducted over the last decade. We mainly refer to those experimental works that are based on physical chemistry approach, and to theoretical explanations given in terms of soft matter physics. In the first part, we describe the phase behavior and the conformation of multi-component lipid bilayers. After formulating the hydrodynamics of fluid membranes in the presence of the surrounding solvent, we discuss the domain growth-law and decay rate of concentration fluctuations. Finally, we review several attempts to describe membrane rafts as two-dimensional microemulsion.

  5. A search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes: physical and paleontological aspects.

    PubMed

    Chela-Flores, J

    1998-10-01

    Physical and biochemical aspects of a proposed search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes (SETE) are considered. Such a program should approach the distinction between a primitive eukaryote and an archaebacteria. The emphasis on gene silencing suggests a possible assay suitable for a robotic investigation of eukaryoticity, so as to be able to decide whether the first steps towards eukaryogenesis have been taken in an extraterrestrial planet, or satellite. The experiment would consist of searching for cellular division and the systematic related delay in replication of heterochromatic chromosome segments. It should be noticed that the direct search for a membrane-bounded set of chromosomes does not necessarily determine eukaryotic identity, as there are prokaryotes that have membrane-bounded nucleoids. A closer look at the protein fraction of chromatin (mainly histones) does not help either, as there are some eukaryotes that may lack histones; there are also some bacteria as well as archaebacteria with histone-like proteins in their nucleoids. Comments on the recent suggestion of possible environments for a SETE program are discussed: the deep crust of Mars, and the Jovian satellite Europa, provided the existence of an ocean under its ice-covered surface is confirmed by the current Galileo mission.

  6. Some Aspects of the Physics of Shooting a Basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, John J.

    2006-12-01

    The flight of a basketball is considered.1 Video analysis of the path and spin for several shots was carried out. It is shown that four forces are required to reproduce the trajectory: gravity, buoyancy, the drag force and the Magnus force. The relative contribution of each force is determined. The model is used to evaluate what it is that good shooters do. For a foul shot, the approach speed (speed when the basketball is just above the rim), launch speed, and launch angle were calculated. It is found that the minimum in the approach speed occurs at a launch angle closer to the experimental values for good shooters than does the minimum in the launch speed. This suggests the hoopothesis that a good shooter strives for the “softest” shot. 1. J. J. Fontanella, The Physics of Basketball, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006.

  7. Physical Activities for Children with Severe Multiple Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    1981-01-01

    Intended for teachers of students with severe multiple impairments, the booklet examines the role of physical activities in the education of this population and suggests approaches to exhancing their motor development. Suggestions are offered for stimulating movement in preschool, elementary, and secondary immobile children, including tactile…

  8. Physical Education for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansma, Paul

    1982-01-01

    The article offers ideas for providing appropriate physical, motor, fitness, and play training experiences for children with severe to profound developmental disabilities. Following a section with testing recommendations are general and specific teaching guidelines covering such areas as programing, adaptive equipment, multisensory stimulation,…

  9. Physical aspects of the assembly and function of microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holy, Timothy Eric

    Living cells contain polymers called microtubules. Microtubules are used to control cell shape, to generate force for movement, to transport vesicles, and to separate chromosomes during cell division. Microtubule polymerization is governed by a unique, energy-consuming phenomenon called dynamic instability, which leads to large fluctuations in length. This dissertation reports on physical studies (theory and experiment) of microtubules and their roles in living cells. To understand dynamic instability we need to know its mechanism and its function. Experiments on dynamic instability have led to a seeming contradiction as to its mechanism. By introducing a phenomenological model that unites the existing data, we show that this contradiction can be resolved. The model describes the stochastic dynamics of a stabilizing cap which promotes growth, but whose loss leads to disassembly. The theory matches experiments over time scales from seconds to minutes. We address the biological role of dynamic instability, also from a theoretical standpoint. We show that these large length fluctuations are useful: they lead to a rapid search of intracellular space. This search may be an essential step in organizing the cell interior, forging connections between widely-separated components. We show that dynamic instability speeds a search by several orders of magnitude. We also find that the parameters which govern dynamic instability appear to be chosen by the cell so as to minimize the search time. This thesis also reports experiments showing that microtubule polymerization may generate forces for movement and organization. Archetypal movements in living cells (e.g., the movement of the sperm nucleus from the periphery to the center of the egg) were reconstructed in an artificial system. The components of our system are purified proteins and two specially-designed materials: latex beads coated so as to nucleate microtubules, and microscopic chambers fabricated to mimic the confined

  10. On several aspects and applications of the multigrid method for solving partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinar, N.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of multigrid methods are briefly described. The main subjects include the development of very efficient multigrid algorithms for systems of elliptic equations (Cauchy-Riemann, Stokes, Navier-Stokes), as well as the development of control and prediction tools (based on local mode Fourier analysis), used to analyze, check and improve these algorithms. Preliminary research on multigrid algorithms for time dependent parabolic equations is also described. Improvements in existing multigrid processes and algorithms for elliptic equations were studied.

  11. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease.

  12. Physical and microstructural aspects of iron sulfide degradation in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Thomas; Gallucci, Emanuel; Scrivener, Karen

    2011-03-15

    The microstructural aspects of iron sulfide degradation in dam concrete were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in both dam concrete samples and laboratory concrete. The results show that iron sulfide inclusions with a diameter of a few micrometers in the aggregates are reactive and appear to generate expansion first in the aggregates and consequently in the cement paste. The expansion from the iron sulfides is a consequence of the increase in volume of the reaction products formed. The types of iron sulfide present in the aggregate, mainly pyrrhotite (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), show similar reaction behavior in the aggregates. The released sulfate can lead to a secondary ettringite formation in the concrete matrix, but the degradation associated with this appears to be minor. The reaction of the iron sulfides was found to be very slow even when laboratory samples were exposed to elevated temperatures.

  13. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  14. Clinical aspects of physical exercise for diabetes/metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuzo; Nagasaki, Masaru; Kubota, Masakazu; Uno, Tomoko; Nakai, Naoya

    2007-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to be regarded as essential in all fields of medical sciences and practical medicine. In the field of diabetes and exercise, among the epidemiological studies of physical exercise, recent mega-trials such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the U.S. have shown that lifestyle intervention programs involving diet and/or exercise reduce the progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes. In studies examining the endocrinological and metabolic effects of exercise, it has been demonstrated that physical exercise promotes the utilization of blood glucose and free fatty acids in muscles and lowers blood glucose levels in well-controlled diabetic patients. Long-term, mild, regular jogging increases the action of insulin in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism without influencing body mass index or maximal oxygen uptake. A significant correlation has been observed between delta MCR (Deltainsulin sensitivity) and the average number of steps performed in a day. Our recent data suggested that the improved effectiveness of insulin that occurs as a result of physical exercise is attributable, at least in part, to increases in GLUT4 protein, IRS1 and PI3-kinase protein in skeletal muscle. As a prescription for exercise, aerobic exercise of mild to moderate intensity, including walking and jogging, 10-30 min a day, 3-5 days a week, is recommended. Resistance training of mild intensity with the use of light dumbbells and stretch cords should be combined in elderly individuals who have decreased muscle strength. An active lifestyle is essential in the management of diabetes, which is one of typical lifestyle-related diseases.

  15. Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-15

    approach uses excellent job of capturing the wake from the main element about 20 % fewer grid points, it takes a little less comput- in this region...geometry. It is for these reasons that the overlaid 1. grid approach was adopted for the rest of the cases and -5 0 5 10 15 20 geometries in this work... grid in order to resolve the 20 - -I" /flow physics adequately in the boundary layers and wakes. -15 - -- . The grid spacing next to the surfaces of the

  16. An introduction to the physical aspects of helicopter stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessow, Alfred; Amer, Kenneth B

    1950-01-01

    In order to provide engineers interested in rotating-wing aircraft, but with no specialized training in stability theory, some understanding of the factors that influence the flying qualities of the helicopter, an explanation is made of both the static stability and the stick-fixed oscillation in hovering and forward flight in terms of fundamental physical quantities. Three significant stability factors -- static stability with angle of attack, static stability with speed, and damping due to a pitching or rolling velocity -- are explained in detail.

  17. Circulatory bubble dynamics: from physical to biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Tang, Meng-Xing; Balestra, Costantino; Eckersley, Robert J; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2014-04-01

    Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, or inducing an inflammatory cascade if they persist for too long in the body before being dissolved. By contrast to decompression induced bubbles whose site of initial formation and exact composition are debated, there are other instances of bubbles in the bloodstream which are well-defined. Gas emboli unwillingly introduced during surgical procedures and ultrasound microbubbles injected for use as contrast or drug delivery agents are therefore also discussed. After presenting the different ways that bubbles can end up in the human bloodstream, the general mathematical formalism related to the physics of bubble growth and detachment from decompression is reviewed. Bubble behavior in the bloodstream is then discussed, including bubble dissolution in blood, bubble rheology and biological interactions for the different cases of bubble and blood composition considered.

  18. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-10-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron-hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  19. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  20. Oral motor patterns during feeding in severely physically disabled children.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K

    1997-12-01

    Oral motor patterns during feeding were investigated in 58 patients with severe physical disability. Five patients showed a pattern resembling sucking. Twenty-nine exhibited an up-and-down movement of the jaw and protrusion of the tongue. Among these, the mouth opened when the food entered and the lips closed before swallowing in 20 patients; the mouth was constantly open in nine. Eight had an up-and-down movement of the jaw without protrusion of the tongue. These patterns were frequently seen in patients with spastic tetraplegia caused by neonatal asphyxia and compensated for oral motor impairment. Sixteen patients showed lateral movement of the jaw at some time during feeding; in these patients the texture of the food was more coarse than in those with other patterns.

  1. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Fire Suppression in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, F.; Linteris, G. T.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    A fire, whether in a spacecraft or in occupied spaces on extraterrestrial bases, can lead to mission termination or loss of life. While the fire-safety record of US space missions has been excellent, the advent of longer duration missions to Mars, the moon, or aboard the International Space Station (ISS) increases the likelihood of fire events, with more limited mission termination options. The fire safety program of NASA's manned space flight program is based largely upon the principles of controlling the flammability of on-board materials and greatly eliminating sources of ignition. As a result, very little research has been conducted on fire suppression in the microgravity or reduced-gravity environment. The objectives of this study are: to obtain fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical processes of fire suppression, using gravity and oxygen concentration as independent variables to simulate various extraterrestrial environments, including spacecraft and surface bases in Mars and moon missions; to provide rigorous testing of analytical models, which include comprehensive descriptions of combustion and suppression chemistry; and to provide basic research results useful for technological advances in fire safety, including the development of new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches, in the microgravity environment associated with ISS and in the partial-gravity Martian and lunar environments.

  2. Visual communication interface for severe physically disabled patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, M. J.; Fernández, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    During the last years several interfaces have been developed to allow communication to those patients suffering serious physical disabilities. In this work, a computer based communication interface is presented. It was designed to allow communication to those patients that cannot use neither their hands nor their voice but they can do it through their eyes. The system monitors the eyes movements by means of a webcam. Then, by means of an Artificial Neural Network, the system allows the identification of specified position on the screen through the identification of the eyes positions. This way the user can control a virtual keyboard on a screen that allows him to write and browse the system and enables him to send e-mails, SMS, activate video/music programs and control environmental devices. A patient was simulated to evaluate the versatility of the system. Its operation was satisfactory and it allowed the evaluation of the system potential. The development of this system requires low cost elements that are easily found in the market.

  3. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…

  4. Psycho-Social Aspects of Physical Education. Basic Stuff Series I. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oglesby, Carole A.; And Others

    The psychological and social aspects of achievement in physical activities are examined. The first chapter discusses health and the sources and development of self esteem. In the second chapter, ways in which a positive attitude toward one's body image may be developed are explored. The third chapter is concerned with achievement, motivation, fear…

  5. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research

    PubMed Central

    Akhmanova, Maria; Osidak, Egor; Domogatsky, Sergey; Rodin, Sergey; Domogatskaya, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity), viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D) and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement), and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems. PMID:26351461

  6. Engaging with Life: Therapeutic Benefits of the Physical Aspects of Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maizell, Rich

    2000-01-01

    Adventure therapy infuses experiential, physical activity into traditional talk therapy, drawing support from Piaget's theory that children construct knowledge from their actions on the environment. Several vignettes illustrate the point, noting the importance of laughter and physical touch to therapy. Using ropes for a "touch without…

  7. Dual-aspect monism à la Pauli and Jung perforates the completeness of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    2012-12-01

    In the mid 19th century, the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung developed a philosophical position for the mind-matter problem that is today called dual-aspect monism. They conjectured a picture in which the mental and the material arise as two complementary aspects of one underlying psychophysically neutral reality to which they cannot be reduced and to which direct empirical access is impossible. This picture suggests structural, persistent,re-producible mind-matter correlations by splitting the underlying reality into aspects. In addition, it suggests induced, occasional, evasive mind-matter correlations above and below, respectively, those stable baseline correlations. These correlations, and the way they arise, suggest that the domain of the physical is not completely independent of the domain of the mental, and both are not independent from the assumed reality underlying them. Some ideas are presented of how these relationships might be conceived.

  8. The Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.

  9. On some physical aspects of isotropic cosmology in Riemann-Cartan spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Minkevich, A.V.; Garkun, A.S.; Kudin, V.I. E-mail: awm@matman.uwm.edu.pl E-mail: kudzin_w@tut.by

    2013-03-01

    Isotropic cosmology built in the framework of the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity based on sufficiently general expression of gravitational Lagrangian is considered. The derivation of cosmological equations and equations for torsion functions in the case of the most general homogeneous isotropic models is given. Physical aspects of isotropic cosmology connected with possible solution of dark energy problem and problem of cosmological singularity are discussed.

  10. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  11. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; De Souza, Gabriel IH; Esposito, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material. PMID:16014167

  12. CLINICAL AND PARACLINICAL ASPECTS OF EBSTEIN'S ANOMALY--SEVERE FORM IN NEWBORNS.

    PubMed

    Iordache, C; Holoc, Andreea-Simona; Luca, Alina Costina

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a rare heart malformation, with a broad spectrum of anatomic abnormalities, leading to different clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic changes and a reserved prognosis. We have described a case of an infant diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly--a severe form.

  13. Aspects Concerning "Play" for the Promotion of Preschool Children with Severe Speech- and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich, Dieter; Marten, Magret

    2016-01-01

    Speech and language abilities are of great importance for later participation in economical and social life. In Lower Saxony/Germany, severely speech-/language (SL) impaired children may obtain special treatment during preschool in a so-called "Sprachheilkindergarten" (STK), a kindergarten focusing on early SL therapy. Purpose: This work…

  14. Several aspects of cultivating leaf greens in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.; Sychev, V. N.

    Available results of theoretical and empirical studies of closed eco-systems lay the ground for the common opinion concerning desirability of incorporating higher plant cultivation equipment in the life support systems of closed habitats of varying purpose (space stations, Martian expedition, hyperbaric complexes in deep waters etc.) in order to add fresh greens to food rations, regenerate air and water, and to better the psychological climate. Design and functional features of this equipment and choice of plants are determined by the dimensions of habitat, power generation, length of self-sustained existence beyond Earth's biosphere and other factors. We are going to consider a particular case of fresh green biomass production for space crew nutrition with limited size and energy resources. The paper presents results of ground and space experimental investigations of a number of aspects of cultivating leaf plant species as applied to research and productive greenhouses. Goals of the investigations were to prepare for flight experiments in greenhouses LADA aboard ISS, and determination of specifications for future productive greenhouses for a Martian mission and its prototyping in ground-based simulations. The following objectives were pursued: - selection of the seeding surface shape and spatial configuration of productive and research greenhouses that can be proposed for the orbital station or a Martian vehicle comparison of productivity of leaf greens cultivated on different substrates; - determination of the maximal plant biomass yield and number of crops that can be gathered from root module without substrate change; - choice of leaf culture cultivars and species featured by very quick biomass buildup and pleasant taste qualities.

  15. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  16. Effects of Hatha Yoga Practice on the Health-Related Aspects of Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Tran, M D; Holly, R G; Lashbrook, J; Amsterdam, E A

    2001-01-01

    Ten healthy, untrained volunteers (nine females and one male), ranging in age from 18-27 years, were studied to determine the effects of hatha yoga practice on the health-related aspects of physical fitness, including muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and pulmonary function. Subjects were required to attend a minimum of two yoga classes per week for a total of 8 weeks. Each yoga session consisted of 10 minutes of pranayamas (breath-control exercises), 15 minutes of dynamic warm-up exercises, 50 minutes of asanas (yoga postures), and 10 minutes of supine relaxation in savasana (corpse pose). The subjects were evaluated before and after the 8-week training program. Isokinetic muscular strength for elbow extension, elbow flexion, and knee extension increased by 31%, 19%, and 28% (p<0.05), respectively, whereas isometric muscular endurance for knee flexion increased 57% (p<0.01). Ankle flexibility, shoulder elevation, trunk extension, and trunk flexion increased by 13% (p<0.01), 155% (p<0.001), 188% (p<0.001), and 14% (p<0.05), respectively. Absolute and relative maximal oxygen uptake increased by 7% and 6%, respectively (p<0.01). These findings indicate that regular hatha yoga practice can elicit improvements in the health-related aspects of physical fitness. (c)2001 CHF, Inc.

  17. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects.

  18. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Pharmaceutical Solids: Fundamentals of Polymorphs, Hydrates and Solvates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutzel-Edens, Susan

    2007-03-01

    Crystal polymorphs are solid phases of a given compound resulting from the possibility of at least two different arrangements of the molecules of that compound in the solid state. Solvates form when the solvent is incorporated in the crystal structure of a compound; hydrates form when water is the solvent of crystallization. The potential effects of crystal polymorphism and hydration on the quality and performance of drug products is widely recognized by the pharmaceutical industry. Investigations of crystal polymorphism and hydration are usually conducted early in drug development to optimize the physical properties of a pharmaceutical solid. Although the thermodynamically most stable crystal form is generally selected for commercial development to mitigate the risk of undesired phase transformations, form selection oftentimes involves a compromise among different physical properties of various drug crystal forms. Controlling polymorph (or hydrate) appearance must be accomplished through careful evaluation of both thermodynamic (tendency toward the formation of more stable crystal forms) and kinetic parameters (which lead to the formation of metastable forms) in the crystallization process. In this presentation, fundamental aspects of polymorphs and solvates (hydrates) will be explored. Particular attention will be given to the structure and stability relationships between polymorphs and hydrates, kinetic vs. thermodynamic transitions, and the impact of polymorphism and hydration on the chemical and physical stability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  19. Social, Psychological, And Physical Aspects Of The Work Environment Could Contribute To Hypertension Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Modrek, Sepideh; Cantley, Linda F; Cullen, Mark R

    2017-02-01

    Studies on the physical and social characteristics of the workplace have begun to provide evidence for the role of specific workplace factors on health. However, the overall contribution of the workplace to health has not been considered. Estimates of the influences on health across domains of the work environment are a critical first step toward understanding what level of priority the workplace should take as the target for public policies to improve health. The influences or contribution of these domains on health in the work environment are particularly useful to study since they are potentially modifiable through changes in policies and environment. Our analysis used detailed data from blue-collar industrial workers at two dozen Alcoa plants. It includes work environmental measures of psychological hazards, physical hazards, and the workplace social environment, to estimate the overall importance of the workplace environment for hypertension. Our findings suggest that social, psychological, and physical aspects of the work environment could contribute to a substantial proportion of hypertension prevalence. These attributes of the workplace could thus be a useful target for improving workforce health.

  20. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  1. Proteinase inhibitors in severe inflammatory processes (septic shock and experimental endotoxaemia): biochemical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Fritz, H

    1979-01-01

    Plasma levels of antithrombin III, alpha 2-macroglobulin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, as well as those of various clotting, complement and other plasma factors, were significantly decreased in 18 patients suffering from hyperdynamic septic shock. A similar statistically significant reduction of the concentrations of several plasma factors (prothrombin and antithrombin III, plasminogen and alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor, complement factor C3 and clotting factor XIII) was observed in experimental endotoxaemia. In this model the reduction in the plasma levels of these factors was considerably diminished by the intravenous injection of a granulocytic elastase--cathepsin G inhibitor of lower molecular weight from soybeans. The results of both studies indicate that consumption of plasma factors in the course of Gram-negative sepsis proceeds not only via the classical routes (by activation of the clotting, fibrinolytic and complement cascades by system-specific proteinases such as thrombokinase or the plasminogen activator) but also to an appreciable degree of unspecific degradation of plasma factors by neutral proteinases such as elastase and cathepsin G. The endotoxin-induced release of both sorts of proteinases, the system-specific ones and the unspecific lysosomal proteinases from leucocytes and other cells, is likely to be mainly responsible for the consumption of antithrombin III and alpha-2-macroglobulin via complex formation (followed by elimination of the complexes) and the increased turnover of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor as observed in the clinical study. The therapeutic use of an exogenous elastase--cathepsin G inhibitor in the experimental model was stimulated by the observation that human mucous secretions contain and acid-stable inhibitor of the neutral granulocytic proteinases, called HUSI-I or antileucoproteinase. This inhibitor protects mucous membranes and soluble proteins against proteolytic attack by leucocytic proteinases released in the

  2. Parents' Use of Physical Interventions in the Management of Their Children's Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…

  3. Treatment of cancer of the pancreas by intraoperative electron beam therapy: physical and biological aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Bagne, F.R.; Dobelbower, R.R. Jr.; Milligan, A.J.; Bronn, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation therapy has had a significant and an expanded role in the management of cancer of the pancreas during the last decade. In particular, for locally advanced disease, radiation therapy has improved the median survival of patients to 1 year. Intraoperative electron beam therapy has been applied to unresectable and resectable pancreatic cancer in an attempt to enhance local control of disease and to improve patient survival. This paper presents a survey of the role of radiation therapy in treatment of cancer of the pancreas, provides information on the radiobiological aspects of this treatment modality and details the physical and dosimetric characteristics of intraoperative radiation therapy with electrons. Presented are the design specifics of an applicator system, central axis beam data, applicator parameters, dose distribution data, shielding, treatment planning and means of verification. Emphasis is placed on the collaboration and cooperation necessary for all members of the intraoperative radiation therapy team including surgeons, radiation therapists, medical physicists, anesthesiologists, technologists, and nurses.29 references.

  4. The role of self-aspects in emotions elicited by threats to physical health.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K; Hynie, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between self-aspects and socially engaging and socially disengaging emotions elicited by imagined and real physical health problems. In Study 1, participants imagined themselves experiencing a health problem described in a hypothetical scenario and rated the extent to which they would experience a list of emotions. The experience of socially engaging emotions such as shame and embarrassment was predicted by the endorsement of collective self. In Study 2, participants recalled a past health problem and emotions they experienced during its course. Again, collective self predicted the extent to which people mentioned socially engaging emotions in their free recall of emotions. Independent self was not related to the imagined experience of socially disengaging emotions in Study 1 or the recollection of such emotions in Study 2.

  5. Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2009-04-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting.

  6. Adolescence Education: Physical Aspect, Module One; Social Aspects, Module Two; Sex Roles, Module Three; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Module Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Adolescence Education is a family life education training program designed to assist young people in their physical, social, emotional, and moral development as they prepare for adulthood, marriage, parenthood, aging, and social relationships in the context of family and society. This package consists of four individually bound modules: (1)…

  7. Fundamental and functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures with examples in physics, cell biology, and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Ziya

    2011-08-01

    How small can a macroscopic object be made without losing its intended function? Obviously, the smallest possible size is determined by the size of an atom, but it is not so obvious how many atoms are required to assemble an object so small, and yet that performs the same function as its macroscopic counterpart. In this review, we are concerned with objects of intermediate nature, lying between the microscopic and the macroscopic world. In physics and chemistry literature, this regime in-between is often called mesoscopic, and is known to bear interesting and counterintuitive features. After a brief introduction to the concept of mesoscopic systems from the perspective of physics, we discuss the functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures in cell biology, and supramolecular chemistry through many examples from the literature. We argue that the biochemistry of the cell is largely regulated by mesoscopic functional architectures; however, the significance of mesoscopic phenomena seems to be quite underappreciated in biological sciences. With this motivation, one of our main purposes here is to emphasize the critical role that mesoscopic structures play in cell biology and biochemistry.

  8. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  9. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years). Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482. PMID:24757674

  10. Characterization, optimization and surface physics aspects of in situ plasma mirror cleaning.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Eric; Sics, Igors; Reyes-Herrera, Juan; Perez Sempere, Carlos; Lopez Alcolea, Juan Josep; Langlois, Michel; Fernandez Rodriguez, Jose; Carlino, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Although the graphitic carbon contamination of synchrotron beamline optics has been an obvious problem for several decades, the basic mechanisms underlying the contamination process as well as the cleaning/remediation strategies are not understood and the corresponding cleaning procedures are still under development. In this study an analysis of remediation strategies all based on in situ low-pressure RF plasma cleaning approaches is reported, including a quantitative determination of the optimum process parameters and their influence on the chemistry as well as the morphology of optical test surfaces. It appears that optimum results are obtained for a specific pressure range as well as for specific combinations of the plasma feedstock gases, the latter depending on the chemical aspects of the optical surfaces to be cleaned.

  11. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  12. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  13. Physical aspects of thermotherapy: A study of heat transport with a view to treatment optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsrud, Johan Karl Otto

    1998-12-01

    investigated as a method of non-invasive temperature monitoring, and an optically tissue-like phantom material, suitable for MRI, was developed. MRI thermometry in this material was shown to be an excellent method for characterization of laser applicators and for verification of numerical calculations. Finally, a water-cooled laser applicator for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, allowing anatomically correct heating, was developed and evaluated ex-vivo. An increased understanding of the physical aspects of thermotherapy, aided by the methods and results presented in this thesis, constitutes a significant contribution to the performance of safe and efficacious treatment.

  14. Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients: organizational aspects and preliminary results of the Italian project.

    PubMed

    Roi, G S; Stefoni, S; Mosconi, G; Brugin, E; Burra, P; Ermolao, A; Granito, M; Macini, P; Mastrosimone, S; Nacchia, F; Pegoraro, C; Rigotti, P; Sella, G; Sgarzi, S; Tamè, M R; Totti, V; Trerotola, M; Tripi, F; Nanni Costa, A

    2014-09-01

    Most of the difficulties when trying to realize the proposal to prescribe physical activity for transplantation patients come from patient attitudes and cultural beliefs that ignore the benefits of exercise, but there also are organizational aspects arising from the difficulties that these patients face in accessing supervised exercise facilities. To address these difficulties, the Italian study project "Transplant … and Now Sport" was developed based on a model of cooperation among transplantation specialists, sports physicians, and exercise specialists organized as a team combining their specific skills to effectively actuate the physical exercise programs. This preliminary report is based on 26 patients (16 male, 10 female; 47.8±10.0 years old; 21 kidney and 5 liver transplantations; time from transplantation 2.3±1.4 years) who performed prescribed and supervised exercises consisting of 3 sessions per week of aerobic and strengthening exercises for 1 year. Preliminary results show a significant decrease in body mass index (t=1.966; P<.05) and a significant increase in peak aerobic power (t=4.535; P<.01) and maximum workload (t=4.665; P<.01) on the incremental cycling test. Also maximum strength of knee extensors (t=2.933; P<.05) and elbow flexors (t=2.450; P<.05) and countermovement jump performance (t=2.303; P<.05) significantly increased. Creatinine and proteinuria tended to decrease, but the differences were not significant. In health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, the Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, and Role Emotional scale scores showed a significant improvement (P<.05). Preliminary results of the study protocol "Transplant…and Now Sport" show the positive effects of the model based on cooperation among transplantation centers, sports medicine centers, and gyms in the administration of a supervised exercise prescription. These data should be considered a contribution to developing and promoting

  15. Construction Manual for CAP (Communication Aid for Paraplegics and Other Severely Physically Handicapped).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Special Education.

    The manual provides information and diagrams for constructing CAP, Communication Aid for Paraplegics and other severely physically handicapped persons. Also described are factors influencing the design and modification of the alphabet display. It is explained that CAP combines a teletypewriter with a rotating alphabet display and requires only a…

  16. Culturally Responsive Instruction for Students with Multiple or Severe Physical Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glimps, Blanche Jackson; Ford, Theron

    2006-01-01

    Are there students with physical disabilities who are so severely impaired that their culture can not be taken into consideration? Growing numbers of preschool and school age children with such disabilities are from non-European countries including Africa, South America, East Asia, and the Caribbean Islands. In addition, children who are American…

  17. Reviving the 'double jeopardy' hypothesis: physical health inequalities, ethnicity and severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig; Nazroo, James; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin

    2016-09-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a reduction in life expectancy of 15-20 years. Physical health and mortality experience may be even worse for ethnic minority groups with SMI, but evidence is limited. We suggest clinical, policy and research recommendations to address this inequality.

  18. Secondary Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammah, Jonathan O. A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the beliefs and practices of general physical education (GPE) teachers at the high school level on inclusion and teaching students with severe disabilities. Participants were two experienced GPE teachers at separate suburban high schools. The research paradigm was descriptive using a combination of naturalistic…

  19. Personal Assistant Support for Students with Severe Physical Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Bradley N.; Stumbo, Norma J.; Martin, Jay K.; Martin, Liam G.; Nordstrom, David L.; Morrill, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory research is to document the level of personal assistance support provided to students with severe physical disabilities by disability support services in higher education institutions across the United States. A national survey was conducted of members of the Association of Higher Education And Disability (AHEAD)…

  20. Supported Employment for People with Severe Physical Disabilities: Survey of State and Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, William E.; McGaughey, Martha J.; Cooperman, Paula J.; McNally, Lorraine C.

    This report details the findings of a survey of supported employment directors in the 50 state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies, that sought to identify potential barriers to a variety of supported employment services for persons with severe physical disabilities. Key findings include: (1) 84 percent of the agencies provided services to…

  1. What Did They Learn in School Today? A Method for Exploring Aspects of Learning in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Annerstedt, Claes; Barker, Dean; Karlefors, Inger; Larsson, Håkan; Redelius, Karin; Öhman, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for exploring learning in educational practice. The suggested method combines an explicit learning theory with robust methodological steps in order to explore aspects of learning in school physical education. The design of the study is based on sociocultural learning theory, and the approach adds to previous research…

  2. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment.

  3. Anxiety and physical health problems increase the odds of women having more severe symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Simeonova, Diana I; Kimmel, Mary C; Battle, Cynthia L; Maki, Pauline M; Flynn, Heather A

    2016-06-01

    Severely depressed women incur substantial disability and suicide risk, necessitating an understanding of factors that may contribute to severe depression. The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which age, physical morbidity, anxiety, and hormonal status predict the likelihood of severe depression among women with mood disorders (n = 298). Data arose from a standardized battery of measures in a multi-center clinical registry of patients with mood disorders. The women were being treated at 17 participating sites of the National Network of Depression Centers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that a woman's level of anxiety was the strongest predictor of her likelihood of having severe depression (Exp(B) = 1.33, p = .000), including thoughts of death or suicide. The number of physical health problems that a woman reported was also a significant predictor (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = .04). Neither age nor hormonal status was significant in the final model, although a trend was observed for women with surgically induced menopause to have more severe depression. Findings support the need to work closely with medical practitioners to address physical health problems as part of the treatment plan for depression and to give comorbid anxiety and depression equal priority in symptom management.

