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Sample records for physics contribution aux

  1. La contribution des astronomes aux mesures de précision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debarbat, S.

    The system for astronomical constants includes the astronomical unit, the velocity of light and the light-time for the unit distance in the metric system. In France, at least from the 17th century, scientists had in mind to unify the units. But it is not before the time of the French Revolution that it was succeeded to adopt a unified system based on the metre. Measurements were made of an arc of meridian, from Dunkirk to Barcelona to determine the new unit as the fraction of 1 over 107 of a quarter of any part of the Earth from the north pole to the equator. On the occasion of the bicentenary of the nomenclature of the metric system (1795), the Paris Observatory has presented during more than six months in 1995, mostly for students, manuscripts, documents related to the subject, in its galeries on the first floor of the Perrault building. The exhibition ended with the 1960 and 1983 definitions of the meter to which the Paris Observatory has contributed. For astronomers it was recalled the reason for which the Angström had to be considered as not more usable, being only close to the fraction 1/1010 of the meter.

  2. Hermann Weyl's Contribution to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    In May 1954, at the age of 69, Hermann Weyl gave a lecture1 in Lausanne, as President Ursprung already mentioned. This lecture was largely autobiographical, centering upon various stages of his thinking, especially about philosophy. It touched upon Weyl's first important work in physics: The next epochal event for me was that I made an important mathematical discovery. It concerned the regularity in the distribution of the eigenfrequencies of a continuous medium, like a membrane, an elastic body, or the electromagnetic ether. The idea was one of many, as they probably come to every young person preoccupied with science but while the others soon burst like soap bubbles, this one led, as a short inspection showed, to the goal. I was myself rather taken aback by it as I had not believed myself capable of anything like it...

  3. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  4. Marie Curie's contribution to Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Jean-Claude, Rosenwald; Nüsslin, Fridtjof

    2013-09-01

    On occasion of its 50th anniversary, the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) from now on is going to celebrate annually an International Day of Medical Physics for which the 7th November, the birthday of Marie Sklodowska Curie, a most exceptional character in science at all and a pioneer of medical physics, has been chosen. This article briefly outlines her outstanding personality, sketches her fundamental discovery of radioactivity and emphasizes the impact of her various achievements on the development of medical physics at large.

  5. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  6. Hermann Weyl's Phenomenological Contribution to Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrobisi, Giorgio J.

    On examining carefully Weyl's writings one realizes that the great mathematician from Göttingen in his researches follows the programmatic scheme of the binomial of "wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis" (scientific Knowledge) and "philosophische Besinnung" (philosophical Reflection). In 1954 in a retrospective writing he affirmed: «The formulation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Laws of Gravitation, valid in this context and corroborated by experimental proofs turning to experience, constitute a method which combines "Wesenanalyse" with "mathematische Konstruktion" of convincing and excellent exemplarity». This conviction has conducted him to a close collaboration with A. Einstein (documented by punctual correspondence) for the decisive formulation of the "General Theory of Relativity", but also of the Theory of unified Field of Gravitation and Electromagnetism and therefore the following formulation of some fundamental principles of Quantum Physics. So Weyl's theoretical formation was marked by the devotion toward a mathematical formalization ("mathematische Konstruktion") of physical phenomena, reporting each of them to the causal structure of the "mathematical thinking" and geometry, contemporarely to a strong inclination toward the phenomenological "Analysis of essence". He brings really a notable quantity of considerations in that 1954 essay by the point of view of the decisive role that the "pure Phenomenology" of Edmund Husserl developed in the determination of his scientific activity.

  7. The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  8. Contributions of athletic identity to child and adolescent physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people's time and effort in various activities. This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation...

  9. Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Contributes to Physical Inactivity in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Friend, Danielle M; Devarakonda, Kavya; O'Neal, Timothy J; Skirzewski, Miguel; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Kaplan, Alanna R; Liow, Jeih-San; Guo, Juen; Rane, Sushil G; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Alvarez, Veronica A; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-07

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring Gi signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice. Surprisingly, although mice with low D2Rs were less active, they were not more vulnerable to diet-induced weight gain than control mice. We conclude that deficits in striatal D2R signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity, but inactivity is more a consequence than a cause of obesity.

  10. On the contributions of astroparticle physics to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenburg, Brigitte

    2014-05-01

    Studying astroparticle physics sheds new light on scientific explanation and on the ways in which cosmology is empirically underdetermined or not. Astroparticle physics extends the empirical domain of cosmology from purely astronomical data to "multi-messenger astrophysics", i.e., measurements of all kinds of cosmic rays including very high energetic gamma rays, neutrinos, and charged particles. My paper investigates the ways in which these measurements contribute to cosmology and compares them with philosophical views about scientific explanation, the relation between theory and data, and scientific realism. The "standard models" of cosmology and particle physics lack of unified foundations. Both are "piecemeal physics" in Cartwright's sense, but contrary to her metaphysics of a "dappled world" the work in both fields of research aims at unification. Cosmology proceeds "top-down", from models to data and from large scale to small-scale structures of the universe. Astroparticle physics proceeds "bottom-up", from data taking to models and from subatomic particles to large-scale structures of the universe. In order to reconstruct the causal stories of cosmic rays and the nature of their sources, several pragmatic unifying strategies are employed. Standard views about scientific explanation and scientific realism do not cope with these "bottom-up" strategies and the way in which they contribute to cosmology. In addition it has to be noted that the shift to "multi-messenger astrophysics" transforms the relation between cosmological theory and astrophysical data in a mutually holistic way.

  11. Oxygen supersaturation in the ocean: biological versus physical contributions.

    PubMed

    Craig, H; Hayward, T

    1987-01-09

    A method based on measurements of dissolved molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and argon can distingish biological from physical contributions to oxygen supersaturation in the ocean. The derived values of biological O(2) production can be used as a check on estimates of total organic productivity measured by instantaneous rates of carbon-14 assimilation. Application to the shallow summer O(2) maxima in the North Pacific gyres shows that about 72% of the O(2) supersaturation maximum at 28 degrees N and about 86% of the maximum at 40 degrees N are due to net photosynthetic production.

  12. Applied Physics Lab Kennedy Space Center: Recent Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stan; Youngquist, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Applied Physics Lab is: (1) Develop and deliver novel sensors and devices to support KSC mission operations. (2) Analyze operational issues and recommend or deliver practical solutions. (3) Apply physics to the resolution of long term space flight issues that affect space port operation on Earth or on other planets.

  13. The contribution of statistical physics to evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    de Vladar, Harold P; Barton, Nicholas H

    2011-08-01

    Evolutionary biology shares many concepts with statistical physics: both deal with populations, whether of molecules or organisms, and both seek to simplify evolution in very many dimensions. Often, methodologies have undergone parallel and independent development, as with stochastic methods in population genetics. Here, we discuss aspects of population genetics that have embraced methods from physics: non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, travelling waves and Monte-Carlo methods, among others, have been used to study polygenic evolution, rates of adaptation and range expansions. These applications indicate that evolutionary biology can further benefit from interactions with other areas of statistical physics; for example, by following the distribution of paths taken by a population through time.

  14. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  15. Psycho-Physiological Contributions of Physical Activity and Sports for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Linda K

    1998-01-01

    Sport and physical activity contribute to the physical movement capabilities of girls, the health status of their bodies, the values and ethical behaviors they develop, and their personal development of a unique identity. This paper offers an overview of contributions and potential challenges related to physiological dimensions and psychosocial…

  16. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  17. Contributions of basic nuclear physics to the nuclear waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocard, Hubert

    2002-04-01

    Nuclear fission is presently a contested method of electricity production. The issue of nuclear waste management stands out among the reasons why. On the other hand, the nuclear industry has demonstrated its capacity to reliably generate cheap electricity while producing negligible amounts of greenhouse gases. These assets explain why this form of energy is still considered among the options for the long term production of electricity at least in developed countries. However, in order to tackle the still not adequately answered question of the waste, new schemes may have to be considered. Among those which have been advanced recently, the less polluting cycles such as those based on Thorium rather than Uranium and/or the transmutation of the minor actinides and some long lived fission products of the present cycle have been actively investigated. In both cases, it turns that the basic knowledge underlying these methods is either missing or incomplete. This situation opens a window of opportunity for useful contributions from basic nuclear physicists. This article describes some of them and presents the ongoing activities as well as some of the projects put forth for the short or medium term. .

  18. Dog Walking among Adolescents: Correlates and Contribution to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and BMI, and identify correlates of dog walking. METHODS/DESIGN Participants were 12–17 year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1 days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (any vs. none) among adolescents with dogs (n=484), and (2) days/week of dog walking among dog walkers (n=300) were investigated. Potential correlates included: demographic, psychosocial, home environment, perceived neighborhood environment, and objective neighborhood environment factors. RESULTS 52% of adolescents lived in a household with a dog, and 62% of those reported dog walking ≥1 day/week. Dog walkers had 4–5 more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog-walkers and non-dog-owners. BMI was not associated with dog walking or ownership. Among households with dogs, adolescents who lived in objectively walkable neighborhoods were 12% more likely to walk their dog than those in less walkable neighborhoods. Among dog walkers, having a multi-family home, college-educated parent, lower perceived traffic safety, higher street connectivity and less mixed use were related to more days/week of dog walking. CONCLUSIONS Dog walkers had 7–8% more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog walkers, and correlates of dog walking were found at multiple levels of influence. Results suggest multilevel interventions that include both environmental and psychosocial components to increase dog walking should be evaluated. PMID:26601644

  19. Advances in atomic physics: Four decades of contribution of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s - when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  20. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  1. The contribution of medical physics to nuclear medicine: a physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ell, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the second in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here is a backward look from a nuclear medicine physician's perspective.

  2. Exploring what contributes to the knowledge development of secondary physics and physical science teachers in a continuous professional development context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, April Wagnon

    This dissertation used qualitative methodologies, specifically phenomenological research, to investigate what contributes to the development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of physics and physical science teachers who participate in a content-specific continuous professional development program. There were five participants in this study. The researcher conducted participant observations and interviews, rated participants degree of reformed teaching practices using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, surveyed participants' self-efficacy beliefs using the Science Teacher Efficacy Belief Instrument "A," and rated participants'' level of PCK using the PCK Rubrics.. All data were analyzed, and a composite description of what contributes to physics and physical science teachers' PCK development through a continuous professional development program emerged. A theory also emerged from the participants' experiences pertaining to how teachers' assimilate new conditions into their existing teaching schema, how conditions change teachers' perceptions of their practice, and outcomes of teachers' new ideas towards their practice. This study contributed to the literature by suggesting emergent themes and a theory on the development of physics and physical science teachers' PCK. PCK development is theorized to be a spiral process incorporating new conditions into the spiral as teachers employ new science content knowledge and pedagogical practices in their individual classroom contexts.

  3. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  4. Language and Reality. Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to the Philosophy of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenburg, Brigitte

    2010-10-01

    The article investigates the way in which Peter Mittelstaedt has been contributing to the philosophy of physics for half a century. It is shown that he pursues a path between rationalism and empiricism in the sense of Erhard Scheibe’s philosophy of the physicists. Starting from Kant’s a priori he gives a rational reconstruction of the conceptual revolutions of 20th century physics. The central topic of his philosophy of physics is the quest for semantic self-consistency, which for quantum mechanics is a hard nut to crack.

  5. Use of Dog Parks and the Contribution to Physical Activity for Their Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Shay, Elizabeth; Williamson, Stephanie; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study described the use of dog parks in several diverse locations and explored the contribution dog parks made to physical activity of the dog owners. Method: The Systematic Observation of Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool was used to count the number and characteristics of people using parks. Observations were…

  6. The Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooley, John C.

    Sport and physical education provide unique opportunities to contribute to the quality of life. Historically, they were enthusiastically used to develop high standards of ethical and moral behavior. Currently, however, cheating and violence have become standard, especially in North America, and are apparently accepted with mild criticism and only…

  7. Gene density, transcription, and insulators contribute to the partition of the Drosophila genome into physical domains.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunhui; Li, Li; Qin, Zhaohui S; Corces, Victor G

    2012-11-09

    The mechanisms responsible for the establishment of physical domains in metazoan chromosomes are poorly understood. Here we find that physical domains in Drosophila chromosomes are demarcated at regions of active transcription and high gene density that are enriched for transcription factors and specific combinations of insulator proteins. Physical domains contain different types of chromatin defined by the presence of specific proteins and epigenetic marks, with active chromatin preferentially located at the borders and silenced chromatin in the interior. Domain boundaries participate in long-range interactions that may contribute to the clustering of regions of active or silenced chromatin in the nucleus. Analysis of transgenes suggests that chromatin is more accessible and permissive to transcription at the borders than inside domains, independent of the presence of active or silencing histone modifications. These results suggest that the higher-order physical organization of chromatin may impose an additional level of regulation over classical epigenetic marks.

  8. Contribution to activity: a lens for understanding students' potential and agency in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhangi, Sanaz

    2017-03-01

    In this paper I argue for using the concept of contribution to activity to understand student engagement with science education and its transformational potential in formal settings. Drawing on transformative activist stance, I explain contribution as how individuals take part in and transform collective practices according to their own life agendas and get transformed themselves. As contribution to science education is a concept based on transformation, not adaptation, it can be especially informative when examining how underrepresented students in science can be more engaged in science education and eventually science. Using survey, interview and group conversations, and field observations in an undergraduate physics course, I put forward Zoey's case to illustrate my argument and show how her contribution to the activities in the course initiated change in the activity among her peers.

  9. Acute physical exercise improves shifting in adolescents at school: evidence for a dopaminergic contribution

    PubMed Central

    Berse, Timo; Rolfes, Kathrin; Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Völker, Klaus; Winter, Bernward; Wittig, Michael; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The executive function of shifting between mental sets demands cognitive flexibility. Based on evidence that physical exercise fostered cognition, we tested whether acute physical exercise can improve shifting in an unselected sample of adolescents. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed to gain more insight into possibly contributing neurophysiological processes. We examined 297 students aged between 13 and 17 years in their schools. Physical exercise was manipulated by an intense incremental exercise condition using bicycle ergometers and a control condition which involved watching an infotainment cartoon while sitting calm. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. Shifting was assessed by a switching task after both conditions. Acute intense physical exercise significantly improved shifting as indicated by reduced switch costs. Exercise-induced performance gains in switch costs were predicted by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLCA6A3) gene suggesting that the brain dopamine system contributed to the effect. The results demonstrate the potential of acute physical exercise to improve cognitive flexibility in adolescents. The field conditions of the present approach suggest applications in schools. PMID:26283937

  10. Final Report, CONTRIBUTIONS TO STUDIES OF CP VIOLATION AND HADRONIC PHYSICS WITH THE BABAR COLLABORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David Norvil

    2013-07-25

    The University of Louisville High Energy Physics group has undertaken a long-term effort in understanding baryon production in elementary particle processes in the 10 GeV energy region. We have contributed significantly to the broad program of the BaBar Collaboration, particularly in support of computing, data visualization, and simulation. We report here on progress in the areas of service to the Collaboration and understanding of baryon production via measurement of inclusive hadronic particle spectra.

  11. The contribution of dance to daily physical activity among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structured physical activity (PA) programs are well positioned to promote PA among youth, however, little is known about these programs, particularly dance classes. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe PA levels of girls enrolled in dance classes, 2) determine the contribution of dance classes to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 3) compare PA between days with a dance class (program days) and days without a dance class (non-program days). Methods Participants were 149 girls (11-18 years) enrolled in dance classes in 11 dance studios. Overall PA was assessed with accelerometry for 8 consecutive days, and girls reported when they attended dance classes during those days. The percent contribution of dance classes to total MVPA was calculated, and data were reduced to compare PA on program days to non-program days. Data were analyzed using mixed models, adjusting for total monitoring time. Results Girls engaged in 25.0 ± 0.9 minutes/day of MVPA. Dance classes contributed 28.7% (95% CI: 25.9%-31.6%) to girls' total MVPA. Girls accumulated more MVPA on program (28.7 ± 1.4 minutes/day) than non-program days (16.4 ± 1.5 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Girls had less sedentary behavior on program (554.0 ± 8.1 minutes/day) than non-program days (600.2 ± 8.7 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Dance classes contributed a substantial proportion (29%) to girls' total MVPA, and girls accumulated 70% more MVPA and 8% less sedentary behavior on program days than on non-program days. Dance classes can make an important contribution to girls' total physical activity. PMID:21816074

  12. Social, Psychological, And Physical Aspects Of The Work Environment Could Contribute To Hypertension Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Modrek, Sepideh; Cantley, Linda F; Cullen, Mark R

    2017-02-01

    Studies on the physical and social characteristics of the workplace have begun to provide evidence for the role of specific workplace factors on health. However, the overall contribution of the workplace to health has not been considered. Estimates of the influences on health across domains of the work environment are a critical first step toward understanding what level of priority the workplace should take as the target for public policies to improve health. The influences or contribution of these domains on health in the work environment are particularly useful to study since they are potentially modifiable through changes in policies and environment. Our analysis used detailed data from blue-collar industrial workers at two dozen Alcoa plants. It includes work environmental measures of psychological hazards, physical hazards, and the workplace social environment, to estimate the overall importance of the workplace environment for hypertension. Our findings suggest that social, psychological, and physical aspects of the work environment could contribute to a substantial proportion of hypertension prevalence. These attributes of the workplace could thus be a useful target for improving workforce health.

  13. A perspective on the contributions of Ronald C. Davidson to plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2016-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s and continuing for half a century, Ronald C. Davidson made fundamental theoretical contributions to a wide range of areas of pure and applied plasma physics. Davidson was one of the founders of nonneutral plasma physics and a pioneer in developing and applying kinetic theory and nonlinear stability theorems to collective interaction processes and nonlinear dynamics of nonneutral plasmas and intense charged particle beams. His textbooks on nonneutral plasmas are the classic references for the field and educated generations of graduate students. Davidson was a strong advocate for applying the ideas of plasma theory to develop techniques that benefit other branches of science. For example, one of the major derivative fields enabled by nonneutral plasmas is the study of antimatter plasmas and the synthesis of antihydrogen. This talk will review a few highlights of Ronald Davidson's impact on plasma physics and related fields of science.

  14. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  15. Physical activity during soccer and its contribution to physical activity recommendations in normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Nelson, Tara; Ficker, Laura; Kafka, Tamar; Kuder, Julia; Economos, Christina D

    2011-05-01

    Amid the childhood obesity epidemic, understanding how organized sports participation contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations in children is important. Anthropometrics were measured in children (n = 111; 68% female, 9.1 ± 0.8 yr) before one 50-min soccer match. Time spent at different physical activity intensity levels was examined using Actigraph accelerometers. 49% of the match time was spent in sedentary activity (25.4 ± 5.7 min), while 33% of the match (16.9 ± 4.7 min) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA; p < .001). 22.5% of the children were overweight/obese and spent more time in sedentary activity (+3.2 ± 1.2 min; p < .05) and less time in MVPA (-3.0 ± 1.0 min; p < .01) compared with the normal weight children. These data demonstrate that playing an organized sport such as soccer only meets a portion (~25%) of the 60 min of MVPA recommended and even less of this recommendation is met by overweight/obese children.

  16. The influence of Hermann von Helmholtz on Heinrich Hertz's contributions to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1987-08-01

    Heinrich Hertz, the discoverer of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, also made important contributions to our knowledge of the photoelectric effect, cathode rays, electromagnetic theory, classical mechanics, and meteorology. In 1878 Hertz enrolled at the University of Berlin to study physics under Professor Hermann von Helmholtz. For the rest of his life he maintained a very close personal and scientific relationship with his mentor. The influence of Helmholtz on Hertz's choice of research topics and on the kind of physicist Hertz became is documented from the writings of these two famous physicists.

  17. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Ryugo S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  18. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  19. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Factors of Identity Formation Considered as Contributing to Developing an Orientation to Physics by Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…

  20. REFLECTIONS ON MY CONTRIBUTIONS TO PARTICLE PHYSICS AND RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    SAMIOS,N.P.

    2002-01-18

    My talk today will be composed of two parts. The first part will consist of a summary of some of my experimental contributions over the years. It will not be exhaustive but will highlight the findings that had relevance to the progress of our understanding of particle physics as it has evolved over the years. This section will be divided into three periods: Early, Intermediate and Late, with an in depth discussion of a few of the more significant results. The second part will consist of a discussion of the recently completed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) machine at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This will encompass the parameters of the accelerator and some of the interesting and exciting early experimental results emanating from this machine.

  1. Anomalously interacting Z* bosons: an example of JINR's contribution to physics at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakov, V. A.; Yeletskikh, I. V.; Chizhov, M. V.; Boyko, I. R.

    2016-04-01

    Fundamental particle physics research at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) has always included the use of highest-energy accelerator machines, and it is only natural that from its very beginning, the institute played an active role in work on developing, assembling, and upgrading both the Large Hadron Collider itself and its detectors. Along with providing hardware and software support to secure the failure-free operation of detectors and the gathering and processing of experimental data, JINR sets as its primary goal to effectively participate in the unprecedentedly comprehensive and important LHC research program. As part of this program, the experimental search for new heavy chiral Z* and W* bosons is carried out by the ATLAS collaboration, an effort whose necessity was fully justified and strategy exhaustively developed by JINR physicists. The search results from the first run of the LHC are briefly discussed, together with the decisive contribution from JINR and future prospects.

  2. Sillitoe, Storey, Hines: their contribution to the sociology of sport and physical education.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S A

    1979-06-01

    The place of sporting activity in literature is reviewed and attention is drawn to the outstanding depth and quality of much of the American writing in this genre. The focus of attention, however, in this paper, is the contribution of contemporary English literature. In recent years a number of novels, short stories and plays have translated sport into dramatic terms as well as placing such action within a recognisable and definable sociological framework. Selected writings by English authors Sillitoe, Storey and Hines are studied and examined to illustrate the many sources available to identify, describe, analyse and complement academic and empirical researches in the sociology of sport and physical education. There is unlimited scope for sports literature (especially in the North American situation) to provide a viable tool for sociological investigation.

  3. Empowering People, Facilitating Community Development, and Contributing to Sustainable Development: The Social Work of Sport, Exercise, and Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2005-01-01

    Do sport, exercise, and physical education (SEPE) professionals empower the people they serve and contribute to community development? Do SEPE policies, programs, and practices contribute to sustainable economic and social development, making them worthwhile governmental investments? These questions frame the ensuing analysis. Empowerment-oriented…

  4. Family Violence and Children's Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Barnett, Melissa A; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-10-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children's behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry.

  5. Family Violence and Children’s Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children’s behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry. PMID:25431522

  6. Combatting cancer in the third millennium--the contribution of medical physics.

    PubMed

    Webb, Steve

    2008-06-01

    In this invited opening Plenary Lecture at the 1st European Conference on Medical Physics, I indicated some of the roles of medical physics, and specifically medical radiation therapy physics, in the development of improved cancer care for the third millennium. It is said that you are only asked to predict the future if you are seriously old and/or will not be around long enough to know if you were correct. Hopefully, however, I will be able to contribute to this field for many years to come and many of my suggestions will be enacted. "Crystal ball gazing" is, however, a very unscientific process. Scientists are trained to study and analyse situations, report their findings and stop at that. "Future gazing" is not predicting the short-term developments; it is about being bold, radical and stating what today is impossible or almost unthinkable. So-called "scientific prophets" can be entertaining (which I also hope I was in this lecture) but at worst look egocentric and possibly ridiculous. I seem to have survived three previous requests to make scientific predictions [Webb S. The future of photon external-beam radiotherapy: the dream and the reality. Physica Medica 2001;17(4):207-15; Webb S. Radiotherapy physics: the next ten years of technical development. Imaging and Oncology 2005;1:43-50; Webb S, Evans PM. Innovative techniques in radiation therapy editorial, overview and crystal ball gaze to the future. In: Webb S, Evans PM, editors. Innovative techniques in radiation therapy. Seminars in Radiation Oncology 2006;16(4):193-8]. I proposed that important progress usually comes from two quite distinct directions. Firstly, there is "big hit science", that is discoveries or inventions so important that the medical world changes forever because of them. These are what people remember, what reaches the media and what make some people household names. These are rare. Secondly, there is "incremental development" which is how the vast majority of scientists work. Small

  7. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (<2%). MC simulations showed highly localized dose enhancement (up to a factor 17) in the immediate vicinity (<100 nm) of GNRs, compared with hypothetical water nanorods (WNRs), mostly due to GNR-originated Auger/secondary electrons; however, the average dose enhancement over the entire GNR-loaded vial was found to be minimal (0.1%). The dose enhancement due to the activation products from GNPs was minimal (<0.1%) as well. In conclusion, under the

  8. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jongmin; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-03-21

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (<2%). MC simulations showed highly localized dose enhancement (up to a factor 17) in the immediate vicinity (<100 nm) of GNRs, compared with hypothetical water nanorods (WNRs), mostly due to GNR-originated Auger/secondary electrons; however, the average dose enhancement over the entire GNR-loaded vial was found to be minimal (0.1%). The dose enhancement due to the activation products from GNPs was minimal (<0.1%) as well. In conclusion, under the currently

  9. Moving to Inclusion. Active Living through Physical Education: Maximizing Opportunities for Students with a Disability = Integration en Mouvement. La vie active par l'education physique: Multipliez les possibilities offertes aux eleves ayant un handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability, Gloucester (Ontario).

