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Sample records for physics experiments methodologie

  1. Future flavour physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  2. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  3. High School Physics Teaching Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    We divided our high school physics teaching experience into three groups: first year teaching physics, second or third year teaching physics, and four or more years of experience teaching physics. We did this because everything is new for teachers teaching a course for the first time. The second and third time through the course, teachers learn from past experiences and hone their approaches. By the time a teacher is in the fourth year of teaching a course, he or she is more comfortable with the material and better able to understand the ways in which different approaches work with different topics.

  4. Planning a School Physics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, Wladyslaw

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

  5. More Homespun Experiments in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how some experiments in physics can be presented in class using cheap materials. How to produce an electrostatic charge using a polythene bottle and how to make a tissue paper electroscope using a tin can are among the experiments described. (HM)

  6. Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.

    1997-05-15

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment is proposed for experimental studies of spheromak confinement issues in a controlled way: in steady state relative to the confinement timescale and at low collisionality. Experiments in a flux - conserver will provide data on transport in the presence of resistive modes in shear-stabilized systems and establish operating regimes which pave the way for true steady-state experiments with the equilibrium field supplied by external coils. The proposal is based on analysis of past experiments, including the achievement of T{sub e} = 400 eV in a decaying spheromak in CTX. Electrostatic helicity injection from a coaxial ``gun`` into a shaped flux conserver will form and sustain the plasma for several milliseconds. The flux conserver minimizes fluxline intersection with the walls and provides MHD stability. Improvements from previous experiments include modem wall conditioning (especially boronization), a divertor for density and impurity control, and a bias magnetic flux for configurational flexibility. The bias flux will provide innovative experimental opportunities, including testing helicity drive on the large-radius plasma boundary. Diagnostics include Thomson scattering for T{sub e} measurements and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry to measure density and magnetic field profiles and turbulence. We expect to operate at T{sub e} of several hundred eV, allowing improved understanding of energy and current transport due to resistive MHD turbulence during sustained operation. This will provide an exciting advance in spheromak physics and a firm basis for future experiments in the fusion regime.

  7. Thought experiments and physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Hugh; Gilbert, John; Watts, D. Michael

    1985-09-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.20, p.124 (1985). In part I thought experiments (TES) were referred to as experiments which, although easy to conceive of are either very difficult, very expensive or even impossible to carry out. Their rule in physics was reviewed during an exposition of highly regarded examples drawn from special relativity and quantum mechanics. During this Kuhn's two necessary attributes (Kuhn 1977) of a TE were evaluated: the first, that its conduct should involve the use of concepts within previously experienced or imagined situations, was largely supported, although the possibility of inadequate application of the concepts was identified; the second, that the cognitive conflict which the TE provokes must have been anticipated in some way by the physicist, was not substantiated. As one major function of physics education is the development of future physicists, it is to be expected that TES have a substantial role in physics education. The authors explore some aspects of that role, drawing on examples from secondary school and tertiary educational practice.

  8. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  9. Tokamak Physics Experiment divertor design

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) tokamak requires a symmetric up/down double-null divertor capable of operation with steady-state heat flux as high as 7.5 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor is designed to operate in the radiative mode and employs a deep slot configuration with gas puffing lines to enhance radiative divertor operation. Pumping is provided by cryopumps that pump through eight vertical ports in the floor and ceiling of the vessel. The plasma facing surface is made of carbon-carbon composite blocks (macroblocks) bonded to multiple parallel copper tubes oriented vertically. Water flowing at 6 m/s is used, with the critical heat flux (CHF) margin improved by the use of enhanced heat transfer surfaces. In order to extend the operating period where hands on maintenance is allowed and to also reduce dismantling and disposal costs, the TPX design emphasizes the use of low activation materials. The primary materials used in the divertor are titanium, copper, and carbon-carbon composite. The low activation material selection and the planned physics operation will allow personnel access into the vacuum vessel for the first 2 years of operation. The remote handling system requires that all plasma facing components (PFCs) are configured as modular components of restricted dimensions with special provisions for lifting, alignment, mounting, attachment, and connection of cooling lines, and instrumentation and diagnostics services.