  4. Aspects of thin film deposition on granulates by physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Andreas; Schmid, Gerwin H. S.; Mahr, Harald; Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Thin film and coating technology has entered fields which may show significant deviations from classical coating applications where films are deposited on plane, sometimes large substrates. Often surfaces of small and irregularly shaped bodies have to be improved in respect to electrical, thermal or mechanical properties. Film deposition and characterization on such small substrates is not a trivial task. This specially holds for methods based on Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes such as sputter deposition and its ion- and plasma assisted varieties. Due to their line of sight nature a key issue for homogenous films is efficient intermixing. If this problem is mastered, another task is the prediction and determination of the film thickness on single particles as well as on large scale ensembles thereof. In this work a mechanism capable of uniformly coating up to 1000 cm3 of granulate with particle sizes ranging from approx. 10 μm to 150 μm by magnetron sputtering is thoroughly described. A method for predicting the average film thickness on the particles is presented and tested for several differently shaped objects like microspheres, irregular grains of sinter powder or micro diamonds. For assessing the film thickness on single particles as well as on particle ensembles several complementary methods based on optics, X-ray analysis and gravimetry are employed. Their respective merits and limitations are discussed. Finally an outlook on adapting the described technology for surface modification by plasma based reactive and non-reactive processes is given.

  5. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  6. Le Developpement Physique de L'Eleve: Cadre de Developpement Aspect Physique. Monographie (Students' Physical Growth: Developmental Framework, Physical Dimension).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This report puts forth the position of the Ministry of Education of Alberta, Canada, with respect to the physical development of the elementary school student as the basis for his or her cognitive, emotional, social, and moral development. The report describes normal physical development during the first 10 years of life in the domains of…

  7. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy.

  8. [Motor-independent communication by severely physically challenged patients: neuroscientific research results and patient autonomy].

    PubMed

    Brukamp, K

    2013-10-01

    Motor-independent communication is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic method that is currently in development in order to enable communication with severely physically challenged patients. Some patients with locked-in syndromes or with chronic disorders of consciousness are capable of modulating their brain activities to such a degree that the latter can be analyzed regarding communicative intentions with neuroscientific technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Further scientific development and an increasing clinical use of motor-independent communication will aid in meeting essential quality standards for this method. In particular, the requirements need to be clarified under which the method may be utilized to support the patients' autonomy by enabling them to make their own decisions about therapeutic interventions. Communication mediated by technology promises to significantly improve the quality of life for severely physically challenged patients.

  9. [Physical therapy for four patients with severe axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome in acute stage].

    PubMed

    Kakou, Hiroaki; Shitama, Hideo; Kimura, Yoshiko; Saeki, Satoru; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2009-03-01

    We describe four male patients suffering from quadriplegia caused by axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome. They were diagnosed with axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome based on their clinical course and electrophysiological findings. Three patients had severe pain, two had marked elevation of serum creatine kinase, one had finger contracture, and two required mechanical ventilation. Two of the patients recovered during the period from nadir to discharge in the Hughes functional grading scale and Barthel index. A physical therapist should understand the characteristics of severe axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome in an acute stage, and consider the psychological status of the patients.

  10. Participant Satisfaction in a Study of Stimulant, Parent Training, and Risperidone in Children with Severe Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Lisa D.; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A.; Molina, Brooke B.S.G.; Findling, Robert L.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Kolko, David J.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; McNamara, Nora K.; Michel, Chenel; Austin, Adrienne; Kipp, Heidi; Rice, Robert R.; Aman, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of families who participated in the Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. Methods: TOSCA was a randomized clinical trial of psychostimulant plus parent training plus placebo (basic treatment) versus psychostimulant plus parent training plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for children with severe physical aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Parents completed a standardized Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). Results: Of the 168 families randomized, 150 (89.3%) provided consumer satisfaction data. When they were asked if they would join the study again if they had the option to repeat, 136 (91%) said “yes,” 11 (7%) said “maybe,” and one (<1%) said “no.” When asked if they would recommend the study to other parents with children having similar problems, 147 (98%) said “yes” and 3 (2%) said “maybe.” Between 71% (rating one aspect of the Parent Training) and 96% (regarding the diagnostic interview) endorsed study procedures using the most positive response option. Asked if there were certain aspects of the study that they especially liked, 64 (43%) spontaneously reported parent training. Treatment assignment (basic vs. augmented) and responder status were not associated with reported satisfaction. However, responder status was strongly associated with parent confidence in managing present (p<0.001) and future (p<0.005) problem behaviors. Conclusions: These findings indicate high levels of satisfaction with TOSCA study involvement and, taken together with previous pediatric psychopharmacology social validity studies, suggest high levels of support for the research experience. These findings may inform research bioethics and may have implications for deliberations of institutional review boards. Trial Registry: Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study), NCT00796302, clinicaltrials

  11. Physical Activity, Health Status and Risk of Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto P.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Farrell, Max H.; Kaplan, Robert; Ries, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Sciurba, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and 70% of the cost of COPD is due to hospitalizations. Self-reported daily physical activity and health status have been reported as predictors of a hospitalization in COPD but are not routinely assessed. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that self-reported daily physical activity and health status assessed by a simple question were predictors of a hospitalization in a well-characterized cohort of patients with severe emphysema. Methods Investigators gathered daily physical activity and health status data assessed by a simple question in 597 patients with severe emphysema and tested the association of those patient-reported outcomes to the occurrence of a hospitalization in the following year. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of hospitalization during the first 12 months after randomization. Results The two variables tested in the hypothesis were significant predictors of a hospitalization after adjusting for all univariable significant predictors: >2 h of physical activity per week had a protective effect [odds ratio (OR) 0.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.41–0.88] and self-reported health status as fair or poor had a deleterious effect (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.10–2.23). In addition, two other variables became significant in the multivariate model: total lung capacity (every 10% increase) had a protective effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78–0.99) and self-reported anxiety had a deleterious effect (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.13–2.70). Conclusion Self-reported daily physical activity and health status are independently associated with COPD hospitalizations. Our findings, assessed by simple questions, suggest the value of patient-reported outcomes in developing risk assessment tools that are easy to use. PMID:20234126

  12. Analysis of the development of wave mechanics: aspects from the history of physics and the philosophy of science

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, W.

    1988-03-01

    This review and analysis of wave mechanics and the role played by Erwin Schroedinger in its development begins with a biographical sketch of Schroedinger and his scientific and philosophical association with physicists contemporary to him and engaged also in wave and quantum studies. The paper then goes on to establish the philosophical and historical aspects behind Schroedinger's contribution to quantum mechanics and discusses his more personal dilemma over the changes in wave and particle physics in which he was instrumental.

  13. Sensitivity of movement and intensity of severe cyclone AILA to the physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, S.; Gayatri Vani, D.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.; Rama, G. V.; Apparao, B. V.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate prediction of movement and intensity of tropical cyclone is still most challenging problem in numerical weather prediction. The positive progress in this field can be achieved by providing network of observations in the storm region and best representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model. In the present study later part was attempted to investigate the sensitivity of movement and intensity of the severe cyclonic storm AILA to different physical processes in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Three sets of experiments were conducted for convection, microphysics (MP) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes. Model-simulated fields like minimum central surface pressure, maximum surface wind, track and vector displacement error are considered to test the sensitivity. The results indicate that the movement of the system is more sensitive to the cumulus physics and the intensity of the cyclone is sensitive to both PBL and cumulus physics. The combination of Betts Miller Janjic (BMJ) for convection, Yonsei University (YSU) for PBL and Purdue Lin (LIN) for microphysics is found to perform better than other combination schemes. The horizontal and vertical features of the system along with its special features like complete northward movement of the system throughout the travel period and the consistent cyclonic storm intensity until 15 hrs after the landfall could be well simulated by the model.

  14. Is Physicality an Important Aspect of Learning through Science Experimentation among Kindergarten Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Loizou, Eleni; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physicality (actual and active touch of concrete material), as such, is a necessity for science experimentation learning at the kindergarten level. We compared the effects of student experimentation with Physical Manipulatives (PM) and Virtual Manipulatives (VM) on kindergarten students'…

  15. Light and Sound: Evolutionary Aspects. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Leonard D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is concerned with the exchange of energy between an organism and its environment in…

  16. Teaching mindfulness meditation to adults with severe speech and physical impairments: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Elena; Wahbeh, Helané; Mooney, Aimee; Miller, Meghan; Oken, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    People with severe speech and physical impairments may benefit from mindfulness meditation training because it has the potential to enhance their ability to cope with anxiety, depression and pain and improve their attentional capacity to use brain-computer interface systems. Seven adults with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) - defined as speech that is understood less than 25% of the time and/or severely reduced hand function for writing/typing - participated in this exploratory, uncontrolled intervention study. The objectives were to describe the development and implementation of a six-week mindfulness meditation intervention and to identify feasible outcome measures in this population. The weekly intervention was delivered by an instructor in the participant's home, and participants were encouraged to practise daily using audio recordings. The objective adherence to home practice was 10.2 minutes per day. Exploratory outcome measures were an n-back working memory task, the Attention Process Training-II Attention Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and a qualitative feedback survey. There were no statistically significant pre-post results in this small sample, yet administration of the measures proved feasible, and qualitative reports were overall positive. Obstacles to teaching mindfulness meditation to persons with SSPI are reported, and solutions are proposed.

  17. Teaching Mindfulness Meditation to Adults with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, Elena; Wahbeh, Helané; Mooney, Aimee; Miller, Meghan; Oken, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    People with severe speech and physical impairments may benefit from mindfulness meditation training because it has the potential to enhance their ability to cope with anxiety, depression, and pain and improve their attentional capacity to use brain-computer interface systems. Seven adults with severe speech and physical impairments—defined as speech that is understood less than 25% of the time and/or severely reduced hand function for writing/typing—participated in this exploratory, uncontrolled intervention study. The objectives of this study were to describe the development and implementation of a six-week mindfulness meditation intervention and to identify feasible outcome measures in this population. The weekly intervention was delivered by an instructor in the participant's home, and participants were encouraged to practice daily using audio recordings. The objective adherence to home practice was 10.2 minutes per day. Exploratory outcome measures were an n-back working memory task, the Attention Process Training-II Attention Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and a qualitative feedback survey. There were no statistically significant pre-post results in this small sample, yet administration of the measures proved feasible and qualitative reports were overall positive. Obstacles to teaching mindfulness meditation to persons with SSPI are reported, and solutions are proposed. PMID:25338503

  18. Daytime Physical Activity and Sleep in Hospitalized Older Adults: Association with Demographic Characteristics and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Claire; Knutson, Kristen; Spampinato, Lisa; Flores, Andrea; Meltzer, David O.; Van Cauter, Eve; Arora, Vineet M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess objectively measured daytime physical activity and sleep duration and efficiency in hospitalized older adults and explore associations with demographic characteristics and disease severity. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University of Chicago Medical Center general medicine wards. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling inpatients aged 50 and older (N = 120) MEASUREMENTS Physical activity and sleep were measured using wrist accelerometers. Information on Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of stay was collected from charts. Random-effects linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between in-hospital sleep and physical activity. RESULTS From March 2010 to May 2013, 120 participants wore wrist actigraphy monitors for at least 2 nights and 1 intervening day. Median activity level over the waking period was 77 counts/min (interquartile range 51–121 counts/min), an activity level that approximately corresponds to sitting while watching television (65 counts/min). Mean sleep duration the night before the activity interval was 289 ± 157 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency the night before the activity interval was 65.2 ± 26.9%. Mean activity counts/min were lowest for the oldest participants (oldest quartile 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50–75; youngest quartile 121, 95% CI = 98–145, trend test P < .001) and those with highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (highest tertile 71, 95% CI = 60–83; lowest tertile 125, 95% CI = 104–147, trend test P = .01). Controlling for severity of illness and demographic characteristics, activity declined by 3 counts/min (95% CI = −5.65 to −0.43, P = .02) for each additional hour of inpatient sleep. CONCLUSION Older, sicker adults are less physically active during hospitalization. In contrast to studies in the community, inpatients who slept more were not more active. This may highlight that need for sleep is greater in the hospital than in the community. PMID:26131982

  19. Benefits of Distinguishing between Physical and Social-Verbal Aspects of Behavior: An Example of Generalized Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William

    2016-01-01

    Temperament traits and mental illness have been linked to varying degrees of imbalances in neurotransmitter systems of behavior regulation. If a temperament model has been carefully structured to reflect weak imbalances within systems of behavior regulation, then in the presence of mental illness, these profiles should exhibit distinct patterns consistent with symptoms of mental illness. In contrast to other temperament models used in studies of anxiety disorders, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of behavior. This paper analyzed the predictions of the FET model, which maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as described in the DSM/ICD. As an example, the paper describes a study of the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with GAD using the FET framework. The intake records of 116 clients in treatment with confirmed diagnosis of GAD in a private psychological practice were compared using ANOVA against records of 146 healthy clients using their scores on the FET-based questionnaire, in age groups 17–24, 25–45, 46–65. Patients with GAD in all age groups reported significantly lower Social Endurance, Social Tempo, Probabilistic reasoning (but not in physical aspects of behavior) and higher Neuroticism than healthy individuals, however, no effects on the scales of Motor Endurance or Tempo were found. These findings show the benefits of differentiation between motor-physical and social-verbal aspects of behavior in psychological assessment of mental disorders. PMID:27014146

  20. Relationship Between Loneliness, Psychiatric Disorders and Physical Health ? A Review on the Psychological Aspects of Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507

  1. Physical activity play: the nature and function of a neglected aspect of playing.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, A D; Smith, P K

    1998-06-01

    In this review, we consider the nature and possible developmental functions of physical activity play, defined as a playful context combined with a dimension of physical vigor. We distinguish 3 kinds of physical activity play, with consecutive age peaks: rhythmic stereotypies peaking in infancy, exercise play peaking during the preschool years, and rough-and-tumble play peaking in middle childhood. Gender differences (greater prevalence in males) characterize the latter 2 forms. Function is considered in terms of beneficial immediate and deferred consequences in physical, cognitive, and social domains. Whereas most theories assume that children's play has deferred benefits, we suggest that forms of physical activity play serve primarily immediate developmental functions. Rhythmic stereotypies in infancy are hypothesized to improve control of specific motor patterns. Exercise play is hypothesized to function primarily for strength and endurance training; less clear evidence exists for possible benefits for fat reduction and thermoregulation. In addition, there may be cognitive benefits of exercise play that we hypothesize to be largely incidental to its playful or physical nature. Rough-and-tumble play has a distinctive social component; we hypothesize that it serves primarily dominance functions; evidence for benefits to fighting skills or to emotional coding are more equivocal. Further research is indicated, given the potentially important implications for children's education, health, and development.

  2. Physical Inactivity Is Associated with Moderate-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Laila; McArdle, Nigel; Eastwood, Peter R.; Ward, Kim L.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Wilson, Annette C.; Hillman, David R.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Mukherjee, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether low levels of physical activity were associated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), OSA-related symptoms, and cardiometabolic risk. Methods: A case-control study design was used. OSA cases were patients referred to a sleep clinic for suspected OSA (n = 2,340). Controls comprised participants from the Busselton community (n = 1,931). Exercise and occupational activity were derived from questionnaire data. Associations were modelled using logistic and linear regression and adjusted for confounders. Results: In comparison with moderate exercise, the high, low, and nil exercise groups had an odds ratio (OR) for moderate-severe OSA of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.8), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.0), and 2.7 (95% CI 1.9–3.7), respectively. Relative to men in heavy activity occupations, men in medium, light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.5), 2.1 (95% CI 1.4–3.2), and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2–2.8), respectively. Relative to women in medium activity occupations, women in light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 4.2 (95% CI 2.6–7.2) and 3.5 (2.0–6.0). OSA patients who adequately exercised had lower: levels of doctor-diagnosed depression (p = 0.047); symptoms of fatigue (p < 0.0001); systolic (p = 0.015) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015); and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Low levels of physical activity were associated with moderate-severe OSA. Exercise in individuals with OSA is associated with lower levels of depression, fatigue, blood pressure and CRP. Citation: Simpson L, McArdle N, Eastwood PR, Ward KL, Cooper MN, Wilson AC, Hillman DR, Palmer LJ, Mukherjee S. Physical inactivity is associated with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1091–1099. PMID:26285117

  3. Some physiological aspects of artificial gravity. [gravitational effects on human orthostatic tolerance and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of increasing artificial gravity exposure on four aspects of physiological fitness are examined in four young men who, prior to exposure, were deconditioned with bed rest and water immersion. The four aspects of physiological fitness are orthostatic tolerance, exercise tolerance, forearm endurance, and maximum strength. Orthostatic tolerance was sharply reduced by deconditioning and was substantially improved by walking in simulated lunar gravity (1/6 g) for 2.5 hours daily for 7 days or by walking in 1/2 g and 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days. Exercise tolerance was also sharply reduced by deconditioning but did not significantly improve with increasing g-exposure. Walking in 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days raised exercise tolerance only a little above the low produced by deconditioning. Forearm endurance and maximum strength were relatively unaffected by deconditioning and subsequent g-exposure.

  4. Performance factors in women's team handball: physical and physiological aspects--a review.

    PubMed

    Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2013-06-01

    Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes.

  5. Wind-tunnel investigation of several high aspect-ratio supercritical wing configurations on a wide-body-type fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel on two aspect-ratio 11.95 supercritical wings that were tested in combination with a representative wide-body-type fuselage. The two supercritical wings have identical planforms for equal sweep angles and differ only in thickness. Each wing was tested at quarter-chord sweep angles of 27 deg and 30 deg. At the higher sweep angle, the aspect ratio is reduced to 11.36. At 27 deg of quarter-chord sweep, the thicker supercritical wing (SCW-1) has maximum streamwise thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.16 at the wing-fuselage juncture, 0.14 at the planform break station, and 0.12 at the tip. The thinner wing (SCW-2) has maximum streamwise thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.144, 0.12, and 0.10 at the same stations respectively. Tests were also conducted on the thinner supercritical wing at the 27 deg sweep angle with a 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) shorter span which results in an aspect ratio of 10.25. For comparison, data were obtained on a current wide-body transport wing (AR=7) that was tested on the same fuselage used with the supercritical wings.

  6. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  7. The Learning Environment Associated with Information Technology Education in Taiwan: Combining Psychosocial and Physical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Zandvliet, David B.; Hou, I.-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of senior high school students towards the Taiwanese information technology (IT) classroom with the What Is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) survey and explored the physical learning environment of the IT classroom using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI). The participants included 2,869…

  8. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: adults with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pradat-Diehl, P; Joseph, P-A; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Luauté, J; Tasseau, F; Remy-Neris, O; Azouvi, P; Sengler, J; Bayen, É; Yelnik, A; Mazaux, J-M

    2012-11-01

    This document is part of a series of guidelines documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These reference documents focus on a particular pathology (here patients with severe TBI). They describe for each given pathology patients' clinical and social needs, PRM care objectives and necessary human and material resources of the pathology-dedicated pathway. 'Care pathways in PRM' is therefore a short document designed to enable readers (physician, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer, finance manager) to have a global understanding of available therapeutic care structures, organization and economic needs for patients' optimal care and follow-up. After a severe traumatic brain injury, patients might be divided into three categories according to impairment's severity, to early outcomes in the intensive care unit and to functional prognosis. Each category is considered in line with six identical parameters used in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organization), focusing thereafter on personal and environmental factors liable to affect the patients' needs.

  9. Mesoscale aspects of jet streak coupling and implications for the short term forecasting of severe convective storms. [severe environmental storms and mesoscale experiment (SESAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, L. W.; Kocin, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of a tornado outbreak in Wichita Falls, Texas was analyzed. The coupling of upper and lower tropospheric jet streaks, leading to severe storm outbreaks is illustrated. The high resolution SESAME data sets indicate that mass and momentum adjustments which couple upper and lower tropospheric jets occur within a 3 to 6 hr time frame over a 100 to 500 km domain, and establish the role of isallobaric forcing in the storm development. It is suggested that the output rate of data from the existing 12 hr network be increased to provide better temporal resolution of wind, mass and moisture data.

  10. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1994-12-05

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a ``strong, high priority`` one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far. The principal investigator is a member of the Physics Advisory Committee of two nuclear accelerator facilities.

  11. Biochemical and biomolecular aspects of oxidative stress due to acute and severe hypoxia in human muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Sessego, R; Velluti, C; Salvi, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress was investigated in severe and acute hypoxia and in reperfusion applied to human muscle tissues. The biochemical and biomolecular relationship between the response of the respiratory-chain enzymic complexes and the metabolism of specific hypoxia stress proteins (HSP) suggest an adaptive mechanism which antagonizes the oxidative damage due to acute and severe tissue hypoxia.

  12. The physical and mathematical aspects of inverse problems in radiation detection and applications.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Esam M A

    2012-07-01

    The inverse problem is the problem of converting detectable measurements into useful quantifiable indications. It is the problem of spectrum unfolding, image reconstruction, identifying a threat material, or devising a radiotherapy plan. The solution of an inverse problem requires a forward model that relates the quantities of interest to measurements. This paper explores the physical issues associated with formulating a radiation-transport forward model best suited for inversion, and the mathematical challenges associated with the solution of the corresponding inverse problem.

  13. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Kron, T; Cheung, Ky; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, Jy; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, Tj; Kumara, A; Lee, Cc; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, Xc; Ng, Kh

    2008-07-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists.Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist.There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future.

  14. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of subsurface organic waste injection near Wilmington, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Malcolm, R.L.; White, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    From May 1968 to December 1972, an industrial organic waste was injected at rates of 100 to 200 gallons per minute (6.3 to 12.6 litres per second) into a sand, gravel, and limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous age by Hercules Inc. located near Wilmington, North Carolina. This report presents both field and laboratory data pertaining to the physical, chemical, and biological effects of waste injection into the subsurface at this particular site, a case history of the operation, predictions of the reactions between certain organic wastes and the aquifer components, and descriptions of the effects of these reactions on the subsurface movement of the wastes. The case history documents a situation in which subsurface waste injection could not be considered a successful means of waste disposal. The first injection well was used only for 1 year due to excessive wellhead pressure build-up above the specified pressure limit of 150 pounds per square inch (10.3 bars). A second injection well drilled as a replacement operated for only 5 months before it too began to have problems with plugging. Upward leakage of waste into shallower aquifers was also detected at several wells in the injection-observation well system. The multiple problems of plugging, high pressures, and waste leakage suggested that the reactive nature of the waste with the aquifer into which it was injected was the primary reason for the difficulties experienced with waste injection. A site study was initiated in June 1971 to investigate waste-aquifer interactions. The first stage of the study determined the hydrogeologic conditions at the site, and characterized the industrial waste and the native ground water found in the injection zone and other aquifers. The injection zone consisted of multiple permeable zones ranging in depth from about 850 to 1,000 feet (259 to 305 metres) below land surface. In addition to the injection zone, aquifers were found near depths of 60, 300, 500, and 700 feet (18, 91, 152

  16. SOLICITING BCI USER EXPERIENCE FEEDBACK FROM PEOPLE WITH SEVERE SPEECH AND PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Betts; Mooney, Aimee; Oken, Barry; Fried-Oken, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) researchers have shown increasing interest in soliciting user experience (UX) feedback, but the severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) of potential users create barriers to effective implementation with existing feedback instruments. This article describes augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)-based techniques for obtaining feedback from this population, and presents results from administration of a modified questionnaire to 12 individuals with SSPI after trials with a BCI spelling system. The proposed techniques facilitated successful questionnaire completion and provision of narrative feedback for all participants. Questionnaire administration required less than five minutes and minimal effort from participants. Results indicated that individual users may have very different reactions to the same system, and that ratings of workload and comfort provide important information not available through objective performance measures. People with SSPI are critical stakeholders in the future development of BCI, and appropriate adaptation of feedback questionnaires and administration techniques allows them to participate in shaping this assistive technology. PMID:27135037

  17. Movement-to-music computer technology: a developmental play experience for children with severe physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cynthia; Schwellnus, Heidi; Eaton, Ceilidh; Hamdani, Yani; Lamont, Andrea; Chau, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Children with severe physical disabilities often lack the physical skills to explore their environment independently, and to play with toys or musical instruments. The movement-to-music (MTM) system is an affordable computer system that allows children with limited movements to play and create music. The present study explored parents' experiences of using the MTM system with their children. A qualitative methodology employing in-depth interview techniques was used with six mothers and their children. The themes extracted from the data were organized under two main concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001) framework. The results showed that the MTM expanded horizons for the child along the ICF health dimensions and the MTM had a positive impact on ICF environmental determinants of health. The small sample size should be noted as a limitation of this study. Further research should be carried out with a larger sample of children with restricted mobility to obtain a better understanding of the impact of MTM technology on children's psychosocial development.

  18. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse.

  19. An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of an Enrichment Program on Aspects of Einsteinian Physics on Year 6 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Marina; Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan

    2014-06-01

    Concepts related to Einsteinian physics are usually not taught until students are in university, denying younger children access to this powerful way of understanding space, time and gravity. Considerable research has shown, however, that complex and abstract scientific ideas can be presented in age appropriate ways that result in measurable learning. The purpose of the research presented in this paper was to explore the impact of an enrichment program on aspects of Einsteinian physics on year 6 (10 and 11 years old) children's understanding of and attitudes towards this topic. The research design was an exploratory case study of one class of 26 students who participated in six in-class lessons as well as an excursion to a science centre, the Gravity Discovery Centre, and a scripted play about relevant key scientists. Mixed methods of data collection included a pre/post-instruction questionnaire, classroom observations and an interview with the physics professor who conducted the program. The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in children's conceptual understanding on the pre/post-questionnaire with a small effect size. Analysis of individual items on the questionnaire indicated variable results with regard to particular concepts. For example, after the enrichment program, students were better able to understand curved space, but little improvement was observed in their understanding of gravity on the Moon. The majority of students reported being interested and engaged in the program of activities and did not feel that they were too young to learn concepts related to Einstein's physics.

  20. Physical aspects of external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Soubra, M.; Dunscombe, P.B.; Hodson, D.I.; Wong, G. )

    1990-06-01

    The optimization of radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma highlights many of the currently outstanding problems in clinical radiation physics. The experimental investigation of an intuitively attractive irradiation technique with combined photon and electron beams using a specially constructed phantom has established that, due to the penetration in low density material of both primary electrons and those secondary to photon irradiation, the normal lung tissue is not spared to any significant degree by such a technique. Furthermore, great care needs to be exercised in the treatment planning calculations for this approach if absolute dosimetry errors as large as 50% are to be avoided.

  1. Social aspects of classroom learning: Results of a discourse analysis in an inquiry-oriented physical chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nicole M.

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating inquiry-oriented classroom environments in which students learn with understanding. This study examined the social influences that contribute to classroom learning in an inquiry-oriented undergraduate physical chemistry class using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach. A qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's (1968) model of argumentation was used to document patterns in classroom reasoning that reflect normative aspects of social interaction. Adapting the constructs of social and sociomathematical norms from the work of Yackel and Cobb (1996), I describe social aspects of the classroom environment by discussing normative aspects of social interaction (social norms) and discipline-specific criteria related to reasoning and justification in chemistry contexts, referred to here as sociochemical norms. This work discusses four social norms and two sociochemical norms that were documented over a five-week period of observation in Dr. Black's POGIL physical chemistry class. In small group activities, the socially established expectations that students explain reasoning, negotiate understandings of terminology and symbolic representations, and arrive at a consensus on critical thinking questions shaped small group interactions and reasoning. In whole class discussion, there was an expectation that students share reasoning with the class, and that the instructor provide feedback on student reasoning in ways that extended student contributions and elaborated relationships between macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic-level ideas. The ways in which the class constructed

  2. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, J. P.

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  3. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  4. Detailed pressure distribution measurements obtained on several configurations of an aspect-ratio-7 variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed pressure distribution measurements were made for 11 twist configurations of a unique, multisegmented wing model having an aspect ratio of 7 and a taper ratio of 1. These configurations encompassed span loads ranging from that of an untwisted wing to simple flapped wings both with and without upper-surface spoilers attached. For each of the wing twist configurations, electronic scanning pressure transducers were used to obtain 580 surface pressure measurements over the wing in about 0.1 sec. Integrated pressure distribution measurements compared favorably with force-balance measurements of lift on the model when the model centerbody lift was included. Complete plots and tabulations of the pressure distribution data for each wing twist configuration are provided.

  5. Biological-physical-chemical aspects of a human life support system for a lunar base.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I; Blum, V; Grigoriev, A I; Lisovsky, G M; Manukovsky, N S; Sinyak YuE; Ushakova, S A

    1995-10-01

    To create a life support system based on biological and physical-chemical processes is the optimum solution providing full-valued conditions for existence and efficient work of people at a lunar base. Long-standing experience in experimental research or closed ecosystems and their components allows us to suggest a realistic functional structure of the lunar base and to estimate qualitatively its parameters. The original restrictions are as follows: 1) the basic source of energy to support the biological processes has to be the solar radiation; 2) the initial amount of basic biological elements forming the turnover of substances (C, O, H, P, K, N) has to be delivered from Earth; 3). Moon materials are not to be used in the biological turnover inside the base; 4) the base is to supply the crew fully with atmosphere and water, and with 90% (A scenario) or 40% (B scenario) of food. Experimental data about the plant productivity under the "Moon" rhythm of light and darkness allow us to suggest that the A scenario requires per one human: plant area--40 m2 irradiated during the lunar day by 250-300 W/m2 PAR producing 1250 g of dry biomass a terrestrial day; a heterotrophic component of "biological incineration" of inedible plant biomass (800 g/day) including the aquaculture of fish to produce animal products and contaminating the environment less than birds and mammals, and the culture of edible mushrooms; a component of physical-chemical correction for the LSS environment including the subsystems of: deep oxidation of organic impurities in the atmosphere and of water, organic wastes of human activity and that biological components (420 g/day) CO2 concentration in "Moon" nights, damping O2 in "Moon" days, etc. The stock of prestored or delivered from Earth substances (food additions, seeds, etc.) to be involved in biological turnover is to be about 50 kg/year per man. Increase of the mass of prestored substances per man up to 220 kg/year would reduce twice the plant area

  6. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of vulvodynia: the importance of physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Polpeta, N C; Giraldo, P C; Teatin Juliato, C R; Gomes Do Amaral, R L; Moreno Linhares, I; Romero Leal Passos, M

    2012-10-01

    Vulvodynia affects a large number of women worldwide. It is estimated that the prevalence rate of vulvodynia is 16% in women aged 18 to 64 years, resulting in constant demand for specialized medical care, although little therapeutic success is achieved. Furthermore, the cause of this disorder remains unknown and involves different symptoms that are implicated in important chronic vulvar pain with disastrous consequences for the afflicted women. In view of these data, the authors have proposed a bibliographic review of the pathophysiology and treatment of vulvodynia. The aim of this review was to assist in clinical diagnosis and elucidate the multidisciplinary treatment that appears to be associated with a higher success rate in these women. Physical therapy using diverse techniques has an important role in multidisciplinary care, obtaining satisfactory results in the treatment of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and thus improving the symptoms and quality of life in women with vulvodynia.