    This document is composed of 10 manuals which provide both general and specific guidelines to facilitate the inclusion of Canadian students with disabilities in physical education programs. An introductory manual identifies general concepts, strategies, and practical approaches that can be used in an inclusive physical education program. It…

  10. Contributing Factors in Students' Choice of a Physical Therapist Assistant Career: A Contrast with the Physical Therapist Career Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mele, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    The health care professions have gained significant notoriety as one of the fastest growing career opportunities in the country. In particular, physical therapy has gained a reputation as a vital and significant member of the health care team. The physical therapy field has struggled to provide adequate services to meet patients' needs due to the…

  11. How a gender gap in belonging contributes to the gender gap in physics participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane G.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of research indicates that feeling a secure sense of belonging in academic settings is critical to students' achievement. In the current work, we present data collected over multiple semesters of a calculus-based introductory physics class indicating that women feel a lower sense of belonging than men in physics. This finding is important because our data also indicate that having a strong sense of belonging in physics positively predicts the degree to which all students see the value of physics in their daily life (an outcome that predicts motivation and persistence in achievement settings) as well as performance on exams in the course. We identify one potential antecedent of women's relatively lower sense of belonging in physics, namely, negative cultural stereotypes about women's inferior ability in physics compared to men. We then discuss pedagogical strategies that might be employed to enhance women's sense of belonging in physics.

  12. Barrier-Free Design: Access to and Use of Buildings by Physically Disabled People = Amenagement pour Acces Facile: Acces Facile aux Immeubles et Leur Utilisation par les Personnes Handicapees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Works Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The manual describes, for people with physical disabilities, a building standard of accessibility and the policy for its application. Policies address both new construction and renovation work based on principles of building accessibility to a broad range of users, public service accessibility, and equality of access to employment opportunities.…

  13. "Friluftsliv": A Contribution to Equity and Democracy in Swedish Physical Education? An Analysis of Codes in Swedish Physical Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, expanding research investigating the school subject Physical Education (PE) indicates a promotion of inequalities regarding which children benefit from PE teaching. Outdoor education and its Scandinavian equivalent "friluftsliv," is a part of the PE curriculum in many countries, and these practices have been…

  14. The Contribution of Simulations to the Practical Work of Foundation Physics Students at the University of Limpopo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhlongo, Motlalepula Rebecca; Kriek, Jeanne; Basson, Ilsa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Practical work is regarded as an essential part of learning; hence most tertiary institutions have included a practical component in their physics courses. There is a concern about the effectiveness of the practical work in most universities. The purpose of this study is to assess the contributions of simulations on 20 Foundation Physics…

  15. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  18. A.V. Usova's Contribution to the Field of Concept Learning in Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavoruk, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A.V. Usova (1921-2014) has always been one of the leading figures in Russian physics education. Her theory of physics concept formation was formulated during the 1970s and the 1980s and directly influenced the process of physics education in the 20th and the 21st century. Over the years there have been a lot of theories of concept formation. Her…

  19. Cardiovascular, muscular and perceptual contributions to physical fatigue in prevalent kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie; Jones, David; Bosch, Jos A; McPhee, Jamie; Crabtree, Nicola; McTernan, Philip G; Kaur, Okdeep; Inston, Nicholas; Moore, Sue; McClean, Andrew; Harper, Lorraine; Phillips, Anna C; Borrows, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Physical fatigue is debilitating and common among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). This study investigated the mechanistic aetiology of physical fatigue in this setting through examinations of muscle mass, muscular and cardiovascular function, and perceived exertion. The incidence of physical fatigue, its association with quality of life (QoL), and the predictors of perceived exertion, were evaluated. This single-centre observational cross-sectional study enrolled 55 KTRs. Muscle mass was quantified using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Muscular function was assessed by jumping mechanography. Cardiovascular function (maximal oxygen consumption and oxygen pulse) was estimated during submaximal exercise testing, with perceived exertion determined using age-adjusted Borg scale-ratings. Physical fatigue was measured using Multi-Dimensional Fatigue Inventory-20. QoL was assessed using Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. Demographic, clinical, nutritional, psychosocial and behavioural predictors of perceived exertion were assessed. Of clinical importance, increased perceived exertion was the only independent predictor of physical fatigue (P = 0.001), with no association found between physical fatigue and muscular or cardiovascular parameters. Physical fatigue occurred in 22% of KTRs, and negatively impacted on QoL (P < 0.001). Predictors of heightened perception included anxiety (P < 0.05) and mental fatigue (P < 0.05). Perception is a key determinant of physical fatigue in KTRs, paving the way for future interventions.

  20. Experimental Semiconductor Physics: The Will to Contribute to the Country’s Economic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil Santos, Elena

    During the second half of the 1960s the Physics School staff increased sharply. Before this, it had experienced near depletion due to the emigration of many of its members shortly after the triumph of the Revolution. This renaissance took place thanks to the incorporation of the first physicists to graduate from the Physics School itself, and to the return of those who had graduated abroad, mainly from the former Soviet Union. This group of young physicists—with a heavy schedule of teaching duties in spite of their lack of experience—gave strong support to the development of physics in Cuba.

  1. The contribution of conceptual frameworks to knowledge translation interventions in physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap.

  2. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  3. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  4. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery.

  5. A review of the contributions of Albert Einstein to earth sciences--in commemoration of the World Year of Physics.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.

  6. Student Physical Education Teachers' Well-Being: Contribution of Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciyin, Gülten; Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted Self-Determination Theory tenets and aimed to explore whether student physical education (PE) teachers' satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs independently predicts well-being. 267 Turkish student PE teachers were recruited for the study. Two stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed in which each outcome…

  7. How Do Maternal Reasoning and Physical Punishment Contribute to Development of Verbal Competence and Behavior Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Muzik, Maria; Berube, Renee; Narang, Sonia; Tuttle, Brenda; Jacobson, Joseph

    As part of a longitudinal investigation of the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on children's cognitive and socioemotional development, this study examined the role of physical punishment on the development of children's externalizing behavior. Participating in this phase were 296 inner-city African-American families with 7-year-olds who had…

  8. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  9. Contribution of Physical Interactions to Signaling Specificity between a Diguanylate Cyclase and Its Effector

    PubMed Central

    Dahlstrom, Kurt M.; Giglio, Krista M.; Collins, Alan J.; Sondermann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that controls multiple cellular processes. c-di-GMP networks have up to dozens of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) that synthesize c-di-GMP along with many c-di-GMP-responsive target proteins that can bind and respond to this signal. For such networks to have order, a mechanism(s) likely exists that allow DGCs to specifically signal their targets, and it has been suggested that physical interactions might provide such specificity. Our results show a DGC from Pseudomonas fluorescens physically interacting with its target protein at a conserved interface, and this interface can be predictive of DGC-target protein interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that physical interaction is necessary for the DGC to maximally signal its target. If such “local signaling” is a theme for even a fraction of the DGCs used by bacteria, it becomes possible to posit a model whereby physical interaction allows a DGC to directly signal its target protein, which in turn may help curtail undesired cross talk with other members of the network. PMID:26670387

  10. Physical Activity Patterns in Portuguese Adolescents: The Contribution of Extracurricular Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Aires, Luisa; Seabra, Andre; Ribeiro, Jose; Welk, Gregory; Mota, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, two sports systems exist, one through schools and the other in community clubs. The purpose was to determine the impact of extra-curricular sports (EC sports) on boys' and girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). 208 adolescents (79 boys and 129 girls), between 12 and 18 years old, wore an accelerometer over seven days.…

  11. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  12. Difference, Adapted Physical Activity and Human Development: Potential Contribution of Capabilities Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carla Filomena; Howe, P. David

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a call to Adapted Physical Activity (APA) professionals to increase the reflexive nature of their practice. Drawing upon Foucault's concept of governmentality (1977) APA action may work against its own publicized goals of empowerment and self-determination. To highlight these inconsistencies, we will draw upon historical and social…

  13. High School Physical Education: What Contributes to the Experience of Flow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormoen, Sidsel; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Wold, Bente; Diseth, Åge

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to identify factors that promote positive experiences in high school physical education (PE). The study combines elements of Self-determination Theory (SDT) with the theory of "flow". Special attention is given to gender differences. The study sample consisted of 167 Norwegian senior high school students (78 females and…

  14. The contribution of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors in explaining physical activity among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, Leen; Craeynest, Mietje; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  15. The contribution of the giraffe to hemodynamic knowledge: a unified physical principle for the circulation.

    PubMed

    Recordati, G

    1999-09-01

    Hemodynamics stands on three main physical principles: the hydrostatic pressure, firstly described by Stevino, the viscous flow pressure, described by Poiseuille and the total hydraulic energy, or Bernoulli's equation. However, neither of these physical principles gives a comprehensive description of the single pressure measurement in the cardiovascular system. Hence, all these principles should be used together to fully describe the physical forces acting in the circulation of blood. Experiments that measured the hydrostatic pressure in the jugular vein of the giraffe have shown that a few guidelines need to be followed to measure it correctly. Following these guidelines, it can be seen that hydrostatic and viscous flow pressures are strictly related to one another, and that this relationship is described in mathematical terms. In addition, it has been shown that hydrostatic and viscous pressures should be included in Bernoulli's principle, to give the combined Bernoulli-Poiseuille equation. This unified principle is helpful not only to measure correctly the pressure with a catheter connected to a pressure transducer, but also to give to the pressure measured in a patient with the mercury manometer, a strong connection with the description of the pressure as a physical force acting inside the circulation. In addition it provides a comprehensive view of the cardiovascular system as a closed hydrodynamic system, in which the heart is a pump, that does not normally work to overcome the force of gravity. The question at this point is: are there any pathophysiological conditions in which the heart needs to be confronted with the sudden appearance of the force of gravity inside the cardiovascular system?

  16. [Contribution of the physical and rehabilitation medicine in pediatric plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Gottrand, L; Devinck, F; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2016-10-01

    Physical, non-painful processes guide the scar reshaping in children in order to prevent growth anomalies due to cutaneous shrinkage. The objective of the surgical treatment, coordinated with the reeducation care, is to improve the physical abilities of the skin, to restore the function and avoid the deformations. Reeducation uses various techniques (i.e. sensitive-motility, massage and mobilizations) with or without physical agent (water, aspiration and touch-drive technique). Posture and positioning rely on the small or major aids, from orthosis to prosthesis. Compression is obtained by the adjustment of aids on molding and compression garment. Indications of the reeducation treatment depend on the timing of cutaneous covering and the advance of the healing process. It also depends on the underlying condition including skin traumas (frictions, wounds, burns), skin surgeries (purpura fulminans consequences, skin graft reconstruction after giant nevus resection, malignant lesion or vascular malformations). The final goal is the rehabilitation and development of the child and the adolescent in its entire somatopsychic dimension.

  17. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Olyvia; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05), sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01), push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05) and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01), while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05) for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score. PMID:28149377

  18. Additional Contributions to the Development of the New Snow-Physics Scheme for SSiB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Sud, Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB) had a well-documented problem with snowmelt timing and infiltration. A new snow-physics scheme was developed for use in SSIB. In this, the snow layer is separated from the soil, with its own energy budget and temperature. Solar energy reaching the top of the snowpack is divided into three parts: one, reflected by the snow; two, absorbed by the snow; and three, transmitted to the ground following a simple extinction relation. Heat is exchanged between the ground and snow by conduction and by radiation through an arbitrary air-gap between them. In the GSWP exercise using the GEWEX ISLSCP Initiative I forcing data (hereafter "offline"), it was found that the new snow scheme ameliorated a significant fraction of snowmelt time-delay as compared to observations from satellite. It also produced warmer ground temperatures under the snowpack, which allowed realistic meltwater infiltration, resulting in better simulated spring soil moisture recharge and peak runoff amount as compared to observations. An ensemble of six June-July-August (JJA) simulations for 1987 and 1988 were performed with the NASA Goddard GEOS II GCM coupled with the new snow-physics SSIB using new initial soil moisture (ISM) from the offline simulations. The GCM produced more realistic precipitation in northern regions that had large snowmelt and wetter ISM in response to better snow-physics, as compared to simulations with ISM without the new snow scheme. The new SSiB-GCM also increased the interannual precipitation signal in the Indian monsoon region, resulting from changes in ISM in the Himalayas and central Asia.

  19. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the main findings and policy implications of 50 years (1949-1999) of research conducted by INCAP on growth and development. Topical areas reviewed include a) maternal size and birthweight and the causes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), b) patterns and causes of postnatal growth retardation, c) the relative importance of genetics and the environment in explaining differences in growth among populations, d) the implications of being small, for both children and adults, e) bone growth and maturation and dental development, f) menarche, and g) methodological contributions such as anthropometric reference data, quality control of data collection, development of risk indicators and use of anthropometry in nutrition surveillance systems. Key contributions to knowledge by INCAP include a) characterization of growth failure and maturational delays as mainly occurring during the intrauterine period and the first 3 years of life b) clarification of the role of small maternal size and of inadequate dietary intakes during pregnancy as major causes of intrauterine growth failure, c) evidence that diarrheal diseases and poor dietary intakes are the principal causes of growth failure in early childhood, d) demonstration that environmental factors related to poverty, and not genetic or racial ancestry, account for most of the differences in growth between populations, e) evidence that growth failure predicts functional impairment in the child as well as in the adult andf) demonstration that nutrition interventions are effective in preventing growth failure and its consequences, if targeted to needy women and young children. INCAP's work has contributed knowledge that has informed and improved policies and programs aimed at overcoming maternal and child undernutrition and promoting optimal growth and development.

  20. From Hyporheic Science to River Restoration: The Contribution of Physically-Based Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, D. H.; Binley, A. M.; Heathwaite, L.

    2014-12-01

    River managers need practical tools to promote appropriately hyporheic functions in restoration schemes. Hyporheic ecosystems are largely controlled by hydrological processes, which may be simulated through physically-based models. Despite their apparent limitations (sophisticated, data-hungry, and computationally demanding), these models offer substantial advantages that may pertain to the operational level of river management: representation of specific landscapes, process-based sensitivity analyses, and alternative restoration scenario testing. This presentation builds on idealized and field-based studies, as well as literature examples, to discuss how physically-based models of hyporheic exchange can be fully exploited for restoration purposes. Results suggest that these models are best suited to map spatial patterns of exchange at the sediment-water interface, rather than to estimate HEF fluxes and residence times. Because subsurface data are typically unavailable or sparse, an approach combining high-resolution topographic data combined with a sensitivity analysis appears as a promising approach for: (a) delineating potential areas of upwelling and downwelling along longitudinal and lateral channel sections; and (b) highlighting potential differences in HEF characteristics between reaches. To achieve satisfactory simulations, however, the challenge lies in the topographic representation of the channel and the discretization of the mesh. Here, common pitfalls are identified, and guidance to overcome these is provided.

  1. Neuroimaging Techniques: a Conceptual Overview of Physical Principles, Contribution and History

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico

    2006-06-08

    This paper is meant to provide a brief overview of the techniques currently used to image the brain and to study non-invasively its anatomy and function. After a historical summary in the first section, general aspects are outlined in the second section. The subsequent six sections survey, in order, computed tomography (CT), morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DWI/DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electro- and magneto-encephalography (EEG/MEG) based imaging. Underlying physical principles, modelling and data processing approaches, as well as clinical and research relevance are briefly outlined for each technique. Given the breadth of the scope, there has been no attempt to be comprehensive. The ninth and final section outlines some aspects of active research in neuroimaging.

  2. Mathematical Oncology: How Are the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Contributing to the War on Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Chauviere, Arnaud H; Hatzikirou, Haralampos; Lowengrub, John S; Frieboes, Hermann B; Thompson, Alastair M; Cristini, Vittorio

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical modeling has recently been added as a tool in the fight against cancer. The field of mathematical oncology has received great attention and increased enormously, but over-optimistic estimations about its ability have created unrealistic expectations. We present a critical appraisal of the current state of mathematical models of cancer. Although the field is still expanding and useful clinical applications may occur in the future, managing over-expectation requires the proposal of alternative directions for mathematical modeling. Here, we propose two main avenues for this modeling: 1) the identification of the elementary biophysical laws of cancer development, and 2) the development of a multiscale mathematical theory as the framework for models predictive of tumor growth. Finally, we suggest how these new directions could contribute to addressing the current challenges of understanding breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  3. Contribution of diet and physical activity to metabolic parameters among survivors of childhood leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tonorezos, Emily S.; Robien, Kim; Eshelman-Kent, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Church, Timothy S.; Ross, Robert; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determine the relationship between diet and metabolic abnormalities among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods We surveyed 117 adult survivors of childhood ALL using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was measured with the SenseWear Pro2 Armband. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were measured by abdominal CT. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern was calculated using the index developed by Trichopoulou. Subjects were compared using multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender. Results Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with lower visceral adiposity (P=0.07), subcutaneous adiposity (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.005), and body mass index (P=0.04). For each point higher on the Mediterranean Diet Score, the odds of having the metabolic syndrome fell by 31% (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.50, 0.94; P = 0.019). Higher dairy intake was associated with higher HOMA-IR (P =0.014), but other individual components of the Mediterranean diet, such as low intake of meat or high intake of fruits and vegetables, were not significant. PAEE was not independently associated with metabolic outcomes, although higher PAEE was associated with lower body mass index. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with better metabolic and anthropometric parameters in this cross-sectional study of ALL survivors. PMID:23187859

  4. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA) post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims were 1) to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2) to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9.6 years) was monitored using two measures. Accelerometers (Actical) were worn on the hip for three consecutive days in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire [the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD)]. The daily physical activity was measured as the mean total accelerometer activity counts/day and the PASIPD scores as the metabolic equivalent (MET) hr/day. HRQL was assessed by the Physical and Mental composite scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) in addition to the functional ability of the participants. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Results After controlling for the severity of the motor impairment, the amount of daily PA, as assessed by the PASIPD and accelerometers, was found to independently contribute to 10-12% of the variance of the Physical Composite Score of the SF-36. No significant relationship was found between PA and the Mental Composite Score of the SF-36.The functional ability of the participants was found to be correlated to the amount of daily PA (r = 0.33 - 0.67, p < 0.01). Conclusion The results suggest that daily PA is associated with better HRQL (as assessed by the Physical composite score of the SF-36) for people living with stroke. Daily PA should be encouraged to potentially increase HRQL. Accelerometers in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire may provide important measures of PA which can be monitored and modified, and potentially influence HRQL. PMID:20682071

  5. Contribution of physical education and sport to health-related fitness in high school students.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Pitetti, Kenneth H

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Run (number of completed laps, 20OMST). Secondary analysis compared upper body strength (90 degrees push-ups), flexibility (sit and reach), and body mass index (BMI kg/m2). Comparisons were made between students participating in 1-2 SSS and > or = 3 SSS for males and 1 SSS and > or = 2 for females to students participating solely in PE. Males participating in 1-2 SSS (mean (+/- SD) 20MST 63.80 +/- 25.61) and > or = 3 SSS (81.13 28.26) completed significantly (p < .001) more laps than males participating solely in PE (44.18 +/- 19.09). Females participating in 1 SSS (37.33 +/- 15.53) and > or = 2 SSS (49.48 +/- 19.83) completed significantly (p = .02) more laps than females participating solely in PE (23.50 +/- 7.96). Significant differences in number of 90 degrees push-ups was observed between males participating in > or = 3 SSS (49.41 +/- 12.90) and males participating solely in PE (37.63 +/- 11.79, p = .006). No significant differences existed for males on BMI (p = .223) or the sit and reach (p = .145), and for females on 90 degrees push-ups (p = .79), sit and reach (p = .579), and BMI (p = . 122). As the number of SSS increase, significant increases are observed in cardiovascular fitness, with youth participating solely in PE exhibiting the lowest levels of cardiovascular fitness in comparison to youth participating in PE and SSS.

  6. Mobile EEG on the bike: disentangling attentional and physical contributions to auditory attention tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Rob; Hunyadi, Borbála; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In the past few years there has been a growing interest in studying brain functioning in natural, real-life situations. Mobile EEG allows to study the brain in real unconstrained environments but it faces the intrinsic challenge that it is impossible to disentangle observed changes in brain activity due to increase in cognitive demands by the complex natural environment or due to the physical involvement. In this work we aim to disentangle the influence of cognitive demands and distractions that arise from such outdoor unconstrained recordings. Approach. We evaluate the ERP and single trial characteristics of a three-class auditory oddball paradigm recorded in outdoor scenario’s while peddling on a fixed bike or biking freely around. In addition we also carefully evaluate the trial specific motion artifacts through independent gyro measurements and control for muscle artifacts. Main results. A decrease in P300 amplitude was observed in the free biking condition as compared to the fixed bike conditions. Above chance P300 single-trial classification in highly dynamic real life environments while biking outdoors was achieved. Certain significant artifact patterns were identified in the free biking condition, but neither these nor the increase in movement (as derived from continuous gyrometer measurements) can explain the differences in classification accuracy and P300 waveform differences with full clarity. The increased cognitive load in real-life scenarios is shown to play a major role in the observed differences. Significance. Our findings suggest that auditory oddball results measured in natural real-life scenarios are influenced mainly by increased cognitive load due to being in an unconstrained environment.

  7. Physical processes contributing to an ice free Beaufort Sea during September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babb, D. G.; Galley, R. J.; Barber, D. G.; Rysgaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    During the record September 2012 sea ice minimum, the Beaufort Sea became ice free for the first time during the observational record. Increased dynamic activity during late winter enabled increased open water and seasonal ice coverage that contributed to negative sea ice anomalies and positive solar absorption anomalies which drove rapid bottom melt and sea ice loss. As had happened in the Beaufort Sea during previous years of exceptionally low September sea ice extent, anomalous solar absorption developed during May, increased during June, peaked during July, and persisted into October. However in situ observations from a single floe reveal less than 78% of the energy required for bottom melt during 2012 was available from solar absorption. We show that the 2012 sea ice minimum in the Beaufort was the result of anomalously large solar absorption that was compounded by an arctic cyclone and other sources of heat such as solar transmission, oceanic upwelling, and riverine inputs, but was ultimately made possible through years of preconditioning toward a younger, thinner ice pack. Significant negative trends in sea ice concentration between 1979 and 2012 from June to October, coupled with a tendency toward earlier sea ice reductions have fostered a significant trend of +12.9 MJ m-2 yr-1 in cumulative solar absorption, sufficient to melt an additional 4.3 cm m-2 yr-1. Overall through preconditioning toward a younger, thinner ice pack the Beaufort Sea has become increasingly susceptible to increased sea ice loss that may render it ice free more frequently in coming years.

  8. Contribution of raindrop impact to the change of soil physical properties and water erosion under semi-arid rainfalls.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Morvarid; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is a three-phase process that consists of detachment of soil particles from the soil mass, transportation of detached particles either by raindrop impact or surface water flow, and sedimentation. Detachment by raindrops is a key component of the soil erosion process. However, little information is available on the role of raindrop impact on soil losses in the semi-arid regions where vegetation cover is often poor and does not protect the soil from rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of raindrop impact to changes in soil physical properties and soil losses in a semiarid weakly-aggregated agricultural soil. Soil losses were measured under simulated rainfalls of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70mmh(-1), and under two conditions: i) with raindrop impact; and, ii) without raindrop impact. Three replications at each rainfall intensity and condition resulted in a total of 42 microplots of 1m×1.4m installed on a 10% slope according to a randomized complete block design. The contribution of raindrop impact to soil loss was computed using the difference between soil loss with raindrop impact and without raindrop impact at each rainfall intensity. Soil physical properties (aggregate size, bulk density and infiltration rate) were strongly damaged by raindrop impact as rainfall intensity increased. Soil loss was significantly affected by rainfall intensity under both soil surface conditions. The contribution of raindrop impact to soil loss decreased steadily with increasing rainfall intensity. At the lower rainfall intensities (20-30mmh(-1)), raindrop impact was the dominant factor controlling soil loss from the plots (68%) while at the higher rainfall intensities (40-70mmh(-1)) soil loss was mostly affected by increasing runoff discharge. At higher rainfall intensities the sheet flow protected the soil from raindrop impact.

  9. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus contributes to morphine physical dependence in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Zheng, Tian-Fang; Wei, Jing-Qiu; Liu, He; Chen, Yu-Feng; Wang, Jia-You; Zhang, Li-Cai

    2013-05-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) may influence actual composition of the CSF for non-synaptic signal transmission via releasing or absorbing bioactive substances, which distributes and localizes in the ventral periaqueductal central gray of the brainstem. Previous studies demonstrated that CSF-CN was involved in neuropathic pain and morphine dependence. Thus, to identify whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) distributed in the CSF-CN and its function on the formation and development of morphine physical dependence, morphine withdrawal-like behavioral test and immunofluorescent technique were used in this research. Morphine was subcutaneously injected by an intermittent and escalating procedure to induce physical dependence, which was measured by withdrawal symptoms. In this study, we found that horseradish peroxidase-conjugated toxin subunit B/p-ERK5 double-labeled neurons expressed in the CSF-CN of normal rats. ERK5 signaling pathway was remarkably activated by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the CSF-CN. Moreover, selective attenuation of p-ERK5 expression in the CSF-CN by lateral ventricle injection of BIX02188 could significantly relieve morphine withdrawal symptom. These findings confirmed that the activation of p-ERK5 in the CSF-CN might contribute to morphine physical dependence.

  10. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  11. OMIP contribution to CMIP6: experimental and diagnostic protocol for the physical component of the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffies, Stephen M.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Durack, Paul J.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Balaji, V.; Böning, Claus W.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Curchitser, Enrique; Deshayes, Julie; Drange, Helge; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Gleckler, Peter J.; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hallberg, Robert W.; Heimbach, Patrick; Hewitt, Helene T.; Holland, David M.; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jungclaus, Johann H.; Komuro, Yoshiki; Krasting, John P.; Large, William G.; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; McDougall, Trevor J.; Nurser, A. J. George; Orr, James C.; Pirani, Anna; Qiao, Fangli; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Taylor, Karl E.; Treguier, Anne Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valdivieso, Maria; Wang, Qiang; Winton, Michael; Yeager, Stephen G.