  10. Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, George L.

    The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

  11. Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

    The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing technician.…

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  13. ep Collider experiments and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, D.; Baur, U.; Bluemlein, J.

    1992-12-31

    The physics prospects for detectors at ep colliders are examined. Colliders considered include the HERA facility at DESY, LEP I {times} LHC, and LEP II {times} LHC at CERN. Physics topics studied include machine energy and polarization, as well as detector resolution, calibration, jet identification and backgrounds from beam-gas interactions. QCD topics include measurements of the quark and gluon structure functions and parton distributions, as well as the expansion of the observable cross section into angular functions. Electroweak topics include measurements of the weak mixing angle, radiative corrections, and WW{gamma} (WWZ) couplings. Topics beyond the standard model include observation of new Z`s, indirect production of Leptoquarks, pair production of sfermions and searches for R-parity-violating SUSY particle production.

  14. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  15. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  16. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

  17. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  18. A Group Experience with Physically Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Norma

    1980-01-01

    Describes a group experience program developed as an alternative to the long-term hospitalization of physically handicapped children. The program emphasizes emotional growth through participation in meetings designed to counteract dependency. (CM)

  19. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  20. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  1. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  2. Low-Cost Accelerometers for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed…

  3. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  4. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  5. Charmonium physics in the belle experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuk, R. V.; Pakhlova, G. V.; Pakhlov, P. N.; Chistov, R. N.

    2010-04-15

    At the present time, charmonium physics experiences renaissance. Among many discoveries made within the past six years, the majority do not have an unambiguous interpretation and do not comply with traditional theoretical expectations. This review article is devoted to experimental results obtained by the members of the Belle Collaboration from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) in the realms of charmonium spectroscopy and the production and decays of charmonia and charmonium-like states.

  6. Advancing Successful Physics Majors - The Physics First Year Seminar Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Jason; Petkie, Douglas

    In 2012, the Wright State University physics curriculum introduced a new year-long seminar course required for all new physics majors. The goal of this course is to improve student retention and success via building a community of physics majors and provide them with the skills, mindset, and advising necessary to successfully complete a degree and transition to the next part of their careers. This new course sequence assembles a new cohort of majors annually. To prepare each cohort, students engage in a variety of activities that span from student success skills to more specific physics content while building an entrepreneurial mindset. Students participate in activities including study skills, career night, course planning, campus services, and a department social function. More importantly, students gain exposure to programming, literature searches, data analysis, technical writing, elevator pitches, and experimental design via hands-on projects. This includes the students proposing, designing, and conducting their own experiments. Preliminary evidence indicates increased retention, student success, and an enhanced sense of community among physics undergraduate students, The overall number of majors and students eventually completing their physics degrees has nearly tripled. Associate Professor, Department of Physics.

  7. Brahms Experiment at RHIC Day-1 Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Videbaek, Flemming

    1999-03-23

    The BRAHMS experiment is designed to measure semi-inclusive spectra of charged hadron over a wide range of rapidity. It will yield information on particle production, both at central rapidity and in the baryon rich fragmentation region. The physics plans for measurements in the first year of running at RHIC are discussed.

  8. Multimedia Representation of Experiments in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirstein, Juergen; Nordmeier, Volkhard

    2007-01-01

    In most physics courses using multimedia, real experiments are represented as digital video demonstrations. These time-based media have the disadvantage that students are often in the state of passive learners. Also, traditional multimedia learning environments only allow for the selection of different digitized media, but the learning process is…

  9. Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

  10. Thermal sensitive foils in physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochníček, Zdeněk; Konečný, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and detection of resonant acoustic oscillations in a Rubens’ tube.

  11. The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2010-01-01

    One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment. In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The…

  12. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  13. Simulations and Experiments in Astronomy and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, F. P.; Maurone, P. A.; Dewarf, L. E.