  7. On determining important aspects of mathematical models: Application to problems in physics and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    1987-01-01

    The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in the overall system sensitivity behavior collapsing into a simple set of scaling and self similarity relations amongst elements of the entire matrix of sensitivity coefficients. These general tools are generic in nature, but herein their application to problems arising in selected areas of physics and chemistry is presented.

  8. Some aspects of wind tunnel magnetic suspension systems with special application at large physical scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) have so far failed to find application at the large physical scales necessary for the majority of aerodynamic testing. Three areas of technology relevant to such application are investigated. Two variants of the Spanwise Magnet roll torque generation scheme are studied. Spanwise Permanent Magnets are shown to be practical and are experimentally demonstrated. Extensive computations of the performance of the Spanwise Iron Magnet scheme indicate powerful capability, limited principally be electromagnet technology. Aerodynamic testing at extreme attitudes is shown to be practical in relatively conventional MSBSs. Preliminary operation of the MSBS over a wide range of angles of attack is demonstrated. The impact of a requirement for highly reliable operation on the overall architecture of Large MSBSs is studied and it is concluded that system cost and complexity need not be seriously increased.

  9. Astronomical and physical aspects of the Chelyabinsk event (February 15, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Popova, O. P.; Chugai, N. N.; Shelyakov, M. A.; Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Shustov, B. M.; Shuvalov, V. V.; Biryukov, E. E.; Rybnov, Yu. S.; Marov, M. Ya.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Kartashova, A. P.; Kharlamov, V. A.; Trubetskaya, I. A.

    2013-07-01

    Various observational data including infrasound, seismic, optical (onboard) monitoring, ground video and photo records, and evidence from witnesses of the Chelyabinsk event on February 15, 2013, have been analyzed. The extensive material gathered has provided a base for investigations of the physical properties of the object, the results of which are discussed. A bolide light curve is constructed, which shows a multiplicity of flashes. Estimations of the energy of the meteoroid explosion, which took place in the atmosphere at an altitude of about 23 km, show evidence of the formation of a high-power shock wave equivalent to 300-500 kilotons of TNT. The object diameter corresponding to this energy falls within the range 16-19 m. The trajectory of the meteor is outlined. It is preliminarily concluded that the Chelyabinsk meteorite was a representative the Apollo asteroid family.

  10. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  11. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density ˜3-5×1010 cm-3 and temperature ˜7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  12. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: construction and its plasma aspects.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis; Chowdhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density approximately 3-5x10(10) cm(-3) and temperature approximately 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  13. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  14. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  15. Virtual Reality as Means to Improve Physical Fitness of Individuals at a Severe Level of Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective and motivating physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with severe IDD when implemented by on-site caregivers. A research group (N…

  16. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  17. Some Important Aspects of Physical Modelling of Liquefaction in 1-g Shaking Table

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Towhata, Ikuo

    2008-07-08

    Physical modeling of liquefaction in 1-g shaking table and dynamic centrifuge test become very popular to simulate the ground behavior during earthquake motion. 1-g shaking table tests require scaled down model ground which can be prepared in three methods; water sedimentation, moist tamping and dry deposition method. Moist tamping and dry deposition method need saturation of model ground which is expensive and very difficult to achieve. Some model tests were performed in 1-g shaking table to see the influence of preparation method of model ground. Wet tamping and water sedimentation method of ground preparation were compared in these tests. Behavior of level ground and slope were also examined. Slope and level ground model test increased the understanding of excess pore pressure generation in both cases. Wet tamping method has a possibility of not being fully saturated. Pore pressure transducers should be fixed vertically so that it can not settle down during shaking but can move with ground. There was insignificant difference in acceleration and excess pore pressure responses between wet tamping and water sedimentation method in case of level ground. Spiky accelerations were prominent in slope prepared by water sedimentation method. Spiky accelerations were the result of lateral displacement induced dilatancy of soil.

  18. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.

  19. Earth Rotation: Theoretical aspects, observation of temporal variations and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Véronique; Folgueira, Marta; Koot, Laurence; Laguerre, Raphael; Puica, Mihaela; Rekier, Jérémy; Rivoldini, Attilio; Andres Triana, Santiago; Trinh, Antony; Van Hoolst, Tim; Zhu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    In this invited talk we will concentrate on nutation period time-scale and on the Earth orientation changes and vaguely cover rest. We will revise the determination of the interior Earth parameters as determined from VLBI data and their interpretation in terms of physics of the Earth deep interior (in collaboration with Zhu Ping, Laurence Koot and Attilio Rivoldini). These parameters and in particular values determined at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and at the inner core boundary (ICB) can be interpreted in terms of coupling mechanisms at the CMB and ICB. We will describe the electromagnetic, topographic, gravitational and viscous coupling and detail the recent advances in these computations. In particular the topographic coupling will be evaluated in collaboration with Jérémy Rekier, Marta Folgueira, Antony Trinh. The existence of inertial waves inside the fluid core has been examined in that frame. These inertial waves consequences on the fluid behaviour, which will be illuminated as well with the help of numerical simulations (collaboration with Raphael Laguerre, Santiago Andres Triana, Antony Trinh). Numerical simulations will be presented in detail at EGU in session GD4.1/PS9.10 but the most important consequences will be revised here. VLBI analysis results in this session.

  20. Physical methods for intracellular delivery: practical aspects from laboratory use to industrial-scale processing.

    PubMed

    Meacham, J Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2014-02-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems.

  1. Physical Methods for Intracellular Delivery: Practical Aspects from Laboratory Use to Industrial-Scale Processing

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, J. Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

  2. [Technical aspects and relevance of energy expenditure and physical activity assessment in clinical research for cystic fibrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Michaud, L; Turck, D; Gottrand, F

    2005-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by deteriorating lung function and mal-digestion, which result in growth failure and/or under-nutrition. Several factors, alone or combined, contribute to malnutrition in CF: poor energy intake, elevation of energy loss as a result of malabsorption, increasing resting energy expenditure due to genetic mutation and/or pulmonary exacerbation. Several techniques have been used to assess energy expenditure and physical activity in order to better understand mechanisms of malnutrition in CF and follow therapeutic interventions. Indirect calorimetry (IC) studies have shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) was 10-22% higher than predictive values. This increase could be attributed to chronic inflammation as a result of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection. Indeed, intravenous antibiotic therapy decreases REE. Doubly labelled water technique and heart rate monitoring calibrated against IC techniques shows that total energy expenditure (TEE) was not different than in healthy children. Physical activity level assessed by the ratio TEE-REE is also not different between CF of healthy children. Recently, new accelerometry technics, easier to use and less invasive have been successfully used in order to assess physical activity level in CF. Precise and ambulatory assessment of energy expenditure and physical activity permit to check and adapt dietary allowances in CF. These techniques could be simultaneously used and be helpful to assess efficacy of intervention studies.

  3. Physical and microstructural aspects of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone blended Portland cements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Thomas; Lothenbach, Barbara; Romer, Michael; Neuenschwander, Juerg; Scrivener, Karen

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of external sulfate attack were investigated by traditional test methods, i.e. length and mass change, as well as by a newly developed, surface sensitive ultrasonic method, using Leaky Rayleigh waves (1 MHz). The macroscopic changes are discussed and compared with thermodynamic calculations and microstructural findings (SEM/EDS). The results show that the main impact of limestone additions on resistance to sulfate degradation are physical - i.e. addition of a few percent in Portland cement reduces the porosity and increases the resistance of Portland cement systems to sulfate; but higher addition of 25% increase porosity and lower resistance to sulfate. The kinetics of degradation were dramatically affected by the solution concentration (4 or 44 g Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/l) and the higher concentration also resulted in the formation of gypsum, which did not occur at the low concentration. However the pattern of cracking was similar in both cases and it appears that gypsum precipitates opportunistically in pre-formed cracks so it is not considered as making a significant contribution to the degradation. At 8 deg. C limited formation of thaumasite occurred in the surface region of the samples made from cement with limestone additions. This thaumasite formation led to loss of cohesion of the paste and loss of material from the surface of the samples. However thaumasite formation was always preceded by expansion and cracking of the samples due to ettringite formation and given the very slow kinetics of thaumasite formation it was probably facilitated by the opening up of the structure due to ettringite induced cracking. The expansion of the samples showed a steady stage, followed by a rapidly accelerating stage, with destruction of the samples. The onset of the rapidly accelerating stage occurred when the thickness of the cracked surface layer reached about 1-1.5 mm-10-15% of the total specimen thickness (10 mm).

  4. High School Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…

  5. A Comparative Study of Alternative Controls and Displays for by the Severely Physically Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.; Simpson, C.; Barker, M.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of a row/column scanning system was investigated in order to increase the speed and accuracy with which communication aids can be accessed with one or two switches. A selection algorithm was developed and programmed in BASIC to automatically select individuals with the characteristic difficulty in controlling time dependent control and display systems. Four systems were compared: (1) row/column directed scan (2 switches); (2) row/column auto scan (1 switch); (3) row auto scan (1 switch); and (4) column auto scan (1 switch). For this sample population, there were no significant differences among systems for scan time to select the correct target. The row/column auto scan system resulted in significantly more errors than any of the other three systems. Thus, the most widely prescribed system for severely physically disabled individuals turns out for this group to have a higher error rate and no faster communication rate than three other systems that have been considered inappropriate for this group.

  6. Physical and numerical aspects of the high-speed unsteady flow around concave axisymmetric bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaras, Argyris; Drikakis, Dimitris

    2011-09-01

    The axisymmetric concave body is a typical configuration about which shock/shock interactions appear. Various shapes of axisymmetric concave bodies are used in a variety of applications in aeronautics, for example, axisymmetric jet inlets with conical centerbody, ballistic missiles drag reduction by spike, plasma or hot gas injection, parachutes for pilot-ejection capsules. However, it is well known that two distinct modes of instability appear around a concave body in the high-speed flow regime for a certain range of geometric parameters. These instabilities can cause undesirable effects such as severe vibration of the structure, heating and pressure loads. According to the experimental evidence, the unsteady flow is characterised by periodic radial inflation and collapse of the conical separation bubble formed around the forebody (pulsation). Various explanations have been given for the driving mechanism of the instabilities. In the present, merging of the leading explanations is done, and basic rules for the passive suppression of the instabilities are applied, in order to enforce their proposed driving. In addition, the effect of the flow initialisation method on the flow structure predicted by numerical simulations is examined. For certain configurations, bifurcation of the time-dependent flow has been found. This behaviour is explained with recourse to the phenomenon of hysteresis, which is an inherent feature of the examined flows.

  7. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  8. Characteristics of Moho transition zone: MCS reflection records and petrological aspects and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, J.; Tsuruga, K.; Ike, T.; Unou, S.; Koda, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Moho is defined as the seismological discontinuity at the crust and mantle boundary. Its global depth, thickness of transition zone, and velocity structure has not been studied well. It is also poorly known whether the Moho has the same petrological and seismological properties in the continent and in the ocean, or not. Previous studies propose several petrological models for the Moho: 1) phase transition boundary from basalt to eclogite, and 2) material boundary of mafic and ultramafic rocks. By the petrological observation in the Oman ophiolite, the oceanic crust is modeled as 3) diabase-homogeneous gabbro - layered gabbro - Moho transition layer - harzburgite. The thickness of Moho transition zone (MTZ), at the boundary between Earth's crust and the subjacent mantle, has significant effect on the seismic responses from the Moho. We examined seismic characteristics of Moho reflection (hereafter PmP) using MCS (Multi Channel Seismic) reflection records obtained by high quality seismic experiments in the western Pacific by JOGMEC (Japan Oil, Gas and MEtals national Corporation). The MCS records show clear reflections at ~ 6-10 km in depth from the ocean bottom in the north and south of Ogasawara Plateau. However, considering horizontal variation in the PmP intensity, the nature of the MTZ varies from place to place. In the seismic profile D00-D, across Ogasawara Plateau in the N-S direction, the PmP abruptly disappears far from the nearby seamount where the overlain sedimentary section has less change. In another case, shown in D00-C that is located 130km west of D00-D, the PmP clearly shows high-amplitude continuous reflection near the seamount's flank. Data acquisition is relatively constant for the Ogasawara MCS reflection lines; therefore, the difference in the PmP intensity between D00- D and D00-C may relate to the nature of the Moho. The comparison of reflection records and synthetic waveforms calculated by Tsuruga et al.(this meeting) shows that if the

  9. Some Aspects of the Physical Variability of the Caribbean Sea Relevant to Regional Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    The Caribbean Sea is the least studied portion of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS), which is the combined Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent western North Atlantic. The upstream elements of the Gulf Stream System are the dominant features of the upper ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea. The Trade Winds superimpose a coastal upwelling regime along the northern coast of South America and a coastal downwelling regime along the southern coasts of Cuba and Hispaniola. The inflow from the Atlantic through several Antillean passages is derived from tropical and subtropical sources and is relatively weak, shallow, and variable; the outflow to the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel is relatively strong, deep, and variable. The variability includes mesoscale eddies and meanders as well as the seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability; it also includes lengthy plumes from the Orinoco and other rivers and lengthy filaments from coastal upwelling centers. Some of the mesoscale variability originates in the Eastern Caribbean; other components originate in the Western Caribbean, especially in the cyclonic Panama-Colombia Gyre. The upper ocean of the Caribbean Sea is not only under the influence of the Trade Winds and their seasonal and longer term variability but also two other, not mutually exclusive, sources of variability: the seasonal heating and precipitation cycles on one hand, and synoptic scale and mesoscale phenomena on the other hand. For example, there are wet and dry seasons, and the Eastern Caribbean is typically dry and the Western Caribbean typically wet, with a heavy rainfall zone off the coast of Central America. And the patterns of atmospheric deep convection and subsidence apparently account for the summertime intensification of an extensive "warm pool" concentrated in the Northwestern Caribbean, which is exported to the Gulf of Mexico. As another example, the weekly Tropical Easterly Waves (TEWs) are the predominant

  10. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education.

  11. Determinants of change in physical activity during moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristóbal; Quintana, José M; Garcia-Gutierrez, Susana; Anton-Ladislao, Ane; Gonzalez, Nerea; Baré, Marisa; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Data are scarce on patient physical activity (PA) level during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (eCOPD). The objective of the study was to evaluate the level and determinants of change in PA during an eCOPD. Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with recruitment from emergency departments (EDs) of 16 participating hospitals from June 2008 to September 2010. Data were recorded on socioeconomic characteristics, dyspnea, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), comorbidities, health-related quality of life, factors related to exacerbation, and PA in a stable clinical condition and during the eCOPD episode. Results We evaluated 2,487 patients. Common factors related to the change in PA during hospital admission or 7 days after discharge to home from the ED were lower PA at baseline and during the first 24 hours after the index evaluation. Age, quality of life, living alone, length of hospital stay, and use of anticholinergic or systemic corticosteroids in treating the exacerbation were associated with the change in PA among hospitalized patients. Predictors of change among patients not admitted to hospital were baseline FEV1% and dyspnea at rest on ED arrival. Conclusion Among the patients evaluated in an ED for an eCOPD, the level and change in PA was markedly variable. Factors associated with exacerbation (PA 24 hours after admission, medication during admission, and length of hospital stay) and variables reflecting patients’ stable clinical condition (low level of PA, age, quality of life, FEV1%) are predictors of the change in PA during a moderate-to-severe eCOPD. PMID:26893555

  12. Improving Diet and Physical Activity Practices in Group Homes Serving Residents With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Glen; Ziegahn, Linda; Schuyler, Barlow; Rowlett, Al; Cassady, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness (SMI) are at least 50% more likely to be overweight for various reasons, including poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyles, and side effects of antipsychotic medications. Objectives Among residents with SMI who live in group homes, we examined (1) factors that affected the motivations of both group home operators and residents around improvement of residents' diet and physical activity, (2) how operators and residents viewed responsibility for maintaining good health in group homes, and (3) strategies from operators and residents for improving diet and exercise. Methods The research team conducted 6 focus groups—3 with group home operators and 3 with residents, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process and qualitative data analysis. Results Both group home operators and residents discussed conflicting feelings about foods they know as healthy and foods they prefer to eat. Operators attributed barriers to better health to the perceived negative attitudes of residents and providers, lack of communication with health care providers, and poor working relationships with the state licensing body that protects individual rights on lifestyle choices. Residents reported barriers of their own negative attitudes, limited menu options, lack of organized activities, existing health problems, and side effects of medications. Conclusion Residents and operators had concrete suggestions for changes they could make individually, as well as recommendations for systemic changes to support healthier lifestyles. These recommendations provide a basis for designing an urgently needed pilot intervention program to address the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes in people with SMI residing in group homes. PMID:21169705

  13. Aspects Of Multicriterial Mathematical Modeling And Of The Fuzzy Formalism For The Hierarchization Of Study Programs Based On Several Quality Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Amelia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present aspects of mathematical modeling for the hierarchization of study programs from universities, based on several quality characteristics. The tools used pertain to multicriterial optimization, to the different methods of assessing importance coefficients, to the utility theory, the fuzzy formalism, and to the fuzzy simple additive weighting method. The conclusion is that multicriterial decision-making methods can be efficiently used in assessing the quality of study programs, noting that, just like other methods from the decision theory, the multicriterial decision-making methods highlight aspects of problems differently, therefore, there can be no comparison or competitiveness between them, and choosing one over the other is up to the decision-maker.

  14. Source quality variations tied to sequence development: Integration of physical and chemical aspects, Lower to Middle Triassic, western Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohacs, K.M.; Isaksen, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Triassic mudrocks from the Barents Sea area demonstrate to covariance of physical and chemical properties of mudrocks deposited in shelfal environments and the aspect of depositional sequences in distal settings. The tie of physical parameters to chemical character within a detailed sequence-stratigraphic framework enables the construction of depositional-facies models to predict organic-matter content and quality. This allows the explorer to more closely constrain and predict the nature of potential source rocks using seismic and well-log data. Changes in lithology, bedding geometry, sedimentary structures, body and trace-fossil assemblages, and inorganic, bulk-organic, and molecular geochemistry revealed the detailed depositional environments. The depositional environments stack predictably, according to their position in the depositional sequence: from aerobic lower-shoreface--offshore transition environments in lowstand systems tracts to dysaerobic-anaerobic distal open-marine-shelf environment in transgressive and early highstand systems tracts. Quantitative molecular geochemistry also revealed variations within this distal setting and strong covariance with sequence position. Input of organic matter from terrigenous higher plants dominates the lowstands whereas marine-algal organic matter is most prevalent within transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Specifically, the abundance of C{sub 30} steranes, total steranes, and moretane reflected development of the sequences.

  15. Sexual and Physical Revictimization among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…

  16. Love at First Sight: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy with an Adolescent Boy with Severe Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzi, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The content of this paper reflects the title but it expands upon the technical issues encountered right from the beginning of the assessment. These technical difficulties include the management of physical pain during sessions and the request by the patient for physical interventions as well as contact. The problem of discrimination in the setting…

  17. Does severity of physical neglect moderate the impact of an efficacious preventive intervention for maltreated children in foster care?

    PubMed

    Taussig, Heather N; Culhane, Sara E; Garrido, Edward; Knudtson, Michael D; Petrenko, Christie L M

    2013-02-01

    Physically neglected youth are at increased risk of mental health problems, but there are few interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms for this vulnerable population. The Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, which consists of mentoring and skills groups, was developed for preadolescent youth in foster care. In a published randomized controlled trial with 156 youth, FHF demonstrated positive impacts on mental health functioning. The current study sought to determine whether FHF might be particularly effective in ameliorating the impact of neglectful family environments. Because it was not possible to isolate a neglected-only subgroup, as most children with physical neglect histories had experienced other types of maltreatment, we tested the hypothesis that intervention effects would be stronger among children with more severe physical neglect. Findings did not support this hypothesis, however, as severity of physical neglect did not significantly moderate the impact of the intervention on psychosocial outcomes.

  18. Mother and father self-reports of corporal punishment and severe physical aggression toward clinic-referred youth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, A; Donnelly, W O; Lewis, T; Maynard, C

    2000-06-01

    Examined the extent to which 359 mothers and 140 fathers of clinic-referred youth (ages 2 to 17) reported using corporal punishment and severe physical aggression when asked directly via intake screening questionnaires at a community mental health center; higher prevalence rates emerged compared to families in the general population. Clinic-referred parents reported greater use of corporal punishment for younger relative to older youth, sons relative to daughters, and by single relative to married mothers. In cases with reports from both parents, mothers used corporal punishment more frequently than fathers. Demographic factors were not linked to severe physical aggression, except for mothers' treatment of sons versus daughters. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal and paternal reports of child externalizing behavior accounted for significant variance in their own and their partner's use of corporal punishment, and in mothers' use of severe physical aggression.

  19. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  20. Cyber attack analysis on cyber-physical systems: Detectability, severity, and attenuation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    Security of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against malicious cyber attacks is an important yet challenging problem. Since most cyber attacks happen in erratic ways, it is usually intractable to describe and diagnose them systematically. Motivated by such difficulties, this thesis presents a set of theories and algorithms for a cyber-secure architecture of the CPS within the control theoretic perspective. Here, instead of identifying a specific cyber attack model, we are focused on analyzing the system's response during cyber attacks. Firstly, we investigate the detectability of the cyber attacks from the system's behavior under cyber attacks. Specifically, we conduct a study on the vulnerabilities in the CPS's monitoring system against the stealthy cyber attack that is carefully designed to avoid being detected by its detection scheme. After classifying three kinds of cyber attacks according to the attacker's ability to compromise the system, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which such stealthy cyber attacks can be designed to cause the unbounded estimation error while not being detected. Then, the analytical design method of the optimal stealthy cyber attack that maximizes the estimation error is developed. The proposed stealthy cyber attack analysis is demonstrated with illustrative examples on Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system applications. Secondly, in an attempt to study the CPSs' vulnerabilities in more detail, we further discuss a methodology to identify potential cyber threats inherent in the given CPSs and quantify the attack severity accordingly. We then develop an analytical algorithm to test the behavior of the CPS under various cyber attack combinations. Compared to a numerical approach, the analytical algorithm enables the prediction of the most effective cyber attack combinations without computing the severity of all possible attack combinations, thereby greatly reducing the

  1. Living with severe physical impairment, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Pia S.; Steffensen, Birgit F.; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To study life-experiences of people living with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), home mechanical ventilation (HMV) and physical impairment. Background Since the introduction of invasive HMV in the late 1980s people with DMD in Denmark live longer and have the experience of adulthood and a high degree of physical dependency. Method Nineteen patients with DMD and invasive HMV were interviewed in 2007. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to a method inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Findings HMV not only extended the participants lifespan, it also gave them the capacity to live an active life. They were totally dependent in everyday living, but in spite of this, they did not see themselves as physically impaired. They realised that there were activities that were physically impossible, but they considered themselves to be just the same person they had always been. This dependency was described as “independent dependency”. Conclusion The lived-experience of physical impairment is found to be “independent dependency” in an active life. To solve problems with loneliness, society needs to work with prejudice and misunderstanding and for better physical accessibility to enable full participation. PMID:20689774

  2. [The effect of physical therapy on the most severe forms of knee structral changes caused by osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Kapidzić-Basić, Nedima; Dzananović, Dzevad; Kapidzić-Duraković, Suada; Kikanović, Sahza; Mulić-Bacić, Suada; Hotić-Hadziefendić, Asja

    2011-01-01

    In the most severe form of structural changes on knee caused by osteoarthritis non-surgical treatment provide minimal results and a question of its purpose is being raised. Aim of the study was to examine the possibilities of physical treatment of patients with the most severe degree of structural changes caused by knee osteoarthritis. Examination was conducted on 60 patients that were on physical treatment because of the knee OA. Structural changes are evaluated by Kellgren-Lawrence scale, functional ability by Lequesne index, and pain by Visual analog scale. Physical treatment lasted for 4 weeks. After the physical treatment there was a significant improvement of functional ability (p = 1.78E-07), but the size of improvement was reduced by the level of structural changes. It was significantly lower in IV class in relation to III and II class (p < 0.05). Physical treatment has lower affect by patients with the most severe form of structural changes caused by knee osteoarthritis, but it still can help patients to ease the appearance of complete dependence on other people's help.

  3. Nature and severity of physical harm caused by child abuse and neglect: results from the Canadian Incidence Study

    PubMed Central

    Trocmé, Nico; MacMillan, Harriet; Fallon, Barbara; Marco, Richard De

    2003-01-01

    Background Despite growing public concern about child maltreatment, the scope and severity of this significant public health issue remains poorly understood. This article examines the nature and severity of the physical harm associated with reports of child maltreatment documented in the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). Methods The CIS collected information directly from child welfare investigators about cases of reported child abuse or neglect. A multistage sampling design was used to track child-maltreatment investigations conducted at selected sites from October to December 1998. The analyses were based on the sample of 3780 cases in which child maltreatment was substantiated. Results Some type of physical harm was documented in 18% of substantiated cases; most of these involved bruises, cuts and scrapes. In 4% of substantiated cases, harm was severe enough to require medical attention, and in less than 1% of substantiated cases, medical attention was sought for broken bones or head trauma. Harm was noted most often in cases of physical abuse compared to other forms of maltreatment. Interpretation Rates of physical harm were lower than expected. Current emphasis on mandatory reporting, abuse investigations and risk assessment may need to be tempered for cases in which physical harm is not the central concern. PMID:14581308

  4. A Model for the Development of Virtual Communities for People with Long-Term, Severe Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, C. M.; Bruce, C. S.; Hallam, G.; Hills, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results of an investigation into the needs of persons with disabilities wanting to participate in the use of virtual communities. The aim was to investigate "how virtual communities for persons with long-term, severe physical disabilities can best be facilitated"? Method: A Grounded Theory approach was…

  5. Curriculum Guidelines for Teaching Profound and Severely Retarded Students (I.Q. Under 40) Including Those with Physical Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Constance

    1975-01-01

    Presented are curriculum guidelines for teaching severely and profoundly retarded students, including students with physical handicaps. In addition to a listing of aims and objectives (such as that the student should analyze the need for space for himself and others), guidelines are provided for the following areas: awareness (of such stimuli as…

  6. Teacher-Child Relationship, Parenting, and Growth in Likelihood and Severity of Physical Aggression in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Vitaro, Fank; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hall, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used two-part growth modeling and cross-lagged panel analysis to examine the predictive function of parenting and teacher-child relationship on the likelihood of children showing problems with parent-rated physical aggression, and on the severity of problems, for 374 children followed from prekindergarten and first grade.…

  7. Reports of Severe Physical Punishment and Exposure to Animal Cruelty by Inmates Convicted of Felonies and by University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…

  8. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology—A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  9. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…

  10. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  11. Manual physical therapy combined with high-intensity functional rehabilitation for severe lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries: a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Michael S.; Deyle, Gail D.; Owens, Johnny; Gill, Norman W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Severe lower extremity trauma accounts for large healthcare costs and often results in elective amputation and poor long-term outcomes. The purpose of this case series is to describe an orthopedic manual physical therapy (OMPT) approach combined with a return to run (RTR) clinical pathway consisting of high-intensity functional rehabilitation with a custom energy-storing orthosis. Methods Three consecutive male patients, aged 21–23 years, with severe lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries were treated with a combined intervention that included a mean (SD) of 12 (2·1) OMPT sessions and 24 (8·7) functional rehabilitation sessions over a mean of 6 weeks (1·0). Additional training with a custom energy-storing orthosis consisted of a mean of 15 (1·2) additional sessions over 4 weeks. Patient self-report outcome measures and a variety of physical performance tests captured change in function. Results Baseline lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and foot and ankle ability measure activities of daily living subscale (FAAM-ADL) scores indicated severe disability. All patients exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in at least one self-report outcome or physical performance test without a brace. Two of three patients exceeded the MCID for at least two physical performance tests after training with and utilizing a custom energy-storing orthosis. Discussion Clinically meaningful changes in self-reported function or physical performance were observed in all patients. A multi-modal approach, including manual therapy and functional exercise, may address the entire spectrum of impairments in patients with severe lower extremity trauma, resulting in improvements in both braced and un-braced function. PMID:27252581

  12. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I.; Billis, Antonis S.; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  13. Factors associated with current and severe physical side-effects after prostate cancer treatment: What men report.

    PubMed

    Steentjes, L; Siesling, S; Drummond, F J; van Manen, J G; Sharp, L; Gavin, A

    2016-10-10

    We identified patient and disease characteristics associated with (1) "current" physical side-effects of any severity; and (2) "severe" physical side-effects "ever" experienced by 3,348 (54%) prostate cancer (PCa) survivors in Ireland diagnosed 2-18 years previously. Postal questionnaires collected symptoms at diagnosis, post-biopsy complications, comorbidities, primary treatments and physical side-effects post-treatment (urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, libido loss, bowel problems, breast changes, hot flushes, and fatigue, "ever" and "current" at time of questionnaire completion). Men were grouped by "early" (localised) and "late" (locally advanced/advanced) disease at diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified patient and disease-related factors associated with post-treatment side-effects. Complications post-biopsy were associated with higher risk of "current" libido loss and impotence. Radical prostatectomy was associated with higher risk of "current" and "severe" incontinence, libido loss and impotence in both early and late disease. In early disease, brachytherapy was associated with lower risk of "current" fatigue and "severe" impotence. Comorbidities were associated with higher risk of "current" experience of four side-effects (incontinence, libido loss, bowel problems, fatigue). Men on active surveillance/watchful-waiting reported lower risk of sexual dysfunction. These findings could inform development of tailored information on side-effects, which, in turn, could inform treatment decision-making and post-treatment monitoring.

  14. Methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from high-frequency wrist accelerometer measurements

    PubMed Central

    He, Shai; Hickey, Amanda; Sasaki, Jeffer; Freedson, Patty

    2015-01-01

    This investigation developed models to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis high-frequency wrist-worn accelerometer data. The models were developed and tested on 20 participants (n = 10 males, n = 10 females, mean age = 24.1, mean body mass index = 23.9), who wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their dominant wrist and an ActiGraph GT3X on the hip while performing a variety of scripted activities. Energy expenditure was concurrently measured by a portable indirect calorimetry system. Those calibration data were then used to develop and assess both machine-learning and simpler models with fewer unknown parameters (linear regression and decision trees) to estimate metabolic equivalent scores (METs) and to classify activity intensity, sedentary time, and locomotion time. The wrist models, applied to 15-s windows, estimated METs [random forest: root mean squared error (rSME) = 1.21 METs, hip: rMSE = 1.67 METs] and activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, hip: 60% correct) better than a previously developed model that used counts per minute measured at the hip. In a separate set of comparisons, the simpler decision trees classified activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, tree: 74% correct), sedentary time (random forest: 96% correct, decision tree: 97% correct), and locomotion time (random forest: 99% correct, decision tree: 96% correct) nearly as well or better than the machine-learning approaches. Preliminary investigation of the models' performance on two free-living people suggests that they may work well outside of controlled conditions. PMID:26112238

  15. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care.