    2016-09-01

    The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is an endorsed project in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). OMIP addresses CMIP6 science questions, investigating the origins and consequences of systematic model biases. It does so by providing a framework for evaluating (including assessment of systematic biases), understanding, and improving ocean, sea-ice, tracer, and biogeochemical components of climate and earth system models contributing to CMIP6. Among the WCRP Grand Challenges in climate science (GCs), OMIP primarily contributes to the regional sea level change and near-term (climate/decadal) prediction GCs.OMIP provides (a) an experimental protocol for global ocean/sea-ice models run with a prescribed atmospheric forcing; and (b) a protocol for ocean diagnostics to be saved as part of CMIP6. We focus here on the physical component of OMIP, with a companion paper (Orr et al., 2016) detailing methods for the inert chemistry and interactive biogeochemistry. The physical portion of the OMIP experimental protocol follows the interannual Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). Since 2009, CORE-I (Normal Year Forcing) and CORE-II (Interannual Forcing) have become the standard methods to evaluate global ocean/sea-ice simulations and to examine mechanisms for forced ocean climate variability. The OMIP diagnostic protocol is relevant for any ocean model component of CMIP6, including the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments), historical simulations, FAFMIP (Flux Anomaly Forced MIP), C4MIP (Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate MIP), DAMIP (Detection and Attribution MIP), DCPP (Decadal Climate Prediction Project), ScenarioMIP, HighResMIP (High Resolution MIP), as well as the ocean/sea-ice OMIP simulations.

  12. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  13. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The

    2012-07-01

    Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously.

  14. Contribution of neuroinflammation and immunity to brain aging and the mitigating effects of physical and cognitive interventions.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Svetlana; Müller, Ludmila; Wenger, Elisabeth; Düzel, Sandra; Pawelec, Graham

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain and the immune system continuously interact during normal as well as pathological functioning. Human aging is commonly accompanied by low-grade inflammation in both the immune and central nervous systems, thought to contribute to many age-related diseases. This review of the current literature focuses first on the normal neuroimmune interactions occurring in the brain, which promote learning, memory and neuroplasticity. Further, we discuss the protective and dynamic role of barriers to neuroimmune interactions, which have become clearer with the recent discovery of the meningeal lymphatic system. Next, we consider age-related changes of the immune system and possible deleterious influences of immunosenescence and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) on neurodegenerative processes in the normally aging brain. We survey the major immunomodulators and neuroregulators in the aging brain and their highly tuned dynamic and reciprocal interactions. Finally, we consider our current understanding of how physical activity, as well as a combination of physical and cognitive interventions, may mediate anti-inflammatory effects and thus positively impact brain aging.

  15. REVIEW: The contribution of medical physics to the development of psoralen photochemotherapy (PUVA) in the UK: a personal reminiscence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffey, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Psoralen photochemotherapy (PUVA) is the combined treatment of skin disorders with a photosensitizing drug (Psoralen) and UltraViolet A radiation. The introduction of PUVA therapy has arguably been the most important development in dermatology over the past 30 years and from the first days of the treatment being introduced in the UK, British medical physicists were an integral part of the effort to establish it. Medical physicists have contributed to this development in a number of ways, from designing irradiation units in the early days of the technique, through to collaborating with dermatologists in prosecuting clinical and experimental studies aimed at improving patient outcomes. That the dose of UVA radiation is administered quantitatively, and not qualitatively, has probably been the single most important contribution made by several medical physicists over this period. However, despite concerns that were expressed almost 30 years ago about the accuracy with which UVA doses are administered to patients, the medical physics community still has some way to go before we can be satisfied that statements about UVA irradiance and dose can be made with confidence.

  16. Divisible Atoms or None at All? Facing the European Contributions to Developments of Chemistry and Physics in China.

    PubMed

    Južnič, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important Mid-European professor with more than six thousand academic descendants was the leading Slovenian erudite Jurij Vega. In broader sense, Vega's and other applied sciences of the south of Holy Roman Empire of German Nationality were connected with the mercury mine of Idrija during the last half of millennia. The Idrija Mine used to be one of the two top European producers of mercury, the basic substance of atomistic alchemists. Idrija Mine contributions to the history of techniques, their examinations and approbations is comparable to the other Mid-European achievements. The peculiarities of Idrija mining environment where people valued mostly the applicative knowhow is put into the limelight. The applicative abilities of Idrija employers affected the broader surroundings including Vega's Jesuit teachers in nearby Ljubljana and the phenomena of comparatively many China-Based Jesuits connected with the area of modern Slovenia. The Jesuits' Mid-European education and networks are put into the limelight, as well as their adopted Chinese networks used for their bridging between Eastern and Western Sciences. The Western origin of the scientific-technologic-industrial revolution(s) with causes for their apparent nonexistence in Chinese frames is discussed as another Eurocentric rhetorical racist question which presumes the scientific-technologic-industrial revolution(s) as something good, positive, and therefore predominantly European. The Chinese ways into progress without those troublemaking revolutions is focused for the first time in historiography from combined scientific, moral, religious, and economic viewpoints. The Chinese contributions to particular areas of research in chemistry and physics is focused to find out the preferences and most frequent stages of (European) paradigms involved in the Chinese networks. Some predictions of future interests of Chinese chemistry and physics are provided. The Chinese Holistic Confucian distrust in

  17. Contribution to the physical-mechanical study of cement CRS basis of dune-sand powder and other minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmani, Saci; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2016-07-01

    The Portland cements are increasingly used for the manufacture of cement materials (mortar or concrete). Sighting the increasing demand of the cement in the field of construction, and the wealth of our country of minerals. It is time to value these local materials in construction materials and in the manufacture of cement for the manufacture of a new type of cement or for the improvement of the cement of characteristics for several reasons either technical, or ecological or economic or to improve certain properties to the State fees or hardened. The uses of mineral additions remain associated to disadvantages on the time of solidification and the development of the mechanical resistance at the young age [8]. The objective of our work is to study the effects of the incorporation of additions minerals such the pozzolan (active addition) [3], slag of blast furnace (active addition) [4] and the sand dune powder (inert addition) on the physico-mechanical properties of compositions of mortar collaborated compositions according to different binary combinations basis of these additions. This will allow selecting of optimal dosages of these combinations the more efficient, from the point of view of mechanical resistanceas well. The results of this research work confirm that the rate of 10% of pozzolan, slag or powder of dune sand contributes positively on the development of resistance in the long term, at of this proportion time,there is a decrease in the latter except for the slag (20 - 40%) [4]Seems the more effective resistors and physical properties.

  18. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  19. The contributions of Lewis Fry Richardson to drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, John; Raats, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The EGU Division on Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics awards the Lewis Fry Richardson Medal. Richardson's significance is highlighted in http://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-lewis-fry-richardson/, but his contributions to soil physics and to numerical solutions of heat and diffusion equations are not mentioned. We would like to draw attention to those little known contributions. Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) made important contributions to many fields including numerical weather prediction, finite difference solutions of partial differential equations, turbulent flow and diffusion, fractals, quantitative psychology and studies of conflict. He invented numerical weather prediction during World War I, although his methods were not successfully applied until 1950, after the invention of fast digital computers. In 1922 he published the book `Numerical weather prediction', of which few copies were sold and even fewer were read until the 1950s. To model heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere, he did much original work on turbulent flow and defined what is now known as the Richardson number. His technique for improving the convergence of a finite difference calculation is known as Richardson extrapolation, and was used by John Philip in his 1957 semi-analytical solution of the Richards equation for water movement in unsaturated soil. Richardson's first papers in 1908 concerned the numerical solution of the free surface problem of unconfined flow of water in saturated soil, arising in the design of drain spacing in peat. Later, for the lower boundary of his atmospheric model he needed to understand the movement of heat, liquid water and water vapor in what is now called the vadose zone and the soil plant atmosphere system, and to model coupled transfer of heat and flow of water in unsaturated soil. Finding little previous work, he formulated partial differential equations for transient, vertical flow of liquid water and for transfer of heat and water vapor. He

  20. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  1. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  2. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  3. The contribution of leg press and knee extension strength and power to physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tevald, Michael A; Murray, Amanda M; Luc, Brittney; Lai, Kafai; Sohn, David; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) determine the additional contributions of leg press and knee extensor power, over and above that of strength, to the performance of physical function tasks in people with knee osteoarthritis, and 2) compare the ability of bilateral leg press to unilateral knee extensor strength and power to predict functional task performance.

  4. All part of the job? The contribution of the psychosocial and physical work environment to health inequalities in Europe and the European health divide.

    PubMed

    Toch, Marlen; Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Witvliet, Margot I; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the contribution of both psychosocial and physical risk factors to occupational inequalities in self-assessed health in Europe. Data from 27 countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey for men and women aged 16 to 60 (n = 21,803). Multilevel logistic regression analyses (random intercept) were applied, estimating odds ratios of reporting less than good health. Analyses indicate that physical working conditions account for a substantial proportion of occupational inequalities in health in both Central/Eastern and Western Europe. Physical, rather than psychosocial, working conditions seem to have the largest effect on self-assessed health in manual classes. For example, controlling for physical working conditions reduced the inequalities in the prevalence of"less than good health" between the lowest (semi- and unskilled manual workers) and highest (higher controllers) occupational groups in Europe by almost 50 percent (Odds Ratio 1.87, 95% Confidence Interval 1.62-2.16 to 1.42, 1.23-1.65). Physical working conditions contribute substantially to health inequalities across "post-industrial" Europe, with women in manual occupations being particularly vulnerable, especially those living in Central/Eastern Europe. An increased political and academic focus on physical working conditions is needed to explain and potentially reduce occupational inequalities in health.

  5. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  6. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  7. A physical model for the evolving ultraviolet luminosity function of high redshift galaxies and their contribution to the cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Lapi, Andrea; Bressan, Alessandro; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Danese, Luigi; Negrello, Mattia

    2014-04-10

    We present a physical model for the evolution of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies, taking into account in a self-consistent way their chemical evolution and the associated evolution of dust extinction. Dust extinction is found to increase fast with halo mass. A strong correlation between dust attenuation and halo/stellar mass for UV selected high-z galaxies is thus predicted. The model yields good fits of the UV and Lyman-α (Lyα) line luminosity functions at all redshifts at which they have been measured. The weak observed evolution of both luminosity functions between z = 2 and z = 6 is explained as the combined effect of the negative evolution of the halo mass function; of the increase with redshift of the star formation efficiency due to the faster gas cooling; and of dust extinction, differential with halo mass. The slope of the faint end of the UV luminosity function is found to steepen with increasing redshift, implying that low luminosity galaxies increasingly dominate the contribution to the UV background at higher and higher redshifts. The observed range of the UV luminosities at high z implies a minimum halo mass capable of hosting active star formation M {sub crit} ≲ 10{sup 9.8} M {sub ☉}, which is consistent with the constraints from hydrodynamical simulations. From fits of Lyα line luminosity functions, plus data on the luminosity dependence of extinction, and from the measured ratios of non-ionizing UV to Lyman-continuum flux density for samples of z ≅ 3 Lyman break galaxies and Lyα emitters, we derive a simple relationship between the escape fraction of ionizing photons and the star formation rate. It implies that the escape fraction is larger for low-mass galaxies, which are almost dust-free and have lower gas column densities. Galaxies already represented in the UV luminosity function (M {sub UV} ≲ –18) can keep the universe fully ionized up to z ≅ 6. This is consistent with (uncertain) data

  8. Contribution des surfaces saturées et des versants aux flux d'eau et d'éléments exportés en période de crue: traçage à l'aide du carbone organique dissous et de la silice. Cas du petit bassin versant du Strengbach (Vosges, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idir, Samir; Probst, Anne; Viville, Daniel; Probst, Jean-Luc

    1999-01-01

    Two contributing areas have been determined in the small forested Strengbach catchment by using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved silica as the most efficient chemical tracers of stream water origin during a storm event. Dissolved silica represents the deep layers of the hillslopes which contributes 71-75 % of the total storm runoff and 85-99 % of the fluxes of major elements exported by the Strengbach. DOC corresponds to the saturated areas which occupy only 2 % of the total catchment area but which supply 25-29 % of the total streamflow and 56 % of the DOC stream flux. The specific fluxes of water (L·s -1·ha -1) and elements (kg·ha -1) are much more important in the saturared areas than in the rest of the catchment.

  9. Factors Contributing to Satisfaction with Changes in Physical Function after Orthopedic Surgery for Musculoskeletal Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Nitta, Osamu; Matsuo, Atsushi; Takaki, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background The recognition of required treatments for cerebral palsy (CP) patients, including orthopedic surgery, differs according to region. This study was performed to identify factors associated with satisfactory changes in physical function after orthopedic surgery. Methods 358 patients were selected for the questionnaire survey. The following information was collected: gender, primary disease, age of initial surgery, total procedural count, operated sites, satisfaction of postoperative rehabilitation frequency, ideal amount of postoperative rehabilitation sessions per week, frequency of voluntary home training per week, satisfaction of the timing of surgery and the current satisfaction with the changes in physical function after the orthopedic surgery. We classified the patients into the satisfied and dissatisfied group according to satisfactory changes in physical function after the surgery. We performed unpaired t-tests and chi-square tests to determine the variables that differed significantly between the groups. Variables with a p value of <0.2 were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The logistic model was revised and summed up to two potential predictors of postsurgical satisfaction with physical function: satisfaction with the frequency of postoperative rehabilitation sessions and the orthopedic surgery of the hip (distinction hit ratio, 75.4%). Conclusions This study demonstrated that the frequency of postoperative rehabilitation and history of hip surgery seemed to be related to the satisfaction with the changes in physical function after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27135609

  10. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944

  11. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Evolutionary Self-Questioning Games with Local Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Kui; Li, Zhi; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Long

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game on small-world networks in a realistic social context where individuals consider their local contributions to their group and update their strategies by self-questioning. An individual with introspection can determine whether its current strategy is superior by playing a virtual round of the game and its local contribution is defined as the sum of all the payoffs its neighbors collect against it. In our model, the performance of an individual is determined by both its payoff and local contribution through a linear combination. We demonstrate that the present mechanism can produce very robust cooperative behavior in both games. Furthermore, we provide theoretical analysis based on mean-field approximation, and find that the analytical predictions are qualitatively consistent with the simulation results.

  12. Assessing physical functioning on pain management programmes: the unique contribution of directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Guildford, Beth J; Jacobs, Clair M; Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-01-01

    Physical functioning is a recommended outcome domain for pain management programmes. It can be assessed by self-report and by direct assessment of performance. Although physical performance measures may provide unique and useful information about patient functioning over and above self-report measures, it is not entirely clear which of the many possible performances to assess. This study investigated a battery of three directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to three currently used self-report measures of general health and functioning. The three performance measures were sensitive to treatment; patients performed significantly better on all three measures following completion of the pain management programme. The three performance measures were shown to represent a single underlying dimension, and there was a significant degree of overlap between them. The performance measures were shown to be relevant in explaining variation in the self-report measures, as well as to offer a clinically relevant different dimension of assessment to self-report. Future research could focus on developing performance-based measures that capture quality of movement and that are sensitive to relevant processes of therapeutic change. PMID:28386404

  13. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…

  14. [Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking

    PubMed

    Sevalho

    1997-01-01

    The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent epistemological inadequacy of the epidemiological time to recognize the social and historical aspects involved in the complexity of the disease expressions in human populations.

  15. From Propagation to Structure: The Experimental Technique of Bombardment as a Contributing Factor to the Emerging Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Giora

    I observe that quantum physics emerged at the turn of the last century when physics had shifted its concern from propagation phenomena to questions of structure. This transition materialized with the development of a new experimental technique, the bombardment method. The transition is well exemplified by the move from the experimental studies of Heinrich Hertz to those of Ernest Rutherford, and from those of Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard to those of James Franck and Gustav Hertz. I trace the history of Rutherford's experimental bombardment method as it emerged from nineteenth-century propagation studies. I then demonstrate the use of the bombardment method in another experimental context, namely, in the celebrated experiment of Franck and Hertz. I locate the root of this experiment in Lenard's experimental studies and analyze Franck and Hertz's flawed interpretation of it. I conclude by underlining the crucial role that Bohr's quantum theory of the atom played in helping to establish these bombardment experiments as milestones of modern physics.

  16. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: How Physical and Radiological Examination Contribute to Successful Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kishaba, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly in young adults. Vital signs are usually normal except for temperature. On physical examination, general appearance is normal compared with that of typical pneumonia such as pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Mycoplasma sometimes causes ear infections such as otitis media. It is important to distinguish between typical pneumonia and atypical pneumonia such as mycoplasma pneumonia because having the right diagnosis allows for the use of the correct antibiotic to treat CAP while preventing development of drug-resistant bacteria and also decreasing medical cost. The symptoms and diagnosis of mycoplasma pneumonia is multi-fold. Auscultation of patients can demonstrate trace late inspiratory crackles or normal alveolar sounds; however, bilateral polyphonic wheezes can sometimes be heard because of bronchiolitis. With regard to radiological findings, a chest radiogragh often shows bilateral reticulonodular or patchy consolidation in both lower lobes. Pleural effusion is rarely observed in adult cases. Immunocompetent patients tend to reveal more extensive shadowing compared with immunocompromised patients. As serological diagnostic methods are not able to offer 100% reliable diagnosis, integration of physical and radiological examination is crucial to accurately diagnose mycoplasma pneumonia. Herein, I review the typical findings from physical examination and imaging patterns of patients with mycoplasma pneumonia. PMID:27379238

  17. Distinct contributions of adverse childhood experiences and resilience resources: a cohort analysis of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18-79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed.

  18. Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to Physical Activity in Women of Color in the SAving Lives Staying Active (SALSA) Study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna H; Soltero, Erica G; Edwards, Raul Orlando; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-11-11

    Culturally appropriate, innovative strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in women of color are needed. This study examined whether participation in SALSA, an 8-week randomized, crossover pilot study to promote PA, led to improved psychosocial outcomes and whether these changes were associated with changes in PA over time. Women of color (N=50) completed internet-based questionnaires on PA, exercise self-efficacy, motivational readiness, stress and social support at three time points. Women reported high socioeconomic status and decreases in exercise self-efficacy and increases in motivational readiness for exercise and number of stressful events (p<.05); changes in motivational readiness for exercise varied by group (p=.043). Changes in psychosocial factors were associated with increases in PA. Latin dance improved motivational readiness for PA. Future studies are needed to determine whether Latin dance improves other psychological measures and quality of life in women of color in an effort to increase PA and reduce health disparities.

  19. Connected and Leading Disconnected Hadronic Light-by-Light Contribution to the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment with a Physical Pion Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 4 83×96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find aμHLbL=5.35 (1.35 )×10-10 , where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite large and are the subject of ongoing research. The omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.

  20. Connected and Leading Disconnected Hadronic Light-by-Light Contribution to the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment with a Physical Pion Mass.

    PubMed

    Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2017-01-13

    We report a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at a physical pion mass. The calculation includes the connected diagrams and the leading, quark-line-disconnected diagrams. We incorporate algorithmic improvements developed in our previous work. The calculation was performed on the 48^{3}×96 ensemble generated with a physical pion mass and a 5.5 fm spatial extent by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations using the chiral, domain wall fermion formulation. We find a_{μ}^{HLbL}=5.35(1.35)×10^{-10}, where the error is statistical only. The finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing errors could be quite large and are the subject of ongoing research. The omitted disconnected graphs, while expected to give a correction of order 10%, also need to be computed.

  1. The contribution of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie to Nuclear and Medical Physics. A hundred and ten years after the discovery of radium.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Papadimitriou, Athanasios; Androutsos, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    This review aims to commemorate the life, and the accomplishments of Pierre and Marie Curie in Physics and in Medicine. Although they are primarily known for their discoveries of the elements of radium and polonium, which took place two years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henry Becquerel, Pierre's discovery of the piezo-electric phenomenon, his research on crystal symmetry, magnetism and paramagnetic substances, are equally important. With the discovery of the two radioactive elements, Pierre and Marie Curie established the new field of Nuclear Physics. It is not an over-statement to say that their discovery contributed much to our modern way of life. Marie received the Nobel Prize twice and later she became the first woman to become member of the French Academy of Sciences. Today, both Pierre and Marie Curie rest in Panthéon, in Paris.

  2. Contribution of fibrinolysis to the physical component summary of the SF-36 after acute submassive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Lauren K.; Peitz, Geoffrey W.; Nordenholz, Kristen E.; Courtney, D. Mark; Kabrhel, Christopher; Jones, Alan E.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Diercks, Deborah B.; Klinger, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) can diminish patient quality of life (QoL). The objective was to test whether treatment with tenecteplase has an independent effect on a measurement that reflects QoL in patients with submassive PE. This was a secondary analysis of an 8-center, prospective randomized controlled trial, utilizing multivariate regression to control for predefined predictors of worsened QoL including: age, active malignancy, history of PE or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), recurrent PE or DVT, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. QoL was measured with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-36. Analysis included 76 patients (37 randomized to tenecteplase, 39 to placebo). Multivariate regression yielded an equation f(8, 67), P<0.001, with R2 = 0.303. Obesity had the largest effect on PCS (β = −8.6, P<0.001), with tenecteplase second (β = 4.73, P = 0.056). After controlling for all interactions, tenecteplase increased the PCS by +5.37 points (P = 0.027). In patients without any of the defined comorbidities, the coefficient on the tenecteplase variable was not significant (−0.835, P = 0.777). In patients with submassive PE, obesity had the greatest influence on QoL, followed by use of fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis had a marginal independent effect on patient QoL after controlling for comorbidities, but was not significant in patients without comorbid conditions. PMID:25433511

  3. Inner stationary phase point contribution of physical optic in terms of the modified edge representation line integrals (curved surfaces)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Luis; Yukimasa, Koji; Shijo, Tetsu; Ando, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    The unique concept of the modified edge representation (MER) was proposed for the surface to the line integral reduction of the physical optic (PO). The equivalence between the MER line and the PO surface integration was analytically derived by using the Stokes theorem relations as well as asymptotic treatments, for the smooth scattering surfaces without inner stationary phase points (SPP). Later on, for the planar surface, the MER line integration around the inner SPP was investigated, and it was identified as the scattering geometrical optics (SGO). In this paper, findings related with the MER line integration around the inner SPP are extended to curved surfaces. The accuracy and the applicability of the SGO extraction in terms of the MER line integration are numerically investigated for different radii of curvatures of the scattering surfaces. Authors introduce a geometrical criterion for the applicability of the method. The MER line integration provides an alternative way to the stationary phase method or the classical geometrical optics for calculating SGO. In addition, this numerical result indirectly identifies the entity of the MER line integration along the periphery of the scattering illuminated region, irrespective of the position of observer, as not other than diffraction.