    1998-12-01

    There are new approaches to teaching astronomy and physics in the laboratory setting, involving the use of computers as tools to simulate events and concepts which can be illuminated in no other reasonable way. With the computer, it is possible to travel back in time to replicate the sky as Galileo saw it. Astronomical phenomena which reveal themselves only after centuries of real time may be compressed in the computer to a simulation of several minutes. Observations simulated on the computer do not suffer from the vagaries of weather, fixed time or geographic position, or non-repeatability. In physics, the computer allows us to secure data for experiments which, by their nature, may not be amenable to human interaction. These could include experiments with very fast or very slow timescales, large number of data samples, complex or tedious manipulation of the data which hides the fundamental nature of the experiment, or data sampling which would need a specialized probe, such as for acid rain. This innovation has become possible only recently, due to the availability and affordability of sophisticated computer hardware and software. We have developed a laboratory experience for non-scientists who need an introductory course in astronomy or physics. Our approach makes extensive use of computers in this laboratory. Using commercially available software, the students use the computer as a time machine and a space craft to explore and rediscover fundamental science. The physics experiments are classical in nature, and the computer acts as a data collector and presenter, freeing the student from the tedium of repetitive data gathering and replotting. In this way, the student is encouraged to explore, to try new things, to refine the measurements, and to discover the principles underlying the observed phenomena.

  14. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  15. Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo

    2009-03-01

    The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.

  16. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans.

  17. Statistical Physics Experiments Using Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, John

    2016-10-01

    Compared to other areas of physics research, Statistical Physics is heavily dominated by theory, with comparatively little experiment. One reason for the lack of experiments is the impracticality of tracking of individual atoms and molecules within a substance. Thus, there is a need for a different kind of experimental system, one where individual particles not only move stochastically as they collide with one another, but also are large enough to allow tracking. A dusty plasma can meet this need. A dusty plasma is a partially ionized gas containing small particles of solid matter. These micron-size particles gain thousands of electronic charges by collecting more electrons than ions. Their motions are dominated by Coulomb collisions with neighboring particles. In this so-called strongly coupled plasma, the dust particles self-organize in much the same way as atoms in a liquid or solid. Unlike atoms, however, these particles are large and slow, so that they can be tracked easily by video microscopy. Advantages of dusty plasma for experimental statistical physics research include particle tracking, lack of frictional contact with solid surfaces, and avoidance of overdamped motion. Moreover, the motion of a collection of dust particles can mimic an equilibrium system with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, even though the dust particles themselves are not truly in thermal equilibrium. Nonequilibrium statistical physics can be studied by applying gradients, for example by imposing a shear flow. In this talk I will review some of our recent experiments with shear flow. First, we performed the first experimental test to verify the Fluctuation Theorem for a shear flow, showing that brief violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics occur with the predicted probabilities, for a small system. Second, we discovered a skewness of a shear-stress distribution in a shear flow. This skewness is a phenomenon that likely has wide applicability in nonequilibrium steady states

  18. Containerless experiments in fluid physics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena associated with the behavior of liquid samples freely suspended in low gravity must be thoroughly understood prior to undertaking detailed scientific studies of the materials under scrutiny. The characteristics of molten specimens under the action of containerless positioning stresses must be identified and separated from the specific phenomena relating to the absence of an overwhelming gravitational field. The strategy designed to optimize the scientific return of reliable experimental data from infrequent microgravity investigations should include the gradual and logical phasing of more sophisticated studies building on the accumulated results from previous flight experiments. Lower temperature fluid physics experiments using model materials can provide a great deal of information that can be useful in analyzing the behavior of high temperature melts. The phasing of the experimental capabilities should, therefore, also include a gradual build-up of more intricate and specialized diagnostic instrumentation and environmental control and monitoring capabilities. Basic physical investigations should also be distinguished from specific materials technology issues. The latter investigations require very specific high temperature (and high vacuum) devices that must be thoroughly mastered on the ground prior to implementing them in space.