    PubMed

    DE Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Möller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M; Newcomer, John W; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 - August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI.

  16. Training practice nurses to improve the physical health of patients with severe mental illness: effects on beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Annual health checks are recommended for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) as they are at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Ideally, these health checks should be carried out in primary care. Practice nurses are already competent in carrying out physical health checks, but might have misconceptions about mental illness, which is a barrier to offering the service. We used a mirror imaging study to establish the effectiveness of a training package for practice nurses that aims to address common misconceptions about the physical health of people with SMI. This 2-hour training package (Northampton Physical Health and Wellbeing Project) was delivered to eight practice nurses. Their misconceptions and beliefs were assessed before and after training. Motivation to work with community mental health workers was assessed after training. The practice nurses involved in the study rejected commonly held misconceptions about the physical health of people with SMI after training. Their attitudes towards their role in providing health checks appeared to be modified in a positive direction. Their motivation to work with community mental health workers also seemed to be enhanced. The Northampton Physical Health and Wellbeing Project training was effective in modifying practice nurses' misconceptions about physical health in people with SMI.

  17. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    PubMed Central

    DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357

  18. Determination of several physical properties of light petroleum products using IR

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, H.A.; Dekran, S.B.; Fakhri, N.A.; Aziz, H.J.; Hamoudi, N.A.

    1989-04-01

    In the present study IR spectrometric analysis was used to determine clear research octane number, heat of formation, specific gravity and mole fraction of methyl group, simultaneously in hydrocarbon mixtures. IR absorption spectrum can be used to provide information, that can be obtained by several existing test methods.

  19. Physical Growth and Maturation Following Early Severe Institutional Deprivation: Do They Mediate Specific Psychopathological Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Schlotz, Wolff; Rutter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors' previous work and the data reported in the preceding chapters of this monograph provide conclusive evidence of the persistent nature of the negative impact of early severe deprivation. Institutional deprivation, despite the good outcomes for many, was often associated with substantial impairment and disorder across a wide range of…

  20. Influence of Auditory Stimulation on the Physical Work Output of Adults Who Are Severely Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Michel; Reid, Greg

    1991-01-01

    Three forms of auditory stimulation were compared as reinforcers with 13 severely mentally retarded adults performing a task to promote cardiovascular fitness. Subjects received stimulation if they pedalled at a specified rate above baseline performance. Results indicated that music was an effective reinforcer in promoting continuous work output,…

  1. Experience of fatigue, and its relationship to physical capacity and disease severity in men and women with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Tödt, Kristina; Skargren, Elisabeth; Kentson, Magnus; Theander, Kersti; Jakobsson, Per; Unosson, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several differences have been reported in the clinical characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) between men and women. Differences have been found in the association between respiratory symptoms and lung function, and in the factors associated with dyspnea. This raises the question of whether there are differences between the sexes in the relationship between fatigue, the second most prevalent symptom, and the variables of physical capacity and disease severity. Objectives To examine the experience of fatigue and its relationship to physical capacity and disease severity in men and women with COPD. Methods In a cross-sectional study 121 patients with COPD (54 men and 67 women), the experience of fatigue (frequency, duration, and severity) and physical capacity (lung function, 6-minute walk distance [6MWD], grip strength, and timed-stand test) were assessed. Disease severity was graded according to the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnoea and Exercise capacity (BODE) index. Two multiple logistic regression models were tested, both of which were performed separately in men and women, to examine the association between the experience of fatigue and variables of physical capacity and the BODE index. Results Eighty-nine (73.6%) patients experienced fatigue, with similar proportions in men and women. The men with fatigue had worse physical capacity and more severe disease than did the men without fatigue: for men with and without fatigue, respectively, the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (mean [standard deviation]) was 47 (14) vs 64 (17); the 6MWD (mean [standard deviation]) was 398 (138) vs 539 (105) m; and the BODE index (median [quartile 1–3]) was 3 (2–5) vs 1 (0–1) (P<0.01). In women, only higher leg fatigue post-6MWD was seen among those experiencing fatigue compared with women without fatigue: for women with and without fatigue, respectively, leg fatigue (median [quartile 1–3

  2. On the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin basin (SE-Spain): Towards comprehensive understanding for effective remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.

    2009-04-01

    During the last two decades, the Guadalentin basin in south-eastern Spain has been the study area for many national- and international studies dealing with land degradation and desertification. One of the reasons for such a broad interest in the Guadalentin basin is that land degradation is generally considered severe in large parts of the basin due to a combination of the Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers followed by intense autumn rainfall, steep topography that marks most parts of the landscape, and fragile soils on erodible lithologies. The main types of degradation are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. Moreover, triggered by various political and socioeconomic drivers, important land use and management changes have taken place over the last centuries, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. Examples of such changes are large-scale land abandonment, a shift from dryland cereals production to large almond plantations, large scale land levelling for irrigated horticulture and urban expansions, and several types of agricultural subsidies. Numerous publications have been produced based on works done to address land degradation in the Guadalentin. However, until now there is no concise and integrated overview of what has been done and what is still missing regarding the study of the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation and conservation. This is in fact crucial to assist policy makers in making decisions that would effectively navigate land management in the area to a sustainable way. Here, we aim to provide such an overview by listing and discussing the main studies performed in this area, and by providing an integrated synthesis of the main physical- and socioeconomic factors identified in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. In overall, there has been a strong

  3. Theory of Mind in Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairment (SSPI): A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkman, Kerstin W.; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Hjelmquist, Erland

    2005-01-01

    Six children with cerebral palsy and severe speech impairment took part in a two-phase longitudinal study of development of social cognition. The children ranged in age from 5 to 7 years old at data collection time 1 and from nine to 11 years old at data collection time 2. Using a model of normal development of Theory of Mind (ToM) suggested by…

  4. Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Donchev, Veliko

    2014-03-15

    We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

  5. Survey of physical property data for several alloys. [Nitronic 33; copper C10400; copper C17510

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, R.E.; Williams, R.K.

    1985-08-01

    This report summarizes an examination of physical property data available in the literature for six alloys of potential interest to the Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment in the Fusion Energy Program. The properties of thermal expansion, density, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity were compiled for six alloys: Nitronic 33, a low-nickel, high manganese stainless steel; nickel-base Inconnel Alloys 625, 718, and X-750; and copper alloys C10400 and C17510. The temperatures of interest were 4-500 K for the Nitronic 33 and the Inconels, and 250-400 K for the copper alloys. Where data were lacking, estimates were made based on theory or comparisons with similar materials.

  6. Examining problem solving skills of physical education and sport students from several factors.

    PubMed

    Tasgin, Ozden

    2011-06-01

    In this research, problem solving skills of university students are examined in the factors of sex and class. In this research problem solving inventory that is improved by Heppner and Petersen (1982) is applied to the students that are training 1. and 4. class 58 female 86 male at Selcuk University Konya, Turkey Physical Education and Sport Collage. In statistical analysis of research for the factors sex and class, variance analysis and t test are used. In the research while meaningful difference is found in the above dimension of the factors sex and there is not found meaningful difference in the factors of class. In conclusion, female students have more positive problem solving skills than male students.

  7. Evaluation of the influence of physical activity on the plasma concentrations of several trace metals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Tuya, I; Pinilla Gil, E; Maynar Mariño, M; García-Moncó Carra, R M; Sánchez Misiego, A

    1996-01-01

    Our study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the influence that the degree of physical activity may have on plasma concentrations of essential and toxic elements. Copper and zinc, elements of known importance in basic cellular processes, have been analysed as essential, and cadmium and lead as toxic for the body in abnormal doses. The study was performed on a total population of 50 healthy individuals, 34 of them professional sportsmen and the rest who undertook moderate physical activity (control group), all of them living in a polluted environment (Madrid, Spain). Sampling was conducted at the beginning of the season (October). Electro-analytical techniques of proved reliability and accuracy were used for the determination of the metals. The results were related to data obtained using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by use of biological reference materials. We found significantly higher zinc plasma concentrations in the sportsmen involved in anaerobic-type training (judo, fencing) compared to those undertaking aerobic activities (endurance, cycling) (P < 0.05). The values in both cases were higher than those found in the control group. Our study showed an increase of plasma copper concentrations in professional sportsmen, especially in those performing anaerobic activities, compared to those subjects undertaking moderate activity (control group) (P < 0.05). In summary, our results showed that there were no deficiencies of copper and zinc in the athletes studied at the beginning of the season. The levels were higher than those of the control population. As for the toxic metals, cadmium and lead, we observed lower levels in the athletes than in the control group (cadmium P < 0.005, lead P < 0.05). These results may indicate the existence of possible elimination systems for these metals in athletes, when they are training in a polluted environment.

  8. Physical and Psychosocial Aspects of the Learning Environment in the Science Laboratory and Their Relationship to Teacher Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che Ahmad, Che Nidzam; Osman, Kamisah; Halim, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of a survey conducted to determine teachers' perception of the science laboratory learning environment and the relationship between different aspects of this environment and satisfaction from teaching and learning. Teachers' perceptions of psychosocial aspects were measured by use of the Science Laboratory Environment…

  9. A role for mental health nursing in the physical health care of consumers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Happell, B; Platania-Phung, C; Gray, R; Hardy, S; Lambert, T; McAllister, M; Davies, C

    2011-10-01

    There is extensive international evidence that people with severe mental illness have a lower standard of physical health than the general population. This leads to higher morbidity and mortality rates. Many of the causes for this poor physical health are modifiable. Yet the physical needs of this consumer group are neglected by healthcare systems in Australia, and elsewhere. While medical specialists are clearly integral to remedying this, nurses are well placed to play a key role in focused prevention and early intervention in the physical well-being of consumers with mental health problems. This paper outlines the specifics on how mental health nurses can be sensitized, prepared and empowered to help turn this serious health issue around. In particular, mental health nurses could be trained in and then utilize a new physical health check and response system in the UK (called the Health Improvement Profile) if adapted for use within Australia. This profile will be briefly introduced, and then its value to improving health care discussed.

  10. Ring chromosome 5 associated with severe growth retardation as the sole major physical abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, M.V.; Pettinari, A.; Cherubini, V.; Bartolotta, E.; Pecora, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a case of ring chromosome 5 in a 36-month-old girl with severe growth retardation, clinodactyly, mild psychological abnormalities, and normal facial appearance. Endocrine tests showed partial growth hormone deficiency. Cytogenetic investigation failed to demonstrate any apparent microscopic deletion of either the short or long arm of chromosome 5 as a consequence of ring formation. In 12% of cells examined, the ring was either absent or present in multiple copies. Only 3 previous cases of ring chromosome 5 have been reported in association with short stature of prenatal onset and minor anomalies, without mental retardation. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Environmental copper: Behaviour when involved in physical adsorption at several interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azri, Aziz; Elmanfe, Galal; Olier, René; Privat, Mireille

    2010-12-01

    From a literature-based assessment of the current knowledge about both the toxic or salutary properties of copper, this study focused on the determination, at 25 °C, of the interfacial properties of CuCl 2, either alone or in mixture with carbofuran used, here, as a model of organics and/or pesticide. The interfaces under study were: i) the air/solution interface and ii) the silica/solution interface. The former is considered as a path for volatilization, whereas the latter permits a modelling of physical adsorption upon solids, which is the first and unavoidable step in any adsorption process. One should note that it can also mimic adsorption on some sandy soils. Coadsorption was clearly identified as implicated in an enhancement of the surface content of both solutes at both interfaces. However, at the two interfaces under study, the way the surface became structured led to opposite adsorption mechanisms for the organic compounds and the salt. A rough theory about ionic adsorption is also proposed.

  12. Simulating Cortical Development as a Self Constructing Process: A Novel Multi-Scale Approach Combining Molecular and Physical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zubler, Frederic; Hauri, Andreas; Pfister, Sabina; Bauer, Roman; Anderson, John C.; Whatley, Adrian M.; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Current models of embryological development focus on intracellular processes such as gene expression and protein networks, rather than on the complex relationship between subcellular processes and the collective cellular organization these processes support. We have explored this collective behavior in the context of neocortical development, by modeling the expansion of a small number of progenitor cells into a laminated cortex with layer and cell type specific projections. The developmental process is steered by a formal language analogous to genomic instructions, and takes place in a physically realistic three-dimensional environment. A common genome inserted into individual cells control their individual behaviors, and thereby gives rise to collective developmental sequences in a biologically plausible manner. The simulation begins with a single progenitor cell containing the artificial genome. This progenitor then gives rise through a lineage of offspring to distinct populations of neuronal precursors that migrate to form the cortical laminae. The precursors differentiate by extending dendrites and axons, which reproduce the experimentally determined branching patterns of a number of different neuronal cell types observed in the cat visual cortex. This result is the first comprehensive demonstration of the principles of self-construction whereby the cortical architecture develops. In addition, our model makes several testable predictions concerning cell migration and branching mechanisms. PMID:23966845

  13. Simulating cortical development as a self constructing process: a novel multi-scale approach combining molecular and physical aspects.

    PubMed

    Zubler, Frederic; Hauri, Andreas; Pfister, Sabina; Bauer, Roman; Anderson, John C; Whatley, Adrian M; Douglas, Rodney J

    2013-01-01

    Current models of embryological development focus on intracellular processes such as gene expression and protein networks, rather than on the complex relationship between subcellular processes and the collective cellular organization these processes support. We have explored this collective behavior in the context of neocortical development, by modeling the expansion of a small number of progenitor cells into a laminated cortex with layer and cell type specific projections. The developmental process is steered by a formal language analogous to genomic instructions, and takes place in a physically realistic three-dimensional environment. A common genome inserted into individual cells control their individual behaviors, and thereby gives rise to collective developmental sequences in a biologically plausible manner. The simulation begins with a single progenitor cell containing the artificial genome. This progenitor then gives rise through a lineage of offspring to distinct populations of neuronal precursors that migrate to form the cortical laminae. The precursors differentiate by extending dendrites and axons, which reproduce the experimentally determined branching patterns of a number of different neuronal cell types observed in the cat visual cortex. This result is the first comprehensive demonstration of the principles of self-construction whereby the cortical architecture develops. In addition, our model makes several testable predictions concerning cell migration and branching mechanisms.

  14. Physical and technological aspects of compact He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards of highest performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, Mikhail; Petrukhin, Evgenyi A.; Krylova, Daria D.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Tyurikov, Dimitry A.; Shelkovnikov, A.

    2001-05-01

    The new generation of transportable He-Ne/CH4 ((lambda) equals 3.39 micrometer) optical frequency standards (TOFS) stabilized over resolved magnetic hyperfine structure (MHFS) and recoil doublet of F2(2) methane line is considered. The main limitations of the performance of present devices are caused by the residual first order Doppler effect manifestation. Several physical and technological improvements are in progress for reaching the level of 10-13 - 10-14 in frequency reproducibility/repeatability, while a relative frequency stability may exceed the stability of H-maser at averaging times (10-3 - 104) s. In combination with 'fs-comb generators' the compact and precise He-Ne/CH4 standards will be able to transfer their excellent short and middle term stability (10-14 per sec now, 10-15 per sec in near future) to the desired range of spectrum. In such a way they can play a role of narrow spectrum interrogative oscillators for super accurate frequency standards based on laser cooled atoms/ions or can be used as one of the optical references for fs-comb optical synthesizers.

  15. A physical analysis of the severe 2013/2014 cold winter in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-10-01

    The severe 2013/2014 cold winter has been examined in the context of the previous 55 winters using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data for the period 1960-2014. North America is dominated by pronounced cold anomalies over the Great Plains and Great Lakes in December 2013 and February 2014 but exhibits an east-west contrast pattern with warm anomalies over most of the North American West in January 2014. A relevant temperature index, defined as land surface temperature anomalies averaged over (40°-60°N, 105°-80°W), reveals a warming trend as well as interannual variability with a significant power peak of 6.0 years. While 2013/2014 was the second coldest winter during 1960-2014, it is the coldest one in the linearly detrended series, with a negative anomaly of 2.63 standard deviations. This indicates that the long-term warming has made the 2013/2014 winter less severe than it could have been. The temperature and circulation variability in association with the zonally symmetric variability of the polar vortex projects weakly on the corresponding anomalies in the 2013/2014 winter, whereas the variability associated with the principal mode of North American surface temperature projects strongly on the corresponding anomalies in the winter. This mode is associated with a sea surface temperature (SST) pattern of significant anomalies over the North Pacific and North Atlantic middle and high latitudes. The anomalous atmospheric circulation shows an anticyclonic anomaly over the Gulf of Alaska-Bering Sea and a cyclonic anomaly downstream over North America. It bears resemblance to the North Pacific Oscillation/Western Pacific pattern and drives the SST in the North Pacific. Over western-central Canada and the northern U.S., below-average heights are associated with above-normal precipitation, implying enhanced upward vertical motion and variation of local cloud forcing, leading to a variation of the surface energy budget dominated by

  16. Selection, use and psychometric properties of physical activity measures to assess individuals with severe mental illness: a narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy

    2014-04-01

    This research provides a critical consideration of the outcome measures used to assess physical activity in individuals with severe mental illness. A narrative synthesis was utilised to provide a simple juxtapose of the current research. A sensitive topic-based search strategy was conducted in order to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Fifty two studies met the inclusion criteria and 5 were identified specially as validation studies. The current research identified several methodological shortcomings. The justification and choice of outcome measure used is often weak and only five studies have validated a specific outcome measure of physical activity. Within these validation studies, the validation process often lacked a consideration of agreement between measures. Accelerometers have been most frequently used as a criterion measure, notably the RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. Objective based measures may be best placed to consider physical activity levels, although, methodological considerations for the utilization of such tools is required. Self-report questionnaires have benefits for use in this population but require further validation. Researchers and clinicians need to carefully consider what outcome measure they are using and be aware of the development, scope and purpose of that measure.

  17. Report to the American Physical Society of the Study Group on Radionuclide Release From Severe Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, George

    The release of radioiodine during the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was more than an order of magnitude smaller than what had been predicted from analyses of hypothetical nuclear accidents. The Reactor Safety Study of 1975 (RSS), which carried out the analyses, is a fundamental factor in formulating regulations concerned with such accidents. This American Physical Society (APS) study group report is a result of the obvious need to reevaluate the RSS analysis of the “source term,” that is, the amount of various radionuclides that are predicted to be emitted under various reactor failure scenarios.The report includes an introductory background to the history of nuclear reactor accidents and accident studies and to the health aspects of radionuclide releases. It then describes nuclear reactors and reactor failure modes, including reasonably detailed descriptions of particular modes thought to be especially critical. The most extensive discussion concerns the chemical and physical processes important in the generation, transport, and release of radionuclides. The large computer codes used to model these processes are considered and evaluated. The results of some of the computer runs are examined in the light of a simplified but informative model to evaluate those features of an accident that are most likely to affect the source term. A review of the research programs currently underway precedes both the study group conclusions about the need to revise the source terms from those in the RSS and recommendations for further studies that are necessary to better evaluate the source term.

  18. Prevalence, Severity, and Co-occurrence of Chronic Physical Health Problems of Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson R.; Macias, Cathaleene; Barreira, Paul J.; Fisher, William H.; Hargreaves, William A.; Harding, Courtenay M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined Medicaid claims forms to determine the prevalence, severity, and co-occurrence of physical illness within a representative sample of persons with serious mental illness (N=147). Methods: Representativeness of health problems in the study sample was established through comparison with a larger sample of persons with serious mental illness enrolled in Medicaid within the same state. Standardized annual costs were then assigned to Medicaid claims diagnoses, and individual health problem severity was measured as the sum of estimated treatment costs for diagnosed conditions. Results: Seventy-four percent of the study sample (N=109) had been given a diagnosis of at least one chronic health problem, and 50 percent (N=73) had been given a diagnosis of two or more chronic health problems. Of the 14 chronic health conditions surveyed, chronic pulmonary illness was the most prevalent (31 percent incidence) and the most comorbid. Persons with chronic pulmonary illness were second only to those with infectious diseases in average annual cost of treatment ($8,277). Also, 50 percent or more of participants in eight other diagnostic categories had chronic pulmonary illness. A regression analysis identified age, obesity, and substance use disorders as significant predictors of individual health problem severity. Conclusions: Risk adjustment for physical health is essential when setting performance standards or cost expectations for mental health treatment. Excluding persons with chronic health problems from mental health service evaluations restricts generalizability of research findings and may promote interventions that are inappropriate for many persons with serious mental illness. PMID:15534013

  19. Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population.

  20. The Effects of Physical Time-Out on the Aggressive Behaviors of a Severely Emotionally Disturbed Child in a Public School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Mary Beth; Simpson, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    A firm physical restraint procedure (physically holding the child from behind until all verbal and physical aggressions had ceased for 30 seconds) was effective in significantly reducing the aggressive responses of a 6-year-old severely emotionally disturbed male in a self-contained special education class. (Author/CL)

  1. Physical Aspects of Light--"Seeing Parameters". Lighting Techniques in Architecture (Madison, December 9-10, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turek, Robert W.

    In order to judge or design the lighting of an interior a person must be able to understand and take into account many aspects of seeing and illumination. Important areas of consideration are--(1) factors that contribute to the visibility of an object: size, brightness, contrast, and time, (2) radiant energy with regard to the visible spectrums of…

  2. Social Aspects of Classroom Learning: Results of a Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating…

  3. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  4. Refocusing on physical health: Community psychiatric nurses' perceptions of using enhanced health checks for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Wells, Harvey; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Claire; White, Jacquie; Gray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the present qualitative, descriptive study, we explored Hong Kong community psychiatric nurses' (CPN) perceptions of using comprehensive physical health checks for service users diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 CPN in order to explore their perceptions about the use of the Health Improvement Profile (HIP) over a 1-year period. Interview data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the majority of CPN appreciated the comprehensive focus on the physical health of their clients and reported positive changes in their clinical practice. Many of them observed an increase in the motivation of their clients to improve their physical health, and also noted observable benefits in service users' well-being. The use of the HIP also helped the CPN identify implementation barriers, and highlighted areas of the tool that required modifications to suit the local cultural and clinical context. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in an Asian mental health service that explores nurses' views about using comprehensive health checks for people with SMI. The findings suggest that such approaches are viewed as being acceptable, feasible, and potentially beneficial in the community mental health setting.

  5. Acute Effects of Three Neuromuscular Warm-Up Strategies on Several Physical Performance Measures in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco; Calderón-López, Ana; Delgado-Gosálbez, Juan Carlos; Parra-Sánchez, Sergio; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; López-Valenciano, Alejandro; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-01-01

    No studies have analysed the acute effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programmes on major physical performance measures. The aim of this study was to analyse the acute (post-exercise) effects of the FIFA 11+, Harmoknee and dynamic warm-up routines on several physical performance measures in amateur football players. A randomized, crossover and counterbalanced study design was used to address the purpose of this study. A total of sixteen amateur football players completed the following protocols in a randomized order on separate days: a) FIFA 11+; b) Harmoknee; and c) dynamic warm-up (DWU). In each experimental session, 19 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, hamstring to quadriceps [H/Q] strength ratios, dynamic postural control, 10 and 20 m sprint times, jump height and reactive strength index) were assessed. Measures were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. The results of this study showed no main effects between paired comparisons (FIFA 11+ vs. DWU, Harmoknee vs. DWU and Harmoknee vs. FIFA 11+) for joint range of motions, dynamic postural control, H/Q ratios, jumping height and reactive strength index measures. However, significant main effects (likely effects with a probability of >75-99%) were found for 10 (1.7%) and 20 (2.4%) m sprint times, demonstrating that both the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee resulted in slower sprint times in comparison with the DWU. Therefore, neither the FIFA 11+ nor the Harmoknee routines appear to be preferable to dynamic warm-up routines currently performed by most football players prior to training sessions and matches.

  6. Acute Effects of Three Neuromuscular Warm-Up Strategies on Several Physical Performance Measures in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco; Calderón-López, Ana; Delgado-Gosálbez, Juan Carlos; Parra-Sánchez, Sergio; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; López-Valenciano, Alejandro; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-01-01

    No studies have analysed the acute effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programmes on major physical performance measures. The aim of this study was to analyse the acute (post-exercise) effects of the FIFA 11+, Harmoknee and dynamic warm-up routines on several physical performance measures in amateur football players. A randomized, crossover and counterbalanced study design was used to address the purpose of this study. A total of sixteen amateur football players completed the following protocols in a randomized order on separate days: a) FIFA 11+; b) Harmoknee; and c) dynamic warm-up (DWU). In each experimental session, 19 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, hamstring to quadriceps [H/Q] strength ratios, dynamic postural control, 10 and 20 m sprint times, jump height and reactive strength index) were assessed. Measures were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. The results of this study showed no main effects between paired comparisons (FIFA 11+ vs. DWU, Harmoknee vs. DWU and Harmoknee vs. FIFA 11+) for joint range of motions, dynamic postural control, H/Q ratios, jumping height and reactive strength index measures. However, significant main effects (likely effects with a probability of >75–99%) were found for 10 (1.7%) and 20 (2.4%) m sprint times, demonstrating that both the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee resulted in slower sprint times in comparison with the DWU. Therefore, neither the FIFA 11+ nor the Harmoknee routines appear to be preferable to dynamic warm-up routines currently performed by most football players prior to training sessions and matches. PMID:28060927

  7. Reports of severe physical punishment and exposure to animal cruelty by inmates convicted of felonies and by university students.

    PubMed

    Miller, K S; Knutson, J F

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 inmates in a prisoner classification center. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent, but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged with homicidal crimes, sex offenses, and nonviolent offenses. Some exposure to animal cruelty was widespread in the sample, but there was no association between experiencing animal cruelty and the type of crime committed. Moreover, there were only modest associations between animal cruelty experiences and the aversive childhood histories of the subjects, as well as the subjects' reported use of physical and sexual coercion in dating and intimate relationships. To determine whether the high base rate of exposure to animal cruelty was unique to the incarcerated sample, a follow-up study was completed with university undergraduates. Widespread exposure to some animal cruelty was reported by undergraduates; there were modest associations between reporting animal cruelty and reporting punitive and acrimonious childhood histories. In general, the findings were consistent with the hypothesis that there is an association between punitive childhood histories and antisocial behavior but not consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to animal cruelty is importantly related to antisocial behavior or child maltreatment.

  8. An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of an Enrichment Program on Aspects of Einsteinian Physics on Year 6 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Marina; Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Concepts related to Einsteinian physics are usually not taught until students are in university, denying younger children access to this powerful way of understanding space, time and gravity. Considerable research has shown, however, that complex and abstract scientific ideas can be presented in age appropriate ways that result in measurable…

  9. "Hay Sacks Anonymous": Living in the Shadow of the Unidentified. Psychological Aspects of Physical Inactivity from a Phenomenological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Anni; Norlander, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The present qualitative study emanates from a phenomenological perspective and has the purpose of creating an understanding for what a so-called hay sack is as well as understanding the experiences of a hay sack. In this context a hay sack refers to a person with low physical activity. Eight hay sacks between 36-58 years of age were interviewed…

  10. Physical, psychological, and social aspects of quality of life in filarial lymphedema patients in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Rushika S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R

    2015-03-01

    Quality of life (QOL) was assessed in 141 filarial lymphedema patients and 128 healthy people in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka, by administering modified, translated, and validated (in Sri Lanka) versions of the Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) and the 30-item General Health questionnaire (GHQ-30). The GHQ-30 assesses the current mental health status. The SF-36 measures health on 8 multi-item dimensions covering functional state, well-being, and overall evaluation of health (physical functioning, role limitations resulting from physical health problems, role limitations resulting from emotional problems, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, social functioning, pain and general health). By SF-36, patients experienced poorer physical functioning, more role limitations resulting from physical health conditions, less emotional well-being, poorer social functioning, and more pain than healthy individuals. By GHQ-30, mental well-being of healthy controls was significantly better than that of patients. The significant difference in the QOL as perceived by filarial lymphedema patients and healthy individuals reiterates the importance of morbidity control in patients affected by this disease.

  11. The Improvement of Brass Instrument Teaching Through the Use of a Profile of the Physical Aspects Involved. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Russell L.; And Others

    To aid in providing a sounder methodological program in the teaching of trumpet playing, a study was made of the profiles of physical parameters involved in playing the instrument. Data were collected while beginning, intermediate, or advanced players performed scales in F, D, and B-flat and two etudes in both staccato and legato. The means used…

  12. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Severe Physical Intimate Partner Violence Among U.S. Black Women: A Comparison of African American and Caribbean Blacks.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Krim K; West, Carolyn M; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2016-05-01

    This study explored prevalence rates and factors associated with lifetime severe physical intimate partner violence among U.S. Black women. Data from the National Survey of American Life were examined. Rates of severe physical intimate partner violence were higher among African American women compared with U.S. Caribbean Black women. Risk factors associated with reported abuse were similar to those found in earlier studies but differed by ethnic backgrounds. Demographic, resource, and situational factors were associated with severe physical intimate partner violence among U.S. Black women in general but made unique contributions by ethnic group. Implications and suggestions for future studies were discussed.

  13. Aspects That Concern Assessing Lower Secondary School Students at the Physics National Contest Exemplification for the 7th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we aim at analysing the results obtained by the 7th grade students who participated in the 50th edition of the Physics National Contest, which took place in Cluj-Napoca between the 6th and the 11th of April, 2014. Why have we chosen the 7th grade? One of the reasons is represented by the good results obtained by the…

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on nuclear and particle physics at energies up to 31 GeV: new and future aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Kisslinger, L.S.; Silbar, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Physics at Energies up to 31 GeV, New and Future Aspects, held in Los Alamos, January 5 to 8, 1981. Included are invited talks and contributed papers covering recent developments in (a) weak and unified interactions (including discussions of neutrino oscillations), (b) the hadronic description of strong interactions, (c) the quark description of strong interactions, (d) hypernuclei, and (e) new facilities and proposed experiments. One of the motivations for the Workshop was to explore physics justifications for a future high-intensity proton accelerator in this energy regime. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers from this meeting. Six papers were previously included in the data base.

  15. Structural and growth aspects of electron beam physical vapor deposited NiO-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Kuanr, Sushil Kumar; K, Suresh Babu

    2016-03-15

    Deposition of composite materials as thin film by electron beam physical vapor deposition technique (EB-PVD) still remains as a challenge. Here, the authors report the deposition of NiO-CeO{sub 2} (30/70 wt. %) composites on quartz substrate by EB-PVD. Two NiO-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite targets—one as green compact and the other after sintering at 1250 °C—were used for the deposition. Though the targets varied with respect to physical properties such as crystallite size (11–45 nm) and relative density (44% and 96%), the resultant thin films exhibited a mean crystallite size in the range of 20–25 nm underlining the role of physical nature of deposition. In spite of the crystalline nature of the targets and similar elemental concentration, a transformation from amorphous to crystalline structure was observed in thin films on using sintered target. Postannealing of the as deposited film at 800 °C resulted in a polycrystalline structure consisting of CeO{sub 2} and NiO. Deposition using pure CeO{sub 2} or NiO as target resulted in the preferential orientation toward (111) and (200) planes, respectively, showing the influence of adatoms on the evaporation and growth process of NiO-CeO{sub 2} composite. The results demonstrate the influence of electron beam gun power on the adatom energy for the growth process of composite oxide thin films.