  4. Contributing to the growth of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM): call for a Cochrane Field in PRM.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S; Kiekens, C; Meerpohl, J J; Thomson, D; Zampolini, M; Christodoulou, N; Delarque, A; Gutenbrunner, C; Michail, X

    2015-06-01

    The European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM), together with the European Journal of PRM and the PRM Section and Board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), started an action to establish a relationship with Cochrane (formerly the Cochrane Collaboration). Cochrane is a global, independent network of researchers, professionals, patients, carers and people interested in health, with contributors from more than 130 countries. Its aim is to produce credible, accessible health information that is free from any conflicts of interest. Cochrane produces the Cochrane Library, an evidence-based resource that includes today more than 6300 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane is made up of many different review groups and other entities (such as Centres and Branches), distributed around the world, that are mainly focused on specific healthcare problems (diseases, or organs). Inside Cochrane also Fields have been created, that focus on a dimension of health care other than a specific healthcare problem. A Cochrane Field represents a bridge between Cochrane and the stakeholders of the related healthcare area. The medical specialty of PRM is covering a broad medical domain: it deals with function, activities and participation in a large number of health conditions, mostly but not exclusively musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiorespiratory. Consequently, the currently more than 200 existing Cochrane Reviews are scattered among different groups. A PRM Field could greatly serve to the need of the specialty, spreading the actual Cochrane knowledge, focusing needs today not covered by Cochrane Reviews, facing the intrinsic methodological problems of the specialty. This paper introduces a call for the development of a PRM Cochrane Field, briefly reviewing what Cochrane is and how it is organized, defining the value and identifying a pathway toward the development of a PRM Cochrane Field, and finally shortly reviewing the Cochrane reviews of

  5. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  6. Contribution of long-range transported aerosols to aerosol optical and physical properties: 3-year measurements at Gosan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Ogren, J. A.; Yoon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, more attentions have been paid to air quality in East Asia due to the enhanced loading of atmospheric pollutants related to rapid industrialization. Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Korea is regarded as an ideal site to study the transport of atmospheric pollutants because it is frequently influenced by various airmasses from China, Korea, Japan and Pacific Ocean. In order to understand aerosol optical and physical properties according to airmass transport routes, three-year (2012-2014) continuous measurements of aerosol scattering/absorption coefficient and number size distribution were analyzed, together with 48-hour backward trajectory calculations. The averaged aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering coefficient (σs) for airmasses transported from North China (NC; 36% of all trajectories) were 6.65 Mm-1 and 94.72 Mm-1 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively, which were similar to those for stagnant airmasses (ST; 22% of all trajectories; σa: 6.26 Mm-1, σs: 93.99 Mm-1). The highest values of σa (7.03 Mm-1) and σs (108.34 Mm-1) were observed when airmasses were traveled from South China (SC; 11% of all trajectories). σa and σs for airmasses from Korean Peninsula (KP; 7% of all trajectories) and Pacific Ocean (PO; 14% of all trajectories; in parenthesis) were 5.63 (2.76) Mm-1 and 73.63 (50.93) Mm-1, respectively. Compared to other airmasses, the higher values of Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) for ST (1.65) is thought to be the build-up of anthropogenic fine particulate pollutants. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) was estimated to be 1.32 for NC airmass and 1.02 for SC airmass. Over the study period, 130 days of total 557 days were identified as new particle formation and growth event (NPF) from Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements by Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) approach. Especially, 55.4% (72 days) of total 130 NPF days were found when a cold and dry airmass comes from NC after passing the frontal

  7. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  8. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning. PMID:23087694

  9. The contribution of comets in Near-Earth Object and Main Belt populations and the role of collisions in the physical properties of members of these populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    The population of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is composed of small bodies of various origins. Groundbased observational programs have been developed to perform their inventory and to determine their physical properties. However, these observations contain many biases and the total population of NEOs with diameters down to a few hundreds of meters has not been identified yet. In recent years, the main sources of NEOs have been characterized [1]. Most of these bodies come from the asteroid main belt and the Jupiter-family comets and their source regions are linked to transport mechanisms (mean motion and secular resonances, slow diffusion mechanisms) to the NEO-space. It has then been possible to construct a complete model of the steady-state orbital, size and albedo distribution of NEOs and to determine the level of contribution of each of their sources, including the contribution of Jupiter-family comets. However, nothing is known regarding the contribution of longperiod comets. Physical observations have been conducted in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among small bodies in the NEO population and to determine the fraction of "comet candidates within the total NEO population. Combining the results of these observations with our model of NEO population to evaluate source region probabilities [1], it was found that 8 +/- 5% of the total asteroid-like NEO population may have originated as comets from the outer Solar System [2]. In the population of Main Belt (MB) asteroids, three members are known to display transient comet-like physical characteristics, including prolonged periods of dust emission leading to the formation of radiation pressure-swept tails [3]. These physical properties are most naturally explained as the result of sub-limation of near-surface ice from what are, dynamically, mainbelt asteroids (hence the name "main-belt comets" (MBCs) or, equivalently "icy asteroids"). No pausible dynamical path to the asteroid belt from the

  10. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  11. The Contribution of Youth Sport Football to Weekend Physical Activity for Males Aged 9 to 16 Years: Variability Related to Age and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and vigorous PA accrued in youth sport football (also internationally referred to as soccer), and the contribution toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA for males aged 9-16 years, and (2) to investigate variability in these outcomes related to age and playing position. One hundred and nine male grassroots footballers (Mean age = 11.98 ± 1.75 years) wore a GT3× accelerometer for 7 days. Weekend youth sport football participation and playing position were recorded. Youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA (M = 51.51 ± 17.99) and vigorous PA (M = 27.78 ± 14.55) contributed 60.27% and 70.68% toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA, respectively. Overall, 36.70% of participants accumulated ≥60 min moderate-to-vigorous PA and 69.70% accrued ≥ 20 min of vigorous PA during youth sport. For participants aged 13 to16 years, youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA were significantly higher, and contributed a greater amount toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA than for participants aged 9-12 years (p = <.01). Youth sport football is an important source of moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA at the weekend for male youth, and particularly for adolescents. Participation may offer opportunity for weekend engagement in vigorous PA toward health enhancing levels.

  12. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  13. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  14. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  15. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  16. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  17. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  18. Uncovering the Pathogenic Landscape of Helminth (Opisthorchis viverrini) Infections: A Cross-Sectional Study on Contributions of Physical and Social Environment and Healthcare Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Xueyuan; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Namsanor, Jutamas; Taylor, David; Laithavewat, Luxana

    2016-01-01

    Background Helminth infections have proven recalcitrant to control by chemotherapy in many parts of Southeast Asia and indeed farther afield. This study isolates and examines the influence of different aspects of the physical and social environment, and uneven intervention effort contributing to the pathogenic landscape of human Opisthorchis viverrini infections. Methodology A cross-sectional survey, involving 632 participants, was conducted in four villages in northeast Thailand to examine the impact on prevalence and parasite burden of the reservoir dam environment, socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors, and health center intervention efforts. Formalin-ether concentration technique was used for diagnoses, and multivariate models were used for analyses. Principal Findings The importance attributed to O. viverrini infections varied among health centers in the four study villages. Villages where O. viverrini infections were not prioritized by the health centers as the healthcare focus were at a higher risk of infection (prevalence) with odds ratio (risk factor) of 5.73 (3.32–10.27) and p-value < 0.01. Priority of healthcare focus, however, did not appear to influence behavior, as the consumption of raw fish, the main source of O. viverrini infections in the study area, was 11.4% higher in villages that prioritized O. viverrini infections than those that did not (p-value = 0.01). Landscape variation, notably proximity to reservoir, affects vulnerability of local population to infection. Infection intensity was higher in population located closer to the reservoir with risk ratio of 2.09 (1.12–4.02) and p-value < 0.01. Patterns of infection intensities among humans were found to match fish infection intensity, where higher infection intensities were associated with fish obtained from the reservoir waterbody type (p-value = 0.023). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated the importance of environmental influence and healthcare focus as risk

  19. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. An overview of the Working Group 1 contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Plattner, G.; Nauels, A.; Xia, Y.; Qin, D.; Stocker, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, is the Working Group I (WGI) contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The WGI contribution extends from observations and paleoclimate information regarding past changes in the climate system, a comprehensive evaluation of climate models, the detection and attribution of observed changes to natural or anthropogenic forcing, through to projected future changes on both near-term and long-term time scales. Human influence on the climate system is now detected with increased certainty, both globally and in most regions. Since the mid-20th century, the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations has led to surface warming over almost the entire globe, while at the same time, the ocean has continued to warm and store energy. Satellite based observations reveal with improved precision that summer sea ice extent is declining rapidly in the Arctic, glaciers are retreating world-wide, and global mean sea level continues to rise. Concurrent with a continued increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the oceanic uptake of CO2 has resulted in decreasing pH of seawater since the beginning of the industrial era. Projections of future changes in the climate system to the end of the 21st century are based on a series of new climate models and new scenarios, but are broadly consistent with previous assessment findings, confirming widespread and significant changes across the climate system. Greater warming is projected to occur over land than ocean, with the most rapid warming in the Arctic region. Based on modeled changes in seasonal mean precipitation, the contrast between wet and dry regions, and wet and dry seasons is projected to increase as global temperatures rise. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the previous IPCC assessment report, and projections now include future rapid ice-sheet dynamical changes. On long time

  20. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  1. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  2. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior in Physical Activity: Predictive Validity and the Contribution of Additional Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behaviors using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in physical activity. This quantitative integration of the physical activity literature supported the major relationships of the…

  4. Teacher or Coach? How Logics from the Field of Sports Contribute to the Construction of Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education Pedagogical Discourse through Educational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Annemari Munk; Svendsen, Jesper Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to focus attention on educational texts as central conveyers of discourses of sport into physical education teacher education (PETE) and by extension into physical education (PE). A considerable volume of research suggests that sport and games continue to be dominant elements of curriculum and practice in…

  5. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  6. Contributions of physical function and satisfaction with social roles to emotional distress in chronic pain: a Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR) study.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, John A; Dixon, Eric A; Darnall, Beth D; Mackey, Sean C

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with chronic pain show greater vulnerability to depression or anger than those without chronic pain, and also show greater interpersonal difficulties and physical disability. The present study examined data from 675 individuals with chronic pain during their initial visits to a tertiary care pain clinic using assessments from Stanford University's Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR). Using a path modeling analysis, the mediating roles of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) Physical Function and PROMIS Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities were tested between pain intensity and PROMIS Depression and Anger. Pain intensity significantly predicted both depression and anger, and both physical function and satisfaction with social roles mediated these relationships when modeled in separate 1-mediator models. Notably, however, when modeled together, ratings of satisfaction with social roles mediated the relationship between physical function and both anger and depression. Our results suggest that the process by which chronic pain disrupts emotional well-being involves both physical function and disrupted social functioning. However, the more salient factor in determining pain-related emotional distress seems to be disruption of social relationships, than global physical impairment. These results highlight the particular importance of social factors to pain-related distress, and highlight social functioning as an important target for clinical intervention in chronic pain.

  7. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  9. What does mental health nursing contribute to improving the physical health of service users with severe mental illness? A thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard; Brown, Eleanor

    2017-02-01

    Authors have generally reported that mental health nurses (MHNs) have positive attitudes to providing physical health care to service users with severe mental illness. In the present study, we aimed to explore if this positive attitude translates to enhanced clinical practice by interviewing MHNs and the service users they work with. Semistructured interviews were completed with 15 service users and 18 MHNs from acute, rehabilitation, and community services. These were then transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Six themes emerged: (i) not the work of MHNs; (ii) the physical effects of psychiatric drugs are ignored; (iii) the need to upskill; (iv) keeping busy; (v) horrible hospital food/living on takeaways; and (vi) motivation to change. Our overarching meta-theme was of unmet physical health need among service users.

  10. Naive Students' Conceptual Development and Beliefs: The Need for Multiple Analyses to Determine What Contributes to Student Success in a University Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    This research involved naive physics learners who were interested in majoring in science or engineering. In a semester-long quasi-experimental study, open-ended pretests and weekly interviews were used to analyse the progressive development of students' conceptions relating to sound and wave motion. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted…

  11. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  12. Humans, Intentionality, Experience And Tools For Learning: Some Contributions From Post-cognitive Theories To The Use Of Technology In Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jonte

    2007-11-01

    Human cognition cannot be properly understood if we do not take the use of tools into account. The English word cognition stems from the Latin "cognoscere," meaning "to become acquainted with" or "to come to know." Following the original Latin meaning we should not only study "what happens in the head" if we want to study cognition. Experientially based perspectives, such as pragmatism, phenomenology, phenomenography, and activity theory, stress that we should study person-world relationships. Technologies actively shape the character of human-world relationships. An emergent understanding in modern cognitive research is the co-evolution of the human brain and human use of tools and the active character of perception. Thus, I argue that we must analyze the role of technologies in physics education in order to realize their full potential as tools for learning, and I will provide selected examples from physics learning environments to support this assertion.

  13. International Conference on Atomic Physics: Abstracts of Contributed Papers (12th) Held in Ann Arbor, Michigan on 29 July-3 August 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-26

    the local physics of the 2 1Ne nucleus . Systematic variations of the quadrupole component at multiples of the earth’s solar frequency do arise, mostly...equation is justified when the thermalization by wal Collisions drives the atomic velocity distribution to equilibrium on a time scale that is slow...inelastic cavity collisions in which particles can either lose energy or annihilate for a distribution of initial o-Ps energies. We expect such a

  14. PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS: B → ρ(ω, ø)η(') Decays and NLO Contributions in pQCD Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qing; Xiao, Zhen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach, we calculate some important next-to-leading-order (NLO) contributions to the two-body charmless hadronic decays B+ → ρ+ η(') and B0 → ρ0 (ω, ø)η('), induced by the vertex QCD corrections, the quark-loops as well as the chromo-magnetic penguins. From the numerical results and phenomenological analysis we find that (a) for B± → ρ±η(') (B0 → ρ0 (ω, ø)η(') decays, the partial NLO contributions to branching ratios are small (large) in magnitude; and (b) the pQCD predictions for ACPdir(B± → ρ±η(')) are consistent with the data, while the predicted ACP(B0 → ρ0(ω)η(')) are generally large in magnitude and could be tested by the forthcoming LHCb experiments.

  15. AUX/LAX Genes Encode a Family of Auxin Influx Transporters That Perform Distinct Functions during Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Kamal; Ferguson, Alison; Seth, Malvika; Yang, Yaodong; Dhondt, Stijn; James, Nicholas; Casimiro, Ilda; Perry, Paula; Syed, Adnan; Yang, Haibing; Reemmer, Jesica; Venison, Edward; Howells, Caroline; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Alonso, Jose; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Laplaze, Laurent; Murphy, Angus; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Nielsen, Erik; Swarup, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE AUX1 [LAX] genes LAX1, LAX2, and LAX3). We report that all four members of this AUX/LAX family display auxin uptake functions. Despite the conservation of their biochemical function, AUX1, LAX1, and LAX3 have been described to regulate distinct auxin-dependent developmental processes. Here, we report that LAX2 regulates vascular patterning in cotyledons. We also describe how regulatory and coding sequences of AUX/LAX genes have undergone subfunctionalization based on their distinct patterns of spatial expression and the inability of LAX sequences to rescue aux1 mutant phenotypes, respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity at the protein level, transgenic studies reveal that LAX proteins are not correctly targeted in the AUX1 expression domain. Domain swapping studies suggest that the N-terminal half of AUX1 is essential for correct LAX localization. We conclude that Arabidopsis AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct developmental functions and have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22773749

  16. Contribution of the starch, protein, and lipid fractions to the physical, thermal, and structural properties of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) flour films.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Blácido, D; Mauri, A N; Menegalli, F C; Sobral, P J A; Añón, M C

    2007-06-01

    Amaranth protein-lipid (PL) and protein (P) films were elaborated and compared with amaranth flour films in order to determine the contribution of the interactions between the biopolymer (starch and protein) and the lipids to the film properties. The films were made by the casting method, using the same glycerol concentration (0.9 g glycerol/100 g solution). A separation of the lipid fraction in the PL films and a polymorphic transformation of the corresponding fatty acids were observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and verified by an analysis of the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The flour films showed no separation of the lipid fraction, evidence that the lipids were strongly associated with the proteins and homogenously distributed throughout the starch network, contributing to the good mechanical properties when compared to the PL films and to the excellent barrier properties when compared to both the PL and P films. The protein-protein interactions also contributed to the mechanical properties of the flour films. The presence of proteins and lipids in the flour films had an important effect on film solubility, and also on the color and opacity of the films. This study showed that the flour film properties depended on the interactions formed by their polymers (starches and proteins) and by the lipid, on the distribution of these interactions within the film matrix and on the concentrations of each component in the film.

  17. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  18. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  19. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu6-xAux

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu6-xAux are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition xc=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at xc. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phasemore » transition suggesting that the LaCu6-xAux series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  20. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  1. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  2. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  3. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-09-14

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H(+)-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms.

  4. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  5. Contributions of physical and biogeochemical processes to phytoplankton biomass enhancement in the surface and subsurface layers during the passage of Typhoon Damrey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shanshan; Shi, Jie; Gao, Huiwang; Guo, Xinyu; Yao, Xiaohong; Gong, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional physical-biogeochemical coupled model was established to investigate the responses of the upper ocean to Typhoon Damrey in the basin area of the South China Sea. The surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) increased rapidly from 0.07 to 0.17 mg m-3 when the typhoon arrived and then gradually reached a peak of 0.61 mg m-3 after the typhoon's passage. The subsurface Chl a decreased from 0.34 to 0.17 mg m-3 as the typhoon arrived and then increased gradually to 0.71 mg m-3. Analyses of model results indicated that the initial rapid increase in the surface Chl a and the decrease in the subsurface Chl a were caused mainly by physical process (vertical mixing), whereas the subsequent gradual increases in the Chl a in both the surface and subsurface layers were due mainly to biogeochemical processes (net growth of phytoplankton). The gradual increase in the Chl a lasted for longer in the subsurface layer than in the surface layer. Typhoon Damrey yielded an integrated primary production (IPP) of 6.5 × 103 mg C m-2 ( 14% of the annual IPP in this region).

  6. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  7. The contribution of golf to daily physical activity recommendations: how many steps does it take to complete a round of golf?

    PubMed

    Kobriger, Samantha L; Smith, Jay; Hollman, John H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2006-08-01

    To quantify the number of steps adults take during an 18-hole round of golf, we recruited 42 healthy volunteers (12 men and 30 women aged 30-80 years) with established United States Golf Association handicaps to complete an 18-hole round of golf on each of 3 municipal golf courses. Subjects walked each course while wearing a pedometer to record step data. Analysis revealed that each golfer took a mean +/- SD 11,948 +/- 1781 steps per 18-hole round of golf. Regardless of handicap level, sex, or course played, most subjects exceeded 10,000 steps during a typical round of golf. Consequently, in most cases, walking 18 holes of golf will meet the recommendation to accumulate 10,000 steps per day as part of a general physical activity plan.

  8. Contribution of Streetscape Audits to Explanation of Physical Activity in Four Age Groups Based on the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Kelli L.; Millstein, Rachel A.; Sallis, James F.; Conway, Terry L.; Gavand, Kavita A.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Geremia, Carrie M.; Chapman, James; Adams, Marc A.; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological models of physical activity emphasize the effects of environmental influences. “Microscale” streetscape features that may affect pedestrian experience have received less research attention than macroscale walkability (e.g., residential density). The Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measures street design, transit stops, sidewalk qualities, street crossing amenities, and features impacting aesthetics. The present study examined associations of microscale attributes with multiple physical activity (PA) measures across four age groups. Areas in the San Diego, Seattle, and the Baltimore metropolitan areas, USA, were selected that varied on macro-level walkability and neighborhood income. Participants (n=3677) represented four age groups (children, adolescents, adults, older adults). MAPS audits were conducted along a 0.25 mile route along the street network from participant residences toward the nearest non-residential destination. MAPS data were collected in 2009–2010. Subscale and overall summary scores were created. Walking/biking for transportation and leisure/neighborhood PA were measured with age-appropriate surveys. Objective PA was measured with accelerometers. Mixed linear regression analyses were adjusted for macro-level walkability. Across all age groups 51.2%, 22.1%, and 15.7% of all MAPS scores were significantly associated with walking/biking for transport, leisure/neighborhood PA, and objectively-measured PA, respectively. Supporting the ecological model principle of behavioral specificity, destinations and land use, streetscape, street segment, and intersection variables were more related to transport walking/biking, while aesthetic variables were related to leisure/neighborhood PA. The overall score was related to objective PA in children and older adults. Present findings provide strong evidence that microscale environment attributes are related to PA across the lifespan. Improving microscale features may be a

  9. nonlinMIP contribution to CMIP6: model intercomparison project for non-linear mechanisms: physical basis, experimental design and analysis principles (v1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Peter; Andrews, Timothy; Chadwick, Robin; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Lowe, Jason A.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional and global climate responses. The experiments have two main applications: (1) to focus understanding of responses to CO2 forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions (e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or from past cold climates to the present day), or (2) to understand the state dependence (non-linearity) of climate change - i.e. why doubling the forcing may not double the response. State dependence (non-linearity) of responses can be large at regional scales, with important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general circulation model (GCM) emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models and pattern-scaling methods). However, these processes are hard to explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms. There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above), and, more broadly, to focus work on understanding the response to CO2 on climate states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1). nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO2-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio - while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO2 change experiments, with a ramp-up-ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO2 concentrations rather than CO2 emissions as the input. The understanding

  10. Cortisol rapidly affects amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked brain potentials--implications for the contribution of stress to an altered perception of physical sensations?

    PubMed

    Schulz, André; Strelzyk, Florian; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Naumann, Ewald; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the impact of stress and stress hormones on the processing of visceral-afferent signals. Clinical data suggest that cortisol may lower the threshold for interoceptive stimuli, while a pharmacological administration of cortisol decreases the sensitivity for physical symptoms. To clarify the role of cortisol for the processing of interoceptive signals, we investigated 16 healthy men on two occasions, once during the infusion of 4 mg of cortisol and once during the infusion of a placebo substance. Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEP; derived from resting EEG and ECG, during open and closed eyes), which are psychophysiological indicators for the cortical processing of cardioceptive signals, were measured over 6-min periods once before, and four times after the infusion (1-7, 11-17, 21-27 and 31-37 min). We found that HEP amplitudes were higher during open than during closed eyes between 1 and 17 min after cortisol infusion. There was no effect of cortisol on heart rate. We conclude that cortisol may rapidly modulate the cortical processing of cardioceptive neural signals. These results may have relevance for the effects of stress on the development and maintenance of psychosomatic symptoms.

  11. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. An overview of the Working Group 1 contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon K.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group 1 contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) extends from observations and paleoclimate information regarding past changes in the climate system, a comprehensive evaluation of climate models, the detection and attribution of observed changes to natural or anthropogenic forcing, through to projected future changes on both near-term and long-term time scales. Human influence on the climate system is now detected with increased certainty, both globally and in most regions. Since the mid-20th century, the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations has led to surface warming over almost the entire globe, while at the same time, the ocean has continued to warm and store energy. Satellite based observations reveal with improved precision that summer sea ice extent is declining rapidly in the Arctic, glaciers are retreating world-wide, and global mean sea level continues to rise. Concurrent with a continued increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the oceanic uptake of CO2 has resulted in decreasing pH of seawater since the beginning of the industrial era. Projections of future changes in the climate system to the end of the 21st century are based on a series of new climate models and new scenarios, but are broadly consistent with previous assessment findings, confirming widespread and significant changes across the climate system. Greater warming is projected to occur over land than ocean, with the most rapid warming in the Arctic region. Based on modeled changes in seasonal mean precipitation, the contrast between wet and dry regions, and wet and dry seasons is projected to increase as global temperatures rise. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the previous IPCC assessment report, and projections now include future rapid ice-sheet dynamical changes. On long time scales, warming is dominated by total emissions of CO2, and many changes will persist for centuries even if CO2 emissions

  12. The "Vsoil Platform" : a tool to integrate the various physical, chemical and biological processes contributing to the soil functioning at the local scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafolie, François; Cousin, Isabelle; Mollier, Alain; Pot, Valérie; Moitrier, Nicolas; Balesdent, Jérome; bruckler, Laurent; Moitrier, Nathalie; Nouguier, Cédric; Richard, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Models describing the soil functioning are valuable tools for addressing challenging issues related to agricultural production, soil protection or biogeochemical cycles. Coupling models that address different scientific fields is actually required in order to develop numerical tools able to simulate the complex interactions and feed-backs occurring within a soil profile in interaction with climate and human activities. We present here a component-based modelling platform named "VSoil", that aims at designing, developing, implementing and coupling numerical representation of biogeochemical and physical processes in soil, from the aggregate to the profile scales. The platform consists of four softwares, i) Vsoil_Processes dedicated to the conceptual description of processes and of their inputs and outputs, ii) Vsoil_Modules devoted to the development of numerical representation of elementary processes as modules, iii) Vsoil_Models which permits the coupling of modules to create models, iv) Vsoil_Player for the run of the model and the primary analysis of results. The platform is designed to be a collaborative tool, helping scientists to share not only their models, but also the scientific knowledge on which the models are built. The platform is based on the idea that processes of any kind can be described and characterized by their inputs (state variables required) and their outputs. The links between the processes are automatically detected by the platform softwares. For any process, several numerical representations (modules) can be developed and made available to platform users. When developing modules, the platform takes care of many aspects of the development task so that the user can focus on numerical calculations. Fortran2008 and C++ are the supported languages and existing codes can be easily incorporated into platform modules. Building a model from available modules simply requires selecting the processes being accounted for and for each process a module

  13. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  14. Management of Heat and Cold Stress -- Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel (Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels medicaux de I’OTAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management of Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels...Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels médicaux de...NATO Nations and allied forces. RTO-TR-MSG-187 ES - 1 Gestion des Contraintes Thermiques (Chaleur et Froid) – Conseils aux Personnels Médicaux de

  15. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  16. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  17. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  18. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  19. The role of AUX1 gene and auxin content to the branching phenotype of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arumingtyas, Estri L; Mastuti, R; Indriyani, S

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify auxin gene, AUX1, and to determine the plant auxin content and their role in conferring branching on Kenaf. PCR analysis using AUX1 primer capable to amplify the DNA of non branching (KR11) and branching kenaf mutant, resulting in 800 bp PCR product. The sequence of the PCR product showed high degree of homology with the sequence of AUX1 gene of other plants in the NCBI GenBank database, confirming kenaf possession of the gene AUX1. However, some variation on the DNA sequence was found between branching and non branching phenotype indicated allele differences of the same gene which were responsible for the variation in the type of branching. Identification of auxin content in the roots, apical shoot, and axillary branches using spectrophotometry method showed that the branching plant has higher auxin content in the apical shoot compared to the content in the branches. This indicate that AUX1 controls the formation of branches by controlling either the content of auxin in the apical shoot and branches, or the ratio of auxin content in the shoot and branches.

  20. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  1. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  2. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  3. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  4. History of Medical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  5. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  6. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  7. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  8. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  9. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  10. Tétanos associé aux soins: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo

    2016-01-01

    La prophylaxie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge des blessures, est une stratégie majeure de prévention du tétanos en milieu de soins. Toute défaillance de la prise en charge des blessures expose dangereusement les victimes à la maladie. Nous rapportons un cas de tétanos survenu à la suite d’une blessure frontale prise en charge dans une structure sanitaire sans prophylaxie antitétanique. L’objectif est de rappeler aux cliniciens sur l’importance de cette prophylaxie chez tout blessé non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. Patient de 52 ans non vacciné contre le tétanos a été admisau CHU YO pour cervicalgie, dysphagie, difficulté à la marche et à l’ouverture de la bouche. Dans ses antécédents il souligne une blessure frontale profonde ayant été suturée sans prophylaxie antitétanique il y a trois semaines environ. L’examen à son admission notaitun trismus lâche, une contracture abdominale, une dysphagie, une température à 36°5Cet une cicatrice au niveau du front mesurant environ 7 cm. Le diagnostic d’un tétanos généralisé stade II à porte d’entrée frontale a été retenu. Sous traitement l’évolution a été favorable et il est sorti de l’hôpital le 18septembre 2015. La prévention du tétanos associé aux soins requiert l’application rigoureuse des mesures d’asepsie, la systématisation de la sérothérapie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge de toute blessure profonde du patient non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. PMID:28292071

  11. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  12. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  13. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  14. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures.