  19. Physics prospects of the Jinping neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacom, John F.; Chen, Shaomin; Cheng, Jianping; Doustimotlagh, Sayed N.; Gao, Yuanning; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Guo, Lei; Han, Ran; He, Hong-Jian; Huang, Xingtao; Li, Jianmin; Li, Jin; Li, Mohan; Li, Xueqian; Liao, Wei; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Zuowei; McDonough, William; Šrámek, Ondřej; Tang, Jian; Wan, Linyan; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zongyi; Wei, Hanyu; Xi, Yufei; Xu, Ye; Xu, Xun-Jie; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Chunfa; Yeh, Minfang; Yue, Qian; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Zhihong; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Xianglei; Zuber, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), which has the lowest cosmic-ray muon flux and the lowest reactor neutrino flux of any laboratory, is ideal to carry out low-energy neutrino experiments. With two detectors and a total fiducial mass of 2000 tons for solar neutrino physics (equivalently, 3000 tons for geo-neutrino and supernova neutrino physics), the Jinping neutrino experiment will have the potential to identify the neutrinos from the CNO fusion cycles of the Sun, to cover the transition phase for the solar neutrino oscillation from vacuum to matter mixing, and to measure the geo-neutrino flux, including the Th/U ratio. These goals can be fulfilled with mature existing techniques. Efforts on increasing the target mass with multi-modular neutrino detectors and on developing the slow liquid scintillator will increase the Jinping discovery potential in the study of solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and dark matter. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093, 11135009, 11375065, 11505301, and 11620101004), the Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (20121088035, 20131089288, and 20151080432), the Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), U.S. National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1404311 (Beacom), and U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 (Yeh).

  20. The Physics of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, J. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start running 2008 producing proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Four large experiments will operate together with this accelerator: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The main scientific goal of this project is to understand in detail the mechanism for electro-weak symmetry breaking and to search for physics beyond the standard model of particles. ATLAS and CMS are general purpose detectors designed for search and discovery of new physics, and optimized to search for Higgs and signals of supersymmetric matter (SUSY). In this paper the main features of the CMS detector will be presented and its potential for Higgs and SUSY discoveries will be discussed.

  1. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  2. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard

  3. Physical scale experiments on torrential filter structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, Michael; Moser, Markus; Trojer, Martin; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the INTERREG Project "SedAlp" physical scale model experiments are carried out in the hydraulic laboratory of the Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering at the University of Life Sciences in Vienna in order to optimize torrent protection structures. Two different types of check dams are investigated. A screen-dam with inclined vertical beams is compared with a beam-dam with horizontal beams. The experiments evaluate the variation of sediment transport of these structures including the influence of coarse woody debris. Therefore the distance between the steel elements can be adjusted to show their ability to filter sediment. The physical scale of the experiments is 1:30. All experimental runs are Froude scaled. Both dams are tested in elongated and pear-shaped sediment retention basins in order to investigate the shape effect of the deposition area. For a systematic comparison of the two check dams experiments with fluvial bedload transport are made. First a typical hydrograph for an extreme flood with unlimited sediment supply is modelled. A typical torrential sediment mixture with a wide grain-size distribution is fed by a conveyor belt according the transport capacity of the upstream reach. Then the deposition is scanned with a laser-scan device in order to analyse the deposition pattern and the deposited volume. Afterwards a flood with a lower reoccurrence period without sediment transport from upstream is modelled to investigate the ability of the protection structure for self-emptying. To investigate the influence of driftwood on the deposition behaviour experiments with logs are made. Different log diameters and lengths are added upstream the basin. The results show, that the deposition during the experiments was not controlled by sorting-effects at the location of the dam. The deposition always started from upstream, where the transport capacity was reduced due to the milder slope and the widening of the basin. No grain sorting effects

  4. Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

    2012-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show

  5. The laboratory experience in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Maria C.

    1997-03-01

    The last two decades or so have witnessed intense efforts to improve the teaching and learning of physics. Scholarly studies have provided the grounding for many projects which reform the structure of introductory courses. A number of these innovations, however, are resource intensive, or depend on the ability to introduce changes in areas which are beyond the control of the faculty (e.g., scheduling), thus inhibiting their implementation. An alternative strategy that overcomes these obstacles is to modify the nature of the laboratory experience (a component that practically nobody disputes is an essential part of the introductory course), to provide hands-on learning opportunities that differ from the traditional "follow-this-recipe-to-verify-this-law" approach. I have chosen to implement a variety of activities that support the overall objectives of the course: developing conceptual understanding and transferable skills, and providing practice in the ways scientists actually do science. Given the audience in this two-semester, algebra-based course, mostly biology majors and pre-professionals (health-related careers, such as medicine, physical therapy, and veterinary), these goals were identified as the most important and lasting contribution that a physics course can make to the students intellectual development. I offer here examples of the types of hands on activities that I have implemented, organized for the sake of this presentation in four rather loose categories, depending on which subset of the course objectives the activities mostly address: self-designed lab activities, discussion of demo-type activities, building concepts from simple to complex, and out-of-lab physical phenomena.