  16. A qualitative study analyzing access to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident victims with severe disability in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonsêca de; Melo, Laiza Oliveira Mendes de; Alves, Emanuel Augusto; Piuvezam, Grasiela; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To identify access barriers to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident (TA) victims with severe disability and build a theoretical model to provide guidance towards the improvement of these services. Methods Qualitative research carried out in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), with semi-structured interviews with 120 subjects (19 key informer health professionals and 101 TA victims) identified in a database made available by the emergency hospital. The interviews were analyzed using Alceste software, version 4.9. Results The main barriers present in the interviews were: (1) related to services: bureaucratic administrative practises, low offer of rehabilitation services, insufficient information on rehabilitation, lack of guidelines that integrate hospital and ambulatory care and (2) related to patients: financial difficulties, functional limitations, geographic distance, little information on health, association with low education levels and disbelief in the system and in rehabilitation. Conclusion The numerous access barriers were presented in a theoretical model with causes related to organizational structure, processes of care, professionals and patients. This model must be tested by health policy-makers and managers to improve the quality of physical rehabilitation and avoid unnecessary prolongation of the suffering and disability experienced by TA survivors. Implications for rehabilitation Traffic accidents (TAs) are a global health dilemma that demands integrality of preventive actions, pre-hospital and hospital care and physical rehabilitation (PR). This study lays the foundation for improving access to PR for TA survivors, an issue of quality of care that results in preventable disabilities. The words of the patients interviewed reveal the suffering of victims, which is often invisible to society and given low priority by health policies that relegate PR to a second plan ahead of prevention and urgent care. A theoretical model of the

  17. Acrylamide formation from asparagine under low-moisture Maillard reaction conditions. 1. Physical and chemical aspects in crystalline model systems.

    PubMed

    Robert, Fabien; Vuataz, Gilles; Pollien, Philippe; Saucy, Françoise; Alonso, Maria-Isabelle; Bauwens, Isabelle; Blank, Imre

    2004-11-03

    The formation of acrylamide in crystalline model systems based on asparagine and reducing sugars was investigated under low-moisture reaction conditions. The acrylamide amounts were correlated with physical changes occurring during the reaction. Molecular mobility of the precursors turned out to be a critical parameter in solid systems, which is linked to the melting behavior and the release of crystallization water of the reaction sample. Heating binary mixtures of asparagine monohydrate and anhydrous reducing sugars led to higher acrylamide amounts in the presence of fructose compared to glucose. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements performed in open systems indicated melting of fructose at 126 degrees C, whereas glucose and galactose fused at 157 and 172 degrees C, respectively. However, glucose was the most reactive and fructose the least efficient sugar in anhydrous liquid systems, indicating that at given molecular mobility the chemical reactivity of the sugar was the major driver in acrylamide formation. Furthermore, reaction time and temperature were found to be covariant parameters: acrylamide was preferably formed by reacting glucose and asparagine at 120 degrees C for 60 min, whereas 160 degrees C was required at shorter reaction time (5 min). These results suggest that, in addition to the chemical reactivity of ingredients, their physical state as well as reaction temperature and time would influence the formation of acrylamide during food processing.

  18. Physical Fitness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several color-coded sections covering different aspects of the program. It is mimeographed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: Activities are listed under the qualities or parts of the body…

  19. SU-F-BRA-15: Physical Aspects and Clinical Applications of Post-Treatment Yttrium-90 PET-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Veltchev, I; Doss, M; Yu, J; Meyer, J; Ma, C; Fourkal, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of PET-based post-treatment dosimetry of yttrium-90 microspheres has been improving over the past decade and is now at a stage, permitting volumetric dose-outcome studies. We outline the recent advances and identify the physical limitations to the accuracy of the dose calculations. Methods: Convolution of the measured PET activity density distribution with a pre-calculated voxel-dose-kernel (VDK) is the most widely used method for dose reconstruction. Therefore, accurate knowledge of the beta+ branching ratio as well as the micro-dosimetric characteristics of electron interactions within the microsphere is essential for the computation of the dose kernel. We implement a model of the microspheres used in our clinic to calculate the modified electron energy spectrum at the microsphere’s surface and to determine the impact of self-shielding on the dose reconstruction. The three-dimensional dose distributions obtained for 10 patients treated with radio-embolization with yttrium-90 microspheres are evaluated and various DVH markers are investigated for correlation with outcome. Results: The methods for reducing the overall computation uncertainty are systematically outlined in this presentation. Since the latest experimental data on yttrium-90 beta+ branching ratio has a relative uncertainty of 1.5%, all contributing factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations must be brought to a sub 1% level. The self-shielding within the microspheres is found to be responsible for up to 6% reduction of the reconstructed dose in low-gradient regions and must be taken into account. The contribution of trace amounts of other beta+ emitters introduced during the manufacturing process is also discussed. Conclusion: The accelerating pace of clinical adoption of PET-based post-treatment dosimetry is mainly due to advances in both quantitative PET imaging and physical models of dose deposition. We show that the overall physical dose uncertainty in the convolution

  20. Classification of Activity Engagement in Individuals with Severe Physical Disabilities Using Signals of the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kushki, Azadeh; Andrews, Alexander J.; Power, Sarah D.; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Communication barriers often result in exclusion of children and youth with disabilities from activities and social settings that are essential to their psychosocial development. In particular, difficulties in describing their experiences of activities and social settings hinder our understanding of the factors that promote inclusion and participation of this group of individuals. To address this specific communication challenge, we examined the feasibility of developing a language-free measure of experience in youth with severe physical disabilities. To do this, we used the activity of the peripheral nervous system to detect patterns of psychological arousal associated with activities requiring different patterns of cognitive/affective and interpersonal involvement (activity engagement). We demonstrated that these signals can differentiate among patterns of arousal associated with these activities with high accuracy (two levels: 81%, three levels: 74%). These results demonstrate the potential for development of a real-time, motor- and language-free measure for describing the experiences of children and youth with disabilities. PMID:22363432

  1. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Coles, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethlsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed deploymerization of the fluid molecule.

  2. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the Liquid Droplet Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Coles, Carolyn E.

    1987-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed depolymerization of the fluid molecule.

  3. Mathematical and physical aspects of controlling the exact solutions of the 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Renato; Jovanović, Dušan; De Nicola, Sergio; Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, Padma K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of the decomposition of the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into a pair of coupled Schrödinger-type equations, is investigated. It is shown that, under suitable mathematical conditions, it is possible to construct the exact controlled solutions of the 3D GPE from the solutions of a linear 2D Schrödinger equation coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the transverse and longitudinal components of the GPE, respectively). The coupling between these two equations is the functional of the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. The applied method of nonlinear decomposition, called the controlling potential method (CPM), yields the full 3D solution in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and longitudinal components of the GPE. It is shown that the CPM constitutes a variational principle and sets up a condition on the controlling potential well. Its physical interpretation is given in terms of the minimization of the (energy) effects introduced by the control. The method is applied to the case of a parabolic external potential to construct analytically an exact BEC state in the form of a bright soliton, for which the quantitative comparison between the external and controlling potentials is presented.

  4. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P < 0.0001), and created denser products (P < 0.0001), especially for white bran supplemented extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P < 0.0001). Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P < 0.0001) compared to purple bran supplemented extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance.

  5. Temporal And Spatial Aspects Of River-Groundwater Exchange In The Regulated Rhone River (Switzerland) Using Chemical And Physical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fette, M.; Wehrli, B.; Beer, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over the last two centuries most river systems in Central Europe have been regulated to improve flood protection. Large hydropower schemes were developed in the Swiss-Alps, which strongly modified the hydrological cycle. As a consequence of increasing number of flood events, the upgrading and renewal of flood protection dikes in the lowlands is often combined with river restoration projects today. Because this often involves removing or dislocating dikes, the planning and design of such projects under consideration of both flood protection and hydropower schemes should be based on a detailed knowledge of river-groundwater interactions. We test and apply a combination of different chemical and physical tracer methods to qualitatively and quantitatively approach these interactions in the channalised Rhone river reach upstreams of lake Geneva (Switzerland). With these tools we address a series of questions like: 1)Can the seasonality of delta-18O in precipitation be used to distinguish between the hydrological cycles above and below the catchment basin of the hydropower plants? 2)Can we quantify the water exchange between the river and the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer? 18O and sulphate as a tracer: Due to the geological situation -high altitude differences and the presence of gypsum in the Penninic nappes on the south side of the valley, 18O and sulphate concentrations prove to be the most effective parameters to study water exchange. Monitoring stable isotopes in precipitation of different altitudes shows more depleted signatures in winter than in summer. However, this pattern is reversed in the receiving river of the valley ground. The delta-18O winter values in the river (-13.3 to -14.2 permil) are more positive than in summer (-15.2 to -14.4 permil), with variations in delta-18O up to 0.8 permil. This means that the seasonality in the river water (more negative values in summer than in winter) is reversed in comparison to the seasonality in precipitation

  6. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients.

  7. The chasm of care: Where does the mental health nursing responsibility lie for the physical health care of people with severe mental illness?

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Brett; Heslop, Karen; Barr, Lesley; Lim, Eric; Chee, Gin-Liang; Porter, James; Murdock, Jane

    2016-12-01

    The poor physical health of people with a severe mental illness is well documented and health professionals' attitudes, knowledge and skills are identified factors that impact on clients' access to care for their physical health needs. An evaluation was conducted to determine: (i) mental health nurses' attitudes and beliefs about providing physical health care; and, (ii) the effect that participant demographics may have on attitudes to providing physical health care. It was hypothesized that workplace culture would have the largest effect on attitudes. Nurses at three health services completed the "Mental health nurses' attitude towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness survey" developed by Robson and Haddad (2012). The 28-item survey measured: nurses' attitudes, confidence, identified barriers to providing care and attitudes towards clients smoking cigarettes. The findings demonstrated that workplace culture did influence the level of physical health care provided to clients. However, at the individual level, nurses remain divided and uncertain where their responsibilities lie. Nursing leadership can have a significant impact on improving clients' physical health outcomes. Education is required to raise awareness of the need to reduce cigarette smoking in this client population.

  8. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  9. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  10. A Pilot Program in Creative Growth for Severely Physically Handicapped Secondary Students of the Human Resources School, Albertson, New York: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Michael W.

    A creative drama program for eight secondary school aged severely physically handicapped students is described. The 20-session program is explained to have focused on effective communication through such drama activities as sensory exploration tasks, poetry, pantomime and improvisation. Space and time limitations of the program are cited. (CL)

  11. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  12. Organizational Citizenship Levels of Academicians in Terms of Several Variables: The Sample of Physical Education and Sports Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ali Dursun

    2015-01-01

    This study is performed with 176 academicians working in the institutions related to physical education and sports at universities. It aims to analyze organizational citizenship behaviours of academic personnel about the institutions they have been working in. Descriptive survey model was used, along with demographic data like gender, marital…

  13. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  14. Effects of a Peer Tutor Training Program on Tutors and Tutees with Severe Disabilities in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonlintel, Drew James

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the efficacy of peer tutor training in adapted physical education (APE). A peer tutor evaluation form was created to assess the skills of untrained peer tutors (n = 12). Once skills were assessed, a peer tutor training protocol was created. The protocol was implemented in a peer tutor training program. After peer tutors…

  15. Hydrodynamic characteristics over a range of speeds up to 80 feet per second of a rectangular modified flat plate having an aspect ratio of 0.25 and operating at several depths of submersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Victor L , Jr; Ramsen, John A

    1957-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the hydrodynamic characteristics over an extended speed range of a rectangular modified flat plate having an aspect ratio of 0.25 and operating at several depths of submersion are presented. Comparisons between these data and data over a lower speed range on a similar aspect-ratio-0.25 flat plate but having one-half the thickness are presented. These comparisons show no significant differences at the low speeds. At high speeds and high angles of attack, where extensive cavitation was present, the lift coefficients were lower than would have been indicated by the results of the previous investigations and the present investigation at the lower angles of attack. A brief discussion and comparison of ventilation are presented which shows two types of planing bubble formation and the effect of increasing the thickness of the model on the ventilation boundary.

  16. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; Mendonça, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from SMI, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed, respectively, using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from SMI may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for comprehensive assessment of recovery and subjective

  17. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J.; Mendonça, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J.; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from SMI, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed, respectively, using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from SMI may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for comprehensive assessment of recovery and subjective

  18. Symptoms of Depression Are Associated With Opioid Use Regardless of Pain Severity and Physical Functioning Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Goesling, Jenna; Henry, Matthew J; Moser, Stephanie E; Rastogi, Mohit; Hassett, Afton L; Clauw, Daniel J; Brummett, Chad M

    2015-09-01

    Depression may be a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of opioids. This study investigated the association among opioid use, pain, and depression in patients evaluated at a university-based outpatient pain clinic. Of the 2,104 new patients included, 55.89% reported current opioid use and showed a worse phenotypic profile (eg, higher pain severity, worse physical functioning) compared with nonopioid users. In addition, more opioid users reported symptoms suggestive of depression than those not taking opioids (43.6% vs 26.8%, P < .001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, increased pain severity was associated with increased probability of taking opioids; however, this was moderated by depression (estimate = -.212, P < .001). For nondepressed patients, the predicted probabilities of opioid use increased as pain severity increased. In contrast, among patients with symptoms of depression, the probability of taking opioids did not change based on pain severity. Similarly, although increased physical function was associated with increased probability of opioid use, this was moderated by depression (estimate = .033, P = .034). Patients with symptoms of depression were more likely to be taking opioids at higher levels of functioning (Ps < .03). Perspective: This study investigated the association among opioid use, pain, and depression at a university-based outpatient pain clinic. Depression emerged as a moderator of the relationship among opioid use, pain severity, and physical functioning. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that patients may be self-medicating affective pain with opioids.

  19. Physics-aspects of dose accuracy in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: source dosimetry, treatment planning, equipment performance and in vivo verification techniques.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    This study provides a review of recent publications on the physics-aspects of dosimetric accuracy in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The discussion of accuracy is primarily concerned with uncertainties, but methods to improve dose conformation to the prescribed intended dose distribution are also noted. The main aim of the paper is to review current practical techniques and methods employed for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry. This includes work on the determination of dose rate fields around brachytherapy sources, the capability of treatment planning systems, the performance of treatment units and methods to verify dose delivery. This work highlights the determinants of accuracy in HDR dosimetry and treatment delivery and presents a selection of papers, focusing on articles from the last five years, to reflect active areas of research and development. Apart from Monte Carlo modelling of source dosimetry, there is no clear consensus on the optimum techniques to be used to assure dosimetric accuracy through all the processes involved in HDR brachytherapy treatment. With the exception of the ESTRO mailed dosimetry service, there is little dosimetric audit activity reported in the literature, when compared with external beam radiotherapy verification.

  20. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  1. Independent and joint associations of physical activity and fitness with fibromyalgia symptoms and severity: The al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-09-12

    We examined independent and joint associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in 386 fibromyalgia women aged 51.2 ± 7.6 years. Levels of PA (light, moderate and vigorous) and PF were measured with triaxial accelerometry and the Senior Fitness Test, respectively. We used the Short-Form health survey-36 pain sub-scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory to assess pain and multiple dimensions of fatigue, respectively. The impact of fibromyalgia was studied with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Both, total PA and global PF were independently associated with pain pressure threshold, SF-36 pain, reduced activity, reduced motivation and FIQR total score (all, P ≤ 0.027). The associations between total PA and symptoms were weaker than those observed between global PF and symptoms. Overall, unfit patients with low PA showed a worse profile that fit patients with high PA (all, P ≤ 0.001). In summary, PA and PF are independently associated with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in women. Although PF presented greater associations with symptoms, the results suggest that both being physically active and keep adequate fitness levels might be convenient for fibromyalgia women.

  2. Electroconvulsive therapy in a physically restrained man with comorbid major depression, severe agoraphobia with panic disorder, and histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Romano, Silvia; Milioni, Mara; Capezzuto, Silvia; Carbonetti, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria; Fensore, Claudio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    A 36-year-old man with comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia, major depression, and histrionic personality disorder since age 21 was resistant to combined drug and psychotherapy treatment. His conditions had progressively worsened with time, causing him to withdraw socially and to simultaneously require continuous physical restraint, which further worsened his functioning. He spent almost 3 consecutive years in restraint, until he consented to receive bilateral ECT treatment. He improved after 13 sessions in all areas (social and role functioning, and panic, depressive, and histrionic symptoms) and is well 3 months later with a lithium-atypical antipsychotic combination.

  3. Enhancing the participation and independence of students with severe physical and multiple disabilities in performing community activities.

    PubMed

    Sowers, J A; Powers, L

    1995-08-01

    The effectiveness of a multi-element approach derived from factors to increase self-determination of middle- and high-school-age students with physical and multiple disabilities was examined. The approach includes equipment and performance adaptations, brief in-school simulation training, and instruction and support for parents and home assistance providers. The intervention was instituted with 3 students; a multiple baseline design was used. Student participation and independence dramatically increased after the intervention. Results suggest that this approach may be one solution to providing students with both inclusive education and community skill and activity instruction. The impact of the intervention on student self-determination was discussed.

  4. The Impact of Physical Complaints, Social Environment, and Psychological Functioning on IBS Patients’ Health Perceptions: Looking Beyond GI Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Gudleski, Gregory D.; Thakur, Elyse R.; Stewart, Travis J.; Iacobucci, Gary J.; Spiegel, Brennan M.R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the absence of a reliable biomarker, clinical decisions for a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) depend on asking patients to appraise and communicate their health status. Self-ratings of health (SRH) have proven a powerful and consistent predictor of health outcomes, but little is known about how they relate to those relevant to IBS (e.g., quality of life (QOL), IBS symptom severity). This study examined what psychosocial factors, if any, predict SRH among a cohort of more severe IBS patients. METHODS Subjects included 234 Rome III-positive IBS patients (mean age = 41 years, female = 78%) without comorbid organic GI disease. Subjects were administered a test battery that included the IBS Symptom Severity Scale, Screening for Somatoform Symptoms, IBS Medical Comorbidity Inventory, SF-12 Vitality Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Negative Interactions Scale. RESULTS Partial correlations identified somatization, depression, fatigue, stress, anxiety, and medical comorbidities as variables with the strongest correlations with SRH (r values = 0.36–0.41, P values < 0.05). IBS symptom severity was weakly associated with SRH (r = 0.18, P < 0.05). The final regression model explained 41.3% of the variance in SRH scores (F = 8.49, P < 0.001) with significant predictors including fatigue, medical comorbidities, somatization, and negative social interactions. CONCLUSIONS SRH are associated with psychological (anxiety, stress, depression), social (negative interactions), and extraintestinal somatic factors (fatigue, somatization, medical comorbidities). The severity of IBS symptoms appears to have a relatively modest role in how IBS patients describe their health in general. PMID:24419481

  5. What does mental health nursing contribute to improving the physical health of service users with severe mental illness? A thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard; Brown, Eleanor

    2017-02-01

    Authors have generally reported that mental health nurses (MHNs) have positive attitudes to providing physical health care to service users with severe mental illness. In the present study, we aimed to explore if this positive attitude translates to enhanced clinical practice by interviewing MHNs and the service users they work with. Semistructured interviews were completed with 15 service users and 18 MHNs from acute, rehabilitation, and community services. These were then transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Six themes emerged: (i) not the work of MHNs; (ii) the physical effects of psychiatric drugs are ignored; (iii) the need to upskill; (iv) keeping busy; (v) horrible hospital food/living on takeaways; and (vi) motivation to change. Our overarching meta-theme was of unmet physical health need among service users.

  6. Intimate partner violence and the relation between help-seeking behavior and the severity and frequency of physical violence among women in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergöçmen, Banu Akadli; Yüksel-Kaptanoğlu, İlknur; Jansen, Henrica A F M Henriette

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the severity and frequency of physical violence from an intimate partner experienced by 15- to 59-year-old women and their help-seeking behavior by using data from the "National Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey." Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the relationship between severity and frequency of violence and women's characteristics. Of all ever-partnered women, 36% have been exposed to partner violence; almost half of these experienced severe types of violence. Women used informal strategies to manage the violence instead of seeking help from formal institutions. Help-seeking behavior increases with increased severity and frequency of violence.

  7. Effect of Surgical Curve Correction on Exercise Tolerance and Physical Capacities in Patients of Severe Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Ashok K; Borde, Mandar; Singh, Vishwajeet; Singh, Hemant U

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traditionally, surgical intervention for patients with a spinal deformity has been considered for cosmetic benefits, but surgical intervention can alter the lung physiology or volumes and in turn leads to increase in physical capacity and exercise tolerance. Therefore, we conducted this to determine whether a surgical correction would restore the lung physiology, physical capacity and exercise tolerance in patients with kyphoscoliosis. Aim To evaluate the usage of six-minute walk test scores and modified Borg scores as tools/measures for exercise tolerance in patients with spinal deformity and to study the effects of surgical correction of spinal deformity on exercise tolerance with above parameters as the measures. Materials and Methods Thirty patients with spinal deformity, who had undergone surgery for deformity correction, were evaluated. All patients were investigated pre-operatively with x-rays of the spine (anteroposterior and lateral views). Clinical tests like breath holding time (after full inspiration) in number of seconds, modified Borg scores, six-minute walk test scores (heart rate, respiratory rate, maximum distance walked); were recorded as measures of exercise tolerance. The patients were followed up on the first, third, sixth and twelfth month post-operatively and tested clinically for breath holding time, modified Borg scores, six-minute walk test scores (heart rate, respiratory rate, maximum distance walked) and x-rays of the spine (anteroposterior and lateral views). Results In our study, breath holding time (p-value = 0.001) and modified Borg scores (p-value = 0.012) showed a significant improvement at 12 months post-operatively. We noted similar findings with heart rate, respiratory rate and maximum distance walked after a six-minute walk test. Improvements were noted in all the parameters, especially in the group of patients with greater than 60 degrees of cobb angle. However, the differences between the two groups (pre

  8. Relation between childhood maltreatment and severe intrafamilial male-perpetrated physical violence in Chinese community: the mediating role of borderline and antisocial personality disorder features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Yalin; Brady, Heward John; Cao, Yuping; He, Ying; Zhang, Yingli

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) features as mediators of the effects of childhood maltreatment on severe intrafamilial physical violence amongst Chinese male perpetrators. A cross-sectional survey and face-to-face interview were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment, personality disorder features, impulsivity, aggression, and severe intrafamilial physical violence in a community sample of 206 abusive men in China. The results suggest that ASPD or BPD features mediate between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence perpetration in Chinese abusive men. These findings may yield clinical and forensic implications for assessing the psychopathology of abusive men, and may steer the intervention of intimate partner violence.

  9. Lower physical fitness in patients with primary aldosteronism is linked to the severity of hypertension and kalaemia.

    PubMed

    Tuka, V; Matoulek, M; Zelinka, T; Rosa, J; Petrák, O; Mikeš, O; Krátká, Z; Štrauch, B; Holaj, R; Widimský, J

    2016-10-26

    Hypokalaemia as a typical feature of primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with muscle weakness and could contribute to lower cardiopulmonary fitness. The aim of this study was to describe cardiopulmonary fitness and exercise blood pressure and their determinants during a symptom-limited exercise stress test in patients with PA. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with confirmed PA who were included before adrenal vein sampling on whom a symptom-limited exercise stress test with expired gas analysis was performed. Patients were switched to the treatment with doxazosin and verapamil at least two weeks before the study. In 27 patients (17 male) the VO(2peak) was 25.4+/-6.0 ml/kg/min which corresponds to 80.8+/-18.9 % of Czech national norm. Linear regression analysis shows that VO(2peak) depends on doxazosin dose (DX) (p = 0.001) and kalaemia (p = 0.02): VO(2peak) = 4.2 - 1.0 * DX + 7.6 * Kalaemia. Patients with higher doxazosin doses had a longer history of hypertension and had used more antihypertensives before examination, thus indicating that VO(2peak) also depends on the severity of hypertension. In patients with PA, lower cardiopulmonary fitness depends inversely on the severity of hypertension and on lower plasma potassium level.

  10. Recent physical and sexual violence against adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khalifeh, Hind; Oram, Siân; Osborn, David; Howard, Louise M.; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high prevalence of lifetime victimization, but little is known about the extent and risk of recent domestic/sexual violence. The objective was to synthesize evidence on prevalence, odds, and risk factors for recent violence against people with SMI, with a focus on domestic and sexual violence. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches in Medline, Psychinf, Embase (for studies published in 2010–2015), and through existing systematic reviews (for studies published in 2000–2014). The review included 30 studies (with 16 140 SMI participants), including six on domestic violence and 11 on sexual violence. Prevalence of recent domestic violence ranged from 15–22% among women and from 4–10% among men/mixed samples; with little evidence on risk compared with the general population. Median prevalence of sexual violence was 9.9% (IQR = 5.9–18.1%) in women and 3.1% (IQR = 2.5–6.7%) in men; with 6-fold higher odds of victimization compared with the general population. There was little evidence on risk factors for domestic or sexual violence. In conclusion, people with SMI have a high prevalence of recent domestic and sexual violence, but little is known about risk factors for these violence types, or extent of domestic violence victimization compared to the general population. PMID:27645197

  11. 15-Year developmental study on effects of severe undernutrition during infancy on subsequent physical growth and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed Central

    Stoch, M B; Smythe, P M

    1976-01-01

    This third 5-year follow-up on the effects of severe undernutrition during infancy on subsequent brain growth and intellectual development confirms the level of gross retardation of intellect in the undernourished group when compared with the controls. As the subjects are now 15-18 years of age this must be permanent. All but 5 of the undernourished group are now living in conditions comparable to the controls. Improved nutrition is manifest by catch-up in height, in that the mean difference between undernourished subjects and controls has decreased by 2-73 cm. Remarkably, the difference in head circumference has increased by 0-5 cm, the mean head circumference of the undernourished now being 2-8 cm less than that of the controls. The Bender Gestalt and Human Figure Drawing tests did not correlate with the intelligence tests, indicating a separate deficit of a marked disturbance of visual-motor perception in 17 of the undernourished subjects, in 9 of whom these tests were highly significant of minimal brain dysfunction (5 of the controls). In retrospect there is much evidence to suggest the controls were also suboptimal; 8 controls had abnormal electroencephalograms as did 6 of the undernourished group. Images Fig. 1. p330-b Fig. 2. p331-b Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:938077

  12. Recent physical and sexual violence against adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Hind; Oram, Siân; Osborn, David; Howard, Louise M; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high prevalence of lifetime victimization, but little is known about the extent and risk of recent domestic/sexual violence. The objective was to synthesize evidence on prevalence, odds, and risk factors for recent violence against people with SMI, with a focus on domestic and sexual violence. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches in Medline, Psychinf, Embase (for studies published in 2010-2015), and through existing systematic reviews (for studies published in 2000-2014). The review included 30 studies (with 16 140 SMI participants), including six on domestic violence and 11 on sexual violence. Prevalence of recent domestic violence ranged from 15-22% among women and from 4-10% among men/mixed samples; with little evidence on risk compared with the general population. Median prevalence of sexual violence was 9.9% (IQR = 5.9-18.1%) in women and 3.1% (IQR = 2.5-6.7%) in men; with 6-fold higher odds of victimization compared with the general population. There was little evidence on risk factors for domestic or sexual violence. In conclusion, people with SMI have a high prevalence of recent domestic and sexual violence, but little is known about risk factors for these violence types, or extent of domestic violence victimization compared to the general population.

  13. Physical and mental impact of psoriasis severity as measured by the compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) quality of life tool.

    PubMed

    Grozdev, Ivan; Kast, Douglas; Cao, Lauren; Carlson, Diana; Pujari, Prasad; Schmotzer, Brian; Babineau, Denise; Kern, Elizabeth; McCormick, Thomas; Cooper, Kevin D; Korman, Neil J

    2012-04-01

    The Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) is used to assess the patient's quality of life (QoL) using the physical component score (PCS) and the mental component score (MCS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the SF-12 PCS and MCS are associated with psoriasis severity and to compare QoL between Murdough Family Center for Psoriasis (MFCP) patients and patients with other major chronic diseases included in the National Survey of Functional Health Status data. We used data from 429 adult patients enrolled in MFCP. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to assess psoriasis severity at the time of completion of the SF-12 questionnaire. Other variables included age, sex, body mass index, psoriatic arthritis, psychiatric disorders, and comorbidities. Linear regression models were used to estimate effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals. For every 10-point increase in PASI, there was a 1.1 ± 1.3 unit decrease in MCS (P=0.100) and a 2.4 ± 1.3 unit decrease in PCS (P<0.001). Psoriasis severity was associated with PCS and MCS after adjusting for variables, although the strength of the relationship was attenuated in some models. Psoriasis severity is associated with decreased QoL. SF-12 may be a useful tool for assessing QoL among psoriasis patients.

  14. Marital and severe parent-to-adolescent physical aggression in clinic-referred families: mother and adolescent reports on co-occurrence and links to child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Annette; Donnelly, William O; Boxer, Paul; Lewis, Terri

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the interplay of marital and severe parental physical aggression, and their links to child behavior problems, in 232 families of clinic-referred adolescents. Combined reports from mothers and adolescents indicated that two thirds of adolescents exposed to marital aggression in the past year had also experienced parental aggression. Mothers and fathers who used and/or were victims of marital aggression were both more likely to direct aggression toward their adolescent. Mother and youth reports of marital aggression were tied to each party's report of greater externalizing problems and to youth reports of greater internalizing problems. Severe parental aggression uniquely predicted maternal reports of both behavior problems, after controlling for marital aggression; the reverse was not true. Also, adolescents exposed to both types of family aggression did not display greater maladjustment than those subjected to only one type of family aggression.

  15. Severe malarial anaemia.

    PubMed

    Casals-Pascual, C; Roberts, D J

    2006-03-01

    This review describes the importance of severe malarial anaemia as a public health problem, and the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this syndrome. The review also highlights the recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiological, clinical, cellular and molecular aspects of severe malarial anaemia.