  15. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  16. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  17. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  18. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  19. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming; Mi, Guohua; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-06-01

    Deposition of ammonium (NH₄+) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH₄+ is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root.

  20. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  1. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  2. Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlote, Karl-Heinz

    2004-09-01

    I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

  3. Research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A: Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B: The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maron, Marta Katarzyna

    This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water in the Earth's atmosphere has been of considerable interest due to its ability to impact chemistry and climate. Oxidized atmospheric molecules in the presence of water have the ability to form hydrogen bonded water complexes. The spectroscopic investigation of nitric acid-water complexes, outlined in Chapter III, was undertaken to characterize intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a water-restricted environment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, this characterization of nitric acid-water complexes allowed for the comparison of calculated overtone OH-stretching vibrational band frequencies, intensities, and anharmonicities of intermolecular hydrogen-bonded water complexes with experimental observations. Oxidized organic molecules, such as aldehydes and ketones, in addition to forming hydrogen-bonded water complexes can undergo a hydration reaction of the carbonyl group and form germinal diols in the presence of water. This chemistry has been studied extensively in bulk aqueous media, however little is known about this process in the gas-phase at low water concentrations. The focus of the studies outlined in Chapters IV and V is motivated by the ability of pyruvic acid and formaldehyde to form germinal diols and water complexes in water-restricted environment. This water-mediated chemistry changes the physical and chemical properties of these organic molecules, therefore, impacting the partitioning between gas and particle phase, as well as the chemistry and photochemistry of oxidized organic molecules in the Earth's atmosphere. The results presented in this dissertation may help resolve the significant discrepancy between

  4. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  5. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  6. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  7. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical ...

  8. Elementary particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from non-accelerator experiments are examined.

  9. Contributions to environmental mechanics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raats, Peter A. C.; Smiles, David E.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    In the second half of the 20th century, environmental mechanics developed from a collection of loosely connected principles and techniques t o a coherent quantitative treatment of flow and transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. John Philip was in many respects the life and soul of this adventure . He contributed foremost to the physics of water in unsaturated soils, but also to micrometeorology and physical ecology. In this introductory chapter we briefly review how his contributions influenced and are related to the activities of his colleagues and provide an overview of the present status of theory of soil water movement. We also indicate how the various contributions to this volume fit in this context. We start with a discussion of the nature, foundation, and application of the Richards equation, with emphasis on the dominant role of John Philip in finding analytical solutions of this equation. This is followed by a discussion of various developments beyond the Richards equation: multiphase flow, simultaneous transport of water and heat, flow of water in soils subject to swelling-shrinkage, transport of solutes in unsaturated soils, and flow and transport processes at various scales in space and time. The varied contributions of John Philip to micrometeorology and physical ecology are also reviewed briefly. In the concluding section, some challenges for environmental mechanics are indicated.

  10. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  11. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  13. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  14. 75 Years of Physics at NBS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Ernest

    1976-01-01

    This historical survey describes the contributions made to the field of physics by the National Bureau of Standards since its inception in 1901. Four broad areas are emphasized: nuclear physics, thermal physics (including cryogenics), spectroscopy and fundamental constants. (BT)

  15. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  16. Research in Physical Chemistry and Chemical Education: Part A--Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B--The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Marta Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water…

  17. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  18. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  19. The role of the hygienist in prevention and health promotion through physical activity: the contribute of the Working Group "Movement Sciences for Health" of the Italian Society of Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Gallé, F; Valeriani, F; Romano Spica, V

    2015-01-01

    Inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for chronic diseases morbidity and mortality, with high related costs. Exercise represents a useful instrument of preventive medicine due to its effects in maintaining and improving psycho-physical wellbeing at any age and condition. The promotion of physical activity may represent an important prevention strategy for public health, and it implies an interaction among several figures from health and wellbeing settings. Due to their competencies in prevention and health promotion, hygienists play a fundamental role as intermediary among the different actors involved in this multidisciplinary scenario. The Working Group "Movement Sciences for Health" of the Italian Society of Hygiene, established in 2009, is engaged in detailing, evaluating and strengthening the role of physical activity for health promotion. It combines rigorous research activities regarding human movement for health with their application in public health setting and with the evaluation of their sustainability. Its attention is also focused on the safety aspects related to structural conditions of sport facilities and to health conditions or behaviours of their users as well. These activities led to numerous scientific publications and training events.

  20. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    place in Changwon, South Korea, where over 50 countries were represented. The aim of this Olympiad is similar to EUSO, but on top of teamwork, members also have to participate in an individual test. Because of the importance of these international competitions for physics education, and also because of their growing number, it was seen as useful to found an umbrella organization, the World Federation of Physics Competitions (WFPhC), which would undertake tasks common to most of the competitions [11]. These are: To stimulate talent for physics by means of physics competitions in secondary schools; To stimulate meetings and conferences where people interested in physics competitions can develop and interchange their ideas within their home country; To afford the opportunity to, in particular by means of the foundation's periodical, exchange publications in the field of physics teaching; To acknowledge the merits of people who have contributed greatly to the goals of the Federation, through a WFPhC award; To afford assistance and support to countries that wish to organize physics competitions by putting them in contact with experienced countries; To promote physics and to encourage youngsters interested in physics. The WFPhC was founded in 1999 and the first and acting president is Hans Jordens, one of the authors of this article. The Federation edits a publication twice a year with an extensive collection of former or recent tasks and solutions, as well as organizational matters. It organizes every other year a Congress during which an award is giving to a person who has contributed greatly to the goals of the Federation. So far this award has been given to three people: Gunter Lind (Germany), Gunnar Tibell (Sweden) and posthumously to Waldemar Gorzkowski (Poland). 2. Physics competitions and European Journal of Physics The aim of European Journal of Physics is 'to assist in maintaining and improving the standard of taught physics in universities and other institutes of

  1. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches destaphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Maouloud, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Staphylocoque aureus reste un pathogène majeur de l'homme causant des infections très diverses, cutanées, urinaires, pulmonaires ainsi que des septicémies. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer la sensibilité des souches communautaires de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans différents produits pathologiques vis-à-vis des principaux antibiotiques utilisés, dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 281 souches de Staphylococus aureus isolées entre Janvier 2014 et Août 2015 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalier National et aux deux laboratoires privés de la ville de Nouakchott, dans différents produits pathologiques des patients non hospitalisés. La sensibilité aux antibiotiques a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion de disques en milieu gélosé de Mueller Hinton selon les recommandations du CA-SFM. Résultats Le taux de résistance à la pénicilline G était élevé (96 à 100%). Le taux de SARM communautaires se situe entre 25 et 26% dans les suppurations, de 34,3% dans les ECBU et de 28% dans les spermocultures. La résistance aux Macrolides-Lincosamyne-Streptogramines (MLS), donnant le phénotype MLSb inductible, était retrouvée dans 6% des souches urinaires et 27% des souches isolées à partir des suppurations. L'activité des aminosides est variable, l'amikacine était active sur toutes les souches. L'activité du cotrimoxazol est faible (77% de résistance) et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'a été notée. Conclusion L'activité de la Pénicilline G sur les souches de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans la région de Nouakchott est quasi nulle et le taux de SARM communautaire est important atteignant jusqu'à 34%. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par l'usage anarchique de ces molécules dans notre pays. PMID:28154631

  2. Physical Education: A Professional Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, James; Wandzilak, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Although some effort has been expended toward the development of physical education as a discipline, the nature of physical education reveals that it is more a professional field. A model is described which provides a means to draw from several contributing disciplines and subdisciplines in order to improve the practice of physical education.…

  3. Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.

    1996-05-01

    Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift in hydrogen and muonium are discussed. The problem of sign of the weak-interaction contribution to HFS is clarified, and simple physical arguments that make this sign evident are presented. It is shown that weak-interaction contributions to HFS in hydrogen and muonium have opposite signs. A weak-interaction contribution to the Lamb shift is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Physical Education's Role in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…

  5. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  6. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  7. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  8. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-05

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.

  9. Stueckelberg and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Jan

    The first period of E. C. G. Stueckelberg's scientific career was marked by important contributions he made to molecular physics.1 After publishing his thesis in 1927 in Basel [1] Stueckelberg joined the prestigious Palmer Physical Laboratory in Princeton where he worked under the guidance of Karl Taylor Compton, brother of Arthur Holly Compton. Stueckelberg owed this position devoted several papers to problems of molecular physics. Stueckelberg had the benefit at Princeton of exchanges with other gifted members of the Palmer Physical Laboratory, Philip M. Morse and E. U. Condon among others.3 to a recommendation by A. Sommerfeld.2 In this stimulating environment, he devoted several papers to problems of molecular physics. Stueckelberg had the benefit at Princeton of exchanges with other gifted members of the Palmer Physical Laboratory, Philip M. Morse and E. U. Condon among others.3

  10. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  11. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  12. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  13. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  14. Sports physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  15. Physics in perspective, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Progress in physics and its subfields is presented and the contribution of physics is related to progress in other scientific disciplines and the manner in which these have been utilized by our civilization. The future course of endeavor in the various subfields of physics and the extent to which these will require resources of manpower, facilities, and funding are discussed. The rational responses of the total research effort in physics to alternative funding levels are assayed.

  16. Iranian Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Dina; Seiedfadaei, Azita

    2009-04-01

    Women in the world have made great contributions to science. In Iran more than 60% of undergraduate university students are women, most in physics. Women's representation in postgraduate studies is lower; however, these numbers do not account for those who go to other countries to continue their studies, of which there are many. Alinoush Tarian, the oldest woman professor in Iran, the first Iranian woman professor of physics, and the founder of the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran, is one of them. There are some women physicists in Iran that are working as professors at the universities and famous institutes such as the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics. Iranians have always showed their talents and intelligence everywhere in the world, and nowadays, some of the women physics teachers in Iran are trying to teach physics with new methods to attract more students.

  17. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  18. Physical Education: Essential Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken, Ed.; Hardman, Ken, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is aimed primarily at under and postgraduate students pursuing entire programmes or discrete courses and modules in the broad area of physical education and sport in schools. It consists of a collection of what is considered to be essential readings in the sense that they are contributions from eminent authors on a breadth of salient…

  19. Computations in Plasma Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Killeen, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses contributions of computers to research in magnetic and inertial-confinement fusion, charged-particle-beam propogation, and space sciences. Considers use in design/control of laboratory and spacecraft experiments and in data acquisition; and reviews major plasma computational methods and some of the important physics problems they…

  20. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  1. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  2. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  3. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  4. More Professionals Talking Physics than Ever Before!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    In this article, "TalkPhysics," the Institute of Physics' (UK) community website for teachers of physics and their supporters, is described. It is now used by over 7,500 professionals in physics education, whether they are seeking or giving advice, contributing to discussions, or accessing the wealth of resources available, but will also…

  5. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    PubMed

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  6. Auxin Influx Carrier AUX1 Confers Acid Resistance for Arabidopsis Root Elongation Through the Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Okumura-Noda, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase regulates pH homeostasis and cell elongation in roots through the formation of an electrochemical H(+) gradient across the PM and a decrease in apoplastic pH; however, the detailed signaling for the regulation of PM H(+)-ATPases remains unclear. Here, we show that an auxin influx carrier, AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), is required for the maintenance of PM H(+)-ATPase activity and proper root elongation. We isolated a low pH-hypersensitive 1 (loph1) mutant by a genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana on low pH agar plates. The loph1 mutant is a loss-of-function mutant of the AUX1 gene and exhibits a root growth retardation restricted to the low pH condition. The ATP hydrolysis and H(+) extrusion activities of the PM H(+)-ATPase were reduced in loph1 roots. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the PM H(+)-ATPase was reduced in loph1 roots under both normal and low pH conditions without reduction of the amount of PM H(+)-ATPase. Expression of the DR5:GUS reporter gene and auxin-responsive genes suggested that endogenous auxin levels were lower in loph1 roots than in the wild type. The aux1-7 mutant roots also exhibited root growth retardation in the low pH condition like the loph1 roots. These results indicate that AUX1 positively regulates the PM H(+)-ATPase activity through maintenance of the auxin accumulation in root tips, and this process may serve to maintain root elongation especially under low pH conditions.

  7. Tevatron physics

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-01-03

    These lectures form a personal, and not necessarily comprehensive, survey of physics at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. They cover detectors, analysis issues, and physics prospects for the current Tevatron run.

  8. Physical Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical stimulus. Physical stimuli include the following: Cold Sunlight Heat or other stimuli that cause sweating (such ... a foreign substance and attacks it. Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) is an example. Ultraviolet light changes proteins ...

  9. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen experiments in physics are described to demonstrate various physical phenomena. These include the areas of velocity of sound, damped oscillations, plastic deformation of wires, materials, testing, air resistance, spectrum optical filtering, and some new improvised apparatus. (PS)

  10. Physical Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific educational prerequisites, such as classes in anatomy, physiology, biology, chemistry, and physics. Some programs admit college ... therapist programs often include courses in biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, neuroscience, and pharmacology. Physical therapist students also complete ...

  11. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports physical exam is known as ... to consider possible conditions you may have. Most sports medicine doctors believe the medical history is the most ...

  12. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are 13 physics experiments/demonstrations applicable to introductory physics courses. Activities include: improved current balance, division circuits, liquid pressure, convection, siphons, oscillators and modulation, electrical resistance, soap films, Helmholtz coils, radioactive decay, and springs. (SL)

  13. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  14. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  15. Identification de lois constitutives et de lois de frottement adaptées aux grandes vitesses de sollicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalverny, O.; Capéraa, S.; Pantalé, O.; Sattouf, C.

    2002-12-01

    Cet article présente une méthodologie d'identification de lois constitutives et de lois de contact adaptées aux matériaux métalliques sous chargement dynamique à grande vitesse de déformation. Les essais sont effectués à partir de montages expérimentaux adaptés à un lanceur à gaz permettant d'obtenir une vitesse de projectile de l'ordre de 350m/s pour une masse totale de 30gr. Le premier essai consiste en un impact de Taylor correspondant à un chargement mécanique de type compression. Le second essai de type “extrusion conique" permet la détermination des lois de frottement à grande vitesse. La procédure générale d'identification des lois de comportement à partir d'essais dynamiques se fait au moyen d'une analyse post-mortem des échantillons et de la corrélation entre ces résultats expérimentaux et un modèle numérique des essais. Pour les deux cas précédemment cités, nous présentons la configuration optimale d'essai ainsi que les résultats obtenus à partir d'un algorithme d'optimisation de type Levenberg-Marquard.

  16. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  17. The PB1 Domain in Auxin Response Factor and Aux/IAA Proteins: A Versatile Protein Interaction Module in the Auxin Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An integral part of auxin-regulated gene expression involves the interplay of two types of transcription factors, the DNA binding auxin response factor (ARF) activators and the interacting auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressors. Insight into the mechanism of how these transcription factors interact with one another has recently been revealed from crystallographic information on ARF5 and ARF7 C-terminal domains (i.e., a protein-protein interaction domain referred to as domain III/IV that is related to domain III/IV in Aux/IAA proteins). Three-dimensional structures showed that this domain in ARF5 and ARF7 conforms to a well-known PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain that confers protein-protein interactions with other PB1 domain proteins through electrostatic contacts. Experiments verifying the importance of charged amino acids in conferring ARF and Aux/IAA interactions have confirmed the PB1 domain structure. Some in planta experiments designed to test the validity of PB1 interactions in the auxin response have led to updated models for auxin-regulated gene expression and raised many questions that will require further investigation. In addition to the PB1 domain, a second protein interaction module that functions in ARF-ARF dimerization and facilitates DNA binding has recently been revealed from crystallography studies on the ARF1 and ARF5 DNA binding domains. PMID:25604444

  18. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  19. Minority Contributions to Science, Engineering, and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funches, Peggy; And Others

    Offering an historical perspective on the development of science, engineering, medicine, and technology and providing current role models for minority students, the bulletin lists the outstanding contributions made by: (1) Blacks - medicine, chemistry, architecture, engineering, physics, biology, and exploration; (2) Hispanos - biomedical…

  20. Mathematics: Contributions by Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Jacqueline M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a core course in a women's-studies program at Loyola Marymount University. Provides information, resources, and an annotated bibliography useful for making students more aware of women's contributions to mathematics. Contains 38 references. (ASK)

  1. Evolutionary Industrial Physical Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascal, Alberto; Alberdi, Amaia

    Both complexity and lack of knowledge associated to physical processes makes physical models design an arduous task. Frequently, the only available information about the physical processes are the heuristic data obtained from experiments or at best a rough idea on what are the physical principles and laws that underlie considered physical processes. Then the problem is converted to find a mathematical expression which fits data. There exist traditional approaches to tackle the inductive model search process from data, such as regression, interpolation, finite element method, etc. Nevertheless, these methods either are only able to solve a reduced number of simple model typologies, or the given black-box solution does not contribute to clarify the analyzed physical process. In this paper a hybrid evolutionary approach to search complex physical models is proposed. Tests carried out on a real-world industrial physical process (abrasive water jet machining) demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  2. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  3. Bullying: Proactive Physical Educators' Contribution to School-Wide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbone, Anne; Manson, Mara

    2010-01-01

    Although not a new concept, bullying continues to be a problem in schools across the nation. Bullying involves the intention to hurt the feelings of the victim. Research demonstrates that victims of bullying often experience low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, insecurity, oversensitivity, introversion, and withdrawal from social activities. This…

  4. Contributions to Physics-Based Aeroservoelastic Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sang

    The thesis presents the development of a new fully-integrated, MATLAB based simulation capability for aeroservoelastic (ASE) uncertainty analysis that accounts for uncertainties in all disciplines as well as discipline interactions. This new capability allows probabilistic studies of complex configuration at a scope and with depth not known before. Several statistical tools and methods have been integrated into the capability to guide the tasks such as parameter prioritization, uncertainty reduction, and risk mitigation. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Contributions of dental colour to the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez-Polo, C; Santos, J A; Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Albaladejo, A

    2014-10-01

    Dental appearance may play a key role on the way we develop a first impression of another person. To test whether relatively minor changes in the lightness of tooth colour would influence the perceived social appeal (social, intellectual, psychological and relational abilities) of an unknown male and unknown female, this cross-sectional study was performed on 555 Spanish adults. The two major independent variables related to the photograph were tooth lightness (computer-derived), divided into three levels that included lightened teeth, natural teeth and darkened teeth, and the gender of the observed face. Moreover, six independent variables related to the observer were assessed (age, gender, educational level, place of residence, frequency of brushing and self-reported health status). The dependent variables were scored on five-point Likert scales designed to quantify four domains (social, intellectual, psychological and relationship competences) of the Social Appeal Scale (SAS). Tooth lightness influences the perception of social appeal in all dimensions, as darkened smiles received significantly poorer scores than natural-colour smiles, but these were also worse than lightened smiles. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of social appeal was tooth lightness, and for each increment in lightness (from darkened to lightened smiles), the odds ratio (OR) of positive values being perceived increased significantly in all items (from 2·3 in Popularity to 6·9 in Happiness). A perceptible change in dental lightness is the strongest factor associated with the dental attractiveness stereotype, affecting significantly the 12 traits assessed, but mainly the Happiness, Social Relations and Academic Performance.

  6. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  7. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  8. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  9. Physical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Atomistic metaphysics motivated an explanatory strategy which science has pursued with great success since the scientific revolution. By decomposing matter into its atomic and subatomic parts physics gave us powerful explanations and accurate predictions as well as providing a unifying framework for the rest of science. The success of the decompositional strategy has encouraged a widespread conviction that the physical world forms a compositional hierarchy that physics and other sciences are progressively articulating. But this conviction does not stand up to a closer examination of how physics has treated composition, as a variety of case studies will show.

  10. Contributed Papers, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, New York, NY. Documentation Div.

    Included are six papers from the Special Libraries Association Documentation Division's Contributed Papers Session at the National Conference in New York, May 28 - June 1, 1967, which were not included in the November, 1967 issue of Special Libraries. The papers are: (1) "The Bibliographical Control of Aerospace Industry Conference Literature…

  11. Lightning Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  12. Climate Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Space, William

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections exist between climate science and topics normally covered in physics and physical science courses. For instance, lessons on heat and light can be used to introduce basic climate science, and the study of electric circuits provides a context for studying the relationship between electricity consumption and carbon pollution. To…

  13. Playful Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, David

    2008-01-01

    Effectively communicate qualitative and quantitative information orally and in writing. Explain the application of fundamental physical principles to various physical phenomena. Apply appropriate problem-solving techniques to practical and meaningful problems using graphical, mathematical, and written modeling tools. Work effectively in collaborative groups.

  14. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in physics instruction, including among others, a list of articles relating to physics topics, computer interface that makes a computer cost effective, use of a guitar in vibrating string experiments, and photoelectric aids to the measurement of distance, speed, velocity, and acceleration.…

  15. Getting Physical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Erin

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how high schools are responding to the decline in student physical fitness with new facilities that attract students to fitness. Use of alternative sports, e.g., hiking, climbing, and in-line skating is discussed; as are creating new facilities that encourage student use through technology; and integrating physical education with other…

  16. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  17. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  18. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition.

  19. Supersymmetry and Kaon physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Kaon physics has played an essential role in testing the Standard Model and in searching for new physics with measurements of CP violation and rare decays. Current progress of lattice calculations enables us to predict kaon observables accurately, especially for the direct CP violation, ε‧/ε, and there is a discrepancy from the experimental data at the 2.9 σ level. On the experimental side, the rare kaon decays and are ongoing to be measured at the SM accuracy by KOTO at J-PARC and NA62 at CERN. These kaon observables are good probes for new physics. We study supersymmetric effects; the chargino and gluino contributions to Z penguin, in kaon observables.

  20. Avicenna's contribution to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A R; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field.

  1. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  2. Physics Phridays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falbo, Maria

    2007-12-01

    Teaching high school physics involves cheerleading, coaching, and acting (in addition to course preparation, equipment maintenance/construction, and grading). One is like a performer that has to be "on" all the time to keep the attention and interest of students in order to engage them in the content. But what happens once the course is over? We hope that we have sparked some interest in physics that will continue and that our students take what they've learned with them, but the reality is often disappointing. Can we do better than hope? "Physics Phridays" might be a starting point.

  3. Fundamentals and Special Problems of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Les Aspects Fondamentaux et les Problemes Specifiques aux Radars a Ouverture Synthetique (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION: IMAGING OF SHIPS *(x,y)- P(U)IU~e dU d# AT SEA) ) (80) 6.1. Modelization The integral over U is identified as an inverse ...Special SAR-methods like squint-, stretch- and spotlight-techniques for example will be presented in addition to the inverse SAR-techniques using the...pr~sentis en complement des techniques SAR inverses faisant appel aux mouvement des cibles au lieu du mouvement du radar. Le cycle de conferences; se

  4. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  5. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  6. Les surdosages aux antivitamines K à Dakar: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Khadidiatou; Sarr, Simon Antoine; Mboup, Mohamed Cherif; Ba, Djibril Marie; Fall, Pape Diadie

    2016-01-01

    Les antivitamines K (AVK) sont largement utilisées dans la prévention et le traitement curatif des accidents thromboemboliques. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des surdosages en AVK et d’en déterminer les facteurs hémorragiques. Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive, transversale monocentrique réalisée à l’Hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients qui présentaient un INR supérieur à 5 étaient inclus. Etaient étudiés le sexe, l’âge du patient, l’AVK utilisé, l’ancienneté de sa prise, les indications, la valeur de l’INR, les médicaments associés, la présence d’hémorragie, la prise en charge immédiate et l’évolution. Nous avons inclus 154 patients. L’acénocoumarol était l’AVK le plus prescrit. Le sexe ratio était en faveur des femmes. L’âge moyen était de 63 ans. Le surdosage était asymptomatique chez 43% des patients. Les hémorragies étaient représentées principalement par des gingivorragies, épistaxis. Des hémorragies majeures étaient présentes chez 8,6% des patients représentées par des mélénas chez 6 patients (3,9%), un hématome musculaire profond chez 2 patients (1,3%) et des hématomes cérébraux intra-parenchymateux chez 2 autres. Deux patients présentaient un collapsus cardiovasculaire avec déglobulisation. Une prise d’AINS était notée chez 21% des patients. Les AVK ont été transitoirement arrêtés chez tous les patients. La mortalité était de 2% par hémorragie intracrânienne. La réduction des surdosages aux AVK passe par une maitrise par le personnel soignant des facteurs de surdosage et par bonne éducation thérapeutique des patients. PMID:27795783

  7. Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on…

  8. An Analysis of Canadian Physical Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilborn, Michelle; Lorusso, Jenna; Francis, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    There has been much international concern about the present and future status of school physical education. Recent research has employed surveys or case studies to examine the status of physical education but there is a dearth of in-depth physical education curriculum document analysis. The aim of this study is to contribute to the international…

  9. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  10. Women in Physics: Trends in Recent Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buna, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a quarter century of outstanding contributions to physics and physics education by women and the changes over the past 25 years, current problems, and proposed solutions. Presents statistical data that were made available by the American Institute of Physics (AIP), the Romanian Academy of Science (RAS), and the MIT Faculty Newsletter.…

  11. Physics as an Enterprise of Process Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2005-01-01

    Physics, as a discipline, attempts to discern the mysteries of physical universe and it is also an inspiration for technological innovations which contribute to the good or demise of human civilization. While it continues to have tremendous impact on the technological front, one wonders if physics, as an enterprise engaged in providing a coherent…

  12. Mathematization in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmia, Suzanne M.

    Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in

  13. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents activities, experiments, demonstrations, and equipment for physics instruction, including computer applications of sports biomechanics, vibrating magnetometer, alternative uses for an environmental comparator, CMOS integrated circuit logic tutor, and an activity demonstrating positive and negative leakage. (JN)

  14. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve ideas are presented for physics teachers to implement in the laboratory or classroom. Topics covered include electromagnetic induction, microbalance, capacitors, determination of light velocity, and the compound pendulum. Information regarding laboratory equipment is also provided. (PS)

  15. Physics olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Five high school physics students will represent the U.S. at the 20th International Physics Olympiad, July 14-25 in Warsaw, Poland. The Olympiad has been held annually since 1967; this is the fourth year the U.S. will compete. The American Association of Physics Teachers administers the U.S. program; AGU is a principal sponsoring organization of the Olympiad, as is the American Institute of Physics.The students are Derrick Bass, North Miami Beach High School, Miami Beach, Fla.; Steven Gubser, Cherry Creek High School, Englewood, Colo.; Jason Jacobs, Baldwin Senior High School, Baldwin, N.Y.; Jessica Millar, West High School, Madison, Wise; and James Sarvis, Thomas Jefferson High School, Alexandria, Va.