  6. Soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esumi, ShinIchi

    2015-03-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN provide a unique opportunity to study the properties of the high-temperature and high-density nuclear matter called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is supposed to exist in the early universe or inside neutron stars. The PHENIX experiment is one of the major experiments at RHIC to study the properties of QGP, especially focusing on various particle identification capabilities including photons, leptons, and hadrons. This article summarizes the soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment, such as (1) global properties like transverse energy and multiplicity measurements as well as centrality determination, (2) transverse momentum distribution and the nuclear modification factor, which represents the modification of the spectra in A+A collisions relative to the binary-collision-scaled superposition of p+p data, (3) space-time properties with Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometry correlation measurement and source imaging, (4) elliptic collective expansion and higher-order harmonic event anisotropy, and (5) di-hadron correlation, jet modification, and medium response known as jet-quenching from the partonic energy loss and redistribution of the lost energy. These results are reviewed and discussed.

  7. A capstone research experience for physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David

    2013-03-01

    Dickinson College is a small liberal arts college with a thriving physics program. For years, one of the key features of our program has been a year-long senior research project that was required for each student. Unfortunately, as our number of majors increased, it became more and more difficult to supervise such a large number of senior research projects. To deal with this growing challenge, we developed a capstone research experience that involves a larger number of students working together on an independent group project. In this talk I will give a broad overview of our new senior research model and provide a few examples of projects that have been carried out over the past few years. I will also briefly describe the positive and negative aspects of this model from the perspective of faculty and students.

  8. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

  9. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, Michael; Davis, M.; Garnier, D.; Roberts, T. M.; Worstell, M.; Kesner, J.

    2013-10-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and ``space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Supported by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science.

  10. Infrasound Generation from the Source Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L. A.; Schramm, K. A.; Jones, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the acoustic and infrasound source generation mechanisms from underground explosions is of great importance for usage of this unique data type in non-proliferation activities. One of the purposes of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a series of underground explosive shots at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), is to gain an improved understanding of the generation and propagation of physical signals, such as seismic and infrasound, from the near to far field. Two of the SPE shots (SPE-1 and SPE-4') were designed to be small "Green's Function" sources with minimal spall or permanent surface deformation. We analyze infrasound data collected from these two shots at distances from ~300 m to ~1 km and frequencies up to 20 Hz. Using weather models based upon actual observations at the times of these sources, including 3-D variations in topography, temperatures, pressures, and winds, we synthesized full waveforms using Sandia's moving media acoustic propagation simulation suite. Several source mechanisms were simulated and compared and contrasted with observed waveforms using full waveform source inversion. We will discuss results of these source inversions including the relative roll of spall from these small explosions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  12. Hadron physics at the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-05-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The Compass experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new JPC = 1++ state, the a1(1420), is observed with a mass and width in the ranges m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2.

  13. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  14. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  15. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  16. The Influence of Hands On Physics Experiments on Scientific Process Skills According to Prospective Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirça, Necati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, relationship between prospective science and technology teachers' experiences in conducting Hands on physics experiments and their physics lab I achievement was investigated. Survey model was utilized and the study was carried out in the 2012 spring semester. Seven Hands on physics experiments were conducted with 28 prospective…

  17. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  18. Use of Video in the Harvard Project Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Joyce

    1974-01-01

    The advantages are related of a video recorder over a Polaroid camera for doing experiments dealing with the "conservation of mass and momentum." Use of video records is advocated for recording measurements in physics experiments. (JP)

  19. 3He: cosmological and atomic physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yuriy M

    2008-08-28

    Because the superfluid 3He order parameter exhibits many similarities with that of our Universe, the superfluid condensate may be considered as a quantum vacuum that carries various types of quasiparticles and topological defects. The condensate thus provides a test system for the experimental investigation of many general physics problems in cosmology, atomic or nuclear physics that are otherwise difficult or even impossible to investigate experimentally.