  16. Beneficial effects of platelet-rich plasma on improvement of pain severity and physical disability in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Kianimehr, Lida; Moradi, Ahmad; Haghighat, Shila

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to clinically examine the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on improvement of plantar fasciitis and its related manifestations. Patients and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on 32 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of plantar fasciitis that were randomly assigned to the case group (that received PRP, n = 16) and the control group (that received corticosteroid as methylprednisolone 1 ml plus lidocaine 1 ml, n = 16). The endpoints in the present study were changes in the visual analog scale score and the modified Roles and Maudsley score (RMS) from baseline, 1-month, 3 months, and 6 months follow-up. Plantar fascia was also assessed by B-mode sonography before and also 3 months after primary assessment. Results: Regarding the pain severity, the PRP group had significantly higher mean pain score at 3 time points of before injection, as well as 1 and 3 months after PRP use when compared to the corticosteroid group (P < 0.05); however, the control group experienced significantly higher pain severity than the PRP group at 6 months after interventions. Also, RMS was lower in PRP group than in corticosteroid group at baseline as well as at 1 and 3 months after injections (P < 0.05). In sonography assessment, no difference was revealed. Conclusion: Administration of PRP leads to significant improvement in pain severity and physical limitation in patients with plantar fasciitis. This healing effect may be begun at least 3 months after injection. PMID:28028519

  17. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  18. Technology-Aided Programs to Support Positive Verbal and Physical Engagement in Persons with Moderate or Severe Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O’Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; D’Amico, Fiora; Renna, Caterina; Pinto, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Pilot studies using technology-aided programs to promote verbal reminiscence and mild physical activity (i.e., positive forms of engagement) in persons with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease have provided promising results (Lancioni et al., 2015a,b). The present two studies were aimed at upgrading and/or extending the assessment of those programs. Specifically, Study 1 upgraded the program for verbal reminiscence and assessed it with eight new participants. The upgraded version automatically monitored the participants’ verbal behavior during the sessions, in which photos and brief videos were used to foster verbal reminiscence. Monitoring allowed computer approval and reminders to be consistent with the participants’ behavior. Study 2 extended the assessment of the program for promoting mild physical activity with 10 new participants for whom arm-raising responses were targeted. The results of Study 1 showed that the participants’ mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence were below 10 during baseline and control sessions and between above 50 and nearly 80 during the intervention. The results of Study 2 showed that the mean frequencies of arm-raising responses were about or below four and between about 10 and 19 per session during the baseline and the intervention, respectively. The general implications of the aforementioned results and the need for new research in the area were discussed. PMID:27148050

  19. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  20. Psychological distress and physical disability in patients sustaining severe injuries in road traffic crashes: Results from a one-year cohort study from three European countries.

    PubMed

    Papadakaki, Maria; Ferraro, Ottavia Eleonora; Orsi, Chiara; Otte, Dietmar; Tzamalouka, Georgia; von-der-Geest, Marco; Lajunen, Timo; Özkan, Türker; Morandi, Anna; Sarris, Markos; Pierrakos, George; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to follow-up a group of road crash survivors for one year and assesses the impact of injury on their psychological and physical condition. All crash survivors that were admitted to the intensive or sub-intensive care units of selected hospitals in Greece, Germany and Italy over one year period (2013-2014), were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed at three different time-points as follows: (a) at one month (baseline data), (b) at six months, and (c) at twelve months. The study used widely recommended classifications for injury severity (AIS, MAIS) and standardized health outcome measures such as the Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS 2.0) to measure disability, "Impact of Event Scale" (IES-R) to measure Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale) to measure depression. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study in all the partner countries and 93 completed all follow up questionnaires. The risk of physical disability was 4.57 times higher [CI 1.98-2.27] at the first follow up and 3.43 times higher [CI 1.43-9.42] at the second follow up as compared with the time before the injury. There was a 79% and an 88% lower risk of depression at the first and the second follow up respectively, as compared with the baseline time. There was also a 72% lower risk of Post-Traumatic Stress at the second follow up as compared with the baseline time. A number of factors relevant to the individuals, the road crash and the injury, were shown to distinguish those at higher risk of long-lasting disability and psychological distress including age, marital status, type of road user, severity and type of the injury, past emotional reaction to distress. The study highlights the importance of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impact of injury on an individual and further underlines the importance of screening and treating psychological comorbidities in injury

  1. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  2. Soft coral abundance on the central Great Barrier Reef: effects of Acanthaster planci, space availability, and aspects of the physical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, K. E.

    1997-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of soft coral genera on reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef was investigated in relation to reef position, recent history of disturbance, wave exposure, substratum slope and depth. Eighty-five 25 m long transects were surveyed at 10 m depth on windward sides of 14 mid- and outer-shelf reefs. A further 75 transects in different zones on one mid-shelf reef (Davies Reef) between 5 and 30 m depth were investigated. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci had caused large-scale mortality of scleractinians on eight of these reefs five to ten years prior to the study, and as a result, scleractinian cover was only 35-55% of that on the six unimpacted reefs. On the impacted reefs, stony corals with massive and encrusting growths form had smaller average colony diameters but similar or slightly lower numerical abundance. In contrast, mean colony size, cover and abundance of branching stony corals showed no difference between impacted and unimpacted reefs. Twenty-four genera of soft corals (in eight families) were recorded, and none showed different abundance or cover in areas of former A. planci impact, compared to unaffected sites. Similarly, no difference was detected among locations in the numbers or area cover of sponges, tunicates, zoanthids, Halimeda or other macro-algae. Mean soft coral cover was 2 to 5% at 10 m on sheltered mid-shelf reefs, and 12 to 17% on more current-exposed reefs. Highest cover and abundances generally occurred on platforms of outer-shelf reefs exposed to relatively strong currents but low wave energy. On Davies Reef, cover and colony numbers of the families Nephtheidae and Xeniidae were low within the zone of wave impact, in flow-protected bays and lagoons, on shaded steep slopes, and at depths above 10 and below 25 m. In contrast, distributions of genera of the family Alcyoniidae were not related to these physical parameters. The physical conditions of a large proportion of habitats appear "sub

  3. [Severe multifactorial hyponatremia].

    PubMed

    Manes, Massimo; Radin, Elisabetta; Pellù, Valentina; Caputo, Donatella; Gabrielli, Danila; Molino, Andrea; Paternoster, Giuseppe; Parodi, Emanuele; Nebiolo, Pier Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder observed in hospitalized patients. The most severe forms are neurological and potentially fatal emergencies; yet increased morbidity, length of hospital stay and costs associated with less severe forms are aspects of major concern. Nephrologists are frequently consulted regarding the therapeutic management and the key pathophysiological issues of hyponatremia, as this latter aspect represents a true challenge in an emergency setting. We report a case of a woman admitted to the emergency room for gait instability caused by a very severe multifactorial hyponatremia with a favourable clinical outcome.

  4. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  5. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  6. Mental health nursing and physical health care: a cross-sectional study of nurses' attitudes, practice, and perceived training needs for the physical health care of people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Robson, Debbie; Haddad, Mark; Gray, Richard; Gournay, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Mental health nurses have a key role in improving the physical health of people with a serious mental illness, however, there have been few studies of their attitudes or the extent of their involvement in this work. The aim of this study was to examine mental health nurses' attitudes to physical health care and explore associations with their practice and training. A postal questionnaire survey including the Physical Health Attitude Scale for mental health nurses (PHASe) was used within a UK mental health trust. The 52% (n = 585) of staff who responded reported varying levels of physical health practice; this most frequently involved providing dietary and exercise advice and less frequently included advice regarding cancer screening and smoking cessation. Having received post-registration physical health-care training and working in inpatient settings was associated with greater reported involvement. More positive attitudes were also evident for nurses who had attended post-registration physical health training or had an additional adult/general nursing qualification. Overall, the attitudes of mental health nurses towards physical health care appear positive and the willingness of nurses to take on these roles needs to be recognized. However, there are areas where nurses in our sample were more ambivalent such as cancer screening and smoking cessation.

  7. Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

  8. Jamaica's disappearing forests: physical and human aspects.

    PubMed

    Tole, L

    2001-10-01

    Jamaica is a small island that is losing its forest cover at a rapid rate. Due to the dependency of its largely poor population on the many services and functions its forests provide, this loss threatens to have substantial socioeconomic and ecological consequences for the country. Despite these basic facts, the problem of Jamaican deforestation has received very little attention from the scientific community. This article presents results of an island-wide, satellite-based study of forest change for Jamaica for the period 1987-1992, which was supplemented by a field trip to the island in 1999 to assess the overall accuracy of the estimate. Landsat MSS images, which are available only up until 1992, have proved to be an invaluable and cost-effective resource for mapping forest change in the tropics, particularly in large areas. A supervised classification indicates that Jamaica experienced an average annual deforestation rate of 3.9% for this period, a figure higher than existing estimates based on partial ground surveys but lower than the FAO's 1990 Tropical Forest Assessment of 5.3% for 1981-1990. Deforestation estimates for Jamaica's 14 parishes are also presented, based on the integration of satellite-derived forest classification maps with a parish administrative boundaries map of the island in a GIS. A correlation analysis between parish deforestation estimates and socioeconomic and land use/quality indicators derived from official sources suggests that deforestation is occurring most rapidly in highly populated areas possessing large numbers of small farmers who live and work under resource-poor conditions. By providing a sense of the magnitude of and main forest loss hotspots, it is hoped that these national and subnational level forest estimates will draw scientific attention to the problem of deforestation on the island. In addition, the socioeconomic analysis may provide policy-makers and planners with some sense of the relative contribution of underlying driving process in this deforestation as a first step toward the creation of effective social programs to combat the problem.

  9. Some Aspects of Nonneutral Plasma Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-18

    in AlP 175 3. J. Daugherty, J. Eninger , and G. Janes. Phys Fluids, 12, 2677, (1969) 4. T. O’Neil, pl in AlP 175 5. D. Heinzen, J. Bollinger, F. Moore...Daugherty, J. Eninger , and G. Janes, AVCO Everett Report 375, AVCO Everett Research Lab, Everett, MA, October, 1971 14. P. Zaveri, P. John, and P. Kaw

  10. Development of curcumin nanocrystal: physical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Al Shaal, Loaye; Müller, Rainer H; Keck, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occuring polyphenolic phytoconstituent, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). It is water insoluble under acidic or neutral conditions but dissolves in alkaline environment. In neutral or alkaline conditions, curcumin is highly unstable undergoing rapid hydrolytic degradation to feruloyl methane and ferulic acid. Thus, the use of curcumin is limited by its poor aqueous solubility in acidic or neutral conditions and instability in alkaline pH. In the present study, curcumin nanocrystals were prepared using high-pressure homogenization, to improve its solubility. Five different stabilizers [polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt] possessing different stabilization mechanism were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized with regard to size, surface charge, shape and morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity. A short-term stability study was performed storing the differently stabilized nanoparticles at 4°C and room temperature. PVA, PVP, TPGS, and SDS successfully produced curcumin nanoparticle with the particle size in the range of 500-700 nm. PVA, PVP, and TPGS showed similar performance in preserving the curcumin nanosuspension stability. However, PVP is the most efficient polymer to stabilize curcumin nanoparticle. This study illustrates that the developed curcumin nanoparticle held great potential as a possible approach to improve the curcumin solubility then enhancing bioavailability.

  11. Severe Lower Limb Ischemia by Massive Arterial Thrombosis Revealing an Acute Myeloid Leukemia Needing for Leg Amputation: Clinical and Emotional Aspects Related to the Communication with the Patient and His Family

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, Calogero; Mosa, Clara; Di Marco, Floriana; Valentino, Fabrizio; Trizzino, Angela; Guadagna, Paola; Talarico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Large vessel thrombosis is a very rare clinical presentation of acute leukemia, generally associated with coagulopathy, usually characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia. A 13- year-old boy with a previously undiagnosed acute myeloid leukemia was referred to our hospital with acute ischemia of the right lower limb due to occlusion of the right external iliac artery, treated with emergency double surgical thromboembolectomy and chemotherapy. The thrombotic complication resulted in leg amputation. Now the boy is well in complete remission, with a good social integration and quality of life, 30 months after completing treatment. The report highlights the crucial role of early diagnosis and subsequent chemotherapy in avoiding amputation. We particularly focused critical and emotional aspects related to the communication about the leg amputation with the patient and his family. PMID:28058104

  12. Detectable Aspects Of Alaska, and the Southwests Kokopelli, Indicate That Environmental Monitoring By Native Americans Utilized Several Sensory Modes, and That Their Conservation Held Moral Value Within Their Traditional Culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Place-names of Alaska and the Americas, in names like Natick, MA, Matagamon, ME, Matacumbe Key, FL, Tecate Mt, CA, and Tacoma, WA as well as Allapatah, FL, and Issaqua, WA indicate Native Americans all monitored equivalent aspects of the earths EMF. Former coastal and island areas of Native American activity and culture in Alaska show a traditional, historic leader climbed the mountain of one cliff-like island area for weather prediction. We suggest that the ascent onto the mountain and the subsequent significant stay there was for purposes of cultural and religious reverence associated with direct observation of phenomena associated with known weather sequences. Similar cultural awareness of EMF phenomena and weather-making could be related to practices of the MiKmaw/Micmac Indians of the northeast, and the so-called rain-dance of the Hopi of the southwest. *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A

  13. Clinical hypnosis for palliative care in severe chronic diseases: a review and the procedures for relieving physical, psychological and spiritual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Maria Paola

    2016-10-01

    Hypnotic treatment in severe chronic diseases, for pain and symptoms relief, has proven efficacy as adjuvant therapy, and should be offered to any individual, who expresses an interest in this method. While some theorize hypnotizability as a changing attribute of the individual, there is a growing body of literature that indicates hypnotizability may be characterized as a constellation of potentially modifiable attitudes and skills, which are strongly influenced by related factors, as suffering, in severe chronic diseases. In this article, I briefly review representative studies recognizing how clinical hypnosis in medicine is an effective complementary therapy, for pain and symptom's relief in severe chronic diseases and in palliative care. This paper highlights: (I) a scientific review to underline how clinical hypnosis has an important impact on the treatment goals and integration in relieving pain and symptoms; (II) the advanced techniques for effectively relieving pain and symptoms.

  14. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  15. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  16. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  17. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  18. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... results from physical activities and sports that involve running and jumping, especially those that take place on ... cause pain until all symptoms are gone, especially running barefoot or on hard surfaces because hard impact ...

  19. Development and Validation of Scientific Literacy Achievement Test to Assess Senior Secondary School Students' Literacy Acquisition in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeleke, A. A.; Joshua, E. O.

    2015-01-01

    Physics literacy plays a crucial part in global technological development as several aspects of science and technology apply concepts and principles of physics in their operations. However, the acquisition of scientific literacy in physics in our society today is not encouraging enough to the desirable standard. Therefore, this study focuses on…

  20. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure (TROPLVL-(vegetation)), and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, WILLIAM S-Y.

    TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THEY ARE COMMONLY REPRESENTED AS "-LE," INDICATING COMPLETION OF ACTION, AND "-GUO," INDICATING THAT AN ACTION HAS TAKEN PLACE AT LEAST ONCE. THE PROBLEM INVOLVES SEVERAL SEEMING IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF…

  2. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  3. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  4. The role of quality of care and attitude towards disability in the relationship between severity of disability and quality of life: findings from a cross-sectional survey among people with physical disability in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with physical disability (PWPD) is the largest subgroup of people with disability (PWD) in China, but few studies have been conducted among this vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of quality of life (QoL), self-perceived quality of care and support (QOCS), severity of disability and personal attitude towards disability among people with physical disability in China, as well as to identify how QoL can be affected by severity of disability through QOCS and personal attitude towards disability among PWPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,853 PWPD in Guangzhou, China. Data were collected on participants’ QoL, QOCS, personal attitude towards disability and severity of disability. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of the other variables on QoL. Results Even with a mild disability (mean score:1.72), relatively low levels of QoL (mean score: 2.65- 3.22) and QOCS (mean score: 2.95 to 3.28), as well as unfavorable personal attitude towards disability (mean score: 2.75 to 3.36) were identified among PWPD. According to SEM, we found that the influence of severity of physical disability on QoL is not only exerted directly, but is also indirectly through QOCS and their personal attitudes towards disability, with QOCS playing a more important mediating role than PWPD’s attitudes towards their own disability. Conclusions Unfavorable health status was identified among PWPD in China. Focusing on improvement of assistance and care services has the potential to substantially improve PWPD’s QoL. Further research should focus on understanding the needs and their current state of health care of PWPD in China thus being able to develop better interventions for them. PMID:24559096

  5. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  6. A Theorist View on VASIMR Physics Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breizman, B. N.

    2000-10-01

    The variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR) project involves several components that require fundamental physics understanding to provide a solid background for the design work and to ensure overall consistency of the concept. Particle and energy balance, atomic physics and plasma kinetics in the helicon discharge, nonlinear aspects of ion cyclotron resonance absorption, and the transition from subalfvenic to superalfvenic flow in the magnetic nozzle are among the most important issues currently under investigation. This overview summarizes recent progress in the related theoretical and numerical work with an emphasis on the basic physics issues that still require more careful analysis and/or experimental verifications.

  7. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... good flexibility while your child is growing. The stretching exercises pictured in the treatment section can lower ... your child has already recovered from Sever's disease, stretching and putting ice on the heel after activity ...

  8. Aspects of cosmological relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1999-07-01

    The author reviews cosmological relativity, a new special theory of relativity that was recently developed for cosmology, and discusses in detail some of its aspects. He recalls that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. New applications of the theory are presented. The author shows that there is no need to assume the existence of galaxy dark matter; the Tully-Fisher law is derived from the theory. A completely new picture of the expanding universe is thus obtained and compared to the FRW one.

  9. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  10. Magic Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  11. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  12. Aspects of Integrability in One and Several Dimensions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Korteweg - deVries (KdV) equation qt = q - 6qq x q = q(x,t), the recursion operator I is D 4q - 2q Dl. where 0 3x’ (D1 f)(x) f/xf( )dE. If 6 is the...70 It is also well known that the Harry-Dym 6 2 equation , can be mapped to a modified Korteweg - deVries (MKdV) equation via an extended...Petviashvili (a two dimensional analogue of the Korteweg - deVries ) and the Davey-Stewartson (a two dimensional analogue of the nonlinear Schr6dinger

  13. Investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-4 data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No insurmountable problems in change detection analysis were found when portions of scenes collected simultaneously by LANDSAT 4 MSS and either LANDSAT 2 or 3. The cause of the periodic noise in LANDSAT 4 MSS images which had a RMS value of approximately 2DN should be corrected in the LANDSAT D instrument before its launch. Analysis of the P-tape of the Arkansas scene shows bands within the same focal plane very well registered except for the thermal band which was misregistered by approximately three 28.5 meter pixels in both directions. It is possible to derive tight confidence bounds for the registration errors. Preliminary analyses of the Sacramento and Arkansas scenes reveals a very high degree of consistency with earlier results for bands 3 vs 1, 3 vs 4, and 3 vs 5. Results are presented in table form. It is suggested that attention be given to the standard deviations of registrations errors to judge whether or not they will be within specification once any known mean registration errors are corrected. Techniques used for MTF analysis of a Washington scene produced noisy results.

  14. Investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-4 data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of band-to-band registration in a TM scene of San Francisco, California by flickering different band pairs on the display showed no major problems. The power spectra of individual lines in each band on the A-tape of a Washington, D.C. scene, which represented data from individual detectors, was calculated. The power spectra for each detector were averaged and the peak-to-peak amplitudes were calculated as a function of frequency. Estimated system modulation transfer functions were calculated for bands 3 and 4 for a 128 x 128 pixel area of the San Francisco Bay containing the San Matteo Bridge. The shape and width of the modulation transfer functions appear reasonable, but further study is required to establish confidence in the results which yield an effective-instantaneous field of view of 33.6 meters and 40.8 meters in bands 3 and 4, respectively.

  15. Wellness Assessment: A Rationale, A Measure, and Physical/Psychological Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffield, Gilda; Dana, Richard H.

    Wellness, or holistic health, represents a positive attitude toward the integration of physical and psychological aspects of lifestyle. There have been few attempts to assess wellness that contain more than questionnaire items across several component areas. This paper describes a test battery that includes physical (nutrition, cardiorespiratory…

  16. Integrated Services for the Severely Physically Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Donald

    1975-01-01

    Describes cooperative planning among a non-profit metropolitan tuberculosis sanitorium, a state vocational rehabilitation service and a medical center to provide a comprehensive rehabilitation program at Lakeshore Hospital, Birmingham, Alabama. (Author/EJT)

  17. Magnetotail physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of magnetotails (MTs) are examined in reviews and reports based on papers presented at the Chapman Conference on Magnetotail Physics, held at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in October 1985. Topics addressed include the MT configuration, fluid and kinetic aspects of MT dynamics, active diagnosis of the earth MT, and the MTs of celestial objects. Also provided are an overview of the conference findings and summaries of panel discussions on injection-layer and Alfven-layer models, reconnection and viscous-interaction models of solar-wind/magnetosphere energy transfer, and phenomenological models of MT substorms.

  18. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  19. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  20. Immunological aspects of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in several countries. The underlying process is atherosclerosis, a slowly progressing chronic disorder that can lead to intravascular thrombosis. There is overwhelming evidence for the underlying importance of our immune system in atherosclerosis. Monocytes, which comprise part of the innate immune system, can be recruited to inflamed endothelium and this recruitment has been shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerotic disease. Monocytes undergo migration into the vasculature, they differentiate into macrophage phenotypes, which are highly phagocytic and can scavenge modified lipids, leading to foam cell formation and development of the lipid-rich atheroma core. This increased influx leads to a highly inflammatory environment and along with other immune cells can increase the risk in the development of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. The present review provides an overview and description of the immunological aspect of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in atherosclerosis, by defining their interaction with the vascular environment, modified lipids and other cellular exchanges. There is a particular focus on monocytes and macrophages, but shorter descriptions of dendritic cells, lymphocyte populations, neutrophils, mast cells and platelets are also included.

  1. Operational health physics training

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  2. [Severe asthma].

    PubMed

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  3. Practical Aspects of Nonlinear Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    14. E. Levitan and B . Polyak, "Constrained Minimization Methods", USSR Comp. Math. and Math. Physics 6, 1, (1966). 15. J. May, "Solving Nonlinear...AD-AIO 858 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/G 12/1 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION.U) JUN 81 R B HOLMES, J W TOLLESON...dj, l<j< m , (2) with the understanding the Q so defined has a non-empty interior (is "solid"). No qualitative assumptions on the objective - i

  4. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    future design work be done more by physics-based computations and less by experiments, several codes under development were evaluated against these test cases. Preliminary results show that the RANS-based code JeNo predicts the spectral directivity of the low aspect ratio jets well, but has no capability to predict the non-axisymmetry. An effort to address this limitations, used in the RANS-based code of Leib and Goldstein, overpredicted the impact of aspect ratio. The broadband shock noise code RISN, also limited to axisymmetric assumptions, did a good job of predicting the spectral directivity of underexpanded 2:1 cold jet case but was not as successful on high aspect ratio jets, particularly when they are hot. All results are preliminary because the underlying CFD has not been validated yet. An effort using a Large Eddy Simulation code by Stanford University predicted noise that agreed with experiments to within a few dB.

  5. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  6. [Socio-psychological and ecological aspects within the system of nuclear radiation risk mitigation].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B I; Ushakov, I B; Zuev, V G

    2004-01-01

    The authors bring into light several aspects of nuclear radiation risks, i.e. physical safety of nuclear technologies and ecology, place of operator within the nuclear radiation safety system (proficiency, protective culture, safety guides) and consider approaches to the human factor quantification within the system of mitigation of risks from nuclear technologies, and IAEA recommendations on probable risk estimation. Future investigations should be aimed at extension of the radiation sensitivity threshold, personnel selection as by psychological so genetic testing for immunity to ionizing radiation, development of pharmachemical and physical protectors and methods of enhancing nonspecific resistance to extreme, including radiation, environments, and building of radiation event simulators for training.

  7. The Medical Physics Workforce.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne D

    2017-02-01

    The medical physics workforce comprises approximately 24,000 workers worldwide and approximately 8,200 in the United States. The occupation is a recognized, established, and mature profession that is undergoing considerable growth and change, with many of these changes being driven by scientific, technical, and medical advances. Presently, the medical physics workforce is adequate to meet societal needs. However, data are emerging that suggest potential risks of shortages and other problems that could develop within a few years. Some of the governing factors are well established, such as the increasing number of incident cancers thereby increasing workload, while others, such as the future use of radiation treatments and changes in healthcare economic policies, are uncertain and make the future status of the workforce difficult to forecast beyond the next several years. This review examines some of the major factors that govern supply and demand for medical physicists, discusses published projections and their uncertainties, and presents other information that may help to inform short- and long-term planning of various aspects of the future workforce. It includes a description of the general characteristics of the workforce, including information on its size, educational attainment, certification, age distribution, etc. Because the supply of new workers is governed by educational and training pathways, graduate education, post-doctoral training, and residency training are reviewed, along with trends in state and federal support for research and education. Selected professional aspects of the field also are considered, including professional certification and compensation. We speculate on the future outlook of the workforce and provide recommendations regarding future actions pertaining to the future medical physics workforce.

  8. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  9. [Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics] Final report on Grant DOE Award No. DE-FG02-88ER40448 and its extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, Paul; Davidson, Richard M.

    2002-07-01

    Theoretical research was carried out to elucidate the quark-gluon structure of nuclei and hadrons as revealed by electroweak interactions. Research was carried out in collaboration with theorists at other institutions and experimentalists in the RPI group. Numerous research articles were published in the leading physics journals.

  10. Mathematical Aspects of Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhr, Claude

    In these lectures we discuss some of the mathematical structures that appear when computing multi-loop Feynman integrals. We focus on a specific class of special functions, the so-called multiple polylogarithms, and introduce their Hopf algebra structure. We show how these mathematical concepts are useful in physics by illustrating on several examples how these algebraic structures are useful to perform analytic computations of loop integrals, in particular to derive functional equations among polylogarithms.

  11. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  12. DOING Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Several good features of a projectile motion experiment (students fire their own rockets) are described, including accuracy achieved, low cost and relative safety. Also described is a simple novelty toy (originally distributed by McDonalds foods) illustrating physics concepts. Blowing on this toy pipe propels a thread around in a loop. (JN)

  13. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  14. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  15. Mechanical aspects of CO₂ angiography.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Ivan; Rossi, Pier Luca; Feliciani, Giacomo; Pisani, Luca; Zannoli, Sebastiano; Zannoli, Romano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify some physical-mechanical aspects involved in the carbon dioxide angiography procedure (CO₂ angiography), with a particular attention to a possible damage of the vascular wall. CO₂ angiography is widely used on patients with iodine intolerance. The injection of a gaseous element, in most cases manually performed, requires a long training period. Automatic systems allow better control of the injection and the study of the mechanical behaviour of the gas. CO₂ injections have been studied by using manual and automatic systems. Pressures, flows and jet shapes have been monitored by using a cardiovascular mock. Photographic images of liquid and gaseous jet have been recorded in different conditions, and the vascular pressure rises during injection have been monitored. The shape of the liquid jet during the catheter washing phase is straight in the catheter direction and there is no jet during gas injection. Gas bubbles are suddenly formed at the catheter's hole and move upwards: buoyancy is the only governing phenomenon and no bubbles fragmentation is detected. The pressure rise in the vessel depends on the injection pressure and volume and in some cases of manual injection it may double the basal vascular pressure values. CO₂ angiography is a powerful and safe procedure which diffusion will certainly increase, although some aspects related to gas injection and chamber filling are not jet well known. The use of an automatic system permits better results, shorter training period and limitation of vascular wall damage risk.

  16. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  17. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  18. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  19. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  20. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  1. Global Aspects of Radiation Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The gravitational radiation memory effect produces a net displacement of test particles. The proposed sources lead to E mode memory, as characterized by an even parity polarization pattern. Although odd parity, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory which produces a net momentum ``kick'' of charged test particles. A global null cone treatment shows that electromagnetic E mode memory requires unbounded charges and no physically realistic source produces B mode memory. A compelling theoretical aspect of E mode gravitational radiation memory is related to the supertranslations in the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) asymptotic symmetry group. For a stationary system, supertranslations can be eliminated and the BMS group reduced to the Poincare group, for which angular momentum is well-defined. However, for a stationary to stationary transition, the two Poincare groups obtained at early and late times differ by a supertranslation if the gravitational radiation has nonzero E mode memory. This suggests a distinctly general relativistic mechanism for angular momentum loss and presents a ripe problem for the numerical simulation of high spin black hole binaries. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1201276 to the University of Pittsburgh.

  2. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  3. Psychosocial Aspects of Nuclear Developments. Task Force Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

    This is the report of a task force formed to bring psychological understanding to bear on the various aspects of the development of nuclear arms and nuclear energy and the threat they pose to human physical, mental, and emotional health. The first of seven articles considers the sociopsychological aspects of the nuclear arms race. Other articles…

  4. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  5. Exploring Woman University Physics Students "Doing Gender" and "Doing Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Anna T.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what it can mean to be a woman physics student. A case study approach is used to explore how five women who are studying physics at a Swedish university simultaneously negotiate their doing of physics and their doing of gender. By conceptualising both gender and learning as aspects of identity formation, the analysis of the…

  6. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  7. Introducing the Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry to Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jason K.

    2007-01-01

    Various efforts are being made to introduce the different physical aspects and uses of computational chemistry to the undergraduate chemistry students. A new laboratory approach that demonstrates all such aspects via experiments has been devised for the purpose.

  8. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  9. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  10. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bockris, J.M.; Conway, B.E.; White, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: perspectives in electrochemical physics; modern state of double layer study of solid metals; photoelectrolysis and photoelectrochemical catalysis; electron transfer reactions on oxide-covered metal electrodes; and interfacial electrostatics and electrodynamics in disperse systems.

  11. Gender Disparities in Second-Semester College Physics: The Incremental Effects of a "Smog of Bias"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous research [Kost et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009)] examined gender differences in the first-semester, introductory physics class at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We found that: (1) there were gender differences in several aspects of the course, including conceptual survey performance, (2) these…

  12. A new detector array for diffractive physics in ALICE at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, Gerardo Herrera

    2011-07-15

    We discuss some aspects of a new sub-detector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. This detector would enhance the capabilities of ALICE to study several topics of diffractive as well as of photon induced physics. It consists of four stations of scintillator pads that would tag the diffractive gap more efficiently.

  13. Physics and Picasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daegene

    2014-09-01

    Paintings from four different periods are considered in chronological order to review an aspect of the `advancement' of arts. In particular, on the basis of a distinction between matter and mind, it is discussed that the Western arts have progressed from involving mainly matter, or objective description, to placing greater emphasis on mind, or subjective imagination. An examination of the advancement of arts may hint that physics, which has dealt with matter so far, may address the aspect of mind in the future.