  16. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Ideas are proposed for physics teachers to use in their classrooms. Subjects include: alpha particles, spectrometer experiments, refractive index of glass, measurement of surface tension, projectile motion, and radiant heat. (PS)

  17. Contest Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  18. Supercollider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1985-03-01

    The physics that can be explored with multi-TeV supercolliders is reviewed, including parton distributions, hadron jet production, the standard electroweak theory and minimal extensions to it, technicolor, supersymmetry, and compositeness. 19 refs., 11 figs. (LEW)

  19. Environmental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a one quarter introductory college physics course for nonscience majors which concentrates upon energy, energy systems, and relevant practical situations exemplifying energy laws. Results indicate the course is also suitable as a preparatory course for preprofessional students. (SL)

  20. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  1. Magic Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  2. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes physics experiments and apparatus construction for studies in astronomy, electricity, wave measurement and speed, the behavior of steel, and intermolecular forces. Includes a detailed description of how to simulate apparent trajectories of the moon and sun. (CS)

  3. Charm physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilburg, J.

    2013-11-01

    Charm physics is an active and productive field at hadron colliders. In these proceedings an overview of recent results in charm physics from the Tevatron and LHC experiments is given. Highlighted are the measurements of open charm production and production asymmetries, the recent precision measurements of the D masses, the confirmation of mixing in the D0 system, the searches for CP violation in the charm system and the searches for rare charm decays.

  4. Ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  5. Turkic Contributions To The CLIC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A. K.

    2007-04-23

    Turkic group has been a collaborator of CLIC project of CERN since mid-2004. Since then, the group has been contributing CLIC study efforts on: impact of beam dynamics issues on CLIC Physics potential, CLIC*LHC interface (QCD Explorer, ep, {gamma}p, eA and {gamma}A colliding options and FEL {gamma} Nucleus Collider) and operation of CTF3. On this talk the status of the collaboration is given in details.

  6. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,F.

    2009-05-26

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

  7. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2009-09-11

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics,in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions,such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distributionof hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate thatthe transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches areconsistentwith each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusivehadron production in DIS process.

  8. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,F.

    2009-05-25

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

  9. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  10. Behavioral science space contributions.

    PubMed

    Harris, P R

    1989-07-01

    In anticipation of longer missions on the space stations, Mir and Freedom, as well as a potential return to the Moon and the exploration of Mars, human survival and the quality of life aloft will be increasingly dependent upon research in the behavioral and biological sciences. This article reviews the possible contributions to space habitation of the behavioral sciences--especially anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Before space settlements become a reality, the author makes a case for the broadening of the engineering approach to human factor studies, and consideration of the integrative living systems theory in space planning and management.

  11. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  12. Physics For Dummies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, Steve; Ph., D.

    2005-11-01

    The fun and easy way to understand the basic principles of physics How does gravity work? What does e=mc2 really mean? And what's a charm quark? Physics For Dummies answers these questions and more, explaining the basics of physical science and its importance in our everyday lives in a simple, clear, and entertaining fashion. Whether readers are taking a class, helping kids with homework, or are simply interested in how the world works, this plain-English guide gives them the knowledge they need to understand basic physics. Through real-world examples and problems, it covers such key topics as motion, energy, and waves (sound, light, wave-particle); solids, liquids, and gases; thermodynamics; electromagnetism; relativity; atomic and nuclear structures; and the Big Bang and stars. Steven Holzner, PhD (Ithaca, NY), is the author of more than 40 books and a former contributing editor at PC Magazine. He has been on the faculty of MIT and taught Physics 101 and 102 at Cornell for over ten years.

  13. [Physical urticarias].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, A

    2003-05-01

    Ten percent of chronic urticarias are physical urticarias. Patients suffering from physical urticaria all have a suggestive history with specific eliciting stimuli (cold, heat, water, sun.) and wheals in the areas where the stimulus acts. The involved pathomechanisms are not well known. An unknown allergen (related to a cold or a heat injury, a polar molecule contained in the stratum corneum and soluble into water, a photoallergen) could induce a mast cell mediator release, followed by an infiltration by eosinophil then neutrophils polymorphonuclears. T-cells are not highly involved. Dermographism, the most frequent can be cured by anti-H1. In diagnosing cholinergic urticaria physical exercise has to be done by the patient (jogging, running, riding), anti-H1 are efficient. In other physical urticarias (delayed-pressure, cold, solar, heat, vibratory urticarias) as to be managed as follows: (1) to perform specific tests with respectively (weights; ice cube; UVA, UVB and visible light exposure; hot water contained in a tube; a vortex mixer); (2) to avoid eliciting stimuli; (3) to treat the associated diseases e.g. in secondary cold urticaria; (4) to try to induce a physical tolerance, a review is enclosed concerning cold, solar, heat and aquagenic urticarias; (5) to associate or not non sedative 2(nd) generation antihistamines. All the other alternative treatments are discussed but none of them has been evaluated.

  14. LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIA 1 of maize acts as a transcriptional activator in auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA gene rootless with undetectable meristem 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; von Behrens, Inga; Zimmermann, Roman; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Only little is known about target genes of auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA-ARF module. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that maize lateral root primordia 1 (lrp1) encodes a transcriptional activator that is directly regulated by the Aux/IAA protein ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 (RUM1). Expression of lrp1 is confined to early root primordia and meristems and is auxin-inducible. Based on its primary protein structure, LRP1 is predicted to be a transcription factor. This notion is supported by exclusive LRP1 localization in the nucleus and its ability to activate downstream gene activity. Based on the observation that lrp1 transcription is completely repressed in the semi-dominant gain of function mutant rum1, it was demonstrated that the lrp1 promoter is a direct target of RUM1 proteins. Subsequently, promoter activation assays indicated that RUM1 represses the expression of a GFP reporter fused to the native promoter of lrp1. Constitutive repression of lrp1 in rum1 mutants is a consequence of the stability of mutated rum1 proteins which cannot be degraded by the proteasome and thus constitutively bind to the lrp1 promoter and repress transcription. Taken together, the repression of the transcriptional activator lrp1 by direct binding of RUM1 to its promoter, together with specific expression of lrp1 in root meristems, suggests a function in maize root development via the RUM1-dependent auxin signalling pathway.

  15. The Physics Front: Resources for High School Physics & Physical Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezrailson, Cathy M.

    2006-12-01

    The overarching goal of the Physics Front, (part of ComPADRE -Physics and Astronomy digital library) is to provide enhanced accessibility to quality physics teaching resources for all pre-college teachers of physics and the physical sciences with special materials for new and “cross-over” teachers. Some highlights/features of the site are: • A collection of physics-related topics with units of instruction including content, tutorials, labs and reference materials. • Descriptions of some PTRA manuals with example activities. • A “Welcome to the Profession” statement from the New Physics Teacher Manual. • Classroom techniques and best practices. • Simulations and images to enhance instruction for students. • Special features and help for the new physics teacher • Discussion Forums • Filing cabinet for sharing and organizing teaching materials Advantages of using The Physics Front: • Peer -reviewed materials • Connections with other physics teachers nation/worldwide • Content and pedagogy support • Venue for sharing, accessing and archiving exemplary teacher-designed materials • Opportunity to contribute to a dynamic and growing online physics teacher community

  16. Estimating areas contributing recharge to wells, lessons from previous studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Factors relating to the estimation of areas contributing recharge to wells, such as complexity of the ground-water flow system, effects of changing hydrologic conditions, and effects of well-screen locations and pumping rates, are reviewed. The point of view that simulation is the best means to obtain physically based estimates of contributing areas is emphasized. An extensive list of USGS reports that include estimation of contributing areas is provided.

  17. The Physics of Hang Gliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, Lionel D.

    2008-03-01

    Dr. Hewett has received both national and international awards from the hang gliding community for his contributions to the safety of towing hang gliders. These contributions were a consequence of his applying his knowledge of physics to the sport of hang gliding. This lecture illustrates how these and other applications of the fundamental principles of physics have influenced the historical evolutions of hang gliding and paragliding from the earliest flights of Otto Lilienthal in 1891 through the more recent record breaking flights of more than 430 miles from Zapata Texas.

  18. Physics Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Academics, not athletics, were the game in the 1988 International Physics Olympiad held in Bad Ischl, Austria, June 23 to July 1. AGU was one of about 20 principal sponsoring organizations that helped send 135 students from 27 countries to compete; the American Institute of Physics was another. The U.S. team brought home three of the 22 silver medals for 12th, 17th, 26th, 79th, and 90th places.The 20 members ot the U.S. Physics Olympiad Team attended a week-long training camp at the University of Maryland, College Park. University professors, high school teachers, and physicists from private industry coached the students through intensive problem solving, laboratory investigation, and testing. Students heard guest lecturers and constantly supplied one another with problem challenges for practice.

  19. PHYSICS TODAY--INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    THIS SPECIAL ISSUE OF "PHYSICS TODAY" REVIEWS THE STATUS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS, AS WELL AS COLLEGE PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. SECONDARY LEVEL PROJECTS INCLUDE PHYSICAL SCIENCE STUDY COMMITTEE PHYSICS, HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS, THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT, AND THE NUFFIELD PROJECT. THOSE AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL…

  20. Advancements in Solar Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, Lino; Antonelli, Vito

    2013-03-01

    We review the results of solar neutrino physics, with particular attention to the data obtained and the analyses performed in the last decades, which were determinant to solve the solar neutrino problem (SNP), proving that neutrinos are massive and oscillating particles and contributing to refine the solar models. We also discuss the perspectives of the presently running experiments in this sector and of the ones planned for the near future and the impact they can have on elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

  1. Magnetotail physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of magnetotails (MTs) are examined in reviews and reports based on papers presented at the Chapman Conference on Magnetotail Physics, held at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in October 1985. Topics addressed include the MT configuration, fluid and kinetic aspects of MT dynamics, active diagnosis of the earth MT, and the MTs of celestial objects. Also provided are an overview of the conference findings and summaries of panel discussions on injection-layer and Alfven-layer models, reconnection and viscous-interaction models of solar-wind/magnetosphere energy transfer, and phenomenological models of MT substorms.

  2. A Profile of Corporate Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden W.

    The extent and distribution of charitable contributions by corporations were studied. In addition to a history of giving from 1936 to 1981, information is presented on corporate contributions in 1977 in terms of the distribution of companies (1) by size of contributions, (2) by contributions as percentage of net income, (3) by industry, and (4) by…

  3. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovatch, Yurij; Kenna, Ralph; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are characterised by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behaviour. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical worlds. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicists' point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualised in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new ground for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.

  4. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrations, procedures, games, teaching suggestions and information on a variety of physics topics are presented, including hydraulic rams, units and formulae, static electric motors, a computer graphics program, diffraction, adaptation of a basic meter, photoelasticity, photo-diodes, radioactive decay, and analog-digital conversions. (DC)

  5. DOING Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Several good features of a projectile motion experiment (students fire their own rockets) are described, including accuracy achieved, low cost and relative safety. Also described is a simple novelty toy (originally distributed by McDonalds foods) illustrating physics concepts. Blowing on this toy pipe propels a thread around in a loop. (JN)

  6. Flipped Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines flipped learning and then examines its practical implementation in AS and A2 level physics classes, that is, classes for 16-18 year olds. The effect of this teaching style on student learning behaviour and its impact on test results are evaluated. The paper recounts the difficulties of implementing it and evaluates student…

  7. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  9. "Explosive" Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzynski, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration in which two-liter plastic bottles can be used to show how force relates to pressure and area. Identical drinking straws are launched out of similar plastic bottles with different-sized openings. This demonstration proves qualitatively that pressure is inversely proportional to the area exposed to an object when a…

  10. Computational Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borcherds, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an optional course in "computational physics" offered at the University of Birmingham. Includes an introduction to numerical methods and presents exercises involving fast-Fourier transforms, non-linear least-squares, Monte Carlo methods, and the three-body problem. Recommends adding laboratory work into the course in the…

  11. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, equipment, teaching ideas, and resource materials related to physics are discussed. Topics include the construction of a liquid-metal pump, a hydraulic jack, and an apparatus which helps teach time/velocity graphs; current/voltage characteristics of a tungsten filament lamp; and an electric circuit game. (DC)

  12. Physics Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Brooke A.; Bell, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, teachers assess students' physics understanding through lab activities, responses to open-ended word problems, and tests. But there is another way to measure student understanding, one in which students apply their learning to the world around them. This article shows how to implement student portfolios, which allow students to…

  13. Zombie physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    What makes for a fun student project that provides useful results, a journal publication and a high-profile conference talk? Stephen Ornes describes how Alex Alemi and Matt Bierbaum spiced up their learning by mixing statistical physics with their love of zombie tales.

  14. Physical Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  15. Henry Crew, a successful teacher of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiaozhen, Xu; Michaelson, Robert C.

    1987-09-01

    Henry Crew had a long career in teaching physics at Johns Hopkins University, Haverford College, and Northwestern University. In those decades, Crew made great contributions to physics education. He published 13 books including popular textbooks and well-known translations. His 123 scientific articles included works on spectroscopy, physics education, history of science, biographies of physics, and so forth. He was awarded the highest honor for a physics teacher in the United States—the Oersted Medal. At the same time, he was an active scientist, and he participated as a founder of such academic societies as the American Physical Society, the American Association of University Professors, and the History of Science Society.

  16. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  17. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  18. Student Blogging about Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen E.

    2010-09-01

    In traditional introductory physics classes, there is often limited opportunity for students to contribute their own ideas, interests, and experiences as they engage with the subject matter. This situation is exacerbated in university lecture-format classes, where students may not feel comfortable speaking during class. In the last few years, Internet blogs have become a decentralized format for diarists, independent journalists, and opinion makers to both post entries and allow commentary from their readers. Below, I will describe some techniques for using student blogging about physics to engage students from two different classroom environments: a calculus-based introductory mechanics class for scientists and engineers, and an honors seminar for first-year students. These assignments required them to make their own connections between classroom knowledge and situations where it might find applications. A second goal of including blogging in the introductory physics course was to induce students to write about the physics content of the class in a more substantive way than was previously part of the class.

  19. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  20. Coronal and chromospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.; Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1983-01-01

    Achievements and completed results are discussed for investigations covering solar activity during the solar maximum mission and the solar maximum year; other studies of solar activity and variability; infrared and submillimeter photometry; solar-related atomic physics; coronal and transition region studies; prominence research; chromospheric research in quiet and active regions; solar dynamics; eclipse studies; and polarimetry and magnetic field measurements. Contributions were also made in defining the photometric filterograph instrument for the solar optical telescope, designing the combined filter spectrograph, and in expressing the scientific aims and implementation of the solar corona diagnostic mission.

  1. Solar physics at APL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1999-12-01

    Solar reserach at APL aims to understand the fundamental physics that govern solar activity. The tools are telescopes, models, and interplanetary sampling of solar ejecta. The work is relevant to APL's mission because solar energetic protons disable satellites and endanger astronauts. Solar activity also causes geomagnetic storms, which can lead to communications disruptions, electric power network problems, satellite orbit shifts and, sometimes, satellite failure. Predicting storm conditions requires understanding solar magnetism and its fluctuations. APL scientists have made major contributions to solar activity research and have taken the lead in developing a variety of new solar research tools. They are now starting work on the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, a major space mission.

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  3. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  4. Physical Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  5. Astroparticle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Rene A.

    2013-12-01

    Astroparticle physics is a rapidly developing field that has a high degree of overlap with particle physics and astronomy. This paper summarizes recent results and leading experiments in two selected areas: very high energy astrophysics and dark matter. Both areas have made great progress in the last 5 years due to improved instrumentation and a growing community. In very high energy astrophysics, many sources of GeV and TeV radiation have been detected and the challenge now is to fully understand the processes involved at these sites of extreme particle acceleration. In the area of dark matter, there is a close scientific connection between astroparticle experiments and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The combination of the LHC, direct-detection and indirect-detection experiments provide critical complementarity and unprecedented sensitivity in the quest to understand this deep mystery.

  6. Youtube Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-02-01

    Through the use of YouTube, we can show our students demos that we do not have the capability of doing in class. We can use these videos to inspire them and show them some of the cutting-edge discoveries in our field. We can also show them videos from around the world. Students need to realize that the physics community is global, not just national. They should learn to marvel in the discoveries made by physicists from all nations.

  7. b Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Pascal

    1998-10-19

    A summary of the most recent and important measurements in b physics is presented. The production of beauty particles in Z decays, b quark couplings, lifetimes, B{sup 0}-B{sup 0} oscillations, semileptonic b decays and studies of the number of charm quarks produced in b decays are reviewed. Extraction of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements |V{sub td}|, |V{sub cb}|, |V{sub ub}| and implication for |V{sub ts}| are discussed.

  8. EMSL Contribution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2

  9. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  10. Black Physical Educators and Utilitarianism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coursey, Leon N.

    The contributions of black professional personnel to the field of physical education are enumerated and described. The careers of Anita J. Turner, Edwin B. Henderson, and Albert J. Overly in particular are examined. The ability of a minority group to provide significant leadership in an educational field is discussed, and the challenge still…

  11. Mexican contributions to Noncommutative Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara, J. David; Garcia-Compean, H.

    2006-09-25

    In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.

  12. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  13. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

  14. Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Hakimi, Ihssane; Boudhas, Adil; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Oukabli, Mohamed; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes (SICA) est une entité rare qui correspond à la forme complète des pseudohermaphrodismes androgynoïdes. Son incidence est en fait très variable, allant, selon les auteurs de 1/20000 à 1/60000 naissances. Il est caractérisé par la coexistence chez le même sujet d'un caryotype masculin (46 XY), avec des gonades males, et d'une morphologie féminine normale. Les auteurs rapportent deux observations de deux jeunes filles présentant le SICA ayant consulté pour aménorrhée primaire, illustrant les particularités cliniques, anatomopathologiques et biologiques du syndrome avec certaines particularités. PMID:26301004

  15. Solar Physics - Plasma Physics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Sturrock, P. A.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the proceedings of a conference whose purpose was to explore plasma physics problems which arise in the study of solar physics is provided. Sessions were concerned with specific questions including the following: (1) whether the solar plasma is thermal or non-themal; (2) what spectroscopic data is required; (3) what types of magnetic field structures exist; (4) whether magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (5) whether resistive or non-magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (6) what mechanisms of particle acceleration have been proposed; and (7) what information is available concerning shock waves. Very few questions were answered categorically but, for each question, there was discussion concerning the observational evidence, theoretical analyses, and existing or potential laboratory and numerical experiments.

  16. Soil physics: a Moroccan perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Sabah; Mrabet, Rachid; Ouadia, Mohamed

    2004-06-01

    Research on environmental pollution and degradation of soil and water resources is now of highest priority worldwide. To address these problems, soil physics should be conceived as a central core to this research. This paper objectives are to: (1) address the role and importance of soil physics, (2) demonstrate progress in this discipline, and (3) present various uses of soil physics in research, environment and industry. The study of dynamic processes at and within the soil vadose zone (flow, dispersion, transport, sedimentation, etc.), and ephemeral phenomena (deformation, compaction, etc.), form an area of particular interest in soil physics. Soil physics has changed considerably over time. These changes are due to needed precision in data collection for accurate interpretation of space and time variation of soil properties. Soil physics interacts with other disciplines and sciences such as hydro(geo)logy, agronomy, environment, micro-meteorology, pedology, mathematics, physics, water sciences, etc. These interactions prompted the emergence of advanced theories and comprehensive mechanisms of most natural processes, development of new mathematical tools (modeling and computer simulation, fractals, geostatistics, transformations), creation of high precision instrumentation (computer assisted, less time constraint, increased number of measured parameters) and the scale sharpening of physical measurements which ranges from micro to watershed. The environment industry has contributed to an enlargement of many facets of soil physics. In other words, research demand in soil physics has increased considerably to satisfy specific and environmental problems (contamination of water resources, global warming, etc.). Soil physics research is still at an embryonic stage in Morocco. Consequently, soil physicists can take advantage of developments occurring overseas, and need to build up a database of soil static and dynamic properties and to revise developed models to meet

  17. On Dragon and Turkeys: Physics for Future Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletti, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Too often teachers describe physics solely as a technical discipline, which contributes concretely to changing our material world. In a society where prejudices and superstitions still play an important, sometimes tragic, role, there is much more to emphasise about physics. A physics teacher should introduce high school students to physics by…

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  20. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Medicago truncatula during the Early Phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Luqin; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. Principal Findings Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. PMID:25226164

  2. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  3. Women in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.

    This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…

  4. [Laser physics].

    PubMed

    Banús Gassol, J M

    2008-11-01

    The commission of this article plunged me into doubt. First I should confess that I don't find excuse to escape this part if somebody wants to minimally deepen in the knowledge of the biological effects of this energy source. Secondly, when we talk about results, we use terms made and defined by Physics. Often we have polemics about results, and what really happens is that we don't reach agreements because we refer to different terms to explain the same observation; in conclusion we cannot understand each other because we do not know the adequate terms; for example, hypoxemia as oxygen deficit, which is true in an anemic patient as well as in a low oxygen saturation rate. In consequence, a good review of these concepts seems necessary to me. The third reason is the confusion that exists in our environment, I think sometimes of interest, about properties and effects of different types of laser. Only a minimal knowledge of physics will help us to state the scientific basis for understanding. The problems, nevertheless, accumulate due to the fact that the universe to which this article is directed is formed by urologists. What Physics education should we suppose they have? Superficial? Medium? Is it a collective with a uniform knowledge, being it whatever it is? The implication is clear. The article depth will depend on the answers to these questions. Nevertheless, the aim of the authors is to give a base enough to know what the laser is and how it acts. For that, the answer I gave to my questions is that the reader should understand the article and have enough base for, at least, reading critically the articles about laser published in urological journals.

  5. Hadron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, G.

    1984-05-30

    Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain.

  6. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  7. Physics of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, 28 June - 2 July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, (beta), with a (gamma)-(beta)-(epsilon) triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, (omega), with an (epsilon)-(Theta)-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth's heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there were notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  8. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  9. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    PubMed Central

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  10. Traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures pour la simulation numérique unidimensionnelle de l'écoulement de l'eau dans les canaux à surface libre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M.; Vazquez, J.; Mose, R.; Zoaeter, M.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce papier, on décrit le traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures couplé avec la méthode explicite aux différences finies de Roe pour le développement d'une modélisation unidimensionnelle qui sert à résoudre les équations de Saint-Venant décrivant l'écoulement de l'eau à surface libre. Les deux méthodes les plus utilisées pour trouver la solution aux nœuds intérieurs et extérieurs définissant les conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures d'un schéma numérique sont décrites et comparées dans deux exemples: Le premier traite le problème du ressaut hydraulique et le second décrit l'écoulement de l'eau au dessus des seuils. Deux types de discrétisation du terme source, pointwise et upwind, sont considérés et comparés aussi. Les résultats obtenus et comparés avec la solution analytique dans le cas du ressaut, et avec les résultats numériques déjà publiés dans le cas des seuils, montrent l'avantage de la méthode des caractéristiques sur la méthode de l'extrapolation pour les conditions aux limites, et la discrétisation upwind du terme source sur la discrétisation pointwise.

  11. The origins of medical physics.

    PubMed

    Duck, Francis A

    2014-06-01

    The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'.

  12. The history of physics and European physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Giannetto, Enrico

    1996-07-01

    In the last fifteen years a small group of European physicists has been working towards an approach to physics education based on the actual practices of physics research. The standard presentation through traditional textbooks plus didactic laboratory is rejected, and instead case studies contributing and borrowing from contemporary history, philosophy and sociology of science are provided. Analysis of original papers, scientific debates, institutional settings are often accompanied by reconstructions of important historical instruments. The resulting interplay between theories, instruments and experimental results offers a view of physics fascinating and entertaining, closer to the actual scientists' activities, deprived of many traditional ideological assumptions, open to the students interpretations and often in tune with contemporary findings of science educators. The group's activities are quietly flourishing, have acquired institutional recognition in the European Physical Society, and are now coordinated with the ones organized around the journal Science & Education and the International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Group.