  14. Some economic aspects of recreational injuries.

    PubMed

    Arundel, J T

    1974-06-01

    This paper deals with some basic features of accidents in recreation and will attempt to throw some light on their economic consequences. Let us examine sport as one aspect of recreation. As Williams (1973) put it, "Sport is a phenomenon of simple definition, but with well recognised features. It is essentially recreational, essentially physical, frequently competitive and always contrived." The number and type of participants has increased, along with the range of activities available. Classifications of sport, at best, are arbitrary but nevertheless are useful for analysis. These divisions may be land/air/water types; indoor/outdoor; team/individual; body contact/non-contact/vehicular; amateur/professional. Sports injuries are of two types, intrinsic or self-inflicted (Williams, 1973) and extrinsic. Intrinsic injuries refer to those as a result of over-use (leading, for example, to stress fractures) and to specific incidents not involving outside agents. Extrinsic injuries are caused by contact with external objects and form the bulk of injuries sustained in body-contact, vehicular (horses, cars, skis) and environmental-type sports. Extrinsic injuries are generally more severe because greater forces and velocities are involved. Appendix 1 lists the main sporting activities according to location of sport; individual or team participation; likelihood of extensive body contact; and professional status. Professional players not only suffer loss of earning capacity but may reflect a bad investment for an entrepreneur or reduce spectator attendance and gate taking. It is apparent that team sports, having substantial body contact, face a higher risk of moderate to serious injury than do individual, non-contact sports, although major injuries can be sustained in the latter, for example, sprains and dislocations in athletics, golf, tennis, etc. Other sports must be classed as dangerous because of the nature of competition, for example, motor racing and flying. These

  15. The Physics of Sports: A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, James

    2006-10-01

    In this talk, I will present a physicist's way of looking at various aspects of sports. In particular, I will focus the discussion on how one might improve or enhance performance by thinking as a physicist about the processes involved. Examples that will be discussed will range from why hockey sticks are (today) curved to why good (basketball) dribbling should be ``heard.'' I will present several examples of the benefits of effecting efficiency in motion. This talk will draw on portions of presentations that I have given in the Boulder-Denver area during the past 30 years on the physics of sports. In all these presentations, my purpose was to teach and develop student interest in physics while talking about -- and showing the relevance of physics to -- sports.

  16. Physical modelling in biomechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, M A R

    2003-01-01

    Physical models, like mathematical models, are useful tools in biomechanical research. Physical models enable investigators to explore parameter space in a way that is not possible using a comparative approach with living organisms: parameters can be varied one at a time to measure the performance consequences of each, while values and combinations not found in nature can be tested. Experiments using physical models in the laboratory or field can circumvent problems posed by uncooperative or endangered organisms. Physical models also permit some aspects of the biomechanical performance of extinct organisms to be measured. Use of properly scaled physical models allows detailed physical measurements to be made for organisms that are too small or fast to be easily studied directly. The process of physical modelling and the advantages and limitations of this approach are illustrated using examples from our research on hydrodynamic forces on sessile organisms, mechanics of hydraulic skeletons, food capture by zooplankton and odour interception by olfactory antennules. PMID:14561350

  17. Historical aspects of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sims, A

    1988-01-01

    Although the syndromes of anxiety have only been recognized this century, the belief that the emotion of fearful apprehension could cause physical illness has a much longer history. James Vere wrote his book entitled "A physical and moral enquiry into the causes of that internal restlessness and disorder in man which has been the complaint of all ages" in 1778. The earliest accounts of phobia, as anxiety associated with specific circumstances have been ascribed to two cases from Hippocrates, whilst one of the earliest accounts in the English language may be that of William Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice describing a supposed phobia for cats. Robert Burton (1621) described various anxiety disorders in classical detail in his 'Anatomy of Melancholy'.

  18. Medical and Sociocultural Aspects of Disability. Section III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Herbert L.; And Others

    This document contains four papers, discussing medical and sociocultural aspects of disability, presented at a national conference on the nonwhite disabled. In "Some Observations on Blacks and Physical Disability," Thornhill and Torres note the higher prevalence of physical disability among blacks and cite the example of more frequent lower…

  19. Physical activity and cancer prevention: etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Orenstein, Marla R

    2002-11-01

    Scientific evidence is accumulating on physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of cancer. Nearly 170 observational epidemiologic studies of physical activity and cancer risk at a number of specific cancer sites have been conducted. The evidence for decreased risk with increased physical activity is classified as convincing for breast and colon cancers, probable for prostate cancer, possible for lung and endometrial cancers and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Despite the large number of studies conducted on physical activity and cancer, most have been hampered by incomplete assessment of physical activity and a lack of full examination of effect modification and confounding. Several plausible hypothesized biological mechanisms exist for the association between physical activity and cancer, including changes in endogenous sexual and metabolic hormone levels and growth factors, decreased obesity and central adiposity and possibly changes in immune function. Weight control may play a particularly important role because links between excess weight and increased cancer risk have been established for several sites, and central adiposity has been particularly implicated in promoting metabolic conditions amenable to carcinogenesis. Based on existing evidence, some public health organizations have issued physical activity guidelines for cancer prevention, generally recommending at least 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity on > or =5 d/wk. Although most research has focused on the efficacy of physical activity in cancer prevention, evidence is increasing that exercise also influences other aspects of the cancer experience, including cancer detection, coping, rehabilitation and survival after diagnosis.

  20. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.E.; Bockris, J.O'M.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This book focuses on topics at the forefront of electrochemical research. Splitting water by electrolysis; splitting water by visible light; the recent development of lithium batteries; theoretical approaches to intercalation; and fundamental concepts of electrode kinetics, particularly as applied to semiconductors are discussed. It is recommended for electrochemists, physical chemists, corrosion scientists, and those working in the fields of analytical chemistry, surface and colloid science, materials science, electrical engineering, and chemical engineering.

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Extent and Manner of Representations of Nature of Science in U.S. High School Biology and Physics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Myers, John Y.; Summers, Ryan; Brunner, Jeanne; Waight, Noemi; Wahbeh, Nader; Zeineddin, Ava A.; Belarmino, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the (i) ways in which, and extent to which, several aspects of nature of science (NOS) are represented in high school biology and physics textbooks in the United States (U.S.); (ii) extent to which these representations have changed over the course of several decades; and (iii) relative impact of discipline, and textbook…

  2. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  3. Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prasinos, S

    1992-03-01

    This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity.

  4. Historical aspects of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background of my experiences, clinical and scientific. These lead me to question the assumption that “anxiety”, as it exists in syndromal disturbances, is simply the quantitative extreme of the normal “anxiety” that occurs during the anticipation of danger. An alternative view that emphasizes dysfunctions of distinct evolved adaptive alarm systems is presented. PMID:22033777

  5. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  6. Fibromyalgia: clinical and occupational aspects.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists.

  7. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example.

  8. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  9. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Pei -Ming

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S12 and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of Sq2 and CPq(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CPq(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  10. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  11. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  12. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  13. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  14. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  15. A Comparative Study of Control and Display Design Principles Which Affect Efficient Use of Communication Aids by the Severely Physically Disabled. Final Report, September 15, 1981-October 15, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Maurice A.; Barker, Margaret R.

    A research study was conducted to investigate a control and display system for use with communication aids by physically disabled persons. A modification of a row/column scanning system was investigated to increase speed and accuracy of access to the communication system by six children with athetoid cerebral palsy. Four systems were compared:…

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  17. The quantum physics of observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, B. I.

    2002-08-01

    The observer is herein studied as an aspect of laboratory physics. It is generally accepted that our status as observers is mediated by our material aspects: our body and brain. But, observers are typically equated with classical coordinate systems. An alternative, modelling the observer as a quantum entity, is considered. The corresponding transformations between two quantum observers affect the computed wavefunctions of other quantum entities in a physically meaningful manner.

  18. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  19. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  20. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.

  1. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  2. Psychological Aspects of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, R. Bruce

    1964-01-01

    Headache is considered as a non-specific syndrome illustrating the concept of pain as an emotion. Viewed in this way, its meaning looms larger than its site. Pain indicates dis-ease of the patient, sometimes with his body, but more often with his life. No pain is “imaginary”, nor can some pain be assigned to physiological and some to psychological pathways. Such a decision is often merely a judgmental one. Just as the “brain” cannot easily be separated from the “mind”, so to believe that some pain is “physical” and some “emotional” is a distortion. All painful syndromes are mixed and the problem is to decipher the meaning of the pain. Only rarely will headache respond to physical measures alone. PMID:14199822

  3. [Headache: Otorhinolaryngological aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, O

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the main symptom in a wide variety of diseases of which ear, nose and throat (ENT) entities are only a small fraction but are not reflected in the number of patients. Comprehensive knowledge of the clinical signs of the most common primary headaches, e. g. migraine, is therefore essential for the ENT specialist because the few patients with secondary headache from ENT-related causes must be identified. Reasons for confusing primary headache with e. g. sinusitis are mostly symptoms mediated by the trigeminal nerve, such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea because branches of the trigeminal nerve also innervate the meninges. The ENT-specific origin of headaches is characterized by clinical findings of physical organ disease; therefore, from an ENT perspective imaging should be part of the diagnostic procedure as normal imaging findings are indicative of primary headache, which would not normally be treated by an ENT specialist.

  4. Physics in a Brewery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie

    Looking through the glass, and what Physics found there. A story of beer. Bubbles, heads and temperature make for a great pint, and a vast playground for the physicist. We will discuss a variety of aspects of the science of beer and reflect on the rational of the tricks pulled by professional brewers! - In partnership with Mike Hess Brewery, San Diego.

  5. Blue-Ribbon Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The Search for Excellence in Science Education (SESE) project gives national recognition to outstanding science programs. Descriptions of five high school physics programs selected by SESE are provided. Unique aspects of the programs, instructional strategies, and other areas are included. (BC)

  6. Immunological aspects of pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L A; Ahlstedt, S; Fasth, A; Hagberg, M; Kaijser, B; Mattsby-Baltzer, I; Svanborg-Eden, C

    1979-01-01

    Several virulence factors, such as O and K antigens and capacity to attach to uroepithelial cells, seem to be required for Escheria coli to cause acute pyelonephritis. These factors induce an immune response, however, which can modify the course and clinical expression of the infection. During acute pyelonephritis, autoantibodies to the Tamm-Horsfall protein increase. These antibodies, which probably are evoked by a cross-reaction noted between structures of E. coli LPS and the Tamm-Horsfall protein, may add to the renal tissue engagement in interstitial nephritis caused by bacterial pyelonephritis.

  7. Some Physical and Chemical Aspects of Striation Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-15

    represents a convective loss: 4 V0 a k Vn/8 (5) where vn is the fast neutral speed and the relation Ax Ak = (6) for a Gaussian profile has been used. In...and I. M. Pikus, "Kinetics of High-Energy Heavy-Particle Collisional Processes," in DNA 1948H. 4. F. W. Sears, An Introduction to Themodynamics , the...ane/ax)l (A-15a) LB = IB0 2/(aB0 2/x)l (A-15b) Equation (A-3) permits the scale lengths to be related : Ln= aL8 (A-16) with 0 8n (Pe + Pi)/Bo2 (A-17

  8. Physical and engineering aspect of carbon beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Minohara, Shinichi; Yusa, Ken; Urakabe, Eriko; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Iseki, Yasushi; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Tomitani, Takehiro

    2003-08-01

    Conformal irradiation system of HIMAC has been up-graded for a clinical trial using a technique of a layer-stacking method. The system has been developed for localizing irradiation dose to target volume more effectively than the present irradiation dose. With dynamic control of the beam modifying devices, a pair of wobbler magnets, and multileaf collimator and range shifter, during the irradiation, more conformal radiotherapy can be achieved. The system, which has to be adequately safe for patient irradiations, was constructed and tested from a viewpoint of safety and the quality of the dose localization realized. A secondary beam line has been constructed for use of radioactive beam in heavy-ion radiotherapy. Spot scanning method has been adapted for the beam delivery system of the radioactive beam. Dose distributions of the spot beam were measured and analyzed taking into account of aberration of the beam optics. Distributions of the stopped positron-emitter beam can be observed by PET. Pencil beam of the positron-emitter, about 1 mm size, can also be used for measurements ranges of the test beam in patients using positron camera. The positron camera, consisting of a pair of Anger-type scintillation detectors, has been developed for this verification before treatment. Wash-out effect of the positron-emitter was examined using the positron camera installed. In this report, present status of the HIMAC irradiation system is described in detail.

  9. Pressure ulcers. Physical, supportive, and local aspects of management.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, O M; Childs, E J

    1991-10-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common and serious problem predominately among elderly persons who are confined to bed or chair. Additional factors associated with pressure ulcer development include cerebrovascular accident, impaired nutritional intake, urinary or fecal incontinence, hypoalbuminemia, and previous fracture. Implementation of preventive measures, such as an in-depth assessment for mobility, a pressure-relieving device combined with adequate repositioning, and thorough evaluation for nutritional status and urinary incontinence, significantly reduce pressure ulcer incidence. If the pressure ulcer is a partial thickness (stage II) wound, the causative factors are probably friction or moisture. If the ulcer is full thickness (stage III and IV), it is secondary to pressure or shearing forces. The development of wound infection is the most common complication in the management approach. Osteomyelitis is not an uncommon occurrence and must be initially ruled out in all full thickness pressure ulcers. Surgical debridement of necrotic tissue is necessary prior to further treatment and assessments. Antibiotic therapy is indicated only upon evidence of infection (cellulitis, osteomyelitis, leukocytosis, bandemia, or fever). Topical pharmacologic agents may be used to prevent or treat infection but must be carefully controlled to avoid such adverse effects as toxicity to the wound, allergic reaction, and development of resistant pathogens. Proper use of occlusive dressings increase patient comfort, enhance healing, decrease the possibility of infection, save time, and reduce costs. A patient presenting an ulcer that fails to improve or, because of its size, will take a great deal of time to heal should be evaluated for surgical closure.

  10. [Hygienic aspects of physical development and reproductive health in schoolgirls].

    PubMed

    Sukhareva, L M; Kuindzhi, N N; Iampol'skaia, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of medical examination (single-step and longitudinal) of more than 10,000 schoolgirls and students aged 8-17 and 17-23 years respectively undertaken in Moscow in 1960-2004 and on the archival data (6500 medical cards of primipara women) from maternity hospitals dated to 1981-1990. It was shown that a main feature of growth and development of the female organism in the recent years was gracialization of the girls' stature due to reduced transverse and circumferential body measures including diameter of pelvis. This finding implies a risk of reproductive health impairment with time. Future reproductive potential of schoolgirls is negatively affected by such social factors as excess academic load, psychoemotional stress during the last school year and prior to entering a higher education institution, schoolwork-dominated life style hampering realization of biological needs of the developing organism (in the first place motor activity).

  11. Physical and engineering aspect of carbon beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Minohara, Shinichi; Yusa, Ken; Urakabe, Eriko; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Tomitani, Takehiro; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Iseki, Yasushi

    2003-08-26

    Conformal irradiation system of HIMAC has been up-graded for a clinical trial using a technique of a layer-stacking method. The system has been developed for localizing irradiation dose to target volume more effectively than the present irradiation dose. With dynamic control of the beam modifying devices, a pair of wobbler magnets, and multileaf collimator and range shifter, during the irradiation, more conformal radiotherapy can be achieved. The system, which has to be adequately safe for patient irradiations, was constructed and tested from a viewpoint of safety and the quality of the dose localization realized. A secondary beam line has been constructed for use of radioactive beam in heavy-ion radiotherapy. Spot scanning method has been adapted for the beam delivery system of the radioactive beam. Dose distributions of the spot beam were measured and analyzed taking into account of aberration of the beam optics. Distributions of the stopped positron-emitter beam can be observed by PET. Pencil beam of the positron-emitter, about 1 mm size, can also be used for measurements ranges of the test beam in patients using positron camera. The positron camera, consisting of a pair of Anger-type scintillation detectors, has been developed for this verification before treatment. Wash-out effect of the positron-emitter was examined using the positron camera installed. In this report, present status of the HIMAC irradiation system is described in detail.

  12. Stunting syndrome in broilers: physical, physiological, and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, F; Nir, I

    1995-01-01

    The effect of stunting syndrome (SS) on young broilers induced by orally administering an inoculum prepared from intestines of SS-affected broiler chicks was studied in two experiments. Depression of growth, feed intake, and feed utilization, respectively, was negatively related to the age of inoculation, i.e., highest at posthatch inoculation (63, 57, and 61%), and intermediate at the ages of 3 (42, 45, and 50%) and 7 d (29, 34, and 53%), whereas at the age of 14 d inoculation was ineffectual and the inoculated chicks performed similarly to the naive controls. Eating behavior was determined by periodically recording the number of chicks in each treatment group exhibiting this behavior, i.e., pecking mash in the feeder or pecking the litter. Eating activity was much higher in inoculated chicks (about 20 to 24%) than in the naive controls (6 to 12%) and as with performance negatively related to the age of inoculation. In chicks inoculated at the age of 14 d, eating activity was quite similar to that of the naive control chicks. Noninoculated chickens raised in the same room as their inoculated counterparts were infected by the disease agents. In some respects the consequences of horizontal infection were similar to those observed in inoculated chicks, i.e., depressed feed intake, growth, and feed utilization and a heavier heart, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, and gastrointestinal contents. In contrast, the activities of the pancreatic digestive enzymes were more similar to those of the naive controls than to those of the inoculated groups. At the age of 14 d, activities of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase in the pancreas were lower in the inoculated than in the naive control birds. At the age of 21 d, the results were reversed and activity in the inoculated birds was higher than in the naive control birds. During both periods, the activity of pancreatic lipase was higher in the naive controls than in the inoculated birds. The hyperactivity estimated via a determination of eating activity suggests that SS is an affliction not only of digestion but also of metabolism.

  13. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  14. Some Physical and Engineering Aspects of High Current EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A; Prelec, K.

    1999-05-21

    Some applications of an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) require intensities of highly charged ions significantly greater than those which have been achieved in present EBIS sources. For example, the ion source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) must be capable of generating 3 x 10{sup 9} ions of Au{sup 35+} or 2 x 10{sup 9} ions of U{sup 45+} per pulse. In this case, if the fraction of ions of interest is 20% of the total ion space charge, the total extracted charge is {approximately} 5 x 10{sup 11}. It is also desirable to extract these ions in a 10 {micro}s pulse to allow single turn injection into the first synchrotrons. Requirements for an EBIS which could meet the needs of the LHC at CERN are similar ({approximately} 1.5 x 10{sup 9} ions of Pb{sup 54+} in 5.5 {micro}s). This charge yield is about an order of magnitude greater than that achieved in existing EBIS sources, and is what is meant here by high current. This also implies, then, an EBIS with a high electron beam current.

  15. [Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects].

    PubMed

    Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments' main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells). The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes) and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  16. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  17. Aspects of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Wigner, E. P.

    2010-03-01

    Preface; List of contributors; Bibliography of P. A. M. Dirac; 1. Dirac in Cambridge R. J. Eden and J. C. Polkinghorne; 2. Travels with Dirac in the Rockies J. H. Van Vleck; 3. 'The golden age of theoretical physics': P. A. M. Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933 Jagdish Mehra; 4. Foundation of quantum field theory Res Jost; 5. The early history of the theory of electron: 1897-1947 A. Pais; 6. The Dirac equation A. S. Wightman; 7. Fermi-Dirac statistics Rudolph Peierls; 8. Indefinite metric in state space W. Heisenberg; 9. On bras and kets J. M. Jauch; 10. The Poisson bracket C. Lanczos; 11. La 'fonction' et les noyaux L. Schwartz; 12. On the Dirac magnetic poles Edoardo Amadli and Nicola Cabibbo; 13. The fundamental constants and their time variation Freeman J. Dyson; 14. On the time-energy uncertainty relation Eugene P. Wigner; 15. The path-integral quantisation of gravity Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee; Index; Plates.

  18. Physics of Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberg, Michael

    2002-03-01

    In the past decade the investigation of the complex behaviour of traffic dynamics became an active field of (interdisciplinary) research. On the one hand this is due to a fastly growing availability of 'experimental' data from measurements with various kinds of sensors, on the other hand due to an enormous improvement of the modelling techniques from statistical physics. This has led to the identification of several new phases of traffic flow and the characterization of the corresponding phase transitions between them. Nowadays many of the occurring dynamical phenomena are understood quite well although a complete understanding, especially of the interrelation between the models on the different scales (micro-, meso-, macroscopic), is still missing. Whereas earlier attempts tried to describe traffic flow in a hydrodynamical formulation the current microscopic models are able to take into not only the physically correct motion of single cars but also certain aspects of the driver's behaviour. It turns out that the simple car following theories cannot explain the complex structures found, e.g., in synchronized traffic, a new state found only recently. Here a more detailed analysis is necessary which goes far beyond the pure modelling of the motion of the cars in analogy to granular media (grains of sand, pills, corn, etc.). The detailed knowledge of traffic dynamics not of purely scientific interest but also absolutely necessary for practical applications. With the help of online data from measurements of flows and speeds it is possible to construct a complete picture of the actual traffic state with real time simulations. As a very efficient model ansatz cellular automata have been shown to be a reasonable compromise between simulation speed and descripiton accuracy. Beyond the reproduction of the actual state a reliable traffic forecast should be possible although the driver's reaction on the forecast still remains unclear.

  19. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures.

  20. Acne: endocrinologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pochi, P E

    1982-08-01

    Acne is dependent for its development on several factors, one of which is hormonal. The principal and possibly sole mechanistic link between hormones and acne is sebum, the secretory product of the sebaceous glands which is highly androgen-sensitive. Some but not all, patients with acne can be shown to have systemic androgen abnormalities. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that androgens are metabolized abnormally in the skin, possibly resulting in excessive sebaceous gland secretion. Systemic endocrine therapy of acne is designed to reduce the androgenic stimulation of the sebaceous gland. Such treatment includes the peroral cyclic administration of estrogen for ovarian inhibition and the use of low-dosage glucocorticoid for adrenocortical androgen suppression. Combined estrogen-glucocorticoid treatment induces the most telling effect in reducing sebaceous gland activity.

  1. Clinical aspects of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Russel J; Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2008-11-01

    Melatonin is produced in the human pineal gland, particularly at night, with the circadian rhythm of blood melatonin levels closely paralleling its production within the pineal gland. Light exposure at night, or rapid transmeridian travel severely compromises the circadian production of melatonin. The disturbed melatonin rhythm contributes to jet lag and sleep inefficiency, both of which are improved by melatonin administration. Melatonin is also a highly effective direct free radical scavenger and antioxidant. In this capacity, melatonin reduces experimental cataractogenesis, traumatic injury to the spinal cord and brain, and protects against oxidative damage to neurons and glia in models of stroke, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, melatonin and its metabolites are highly effective in protecting against ionizing radiation. Finally, melatonin may be a treatment for hypertension. Melatonin's high efficacy, its high safety profile, and its virtual lack of toxicity make it of interest in clinical medicine.

  2. Aspects of braneworld cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, Jeremie

    What is essential is invisible to the eye. Antoine de Saint-Exupery Of course, Saint-Exupery didn't have extra dimensions in mind when he wrote this famous line. Nevertheless, the recent realisation that standard model degrees of freedom can naturally be restricted to a submanifold embedded in a higher dimensional Universe means that an ingredient essential to our description of nature might quite literally be "invisible to the eye". Exploring the consequences of such braneworld scenarios has occupied a large part of the theoretical physics community over the last seven years, and this thesis is a collection of contributions to this endeavour. After reviewing the motivations for and early successes of braneworld scenarios, we examine rho2 corrections to the Hubble rate in the stabilized Randall-Sundrum I model, where the hierarchy problem is solved in a natural way, in order to ascertain whether such corrections might be of help in addressing some issues with inflation and baryogenesis. The three following chapters are concerned with six-dimensional models that have been advertised as possibly leading to a self-tuning solution to the cosmological constant problem. We examine this claim thoroughly, through the study of thick codimension-two braneworlds. This allows us to provide a generalization of the relationship between the deficit angle and the brane matter content. We also present the first derivation of the Friedmann equations on a codimension-two brane containing matter with an arbitrary equation of state, first in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity and then in six dimensional supergravity.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  4. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  5. Some aspects of virtual black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, M.

    2012-03-15

    We first consider consistently third-quantize modified gravity. We then analyze certain aspects of virtual black holes in this third-quantized modified gravity. We see how a statistical mechanical origin for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy naturally arises in this model. Furthermore, the area and hence the entropy of a real macroscopic black hole is quantized in this model. Virtual black holes cause a loss of quantum coherence, which gives an intrinsic entropy to all physical systems that can be used to define a direction of time and hence provide a solution to the problem of time.

  6. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  7. Cognitive aspects of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive impairments are a central feature of schizophrenia and are present in most, if not all, cases. There are multiple domains of impairment seen and the level of severity of impairment is considerable. Impairments can be detected prior to the onset of clinical symptoms and the course of impairments involves some subtle early worsening followed by stability in most cases. Cognitive impairments are associated with functional disability, particularly in domains of vocational functioning and independence of residence. Both pharmacological and cognitive remediation interventions have been employed for the treatment of these impairments, with greater progress to date being made in cognitive remediation interventions. While much is known about cognitive impairments, treatment efforts are still in an early stage of development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:599-608. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1253 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Dr. Harvey has received consulting fees from Abbott Labs, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Genentech, Johnson and Johnson, Pharma Neuroboost, Roche Parma, Sunovion Pharma, and Takeda Pharma during the past year. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  9. [Meta-analyses of quarks, baryons and mesons--a "Cochrane Collaboration" in particle physics].

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Stefan; Sauerland, Thankmar; Antes, Gerd; Barnett, R Michael

    2002-02-01

    Within the last 20 years meta-analysis has become an important research technique in medicine for integrating the results of independent studies. Meta-analytical techniques, however, are much older. In particle physics for 50 years now the properties of huge numbers of particles have been assessed in meta-analyses. The Cochrane Collaboration's counterpart in physics is the Particle Data Group. This article compares methodological and organisational aspects of meta-analyses in medicine and physics. Several interesting parallels exist, especially with regard to methodology.

  10. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  11. The physics of proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-21

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  12. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  13. Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bassalleck, Bernd; Fields, Douglas

    2016-04-28

    This very long-running grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or H-Dibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at J-PARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokai-mura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.

  14. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  15. Severe acute malnutrition and infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-12-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice.

  16. Stueckelberg and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Jan

    The first period of E. C. G. Stueckelberg's scientific career was marked by important contributions he made to molecular physics.1 After publishing his thesis in 1927 in Basel [1] Stueckelberg joined the prestigious Palmer Physical Laboratory in Princeton where he worked under the guidance of Karl Taylor Compton, brother of Arthur Holly Compton. Stueckelberg owed this position devoted several papers to problems of molecular physics. Stueckelberg had the benefit at Princeton of exchanges with other gifted members of the Palmer Physical Laboratory, Philip M. Morse and E. U. Condon among others.3 to a recommendation by A. Sommerfeld.2 In this stimulating environment, he devoted several papers to problems of molecular physics. Stueckelberg had the benefit at Princeton of exchanges with other gifted members of the Palmer Physical Laboratory, Philip M. Morse and E. U. Condon among others.3

  17. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  18. Mineral physics abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Robert

    During the 1983-1984 academic year, I spent a sabbatical leave in France, during which I had the opportunity to visit several mineral physics laboratories in Europe and meet many of our colleagues there. The purpose of this item is to report briefly on developments of interest to the U.S. mineral physics community.

  19. Physics in Your Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moche, Dinah

    This booklet is designed to introduce young people, their parents, teachers, and advisers to various fields of and possible career opportunities in physics. The colorfully illustrated booklet, aimed particularly at junior high school students, highlights the work and experiences of several young physicists. Although physics is not usually taught…

  20. Quanta of geometry: noncommutative aspects.

    PubMed

    Chamseddine, Ali H; Connes, Alain; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav

    2015-03-06

    In the construction of spectral manifolds in noncommutative geometry, a higher degree Heisenberg commutation relation involving the Dirac operator and the Feynman slash of real scalar fields naturally appears and implies, by equality with the index formula, the quantization of the volume. We first show that this condition implies that the manifold decomposes into disconnected spheres, which will represent quanta of geometry. We then refine the condition by involving the real structure and two types of geometric quanta, and show that connected spin manifolds with large quantized volume are then obtained as solutions. The two algebras M_{2}(H) and M_{4}(C) are obtained, which are the exact constituents of the standard model. Using the two maps from M_{4} to S^{4} the four-manifold is built out of a very large number of the two kinds of spheres of Planckian volume. We give several physical applications of this scheme such as quantization of the cosmological constant, mimetic dark matter, and area quantization of black holes.

  1. Sports physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  2. Seizure frequency and severity: How really important are they for the quality of life of patients with refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Viteva, Ekaterina Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The data in the scientific literature about the significance of seizure severity and frequency for the quality of life (QOL) of patients with refractory epilepsy (RE) are contradictory. Objective: Our objective was to assess the impact of the seizure severity and frequency on the QOL of Bulgarian patients with RE. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 patients with RE were studied by examining the medical documentation and seizure diaries. All study participants completed quality of life epilepsy inventory (QOLIE-89). Seizure severity of only 59 patients who had a seizure in the last month was assessed by the Liverpool seizure severity scale. Results: A limited negative impact of the seizure severity and frequency on some aspects of the physical health, epilepsy, all aspects of the social health and epilepsy and the overall QOL has been demonstrated. A weak to moderate reverse correlation between the specified factors and the respective QOLIE-89 subscales has been found. Conclusion: The clinical factors seizure severity and seizure frequency have a limited negative impact mostly on the social aspects of QOL. The study results support the multidisciplinary approach to persons with epilepsy. PMID:24753657

  3. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  4. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    DOE PAGES

    Humphreys, David; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, Peter; ...

    2015-02-12

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily formore » ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g. current profile regulation, tearing mode suppression (TM)), control mathematics (e.g. algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g. methods for management of highly-subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Finally, issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.« less

  5. Sexual Aspects of Multilateral Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Joan M.; Constantine, Larry L.

    1971-01-01

    This study involved a variety of data gathering techniques focusing on almost every aspect of multilateral marriages. Specific topics covered included sex as motivation, group sex, sleeping arrangements, cohesion, sexual problems, jealousy, roles and sex differences. (Author/CG)

  6. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  7. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  8. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  9. The elderly in nursing homes: psychological aspects of neglect.

    PubMed

    Tarbox, A R

    1983-01-01

    It has been argued that many elderly people are placed in nursing homes to isolate them from view, and little research has been done to investigate the effects of such isolation. Some research has focused on certain aspects of abuse and neglect of the elderly, particularly physical, material, and fiscal aspects of abuse. The purpose of this paper is to discuss psychological aspects of abuse and neglect of the elderly in the nursing home environment. Data are presented indicating that psychological aspects of neglect are subtle and not readily apparent to the observer; yet they may be very impactful in terms of their effects. Data also are presented indicating that they constitute the most common form of abuse. Psychological aspects of neglect are divided into categories including: the nature of the physical environment; nutrition and diet; physical appearance and grooming; infantilization; environmental deprivation; and benign neglect. Possible interventions are offered as alternatives to neglect, and research data are summarized as to how such interventions might benefit both the elderly and the clinical staff dealing with such a population.

  10. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  11. Analysis of Discovery of Chaos: Social and Cognitive Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, J. B.