  13. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  14. Eight Hundred Years of Physics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, George

    This book uses a biographical pattern to trace the history of physics teaching. Whenever possible the story of an influential person or institution is used to tell the story of that period. The book begins with the contributions of the Greeks, the Romans, and the Arabs to physics and its teaching. Chapters include: (1) "The First Beginnings of…

  15. Who Needs Philosophy in Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallini, M. Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the invaluable contribution of philosophy in physical education can mean the difference between a "roll out the ball" mentality and one that will change the lives of students forever. What good is an educated mind if it is housed in an unfit body? The more that physical education teachers in training understand the critical role they…

  16. Physical Education Curriculum Reform in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish education system has received worldwide attention due to the top academic performance of Finnish school students. Physical education, as an integral part of the Finnish education curriculum, potentially contributes to the overall success. The purpose of this article is to summarize Finnish physical education reform during the past…

  17. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  18. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  19. Physics with antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, W. A.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Performing measurements of the properties of antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, and comparing the results with those for ordinary hydrogen, has long been seen as a route to test some of the fundamental principles of physics. There has been much experimental progress in this direction in recent years, and antihydrogen is now routinely created and trapped and a range of exciting measurements probing the foundations of modern physics are planned or underway. In this contribution we review the techniques developed to facilitate the capture and manipulation of positrons and antiprotons, along with procedures to bring them together to create antihydrogen. Once formed, the antihydrogen has been detected by its destruction via annihilation or field ionization, and aspects of the methodologies involved are summarized. Magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been employed to allow some of the antihydrogen created to be held for considerable periods. We describe such devices, and their implementation, along with the cusp magnetic trap used to produce the first evidence for a low-energy beam of antihydrogen. The experiments performed to date on antihydrogen are discussed, including the first observation of a resonant quantum transition and the analyses that have yielded a limit on the electrical neutrality of the anti-atom and placed crude bounds on its gravitational behaviour. Our review concludes with an outlook, including the new ELENA extension to the antiproton decelerator facility at CERN, together with summaries of how we envisage the major threads of antihydrogen physics will progress in the coming years.

  20. Physics with antihydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, W. A.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.

    2014-12-01

    Performing measurements of the properties of antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, and comparing the results with those for ordinary hydrogen, has long been seen as a route to test some of the fundamental principles of physics. There has been much experimental progress in this direction in recent years, and antihydrogen is now routinely created and trapped and a range of exciting measurements probing the foundations of modern physics are planned or underway. In this contribution we review the techniques developed to facilitate the capture and manipulation of positrons and antiprotons, along with procedures to bring them together to create antihydrogen. Once formed, the antihydrogen has been detected by its destruction via annihilation or field ionization, and aspects of the methodologies involved are summarized. Magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been employed to allow some of the antihydrogen created to be held for considerable periods. We describe such devices, and their implementation, along with the cusp magnetic trap used to produce the first evidence for a low-energy beam of antihydrogen. The experiments performed to date on antihydrogen are discussed, including the first observation of a resonant quantum transition and the analyses that have yielded a limit on the electrical neutrality of the anti-atom and placed crude bounds on its gravitational behaviour. Our review concludes with an outlook, including the new ELENA extension to the antiproton decelerator facility at CERN, together with summaries of how we envisage the major threads of antihydrogen physics will progress in the coming years.

  1. Physics Back in TIME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.

  2. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  3. Tumour physics.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, Willy Dieter

    2008-06-01

    During the cell division dynamic processes take place, the origin of which are to find in the physical characteristics of cell components. The most important characteristics are the electrical charge and the energy of the moving base components in a viscous cytoplasm. The interactions between the components lead as well known, to the emergence of hydrogen bonds between two DNA strands. The computations show that the strength of these bindings depends on three factors: first it is dependent on the length of a monotonous sequence, second it is dependent on the viscosity of the cytoplasm, and third it is dependent on the replication speed. In the study in detail is stated, how it affects the effectiveness of the DNA repair mechanism, mutation susceptibility, and thus also affects the cancer susceptibility.

  4. DUNE Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, James

    2015-08-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is a worldwide effort to build a next-generation long-baseline neutrino experiment with a neutrino beam and near detector at Fermilab and a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility 1,300 km from Fermilab. It is a merger of previous efforts and other interested parties to build, operate and exploit a staged 40-kt liquid argon detector and a high precision near detector exposed to a high-power, broad-band neutrino beam. The goals of the experiment are precision oscillation measurements, including CP violation and neutrino mass hierarchy determination, search for nucleon decay, and neutrino astrophysics, as well as precision neutrino physics at the near site.

  5. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  6. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  7. SPS Internship: Working With Physics To Go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Logan

    2008-10-01

    The Physics To Go website (www.physicstogo.com) is one of many collections of ComPADRE, an online library of electronic resources devoted to physics and astronomy education, funded by the National Science Foundation. Physics To Go, produced by the American Physical Society (APS), is a collection focused on informal physics learning, targeted towards self-motivated learners and the general public. My contributions to the site this summer consisted of obtaining useful materials to add to the collection and working to update the homepage's ``mini-magazine'' every two weeks. I was selected for this position at APS by the Society of Physics Students (SPS) summer internship program, hosted by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) in College Park, MD. This internship is presented to a number of physics undergraduates each year and offers opportunities in research and science policy/outreach positions at SPS, APS, AAPT, NASA, and NIST.

  8. Recent Development in Proton Spin Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-12-10

    In the naive model of the proton, its 1/2 spin is carried by its quark constituents. However, experiments over the last several decades have shown that the quark spin only contribute a small portion of the proton spin. In this talk, I will present recent developments exploring this proton spin puzzle, and focus on the progress made in the last few years on the longitudinal spin physics, the generalized parton distribution physics, and the transverse spin physics.

  9. Lightning Model Development: Contribution to High Power Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R. L.

    As the accompanying articles can attest, Dr. Carl E. Baum has had a varied career with fundamental contributions to many subjects. Lightning is one of those technical areas in which he has provided deep insight into the mechanisms of a very complex physical phenomenon. His contributions include fundamental measurements of lightning properties, basic models of important physical characteristics, lightning simulation characterization, and finally, lightning interaction with important systems like aircraft. The foundations of these techniques have helped him form the foundation of the general subject of high power electromagnetics.

  10. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  11. Vijay Pandharipande and Few-Body Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J.

    2007-06-01

    We briefly review the contributions of Vijay Pandharipande to Few-Body Physics. Vijay made many crucial contributions to few-nucleon physics; we can only touch upon some, from the spectra of light nuclei, to low- and high-energy reactions revealing their structure, and studies of the nuclear interaction. We briefly trace the beginnings of Vijay's work in few-nucleon physics, present a few of the highlights during his work, and briefly comment on the future of the line of theoretical work Vijay instigated.

  12. Physics-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinciuc, Mihai; Rusu, Spiridon

    The textbook is designated for the 10-th class of real and humanitarian lyceums, according the curriculum of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Moldova for lyceums. It encomprises mechanics in 5 chapters (Kynematics (Trajectory, Relativity of the Motion, Circular Motion and other); Dynamics and the Forces in Nature (The mass and Force, Universal attraction, Elastic Forces, Friction, The motion of the Bodies under the action of many forces, The relativity Principle of Galilei and other); Statics; Mechanical Impuls and its conservation; Mechanical work and Mechanical Energy and its conservation( Mechanical work and Power, Kynetic Energy, The mechanical work of the Elastic Force, The conservation laws) and Molecular Physics and Thermdynamics in 5 chapters (The structure of the Matter; Gases and their properties (Simplest transformations, The molecular-kynetic theory, Real gases) ; Solids and Liquids (The Hook's law, Superficial tension, Dilatation and other); Phase transitions (including sublimation); (Calorimetry; Thermal machines; The second law of thermodynamics and other). The textbook includes also 8 laboratory (experimental) works, a number of questions for control and a number of 300 problems, half of which have answers. Short biographies of about 15 physicists are included. The textbook is illustrated with diagrames, paintings and portrets in black and white.

  13. [Physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  14. 75 FR 32659 - Contributed Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... partnership, and any consolidated group of which the partner in the partnership is a member (within the... described in Sec. 1.704-3, paragraphs (b), (c) and (d), apply only with respect to the contributions of... treated as owned by the partner; (ii) disregarding one or more contributions or (iii) disregarding one...

  15. Exploring the SCOAP3 Research Contributions of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsteller, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. This presentation will inform the audience about SCOAP3 and also delve into descriptive statistics of the United States' intellectual contribution to particle physics via these open access journals. Exploration of the SCOAP3 particle physics literature using a variety of metrics tools such as Web of Science™, InCites™, Scopus® and SciVal will be shared. ORA or Sci2 will be used to visualize author collaboration networks.

  16. Quantification of social contributions to earthquake mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, I. G.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; McCloskey, J.; Pelling, M.; Naylor, M.

    2013-12-01

    Death tolls in earthquakes, which continue to grow rapidly, are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as strong shaking, and the resilience of exposed populations and supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. While it is clear that the social context in which the earthquake occurs has a strong effect on the outcome, the influence of this context can only be exposed if we first decouple, as much as we can, the physical causes of mortality from our consideration. (Our modelling assumes that building resilience to shaking is a social factor governed by national wealth, legislation and enforcement and governance leading to reduced levels of corruption.) Here we attempt to remove these causes by statistically modelling published mortality, shaking intensity and population exposure data; unexplained variance from this physical model illuminates the contribution of socio-economic factors to increasing earthquake mortality. We find that this variance partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures and allows the definition of a national vulnerability index identifying both anomalously resilient and anomalously vulnerable countries. In many cases resilience is well correlated with GDP; people in the richest countries are unsurprisingly safe from even the worst shaking. However some low-GDP countries rival even the richest in resilience, showing that relatively low cost interventions can have a positive impact on earthquake resilience and that social learning between these countries might facilitate resilience building in the absence of expensive engineering interventions.

  17. Physics Based University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeby, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two physics courses which serve as alternatives to general college courses in physics are outlined: physics with astrophysics and physics with electronics. Details are given of the structure of the courses and third year options are specified. (DT)

  18. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  19. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  20. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students’ Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Hammond-Bennett, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET) were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students’ physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers’ levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR). The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students’ cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students’ health-enhancing physical fitness. Key points Although Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance has its unique and critical teaching components, each essential teaching dimensions is intertwined and immersed in teaching practices. Four essential teaching dimensions all

  1. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students' Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Hammond-Bennett, Austin

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET) were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students' physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR). The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students' cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students' health-enhancing physical fitness. Key pointsAlthough Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance has its unique and critical teaching components, each essential teaching dimensions is intertwined and immersed in teaching practices.Four essential teaching dimensions all significantly

  2. Sport, Physical Activity and Well-Being: An Objectivist Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Bailey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    It is widely maintained that sport and physical activities contribute to the development of young people's well-being. Others argue that sports' contribution to good living is so strong that it is even thought to be a human right. Typically, however, the value of physical activity and sport to our well-being is conceptualized and researched within…

  3. Pedagogical Content of National Physical Behavior of Kazakh People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesbekova, Ryskul; Nassiyev, Yermek; ?itpanbet, Amanshol; Nassiyev, Yeldar

    2016-01-01

    Physical education significantly contributes to students' well-being; therefore, it is an instructional priority for California schools and an integral part of our students' educational experience. High-quality physical education instruction contributes to good health, develops fundamental and advanced motor skills, improves students'…

  4. Coauthorship in physics.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2002-04-01

    In a large and detailed survey on the ethics of scientific coauthorship, members of the American Physical Society (APS) were asked to judge the number of appropriate coauthors on his or her last published paper. Results show that the first or second coauthors are more appropriate than later coauthors about whom there is equal and considerable doubt. The probability of any third and subsequent coauthors being judged as inappropriate is 23% for the APS guideline, 67% for the tighter guideline of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 59% if the guideline requires "direct contributions to scientific discovery or invention". Only 3% of respondents report having personally rejected an undeserving scientist who expected to be an author on the last published paper. Respondents seem to be divided into two non-overlapping populations--those who report no inappropriate coauthorship and those who have a more graduated view.

  5. Coauthorship in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2002-06-01

    In a large and detailed survey on the ethics of scientific coauthorship, members of the American Physical Society (APS) were asked to judge the number of appropriate coauthors on his or her last published paper. Results show that the first or second coauthor are more appropriate than later coauthors about whom there is equal and considerable doubt. The probability of any third and subsequent coathors being judged as inappropriate is 23% for the APS guideline, 67% for the tighter guideline of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 59% if the guideline requires "direct contributions to scientific discovery or invention". Only 3% of respondents report having personally rejected an undeserving scientist who expected to be an author on the last published paper. Respondents seem to be divided into two non-overlapping populations - those who report no inappropriate coauthorship and those who have a more graduated view.

  6. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  7. Physics and Society: A sub-discipline of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David

    2012-03-01

    The Forum on Physics and Society was born in the tumultuous 1960's and 70's and has a long record of accomplishments over the past 40 years. *303 APS session in 40 years, an average of 7.7/year. *10 Books (3 Forum Studies, 7 AIP Conf. Proceedings, 4 booklets). *Physics and Society has published results that have been widely referenced. *2 Forum Board Members became U.S. Congressmen [V. Ehlers (R-MI), R. Holt (D-NJ)], others have had notable public service careers. *Szilard and Burton-Forum Awards recognize positive contributions of physicists in society. *The Forum helped establish the Congressional Science Fellowships. This talk will update the 1999 Forum History (http://www.aps.org/units/fps/history.cfm) and provide anecdotal humor. Lastly, back-of-the-envelope calculations from my text, Physics of Society Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007), will be provided.

  8. Physics of Forced Unsteady Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Lawrence W. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in April 1990. This workshop was jointly organized by NASA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Army Research Office (ARO), and was directed toward improved understanding of the physical processes that cause unsteady separation to occur. The proceedings contain the written contributions for the workshop, and include selected viewgraphs used in the various presentations.

  9. Physics with Taus at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Safonov, Alexei; /UC, Davis

    2004-12-01

    In this contribution, the authors describe the hadronic tau reconstruction and identification procedures adopted by the CDF experiment at Fermilab and present an overview of physics studies using tau leptons that are underway at CDF. Recent results using data obtained from Run II of the Tevatron are presented and include precision electroweak measurements as well as studies aimed at beyond Standard Model searches for new particles and interactions.

  10. Beam and Plasma Physics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    relativistic klystron amplifiers, virtual cathode oscillators, magnetically insulated transmission lines, transvertrons and vircator phase/frequency...Computational Physics Studies III MRC/ABQ-R-1278 101 03-08 SPHC Manual MRC/ABQ-R-1237 103 03-09 Diagnostic White Paper Contributions MRC/ABQ-N-451 106 9 2.2...magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). Computations were performed using the particle-in-cell code CCUBE, developed originally by Los

  11. Modern Detectors for Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, Oscar

    2005-10-12

    This paper focus on the necessary requirements for a modern astroparticle physics detector based either on stratospheric balloons, either on satellite. The main technical solutions used to build a reliable detector are described. Finally, the most relevant experiments that have been developed with the INFN contribution and that will be ready in the near future (both for {gamma} and charged cosmic rays detection) are described.

  12. PREFACE: 16th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The sixteenth Russian Conference on Physics and Astronomy PhysicA.SPb was held 23-24 October 2013 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint-Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from mid-90s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2013 has brought together about 200 students, young scientists and their colleague professors from many universities and research institutes across whole Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Switzerland, Turkey, Finland and France. Oral and poster presentations were combined into a few well-defined sections among which one should name Astronomy and Astrophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, Physics of quantum-sized structures, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Biophysics, THz and UHF materials and devices, Optoelectronic devices, Optics and spectroscopy, Atomic and elementary particles physics, Defects and impurities in solid state, Physics and technology of the alternative energetics. This issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2013 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards. The Editors: Nikita S. Averkiev, Sergey A. Poniaev and Grigorii S. Sokolovskii

  13. PREFACE: 17th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkiev, Nikita S.; Poniaev, Sergey A.; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S.

    2015-12-01

    The seventeenth Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb) was held from 28-30 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from the mid-1990s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both the scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2014 has brought together more than 200 students, young scientists and their professor colleagues from many universities and research institutes across the whole of Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. Oral and poster presentations were combined into the well-defined sections of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Optics and spectroscopy, Physics of ferroics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Mathematical physics and numerical methods, Biophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, and Physics of quantum structures. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2014 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards.

  14. PREFACE: 15th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskii, Grigorii; Averkiev, Nikita

    2013-08-01

    The fifteenth Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy PhysicA.SPb was held 23-24 October 2012 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint-Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from the mid-90s. The main feature of PhysicA.SPb since then, remains the combination of both scientific and educational quality of the contributions delivered to the young audience. This feature makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one conference. PhysicA.SPb 2012 has brought together more than 150 students, young scientists and their professors from many universities and research institutes across Russia, as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, France and the United Kingdom. Oral and poster presentations were combined into a few well-defined sections among which one should name Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics of semiconductors, Physics of solid state, Physics and technology of the alternative energetics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, THz and UHF materials and devices, and Physics of the quantum-sized structures. This issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb 2012 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards. Grigorii S. Sokolovskii and Nikita S. Averkiev Editors

  15. Women in Physics in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.; Gueye, Paul; Mack, Kelly M.; Ivie, Rachel; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Santos, Lea F.; Martínez-Miranda, Luz J.; Bienenstock, Arthur; Blickenstaff, Jacob Clark; Horton, K. Renee; MacLachlan, Anne J.; Berrah, Nora; Hartline, Beverly K.

    2009-04-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics and related fields in the US remains significant despite an increase in doctoral degrees earned over the past 10 years. An even greater disparity is seen among minority women. Increasing recognition of the contributions of women to discovery and education in physics and related fields has led to government initiatives and other programs to promote broader inclusion, balance, and gender equity. These actions for advocating women in physics in the US since the first IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2002 are presented.

  16. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  17. Amélioration du modèle de Preisach. Application aux matériaux magnétiques doux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J. J.; Tenant, P.; Zegadi, L.

    1997-08-01

    Magnetic material modeling creates problems particulary when fast, easy to use and accurate models are needed. In this article an investigation of the Preisach model is presented. This model is not really suitable for soft magnetic material with flat loops. A new approach which gives rise to an important improvement of the Preisach model is described. The main properties of the Preisach model are retained. La modélisation des matériaux magnétiques pose de nombreux problèmes, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'allier simplicité, rapidité d'exécution et précision. Dans cet article, nous proposons une étude sur le générateur de cycles d'hystérésis de Preisach. Ce modèle s'avère mal adapté aux matériaux magnétiques à cycles d'hystérésis couchés. Nous suggérons une nouvelle approche qui permet d'accroître considérablement la précision du modèle de Preisach tout en conservant ses principales qualités.

  18. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  19. Physics and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Helen

    2016-03-01

    I make a distinction between science outreach work and science education work, and my stress in this talk will be on the latter, though I have done both. Using my own career in physics and education as an example, as well as some examples of the contributions of other physicists, I will discuss the variety of ways in which scientists can contribute to science education at the pre-college level. I will argue for the need for more scientists to undertake this work as a serious professional commitment. In order to do so effectively a scientist must take the time to learn about science education and research on learning, and about how the education systems and policies that one is trying to impact function and are controlled. While working with individual teachers and/or their students provides a valuable service to those individuals, working at the State and National policy level, or with those developing curriculum materials, professional development for teachers and assessment strategies aligned to the broadly adopted Next Generation Science Standards can have much broader impacts. These standards have been adopted by over 14 states and have strongly influenced the science standards of a number of others. I will talk about my role in developing the vision of ``three-dimensional'' science education embodied in those standards, explain the fundamental components of that vision, and discuss the work that still needs to be done to realize that vision over the coming years.

  20. Physical Education Teacher Education: Creating a Foundation to Increase the Status of Physical Education in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Karen Pagnano

    2011-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs have contributed to the marginalization of physical education in three significant ways. First, the nature of content knowledge is contested. Is content knowledge disciplinary knowledge, or is movement the content knowledge of our field? Second, PETE has failed to produce a critical mass of K-12…

  1. Nonaccelerator physics working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.; Beier, E.W.; Cherry, M.L.; Marciano, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Nonaccelerator Physics Working Group set itself the task of predicting the contributions of nonaccelerator experiments to particle physics during the 1990s, in order to assess the needs for new experimental facilities. The main topics studied by the subgroups were: (1) the possibility of doing particle physics experiments with high energy cosmic rays from astrophysical sources; (2) the prospects for experiments which seek to measure the masses of neutrinos and the mixing of neutrino flavors; (3) an examination of the implications for proton decay of recent theoretical developments in grand unified and string theories. Other topics included a survey of magnetic monopole searches, an assessment of future prospects for double-beta-decay and nucleon-decay experiments, and a review of recent progress on neutrino and dark-matter detectors based on quasiparticles in superconductors and phonons in crystals.

  2. Woman in Physics in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Conradi, Marjetka; Remskar, Maja

    2009-04-01

    Slovenian female physicists are organized in an informal network that incorporates more than 100 women working in research, academia, government, and industry. In the past three years we have accomplished several actions in order to motivate young girls and students to pursue physics. Our main achievement was publishing the monograph Physics—My Education in September 2007. The book includes 79 autobiographic contributions of female physicists presenting their life and work in different areas: science (institutes and universities), teaching, industry, and government. We have also organized an exhibition about Slovene women in physics, presenting the very first female physicists and all the next generations. A very popular item among women and men was also a T-shirt with our logo. By selling the books and T-shirts we have collected money for scholarships for female students of physics. The first four scholarships were awarded on March 8, 2008, in the spirit of the International Women's Day.

  3. Neutrino Physics at DPF 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2013-10-25

    The field of neutrino physics was covered at DPF 2013 in 32 talks, including three on theoretical advances and the remainder on experiments that spanned at least 17 different detectors. This summary of those talks cannot do justice to the wealth of information presented, but will provide links to other material where possible. There were allso two plenary session contributions on neutrino physics at this meeting: the current status of what we know about neutrino (oscillation) physics was outlined by Huber, and the next steps in long baseline oscillation expeirments were described by Fleming. This article covers a subset of the topics discussed at the meeting, with emphasis given to those talks that showed data or new results.

  4. Constructing cardiovascular fitness knowledge in physical education.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (N = 616) from 15 randomly sampled urban elementary schools completed 34 cognitive assignments related to the cardiorespiratory physical activities they were engaged in across 10 lessons. Performance on the assignments were analyzed in relation to their knowledge gain measured using a standardized knowledge test. A multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that the cognitive assignments contributed to knowledge gain but the contribution varied assignment by assignment. A multiple regression analysis indicated that students' assignment performance by lesson contributed positively to their knowledge growth scores. A content analysis based on the constructivist learning framework showed that observing-reasoning assignments contributed the most to knowledge growth. Analytical and analytical-application assignments contributed less than the constructivist theories would predict.

  5. Physical Education and the ABCs: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grube, Dan; Beaudet, Bob

    2005-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to teaching physical education can contribute in many ways to the mission of the school. It can draw interest in physical education from administrators, parents, and community members, and can help legitimize the position of the physical educator on the faculty by showing colleagues in the classroom that physical…

  6. Gender and Physics: Feminist Philosophy and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolin, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Physics education reform movements should pay attention to feminist analyses of gender in the culture of physics for two reasons. One reason is that feminist analyses contribute to an understanding of a "chilly climate" women encounter in many physics university departments. Another reason is that feminist analyses reveal that certain styles of…

  7. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  8. Physics and Development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingu, Edmund

    2003-03-01

    Scientific research is an essential investment in the welfare of a country. Some developing countries have made important contributions to the development of science and technology, and have enjoyed the economic benefits of their investments in science and technology. Several developing countries have been treating science as a marginal activity. Most developing countries are aware of the importance of science and technology, but inadequate infrastructure and resources create strong barriers to their path of advancement. Notable achievements in physics have played a major role in the development of technologies which currently drive the economy of the world e.g. electronics, lasers, internet, molecular biology and nuclear power. The significant role that physics continues to play in the technological development clearly demonstrates the crucial need to develop physics and physicists in the developing world. An analysis of the economic and technological development of the countries in Africa will be presented and the impact of development in physics in those countries will be assessed. A number of development projects in physics in Africa, both current and planned, will be analysed to identify the characteristics of successful projects. The particular value of North-South and South-South partnerships in development will be reviewed. Many of the projects that have relied on partnerships and development-aid funding have failed to yield substantial results because of the failure to link technology transfer to skills development. Practicing physics is costly, especially when one considers multi-billion dollar projects in physics that have been initiated, and sometimes abandoned, around the world. While developing countries have an obligation to release some of their limited resources for development, well-resourced countries have a global and moral responsibility to participate in the development of physics in the developing world.

  9. Contributions from the CYGNUS/Milagro Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.E.; Chang, C.Y.; Chen, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of eleven reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the CYGNUS/Milagro Collaboration: ``Search for Ultra-High-Energy Radiation from Gamma-Ray Bursts``, ``Gamma-Ray Bursts: Detection and Distance Estimates with Milagro``, ``Searching for Gamma-Ray Bursts with Water-Cerenkov-Detector Single-Particle Rates``, ``The Milagro Detector``, ``The Milagro Data Acquisition System``, ``Source Searches Using the CYGNUS Water-Cerenkov Array``, ``Search for UHE Emission from Supernova Remnants``, ``Solar Physics with the Milagro Telescope``, ``An Experiment to Detect Correlations Between Cerenkov and Muon Lateral Distributions in EAS``, ``A Study of Large-Zenith-Angle Air Showers with the CYGNUS Experiment``, and ``Mass Resolution of Ground Based Air Shower Experiments in the 10 to 10000 TeV range.``

  10. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  11. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  12. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... practice, however, the Agency will soon require a notarized signature for all withdrawal requests...' TSP accounts from fraudulent withdrawals. One commenter requested affirmation that contribution... withdrawal penalty tax). (2) A participant who requests a refund will receive the amount of any...

  13. Vietnamese women love physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Kim Tran; Vu, Thi Bich; Nguyen, Ngoc Toan; Do, Tran Cat; Vo, Thach Son

    2013-03-01

    More and more females are studying physics and applying their physics knowledge in Vietnam. Women are well represented in physics in Vietnam, occupy high positions in the field, and win many national and international science awards. Overwhelmingly, women in physics in Vietnam have happy families with children who love physics.

  14. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use.