    The purpose of this study was to examine Edward Lorenz's psychological processes and other environmental aspects in the discovery of chaos at that time. The general concept of chaos is discussed based on relations with previous scientific theories such as Newtonian physics and quantum mechanics. The constraints of discovery in terms of available…

  12. Tight aspect ratio tokamak experiments and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, A; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1995-01-01

    The present status of experimental results from low aspect ratio tokamaks is described, together with plans for physics experiments at the mega-amp level. Further development of the concept, and its potential for a materials/component test facility or ultimately a fusion power plant, are indicated.

  13. Human Aspects of High Tech in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichteler, Julie

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of library employees who spend significant portion of time in online computer interaction provides information on intellectual, psychological, social, and physical aspects of their work. Long- and short-term effects of special libraries are identified and solutions to "technostress" problems are suggested. (16…

  14. Biological Aspects of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Allan S.; Woodside, D. Blake

    1987-01-01

    Reviews biological factors relevant to the understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Considers the physical presentation of these disorders; the medical complications of starvation, binging, and purging; and the cognitive and behavioral effects of starvation. Reviews neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of these illnesses and…

  15. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  16. [Physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  17. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  18. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed. PMID:22477378

  19. An underdiscussed aspect of chomsky (1959).

    PubMed

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957)Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed.

  20. Down syndrome: a risk factor for malocclusion severity?

    PubMed

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Pereira, Luciano José; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare aspects related to malocclusion between individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and a control group, establish malocclusion severity, and identify determinant factors. A total of 120 individuals (60 with DS and 60 with no physical or mental impairment), were included in the study. Data were collected through interviews, analyses of the medical charts, and oral examinations. The criteria of the Dental Aesthetic Index were used for the diagnosis of malocclusion. Chi-square test (p ≤ 0.05) and multivariate logistic regression were used for comparisons between the two groups and to determine the association between the dependent (malocclusion severity) and independent variables. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for the following variables: missing teeth, diastema, overjet, mandibular protrusion, anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, facial type, lip incompetence, and Angle classification. DS, a history of premature birth, and long face pattern were found to be associated with malocclusion severity. Individuals with DS exhibited more occlusal problems than those in the control group.

  1. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.

  2. X International Conference on Kaon Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    The International Conference on Kaon Physics 2016 took place at the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom) on 14–17 September 2016. This conference continued the KAON series, offering an opportunity for theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of kaon physics. The 2016 edition saw a strong participation from theory and phenomenology and the first kaon results from the LHCb experiment at CERN, as well as updates from several experiments around the world including NA62 and KOTO. All papers published in this volume of KAON2016 have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The organizers and the participants wish to thank the University of Birmingham, the European Research Council, CERN, the UK Science and Technology Facility Council and the UK Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology for their support in the organization of this successful edition. Figure for summary

  3. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  4. The physics of golf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. Raymond

    2003-02-01

    An overview of the application of physics to the game of golf is given. The golf swing is modelled as a double pendulum. This model and its variations have been used extensively by researchers in determining the effect that various swing parameters have on clubhead speed. These results as well as examples of three-link models are discussed. Kinematic and kinetic measurements taken on the recorded downswings of golfers as well as force measurements are reviewed. These measurements highlight differences between the swings of skilled and unskilled golfers. Several aspects of the behaviour of a golf ball are examined. Measurements and models of the impact of golf balls with barriers are reviewed. Such measurements have allowed researchers to determine the effect that different golf ball constructions have on their launch parameters. The launch parameters determine not only the length of the golf shot but also the behaviour of the golf ball on impact with the turf. The effect of dimples on the aerodynamics of a golf ball and the length of the golf shot is discussed. Models of the bounce and roll of a golf ball after impact with the turf as well as models of the motion of a putted ball are presented. Researchers have measured and modelled the behaviour of both the shaft and the clubhead during the downswing and at impact. The effect that clubhead mass and loft as well as the shaft length and mass have on the length of a golf shot are considered. Models and measurements of the flexing of the shaft as well as research into the flexing of the clubface and the effects of its surface roughness are presented. An important consideration in clubhead design is its behaviour during off-centre impacts. In line with this, the effects that the curvature of a clubface and the moments of inertia of the clubhead have on the launch parameters and trajectory of an off-centred impacted golf ball are examined.

  5. Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Jennifer; Austen, Dave; Brouwer, Wytze

    2002-05-01

    We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is constructivist and the project emphasizes active learner participation. In this talk we will provide a quick overview of the project and the results of recent pilot testing at several Canadian universities. It will also include a discussion of the VIDEO LAB aspect of MAP. This is a component that is integrated into MAP and permits students to capture and evaluate otherwise difficult to study phenomena on video.

  6. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Subjective Well-Being, and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how individuals can adjust to the experience of unattainable goals and protect their subjective well-being and physical health. We discuss theoretical aspects involved in the self-regulation of unattainable goals and point to the importance of general individual differences in goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities. In addition, we review the extant literature, suggesting that goal disengagement capacities can reduce psychological distress and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if individuals experience unattainable goals. Goal reengagement capacities, by contrast, are shown to be associated with positive indicators of subjective well-being (e.g., positive affect or purpose in life), but rarely predict psychological distress or physical health outcomes. We finally address several remaining issues that have become apparent in the extant literature and may deserve more attention in future research. PMID:25177358

  7. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Subjective Well-Being, and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F; Miller, Gregory E

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses how individuals can adjust to the experience of unattainable goals and protect their subjective well-being and physical health. We discuss theoretical aspects involved in the self-regulation of unattainable goals and point to the importance of general individual differences in goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities. In addition, we review the extant literature, suggesting that goal disengagement capacities can reduce psychological distress and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if individuals experience unattainable goals. Goal reengagement capacities, by contrast, are shown to be associated with positive indicators of subjective well-being (e.g., positive affect or purpose in life), but rarely predict psychological distress or physical health outcomes. We finally address several remaining issues that have become apparent in the extant literature and may deserve more attention in future research.

  8. Physical activity for people with a disability: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; van Mechelen, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of a physically active lifestyle has become an important issue in health policy in first-world countries. A physically active lifestyle is accompanied by several fitness and health benefits. Individuals with a disability can particularly benefit from an active lifestyle: not only does it reduce the risk for secondary health problems, but all levels of functioning can be influenced positively. The objective of this article is to propose a conceptual model that describes the relationships between physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning of people with a disability. The literature was systematically searched for articles considering physical activity and disability, and models relating both topics were looked for in particular. No models were found relating physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning in people with a disability. Consequently, a new model, the Physical Activity for people with a Disability (PAD) model, was constructed based on existing models of disability and models of determinants of physical activity behaviour. The starting point was the new WHO Model of Functioning and Disability, part of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which describes the multidimensional aspects of functioning and disability. Physical activity behaviour and its determinants were integrated into the ICF model. The factors determining physical activity were based mainly on those used in the Attitude, Social influence and self-Efficacy (ASE) model. The proposed model can be used as a theoretical framework for future interventions and research on physical activity promotion in the population of people with a disability. The model currently forms the theoretical basis for a large physical activity promotion trial in ten Dutch rehabilitation centres.

  9. Supersymmetric chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1989-03-01

    We consider classical supersymmetric chiral models of field theory and focus our attention on the geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of such models is that the interaction is not introduced by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the target manifold. In many aspects these models are analogous to gauge theories and, as became clear recently, they are also important for superstring theory, which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ATOMIC DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edward C.

    1954-01-01

    Increasing attention to the psychological aspects of atomic disaster will help improve the ability of the citizens of this country to withstand attack and survive as a free people. Since an enemy may be expected to exploit any internal weaknesses it can find, preparation must be made against the onslaught. The ability to deal effectively with any situation, even the most awesome, depends on knowledge of what to expect, and there is no reason to believe that facts about atomic disaster are an exception to this time proven truth. The psychological aspects need to be considered from two points of view, namely, the effect on masses of people and on individuals. PMID:13182616

  11. [Chronobiological aspects of obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms (approximately 24h) are widely characterized at molecular level and their generation is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in expression of several clock genes and from regulation of their protein products. While general entrainment of organisms to environmental light-dark cycles is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, this molecular clockwork is functional in several organs and tissues. Some studies have suggested that disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption (CD)) may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and their specific role in the adipocyte; (2) the genetic aspects of and scientific evidence for obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (3) CD and its causes and pathological consequences. Finally, ideas about use of chronobiology for the treatment of obesity are discussed.

  12. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  13. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  14. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  15. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  16. Historical and social aspects of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Marina Sá; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Buccal odors have always been a factor of concern for society. This study aims to investigate the historical and social base of halitosis, through systematized research in the database BVS (biblioteca virtual em saúde - virtual library in health) and also in books. Lack of knowledge on how to prevent halitosis allows for its occurrence, limiting quality of life. As social relationships are one of the pillars of the quality of life concept, halitosis needs to be considered a factor of negative interference. Education in health should be accomplished with a view to a dynamic balance, involving human beings' physical and psychological aspects, as well as their social interactions, so that individuals do not become jigsaw puzzles of sick parts.

  17. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-11-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  18. Working Memory Limitations in Children with Severe Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an extensive battery of tests. Working memory was…

  19. Physical Education: A Professional Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, James; Wandzilak, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Although some effort has been expended toward the development of physical education as a discipline, the nature of physical education reveals that it is more a professional field. A model is described which provides a means to draw from several contributing disciplines and subdisciplines in order to improve the practice of physical education.…

  20. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  2. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  3. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  4. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  5. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  6. [Scientometric aspects of medical eponyms].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2014-09-07

    Eponyms, scientific concepts named after persons, have a long tradition in medical sciences. Their emergence and use are rather instructive from the aspects of scientometrics, as well. Using a medical sample it is shown that although references to publications giving origin to the eponyms inevitably get obliterated, their citation rate is still many times higher than that of other publications of the same age.

  7. Mathematical Aspects of Electoral Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, M. M.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we consider some mathematical aspects of electoral systems. Sometimes the results from elections seem paradoxical although they are mathematically correct. These cases are known as electoral paradoxes. A number of paradoxes of proportional and majoritarian electoral systems are considered.

  8. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…

  9. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  10. Management of severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Brichant, G; Dewandre, P Y; Foidart, J M; Brichant, J F

    2010-01-01

    Features of severe preeclampsia include severe proteinuric hypertension and symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction, hepatocellular injury, thrombocytopenia, oliguria, pulmonary oedema, cerebrovascular accident and severe intrauterine growth restriction. Women with severe preeclampsia must be hospitalized to confirm the diagnosis, to assess the severity of the disease, to monitor the progression of the disease and to try to stabilize the disease. Severe preeclampsia may be managed expectantly, in selected cases. The objective of expectant management in these patients is to improve neonatal outcome. Expectant management is based on antihypertensive treatment and prevention of end organ dysfunction. Antihypertensive treatment improves maternal outcome but has the potential to be deleterious for the foetus. Plasma volume expansion has been suggested for severe preeclampsia but trials failed to show any benefit. Magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsivant of choice to treat or prevent eclampsia when indicated. Antenatal corticosteroids are recommended in severely preeclamptic women with 26-34 weeks gestation. Timing of delivery is based upon gestational age, severity of preeclampsia, maternal and foetal risks.

  11. Promoting cognitive and social aspects of inquiry through classroom discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught. Regarding the social aspect, we examined how classroom discourse supported student learning in terms of students' opportunities to talk and interaction patterns. Our participants were 17 physics teachers who were actively engaged in teacher education programs in universities and professional development programs in local school districts. We analyzed one lesson video from each participating teacher. The results suggest both promises and challenges. Regarding the cognitive aspect of inquiry, the teachers in general recognized the importance of teaching the cognitive processes and disciplinary reasoning. However, they were less likely to address common intuitive ideas about science concepts and principles. Regarding the social aspect of inquiry, the teachers frequently interacted with students in class. However, it appeared that facilitating conversations among students and prompting students to talk about their own ideas are challenging. We discuss the implications of these findings for teacher education programs and professional development programs in China.

  12. Learning Pedagogy in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Danielle B.; Swanson, Lauren H.; Dwyer, Hilary A.; Bianchini, Julie A.

    2010-10-01

    We report on an adapted version of the Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum. A unique aspect of PET is its inclusion of special activities that focus on Learning about Learning (LAL) in which undergraduates analyze videos of children talking about science and explicitly consider the nature of science. To create a course that intentionally linked science content, children's ideas, and strategies for science instruction, we augmented the existing LAL activities with discussions about teaching, and added activities focused on LAL from companion curricula such as Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET) and Learning Physical Science (LEPS). To compensate for the additional time on LAL, we reduced the content activities to only those that directly supported LAL activities. We found that students made significant gains on the CLASS and expressed beliefs about teaching consistent with the PET pedagogy.

  13. Wireless physical layer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  14. Wireless physical layer security

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments. PMID:28028211

  15. Wireless physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Poor, H Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F

    2017-01-03

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  16. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  17. Tevatron physics

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-01-03

    These lectures form a personal, and not necessarily comprehensive, survey of physics at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. They cover detectors, analysis issues, and physics prospects for the current Tevatron run.

  18. Physical Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical stimulus. Physical stimuli include the following: Cold Sunlight Heat or other stimuli that cause sweating (such ... a foreign substance and attacks it. Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) is an example. Ultraviolet light changes proteins ...

  19. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen experiments in physics are described to demonstrate various physical phenomena. These include the areas of velocity of sound, damped oscillations, plastic deformation of wires, materials, testing, air resistance, spectrum optical filtering, and some new improvised apparatus. (PS)

  20. Physical Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific educational prerequisites, such as classes in anatomy, physiology, biology, chemistry, and physics. Some programs admit college ... therapist programs often include courses in biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, neuroscience, and pharmacology. Physical therapist students also complete ...

  1. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports physical exam is known as ... to consider possible conditions you may have. Most sports medicine doctors believe the medical history is the most ...

  2. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are 13 physics experiments/demonstrations applicable to introductory physics courses. Activities include: improved current balance, division circuits, liquid pressure, convection, siphons, oscillators and modulation, electrical resistance, soap films, Helmholtz coils, radioactive decay, and springs. (SL)

  3. A Concise Physical Interpretation of Several Analytical Grueneisen Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    RUSSIA 1 TOMSK STATE UNIV A G GERASIMOV 5-TH ARMY ST 29-61 TOMSK 634024 RUSSIA 5 DEPARTMENTO DE QUIMICA FISICA I FACULTAD DE...CIENCIAS QUIMICAS UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID V G BAONZA M TARAVILLO J E F RUBIO J NUNEZ M CACERES 28040 MADRID...UNIVERSIDAD DE OVIEDO FACULTAD DE QUIMICA DEPARTMENTO DE QUIMICA FISICA Y ANALITICA E FRANCISCO AVENIDA JULIAN CLAVERIA S/N 33006

  4. Charmonium physics at a tau-charm factory

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T. |

    1993-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1974 the charmonium system has served hadron physics as an important arena for the investigation of many aspects of QCD and hadron spectroscopy. In this summary the author briefly reviews some of these and discusses several of the important outstanding issues in hadron spectroscopy and their relation to the spectrum and couplings of resonances in the charmonium system. The topics discussed are charmonium spectroscopy, electromagnetic couplings ({gamma}, {gamma}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}), strong decays and unusual states (charm molecules and charmonium hybrids), and in each case the author notes areas in which experiments at a tau-charm factory could make valuable contributions.

  5. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  6. Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology.

    PubMed

    Pötter, Richard; Haie-Meder, Christine; Van Limbergen, Erik; Barillot, Isabelle; De Brabandere, Marisol; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Dumas, Isabelle; Erickson, Beth; Lang, Stefan; Nulens, An; Petrow, Peter; Rownd, Jason; Kirisits, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The second part of the GYN GEC ESTRO working group recommendations is focused on 3D dose-volume parameters for brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma. Methods and parameters have been developed and validated from dosimetric, imaging and clinical experience from different institutions (University of Vienna, IGR Paris, University of Leuven). Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH) are recommended for evaluation of the complex dose heterogeneity. DVH parameters for GTV, HR CTV and IR CTV are the minimum dose delivered to 90 and 100% of the respective volume: D90, D100. The volume, which is enclosed by 150 or 200% of the prescribed dose (V150, V200), is recommended for overall assessment of high dose volumes. V100 is recommended for quality assessment only within a given treatment schedule. For Organs at Risk (OAR) the minimum dose in the most irradiated tissue volume is recommended for reporting: 0.1, 1, and 2 cm3; optional 5 and 10 cm3. Underlying assumptions are: full dose of external beam therapy in the volume of interest, identical location during fractionated brachytherapy, contiguous volumes and contouring of organ walls for >2 cm3. Dose values are reported as absorbed dose and also taking into account different dose rates. The linear-quadratic radiobiological model-equivalent dose (EQD2)-is applied for brachytherapy and is also used for calculating dose from external beam therapy. This formalism allows systematic assessment within one patient, one centre and comparison between different centres with analysis of dose volume relations for GTV, CTV, and OAR. Recommendations for the transition period from traditional to 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy are formulated. Supplementary data (available in the electronic version of this paper) deals with aspects of 3D imaging, radiation physics, radiation biology, dose at reference points and dimensions and volumes for the GTV and CTV (adding to [Haie-Meder C, Pötter R, Van Limbergen E et al. Recommendations from

  7. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.

    PubMed

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family.

  8. Aspects of legislative cognizance of noise pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brind; Oberoi, Sharad V

    2011-04-01

    The impacts of noise pollution are associated with the mental, physical, emotional and psychological well-being of an individual. Its damaging effects from various natural and man-made sources are potential hazards that need to be checked at the planning, executive and judicial levels. The paper presents an overview of the technological aspects of noise pollution, and seeks to visit its legislative aspects with respect to India. Excerpts from international laws are presented for a meaningful discussion. References are made from the conclusions of studies carried out by researchers and legislative cases involving noise pollution to make this paper useful for researchers, planners and administrators.

  9. Two often disregarded aspects of Foucaultʼs pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, José-Philippe; Pujol, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the famous Foucault's pendulum by highlighting two often-disregarded aspects in mechanics courses. The first one concerns the existence of a local accelerated reference frame to express the law of dynamics without the Coriolis force. The second aspect deals with the geometrical phase that appears in pendulum dynamics. This last point, which could appear banal, should be related to analogous consideration in quantum physics. It is also linked to vectorial parallel transport of the pendulum angular momentum eigenvector. Numerical simulations with MATLAB are proposed.

  10. Meat Safety and Regulatory Aspects in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety is concerned with chemical, physical and biological aspects. With regard to the chemical aspects, residues and contaminants should be kept at as low a level as possible, but should certainly not exceed the maximum levels laid down in Community legislation. To prevent residues and contaminants in meat, it is essential to follow good agricultural practice, which involves feeding and management requirements, observing the correct withdrawal period, following treatment of animals, with veterinary medicines, a strict selection of raw materials, correct use of pesticides on grassland, preventing the access of animals to toxins or environmental contaminants, etc.

  11. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  12. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  13. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  14. The Student as a Physical Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Jayne; and others

    1969-01-01

    The Study of Student Development at Kansas State University includes a physiological phase. Observations suggest importance of interaction of physical and social-psychological aspects of student development. (Author/CJ)

  15. CLP application to nanomaterials: a specific aspect.

    PubMed

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Polci, Maria Letizia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at describing some relevant aspects related to the classification, labelling and packaging of nanomaterials. Concerns have been raised about potential adverse effects to humans or the environment as result of impacts of nanomaterials. The new Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) does not contain any specific definition or provision related to nanomaterials nevertheless they are covered by the definition of substance set in the Regulation. It is recognized that different particle sizes or forms of the same substance can have different classification. Thus, if substances are placed on the market both at nanoscale and as bulk, a separate classification and labelling may be required if the available data on the intrinsic properties indicate a difference in hazard class between the two forms. CLP Regulation requires the manufacturer or importer to ensure that the information used to classify relates to the forms or physical states in which the substance is placed on the market and in which it can reasonably be expected to be used. Moreover, CLP demands testing relating to physical hazards to be performed if such information is missing or not adequate to conclude on classification. Further developments of the CLP guidance documents and implementation tools are needed in order to cover nanomaterials more specifically.

  16. Severe asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into 2 categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, or poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline-based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting β-agonists and other add-on therapies, such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control, including reviewing the diagnosis and removing causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future.

  17. Severe asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting beta-agonists and other add on therapies such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control including reviewing the diagnosis and the removal of causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future. PMID:25213041

  18. Environmental aspects of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence has proved that many aspects of our lifestyle and the environment contribute to the development of congenital disease. Congenital spinal deformities are due to anomalous development of the vertebrae including failure of formation and segmentation during embryogenesis. The causes of congenital scoliosis have not been fully identified. A variety of factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Previous studies have demonstrated that both genetics and environmental factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. However, no specific cause for congenital scoliosis has been identified. In our review, we focus on the environmental factors for the development of congenital scoliosis. Various maternal exposures during pregnancy including hypoxia, alcohol use, vitamin deficiency, valproic acid, boric acid, and hyperthermia have been observed to be associated with the occurrence of congenital scoliosis. This review describes the major environmental contributors of congenital scoliosis with an emphasis on treatment aspects associated with environmental disposition in congenital scoliosis.

  19. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    PubMed Central

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  20. Spatial and temporal aspects of exposure for insurance risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingsby, A.; Foote, M.; Dykes, J.; Gunasekera, R.; Wood, J.

    2009-04-01

    November to December (summer) at around 1700. This is consistent with Pyle's (2006) analysis of storms, which are caused by the same well-understood physical processes and which are affected by similar factors such as humidity, temperature and topography. Historical records such as these and an understanding of the physical processes involved can be used to create of event sets. In urban areas, damage to motor vehicles can be over 50% of insured losses (Hohl et al, 2002) with the most intense storms damaging vehicle bodywork and windscreens. The amount of damage is dependent on the number and characteristics of vehicles within the hailstorm swath that are unprotected by shelters (Leigh, 1998). Since the majority of hailstorms occur in the late afternoon, it is likely that many vehicles will be on heavily congested roads during the rush hour is high. As such these vehicles will be unprotected by shelters and exposed to the risk. To take into account temporal aspects of exposure a model of the likely whereabouts of vehicles at different times of day is needed. Most transport authorities routinely collect traffic flow data using sensors under the road or at the roadside. These point locations are interpolated onto the road network to produce average traffic flows for road segments by time of day and week. For aggregate modelling, this can be used to redistribute the proportion of vehicular exposure that is likely to be in transit (unprotected by shelters) for each event. For detailed modelling, a sample of vehicles can be tracked using GPS, journeys characterised, clustered and then profiles of vehicle journeys can be made. By correlating journey profiles to other characteristics of the vehicles and of those that drive them, a better understanding of the spatiotemporal aspects of vehicular exposure can be derived. In this paper, we demonstrate how traffic flow data can be used to characterise spatial and temporal aspects of traffic vehicle exposure and the potential

  1. Thermodynamic aspects of therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Vanlandingham, Sean C; Kurz, Michael C; Wang, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an important treatment for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Despite its widespread practice, only limited data describe the thermodynamic aspects of heat transfer during TH. This paper reviews the principles of human body heat balance and provides a conceptual model for characterizing heat exchange during TH. The model may provide a framework for computer simulation for improving training in or clinical methods of TH.

  2. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  3. Multidimensional physical self-concept of athletes with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Deborah R; Martin, Jeffrey J

    2010-10-01

    The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N = 36, M age = 16.11, SD age = 2.8) completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. Participants reported mostly positive perceptions of self-esteem, global physical self-concept, endurance, body fat, sport competence, strength, flexibility, and physical activity (Ms ranging from 3.9 to 5.6 out of 6). Correlations indicated a number of significant relationships among self-esteem and reported PA and various dimensions of physical self-concept. Using physical self-concept, strength, endurance, and flexibility in the first regression equation and sport competence and endurance simultaneously in the second equation, 47 and 31% of the variance was accounted for in self-esteem and reported PA, respectively. The findings support the value of examining multidimensional physical self-concept as different aspects of the physical self appear to have different influences on reported PA engagement versus self-esteem.

  4. Top Physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2011-06-01

    We present the recent results of top-quark physics using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV analyzed by the CDF collaboration. Thanks to this large data sample, precision top quark measurements are now a reality at the Tevatron. Further, several new physics signals could appear in this large dataset. We will present the latest measurements of top quark intrinsic properties as well as direct searches for new physics in the top sector.

  5. Dengue and Severe Dengue

    MedlinePlus

    ... can significantly reduce mortality rates from severe dengue. Global Strategy for dengue prevention and control, 2012–2020, Chapter ... vaccine: WHO position paper – July 2016 pdf, 437kb Global Strategy for dengue prevention and control, 2012–2020 Global ...

  6. ADIPONECTIN IN SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations differ between patients with severe preeclampsia and those with normal pregnancies, and to explore the relationship between plasma adiponectin and the results of Doppler velocimetry of the uterine arteries. Methods This case-control study included two groups: (1) patients with severe preeclampsia (n=50) and (2) patients with normal pregnancies (n=150). Pulsed-wave and color Doppler ultrasound examination of the uterine arteries were performed. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Patients with severe preeclampsia had a higher median plasma concentration of adiponectin than that of normal pregnant women. (2) The median plasma adiponectin concentration did not differ between women with severe preeclampsia who had a high impedance to blood flow in the uterine arteries and those with normal impedance to blood flow. (3) Among patients with normal pregnancies, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with BMI in the first trimester and at sampling. Conclusions Women with severe preeclampsia have a higher median plasma concentration of adiponectin than that of normal pregnant women. This may reflect a compensatory feedback mechanism to the metabolically-altered, anti-angiogenic and pro-atherogenic state of severe preeclampsia. PMID:17919115

  7. Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections Are Aspects of Same Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections from the Sun are intertwined aspects of the same event, rather than two separate events, it was announced at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division on 18 June. The finding resolves ``a chicken-and-egg type of problem as to which came first,'' according to Peter Gallagher, solar physicist with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. He said that the problem had been debated for several decades. Gallagher is research scientist for two of the three spacecraft involved with the findings: NASA's Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, (TRACE). The third spacecraft is the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft (SOHO), which is a cooperative effort of NASA and the European Space Agency.

  8. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Nigro, Roberta; Oliviero, Caterina; Marchioni, Chiara; Esposito, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Mancosu, Pietro; Marino, Carmelo; Russo, Serenella; Stasi, Michele; Strigari, Lidia; Veronese, Ivan; Landoni, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

  9. Physical and physiological profiles of taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Craig A; Ferreira da Silva Santos, Jonatas; Chaabène, Helmi; Pieter, Willy; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-06-01

    Taekwondo has evolved into a modern-day Olympic combat sport. The physical and physiological demands of modern-day taekwondo competition require athletes to be competent in several aspects of fitness. This review critically explores the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes and presents implications for training and research. International taekwondo athletes possess low levels of body fat and a somatotype that characterises a blend of moderate musculoskeletal tissue and relative body linearity. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of taekwondo athletes, moderate to high levels of cardio-respiratory fitness are necessary to support the metabolic demands of fighting and to facilitate recovery between consecutive matches. Taekwondo athletes demonstrate high peak anaerobic power characteristics of the lower limbs and this attribute appears to be conducive to achieving success in international competition. The ability to generate and sustain power output using both concentric and 'stretch-shortening cycle' muscle actions of the lower limbs may be important to support the technical and tactical actions in combat. Taekwondo competitors also display moderate to high maximum dynamic strength characteristics of the lower and upper extremities, and moderate endurance properties of the trunk and hip flexor musculature. The dynamic nature of the technical and tactical actions in the sport demand high flexibility of the lower limbs. More extensive research is required into the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes to extend existing knowledge and to permit specialised conditioning for different populations within the sport.

  10. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  11. The physics of communicability in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Hatano, Naomichi; Benzi, Michele

    2012-05-01

    A fundamental problem in the study of complex networks is to provide quantitative measures of correlation and information flow between different parts of a system. To this end, several notions of communicability have been introduced and applied to a wide variety of real-world networks in recent years. Several such communicability functions are reviewed in this paper. It is emphasized that communication and correlation in networks can take place through many more routes than the shortest paths, a fact that may not have been sufficiently appreciated in previously proposed correlation measures. In contrast to these, the communicability measures reviewed in this paper are defined by taking into account all possible routes between two nodes, assigning smaller weights to longer ones. This point of view naturally leads to the definition of communicability in terms of matrix functions, such as the exponential, resolvent, and hyperbolic functions, in which the matrix argument is either the adjacency matrix or the graph Laplacian associated with the network. Considerable insight on communicability can be gained by modeling a network as a system of oscillators and deriving physical interpretations, both classical and quantum-mechanical, of various communicability functions. Applications of communicability measures to the analysis of complex systems are illustrated on a variety of biological, physical and social networks. The last part of the paper is devoted to a review of the notion of locality in complex networks and to computational aspects that by exploiting sparsity can greatly reduce the computational efforts for the calculation of communicability functions for large networks.

  12. Psychiatric aspects of criminal responsibility: insanity and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Maureen; Reid, William H

    2011-11-01

    Forensic psychiatry expertise may be useful to criminal courts in several ways, including evaluating competence (e.g., to stand trial, waive Miranda rights, confess, plead, represent oneself, or be sentenced), assessing responsibility for alleged criminal behavior, and clarifying mental or psychosocial factors that may mitigate criminal charges or the form and severity of punishment. This column focuses on psychiatric/psychological aspects of mitigation in criminal matters.

  13. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Bambauer, Carolin; Lehmann, Boris; Latza, Reinhard; Schiel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application. PMID:22654591

  14. A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Intensive Interaction is an empirically researched approach to developing fundamental communication and sociability for people with severe and profound learning disabilities and/or autism. However, it is the author's contention that certain aspects of Intensive Interaction are not universally conceptualised in a uniform manner, and that there are…

  15. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  16. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  17. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Preparation of High School Physics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge--PCK). The program has been in place…

  18. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Garvey, John F; Pengo, Martino F; Drakatos, Panagis; Kent, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is probably the most common respiratory disorder, with recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA. The intimate relationship between OSA and obesity means that its prevalence will only increase as the global obesity epidemic evolves. At an individual level, OSA leads to a significant decrease in quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity, alongside a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Emerging data also suggest that the presence and severity of OSA and associated nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cancer. At a societal level, OSA not only leads to reduced economic productivity, but also constitutes a major treatable risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. This article addresses OSA from an epidemiological perspective, from prevalence studies to economic aspects to co-morbidity.

  20. [Mixotrophy in microorganisms: ecological and cytophysiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Matantseva, O V; Skarlato, S O

    2013-01-01

    Mixotrophy is the ability to combine autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition. It is widely spread in various microorganisms, particularly in such important plankton groups as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Mixotrophy has a significant impact on our comprehension of the matter and energy flows in marine ecosystems, and therefore, it is an object of much attention for several recent decades. Nevertheless, the precise data on the balance of auto- and heterotrophy during the mixotrophic growth have been absent so far, which is due, first of all, to insufficient understanding of physiological and molecular ground of this phenomenon. In this review we discuss some ecological and cytophysiological aspects of investigation of mixotrophy in microorganisms as well as possible reasons for relatively slow progress in this area.