  15. Physics News in 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F., Ed.

    Information is provided on some of the interesting and newsworthy developments in physics and its related fields during 1983. Areas considered include: (1) acoustics; (2) astrophysics; (3) condensed matter physics; (4) crystallography; (5) physics education; (6) electron and atomic physics; (7) elementary particle physics; (8) fluid dynamics; (9)…

  16. Some Physics Not in the Physical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varney, Robert N.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how physics was done at the University of California at Berkeley in the 1930s, focusing on the faculty and their accomplishments, physics experiments, physics instruments/equipment (cyclotron and rhumbatron), and research problems and their solutions. Includes reminiscences about lectures on thermodynamics presented by Otto Stern during…

  17. Physical Development: Taking Time for Physical Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses children's physical development through physical play. Here, the author gives ways to incorporate opportunities for physical play. For infants, time for play may have to revolve around nap schedules. This may mean allowing for different wake-sleep cycles for different infants. Teachers can divide the infants into groups so…

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Complete Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Simon

    2000-03-01

    This book contains all the essential concepts for GCSE (or equivalent) physics courses or for general science courses at Key Stage 4. It claims to be ideal for use as a bridging resource for those intending to take physics beyond GCSE: it is no surprise, then, that the book is written at a level above that of the average Key Stage 4 student. It includes material not included in many GCSE syllabuses; this is clearly identified in the contents pages. It would be a useful resource for more able students at GCSE or for beginning A-level students. The layout of the book is attractive. It is well illustrated and colourful. Some of the illustrations are striking: each of the 12 main sections of the book begins with a title page that includes some unusual photographs illustrating physical ideas. Section 2, Forces and Motion, has a photograph of a bungee jumper leaping from the Sky Tower in New Zealand, taken at night looking along the length of the tower from its foot. Section 9, Magnets and Currents, has a computer-generated picture of the magnetic field in a fusion generator. These pictures, as well as contributing to the attractiveness of the book, could be used to initiate discussions of some of the physics. However, there are pictures that serve little useful purpose: a photograph of a recording station for seismic waves looks like any other building lit up at night. A photograph of a rock band in the middle of a section on sound carries no explanatory caption at all and is purely decorative. Other illustrations - in a variety of styles - do illustrate some physical ideas very well: the diagrams of motors and generators, for instance, are far clearer than my efforts on the blackboard! The book is divided into 14 sections with titles reflecting the traditional divisions of physics syllabuses, together with a beginning section on measurement and units and two final sections, `History of Key Ideas' and `Experimental Physics'. The first section, `Measurement and Units

  19. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  20. How can laboratory plasma experiments contribute to space and &astrophysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.

    Plasma physics plays key role in a wide range of phenomena in the universe, from laboratory plasmas to the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and to the tenuous interstellar and intergalactic gas. Despite the huge difference in physical scales, there are striking similarities in plasma behavior of laboratory and space plasmas. Similar plasma physics problems have been investigated independently by both laboratory plasma physicists and astrophysicists. Since 1991, cross fertilization has been increased among laboratory plasma physicists and space physicists through meeting such as IPELS [Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and Space] meeting. The advances in laboratory plasma physics, along with the recent surge of astronomical data from satellites, make this moment ripe for research collaboration to further advance plasma physics and to obtain new understanding of key space and astrophysical phenomena. The recent NRC review of astronomy and astrophysics notes the benefit that can accrue from stronger connection to plasma physics. The present talk discusses how laboratory plasma studies can contribute to the fundamental understandings of the space and astrophysical phenomena by covering common key physics topics such as magnetic reconnection, dynamos, angular momentum transport, ion heating, and magnetic self-organization. In particular, it has recently been recognized that "physics -issue- dedicated" laboratory experiments can contribute significantly to the understanding of the fundamental physics for space-astrophysical phenomena since they can create fundamental physics processes in controlled manner and provide well-correlated plasma parameters at multiple plasma locations simultaneously. Such dedicated experiments not only can bring about better understanding of the fundamental physics processes but also can lead to findings of new physics principles as well as new ideas for fusion plasma confinement. Several dedicated experiments have

  1. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  2. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  3. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  4. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  5. The contribution of Giordano Bruno to the principle of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro; Santo, Catarina Espirito

    2015-11-01

    The trial and condemnation of Giordano Bruno was mainly based on arguments of a philosophical and theological nature, and therefore different from Galileo Galilei's trial. Such elements contribute to unfairly devalue the scientific contribution of Bruno and do not properly account for his contribution to physics. This paper discusses the contribution that Bruno made to the principle of relativity. This was first discussed by Galileo Galilei in 1632 using the metaphor known today as 'Galileo's ship', but we shall show that this same metaphor and some of the examples in Galileo's book were already contained in a dialogue published by Bruno in 1584. In fact, Bruno largely anticipated the arguments of Galilei on the relativity principle, in particular to support the Copernican view. It is likely that Galilei was aware of Bruno's work, and it is possible that the young Galilei discussed it with Bruno, since they both stayed in Venice for long periods in 1592.

  6. Sakurai Prize: The Future of Higgs Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Sally

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson relied critically on precision calculations. The quantum contributions from the Higgs boson to the W and top quark masses suggested long before the Higgs discovery that a Standard Model Higgs boson should have a mass in the 100-200 GeV range. The experimental extraction of Higgs properties requires normalization to the predicted Higgs production and decay rates, for which higher order corrections are also essential. As Higgs physics becomes a mature subject, more and more precise calculations will be required. If there is new physics at high scales, it will contribute to the predictions and precision Higgs physics will be a window to beyond the Standard Model physics.

  7. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  8. Feminist Contributions to Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1991-01-01

    The feminist movement has influenced counseling psychology in the following areas: (1) policy and leadership; (2) theory and research; (3) training and practice; and (4) recognition of feminist scholarship and contributions by women. Tracing these areas of impact reveals feminism as a major force in developing inquiry and practice. (SLD)

  9. Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

    This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

  10. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  11. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development.

  12. EDITORIAL: Teaching physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    1998-11-01

    King's School, Canterbury, UK I'm working on the Physics joke book. So far I have only one joke.... Ah, sorry. That was the last thing I wrote for this section. It's easy to get confused. Now, let us be clear about one thing for a start. This is not some less than subtle bid to take over the Editorship of this journal (proof by induction: you write editorials, therefore you are the editor). Fear not, readers, there is no revolt in the ranks! Fans of Ken Dobson will be glad to know that he will return to this space soon. My presence on successive occasions is just an unfortunate coincidence of timing. This issue is one of our regular special features where we take a topic and dedicate the journal to its exploration. Colleagues reading this in universities or colleges of higher education will forgive (I hope) the bias of this edition to `From the Classroom'. We intend this issue to launch a column that will be regular, but not necessarily in every issue, in which ideas taken from the classroom experience of our readers are presented. With that in mind, we openly invite contributions for this column. The sort of thing we are looking for is that tip, experiment, way of explaining an idea or nice example of a principle, which may not be of your own invention but may well be new to inexperienced teachers or new recruits to the profession. It is not just limited to those at the chalk face. We will welcome contributions from Heads of Department and Heads of Science who may well have valuable advice and hints to pass on to people taking on departmental responsibilities. There are myriad problems associated with departmental budgets, examinations, management of resources and people etc that the newly promoted have to face from day one. We can all learn from the experience of others. The contributions need not be long; they can be in the form of a paper or a letter or a brief remark. The important thing is that, just because you have known about a trick of the trade for as

  13. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  14. The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J.

    2003-11-01

    Based on lectures given in honor of Stephen Hawking's 60th birthday, this book comprises contributions from the world's leading theoretical physicists. Popular lectures progress to a critical evaluation of more advanced subjects in modern cosmology and theoretical physics. Topics covered include the origin of the universe, warped spacetime, cosmological singularities, quantum gravity, black holes, string theory, quantum cosmology and inflation. The volume provides a fascinating overview of the variety of subjects to which Stephen Hawking has contributed.

  15. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  16. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  17. A Group Contribution Method for Estimating Cetane and Octane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, William Louis

    2016-07-28

    Much of the research on advanced biofuels is devoted to the study of novel chemical pathways for converting nonfood biomass into liquid fuels that can be blended with existing transportation fuels. Many compounds under consideration are not found in the existing fuel supplies. Often, the physical properties needed to assess the viability of a potential biofuel are not available. The only reliable information available may be the molecular structure. Group contribution methods for estimating physical properties from molecular structure have been used for more than 60 years. The most common application is estimation of thermodynamic properties. More recently, group contribution methods have been developed for estimating rate dependent properties including cetane and octane numbers. Often, published group contribution methods are limited in terms of types of function groups and range of applicability. In this study, a new, broadly-applicable group contribution method based on an artificial neural network was developed to estimate cetane number research octane number, and motor octane numbers of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The new method is more accurate over a greater range molecular weights and structural complexity than existing group contribution methods for estimating cetane and octane numbers.

  18. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits.

  19. Physics For All -- yes, it's real physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2012-02-01

    Can ``all'' students learn ``real'' physics? We want to provide instruction to a wider segment of the population including those students who will not go into STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) careers. We also want to maintain the integrity of physics, challenge all students, and not compromise the rigor of our courses. Accomplishing this requires a research guided approach to instruction, curriculum and assessment. Physics First and Physics for All have become a success story for thousands of students in urban, suburban, and rural districts. At the same time, the International Physics Olympiad and other competitions have raised the expectation of what the most motivated students can achieve. Many physics educators are exploring ways to set higher goals for our most gifted students while also providing physics instruction to students previously excluded from our physics classes. Many of the same issues that K-12 educators are struggling with are equally important to the college community as colleges try to educate both future physicists and an educated citizenry. Great novels and symphonies are accessible to people of different backgrounds and levels of expertise. We should develop strategies that enable us to share an understanding of physics with all students because everyone deserves an opportunity to reflect on the wondrous workings of our universe.

  20. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  1. The Physics Plus Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Physics Plus Project is producing a series of pamphlets designed to supplement existing curricula with physics application topics (such as physics of sports, motor cars, weather, medical physics, energy). Discusses rationale for the projects, pamphlet production, distribution to schools, and use of pamphlet material on examinations. (JM)

  2. Physics and theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkinghorne, John

    2014-01-01

    The role of theology in relation to science is not to try to tell physics how to answer its own proper questions. We have every reason to believe that physics questions will eventually receive physics answers. However there are meaningful and necessary questions which arise from considering the results of physics but which exceed its selflimited power to address.

  3. Doll's House Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  4. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit a contribution election to his...

  5. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  6. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    Organic semiconductors are of steadily growing interest as active components in electronics and optoelectronics. Due to their flexibility, low cost and ease-of-production they represent a valid alternative to conventional inorganic semiconductor technology in a number of applications, such as flat panel displays and illumination, plastic integrated circuits or solar energy conversion. Although first commercial applications of this technology are being realized nowadays, there is still the need for a deeper scientific understanding in order to achieve optimum device performance.This special issue of physica status solidi (a) tries to give an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 17 international research groups cover various aspects of this field ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in different devices like organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.Putting together such a special issue one soon realizes that it is simply impossible to fully cover the whole area of organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, we hope that the reader will find the collection of topics in this issue useful for getting an up-to-date review of a field which is still developing very dynamically.

  7. Growth hormone and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Birzniece, Vita; Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-05-01

    There has been limited research and evidence that GH enhances physical performance in healthy adults or in trained athletes. Even so, human growth hormone (GH) is widely abused by athletes. In healthy adults, GH increases lean body mass, although it is possible that fluid retention contributes to this effect. The most recent data indicate that GH does not enhance muscle strength, power, or aerobic exercise capacity, but improves anaerobic exercise capacity. In fact, there are adverse effects of long-term GH excess such that sustained abuse of GH can lead to a state mimicking acromegaly, a condition with increased morbidity and mortality. This review will examine GH effects on body composition and physical performance in health and disease.

  8. Physics at COSY-Juelich

    SciTech Connect

    Stroeher, Hans

    2011-10-21

    COSY, a storage and cooler synchrotron, which is fed by an injector cyclotron, is operated at Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). It provides phase space cooled polarized or unpolarized beams of protons and deuterons with momenta between 0.3 and 3.7 GeV/c for internal experiments and to external target stations. The major experimental facilities, used for the ongoing physics program, are ANKE and WASA (internal) and TOF (external). A new internal target station to investigate polarization build-up by spin-filtering (PAX) has recently been commissioned. COSY is the machine for hadron spin physics on a world-wide scale, which is also used for tests in conjunction with plans to build a dedicated storage ring for electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements of proton, deuteron and {sup 3}He. In this contribution recent results as well as future plans are summarized.

  9. Pulsars and high density physics.

    PubMed

    Hewish, A

    1975-06-13

    In outlining the physics of neutron stars, and my good fortune in stumbling upon them, I hope that I have given some idea of the interest and rewards of extending physics beyond the confines of laboratories. These are good times in which to be an astrophysicist. I am also deeply aware of my debt to all my colleagues in the Cavendish Laboratory. Firstly to Sir Martin Ryle for his unique flair in creating so congenial and stimulating a team in which to work. Secondly to Jocelyn Bell for the care, diligence, and persistence that led to our discovery so early in the scintillation program, and finally to my friends who contributed so generously in many aspects of the work.

  10. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  11. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition. Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition. The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed.

  12. Belle Physics at Wayne State

    SciTech Connect

    Cinabro, David

    2016-01-01

    The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64-channel PIN diode-based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.

  13. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  14. Training College Physics and Physical Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, R. B.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes survey data about the need and appropriate character of graduate degree programs designed to prepare two-year and four-year college physics and physical science teachers. Indicates that future employment favors two-year college teachers with a master's degree in the region west of the Mississippi River. (CC)

  15. General Physics, Physics 12 [Science Curriculum Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    The Physics 12 curriculum guide represents one in a series of science guides especially designed to provide for the pupil whose primary interests are in non-science fields. The program provides study in physics in which fundamental concepts and understandings are developed, mathematical concepts are limited, and students are encouraged to relate…

  16. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  17. Methanotrophs Contribute to Peatland Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) fixation is potentially an important N input mechanism to peatland ecosystems, but the extent of this process may have been underestimated because of the methods traditionally used inhibit the activity of methanothrophs. We examined the linkage of methane (CH4) oxidation and N2 fixation using 15N2 technique. Dominant flark and hummock Sphagnum species were collected from twelve pristine peatlands in Siikajoki, Finland, which varied in age from 200 to 2,500 y due to the postglacial rebound. The mosses were incubated in a two-day field 15N2 and 13CH4 pulse labelling experiment and the incorporation of 15N2 and 13CH4 in biomass was measured with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The rates of Sphagnum-associated N2 fixation (0.1-2.9 g N m-2 y-1) were up to 10 times the current N deposition rates. Methane-induced N2 fixation contributed to over 1/3 of moss-associated N2 fixation in younger stages, but was switched off in old successional stages, despite active CH4 oxidation in these stages. Both the N2 fixation rates and the methanotrophic contribution to N2 fixation during peatland succession were primarily constrained by phosphorus availability. Previously overlooked methanotrophic N contribution may explain rapid peat and N accumulation during fen stages of peatland development. Reference. Larmola T., Leppänen S.M., Tuittila E.-S, Aarva M., Merilä P., Fritze H., Tiirola M. (2014) Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111 (2): 734-739.

  18. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  19. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  20. Interagency Training for Comprehensive Operations: Government Partners Perceptions of Exercise Maple Guardian (La Formation Interorganismes aux fins d’Operations Globales: Perceptions des Partenaires Gouvernementaux de l’Exercise Maple Guardian)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    afghans durant l’exercice et quant à la valeur perçue de la formation pour se préparer à collaborer avec les membres de la population afghane durant le...contemporaines a poussé le gouvernement du Canada à adopter progressivement une approche globale face aux opérations, fondée en partie sur une intervention...supporting the creation and sustainment of good governance, are also critical to addressing the scope and depth of the needs of the people of such states

  1. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  2. Thermal and compositional contributions to mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Forte, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    We have integrated seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics constraints to obtain models of mantle heterogeneity. The seismic constraints primarily consist of teleseismic shear body wave travel times and the geodynamic constraints include the global free-air gravity field, tectonic plate divergences, dynamic surface topography and the excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. The geodynamic observations are interpreted with viscous flow response kernels and velocity-to-density scaling relationships for thermally-varying mantle material. Considering the viscosity model from Mitrovica & Forte (2004) and an optimal thermal density-velocity scaling relationship, we have found a single velocity/density model capable of satisfying the combined dataset to high degrees. The implication is that thermal variations dominate and compositional contributions are secondary throughout most of the non-cratonic mantle (Simmons et al. 2007). This modeling approach inherently minimizes potential non-thermal contributions to the density field and thus establishes a minimal estimate of the influence of composition needed to reconcile the observations. This is due to the fact that we use optimal viscosity and density-velocity scaling relationships to model the data with the initial assumption that all heterogeneity is generated by thermal variations. Therefore, we test other possibilities including simplified viscosity profiles and alternative thermal density-velocity relationships in order to evaluate how these input parameters increase the level of compositional influence required to satisfy the combined dataset. We also demonstrate the potential downfall of scaling a purely seismically-derived shear velocity model to obtain density heterogeneity in the mantle. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. UCRL-ABS-233968

  3. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  4. The Viennese contribution to venereology.

    PubMed Central

    Wauch, M

    1977-01-01

    A history of venereology in Vienna from the first manifestations of the French disease in 1498 until the first half of the twentieth century is described. Notable events were the founding of the old Vienna School by van Swieten in the years after 1745, followed by the revival one hundred years later by von Hebra of the scientific basis for dermatovenereology. An account is given of teachers and discoverers of venereological importance after von Hebra and Sigmund to Arzt. The importance of Landsteiner's and Wagner von Jauregg's contributions finalise the historical account. PMID:336146

  5. RE(AuAl2)nAl2(AuxSi1-x)2: a new homologous series of quaternary intermetallics grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2008-03-17

    The combination of early rare earth metals (La- to Gd and Yb), gold, and silicon in molten aluminum results in the formation of intermetallic compounds with four related structures, forming a new homologous series: RE[AuAl2]nAl2(AuxSi(1-x))2, with x approximately 0.5 for most of the compound and n = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Because of the highly reducing nature of the Al flux, rare earth oxides instead of metals can also be used in these reactions. These compounds grow as large plate-like crystals and have tetragonal structure types that can be viewed as intergrowths of the BaAl4 structure and antifluorite-type AuAl2 layers. REAuAl2Si materials form with the BaAl4 structure type in space group I4/mmm (cell parameters for the La analogue are a = 4.322(2) A, c = 10.750(4) A, and Z = 2). REAu2Al4Si forms in a new ordered superstructure of the KCu4S3 structure type, with space group P4/nmm and cell parameters of the La analogue of a = 6.0973(6) A, c = 8.206(1) A, and Z = 2. REAu3Al6Si forms in a new I4/mmm symmetry structure type with cell parameters of a = 4.2733(7) A, c = 22.582(5) A, and Z = 2 for RE = Eu. The end member of the series, REAu4Al8Si, forms in space group P4/mmm with cell parameters for the Yb analogue of a = 4.2294(4) A, c = 14.422(2) A, and Z = 1. New intergrowth structures containing two different kinds of AuAl2 layers were also observed. The magnetic behavior of all these compounds is derived from the RE ions. Comparison of the susceptibility data for the europium compounds indicates a switch from 3-D magnetic interactions to 2-D interactions as the size of the AuAl2 layer increases. The Yb ions in YbAu(2.91)Al(6)Si(1.09) and YbAu(3.86)Al(8)Si(1.14) are divalent at high temperatures.

  6. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... political dinner or reception. (7) Contributions received from a joint fundraising activity conducted in... the joint fundraising agreement when they are submitted for matching. (8) Contributions by credit...

  7. Testimony on Physical Fitness for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Collected here are fourteen statements on the beneficial effects of physical fitness programs for older persons presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, U.S. Senate. Areas discussed include: What research tells us regarding the contribution of exercise to the health of older people;…

  8. Effective Teaching in Physical Education: Slovenian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pišot, Rado; Plevnik, Matej; Štemberger, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Regular quality physical education (PE) contributes to the harmonized biopsychosocial development of a young person--to relaxation, neutralization of negative effects of sedentary hours, and other unhealthy habits/behaviors. The evaluation approach to PE effectiveness provides important information to PE teachers and also to students. However,…

  9. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…

  10. Negotiating the Boundaries between Mathematics and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtka, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines physics and mathematics textbooks published in France at the end of the 1950s and at the beginning of the 1960s for children aged 11-15 years old. It argues that at this "middle school" level, textbooks contributed to shape cultural representations of both disciplines and their mutual boundaries through their contents…

  11. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in…

  12. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  13. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  14. Contribution from pressure-sensitive adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gilbert

    1996-03-01

    The successful use of many security papers, foils and films depends on the technology of chemical fastening systems -- especially pressure sensitive adhesives. These are adhesives activated not by heat or by the evaporation of water or some other solvent, but simply by the act of application -- by pressure. These adhesives provide the means whereby laminations, substrates and seals are made effective. In addition to their physical properties these adhesives are often required to possess optical properties to allow the security materials to be visibly active and indeed the adhesive system may itself contribute as a carrier for a variety of security materials. Recent advances in adhesives chemistry have made it possible to achieve virtually all the required physical performance characteristics combined with a choice of optical properties ranging from total opacity to invisibility and including controlled translucency and tinting. The implications for security printing and packaging are important. Opacity is easy to achieve, for example by loading the adhesive with aluminum powder, by the selection of totally opaque materials like metallized film or by various printing processes. But achieving transparency is a different matter, and transparency is mandatory for applications involving the protection of documents, photographs, etc. with a clear film over-laminate. Obvious examples would be for passports, visas and other personal identification. But some security devices may themselves require protection; for example holograms or embossings. And transparency in the test laboratory is not enough. The Australian driving licence is stuck to the windshield, so the transparency of the adhesive must be sustained over long periods without deterioration due to prolonged u/v exposure, climatic conditions or aging. The commercial label market has helped to push the technology forward. There is a strong demand for the 'no-label look' for packaging of clear plastic and glass

  15. HIPPOCAMPAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROCESSING OF SOCIAL EMOTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Singh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Inducing and experiencing emotions about others’ mental and physical circumstances is thought to involve self-relevant processing and personal memories of similar experiences. The hippocampus is important for self-referential processing during recall and prospection; however, its contributions during social emotions have not been systematically investigated. We use event-related averaging and Granger causal connectivity mapping to investigate hippocampal contributions during the processing of varieties of admiration and compassion pertaining to protagonists’ mental versus physical circumstances (admiration for virtue, AV, versus for skill; compassion for social/psychological pain, CSP, versus for physical pain). Data were collected using a multistep emotion induction paradigm that included psychosocial interviews, BOLD fMRI and simultaneous psychophysiological recording. Given that mnemonic demands were equivalent among conditions, we tested whether: (1) the hippocampi would be recruited more strongly and for a longer duration during the processing of AV and CSP; (2) connectivity between the hippocampi and cortical systems involved in visceral somatosensation/emotional feeling, social cognitive, and self-related processing would be more extensive during AV and CSP. Results elucidate the hippocampus’ facilitative role in inducing and sustaining appropriate emotional reactions, the importance of self-related processing during social emotions, and corroborate the conception that varieties of emotional processing pertaining to others’ mental and physical situations engage at least partially distinct neural mechanisms. PMID:22012639

  16. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlmann, Marcus

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 GeV for a Z

  17. The Role of Nuclear Physics in Understanding the Cosmos and the Origin of Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-05-06

    This popular lecture, given in the conference celebrating contributions of Akito Arima to physics on the occasion of his 80th anniversary, outlines the role of nuclear physics in understanding the origin of elements.

  18. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been accelerated by nuclear physics in the areas of improving our health; making the world safer; electricity, environment, archaeology; better computers; contributions to industry; and training the next generation of innovators.

  19. Body-Reflexive Pleasures: Exploring Bodily Experiences within the Context of Sport and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of sport and physical activity in achieving wellbeing has received much attention in relation to children and adults, although consideration of the physical aspects of bodily pleasure have tended to be ignored in favour of developing health related measures. In physical education, the physical body has been further "disembodied"…

  20. Contribution of rock fragments to soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Besnault, Adeline; Tétégan, Marion; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Research in plant-soil interactions has focused on the role played by the finest particles, but much less attention has been devoted to quantify the contribution of rock fragments. While the coarse soil fraction is known to affect soil physical properties, such as bulk density, porosity, water infiltration and storage, its contribution to the biogeochemical cycle is neglected. In particular in plant nutrition studies, only the fine fraction (< 2 mm) of soils is sampled and analysed while the coarse fraction (> 2 mm) is considered chemically inert. However, several recent studies have showed that rock fragments contribute significantly to nutrient content and the cation exchange capacity of soils. Considering that stony soils cover about 30% of the surface soils of Western Europe, and 60% in the Mediterranean area, new data on the potential contribution of rock fragments to soil fertility may give new insights that will re-evaluate their role in models on biogeochemical cycling. We attempt to study nutrient availability differents types of rock fragments, and started with five types of pebbles: oolitic limestone, marly limestone, lithographic limestone, chert, and flint. Pebbles were collected in topsoils, brushed thoroughly, and dried before chemical analyses. Exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K) were extracted after immersion of whole pebbles in an ammonium acetate solution (1M) under agitation for 48h. We had previously established the kinetic of extraction over 6 days (after 1, 3.5, 7, 24, 48, 72 and 144 h) and showed that a plateau was reached at 48h, and with a good repeatability. The pattern of release differed among the three studied exchangeable cations, and among pebbles of different origin. The capacity of pebbles to release exchangeable calcium and magnesium was in the following decreasing order: lithographic limestone = marly limestone > oolitic limestone >> chert > flint. As expected, the greatest difference was found between limestones and the two