  20. Youth with Visual Impairments: Experiences in General Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara L.; Rollheiser, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of students with visual impairments currently being educated in inclusive general physical education makes it important that physical education instructors know how best to serve them. Assessment of the experiences of students with visual impairments during general physical education classes, knowledge of students'…

  1. An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

  2. Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

  3. Friendship, Physicality, and Physical Education: An Exploration of the Social and Embodied Dynamics of Girls' Physical Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Physical education represents a dynamic social space where students experience and interpret physicality in a context that accentuates peer relationships and privileges particular forms of embodiment. This article focuses on girls' understandings of physicality with respect to the organisation of physical education and more informal social…

  4. First order error corrections in common introductory physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckey, Jacob; Baker, Andrew; Aravind, Vasudeva; Clarion Team

    As a part of introductory physics courses, students perform different standard lab experiments. Almost all of these experiments are prone to errors owing to factors like friction, misalignment of equipment, air drag, etc. Usually these types of errors are ignored by students and not much thought is paid to the source of these errors. However, paying attention to these factors that give rise to errors help students make better physics models and understand physical phenomena behind experiments in more detail. In this work, we explore common causes of errors in introductory physics experiment and suggest changes that will mitigate the errors, or suggest models that take the sources of these errors into consideration. This work helps students build better and refined physical models and understand physics concepts in greater detail. We thank Clarion University undergraduate student grant for financial support involving this project.

  5. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  6. NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

  7. An Apollo compatible cloud physics experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Hollinden, A. B.; Satterblom, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the utilization of a low-gravity environment to obtain experimental information, in the area of cloud microphysics, which cannot be obtained in ground laboratories. The experiment discussed is designed to obtain quantitative answers about evaporation and breakup of salt particles from ocean spray and other sources. In addition to salt nuclei distribution mechanisms, this breakup has ecological importance in relation to the spreading of salt mists from salted highways and spreading of brine cooling tower spray from electrical power generation plants. This experiment is being submitted for consideration on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program in 1975.

  8. Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of…

  9. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  10. Learning Physics by Experiment: I. Falling Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2014-03-01

    As a rule, students enjoy conducting experiments in which the practical aspects are straightforward and well-defined. This also applies even when there is no anticipated result for students to ``prove.'' A laboratory exercise with such properties was created for students to undertake in a completely blind manner, and they happily proceeded without any knowledge at all of what they might expect to find. The philosophy developed for the research in this paper expands the pioneering approach formulated some half century ago and successfully employed more recently. In the present era of differentiated instruction (DI) being implemented in a diversity of educational settings, the design of the subject experiment is especially significant for its inclusive nature and for the positive outcomes it produces for less academically capable students. All students benefit from such an environment because it preempts the wasted effort of undue manipulation and it removes the need to contrive agreement with a textbook via irregular attempts at reverse engineering.

  11. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  12. High precision modeling for fundamental physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Nesemann, Leo; Costea, Adrian; Andres, Michael; Stephan, Ernst P.; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    With growing experimental accuracies and high precision requirements for fundamental physics space missions the needs for accurate numerical modeling techniques are increasing. Motivated by the challenge of length stability in cavities and optical resonators we propose the develop-ment of a high precision modeling tool for the simulation of thermomechanical effects up to a numerical precision of 10-20 . Exemplary calculations for simplified test cases demonstrate the general feasibility of high precision calculations and point out the high complexity of the task. A tool for high precision analysis of complex geometries will have to use new data types, advanced FE solver routines and implement new methods for the evaluation of numerical precision.

  13. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  14. Physics Analysis of the FIRE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; J. Breslau; G. Fu; N. Gorelenkov; J. Manickam; W. Park; H. Strauss

    2002-06-19

    An integrated model of a complete discharge in the FIRE experiment has been developed based on the TSC simulation code. The complete simulation model includes a choice of several models for core transport, combined with an edge pedestal model and the Porcelli sawtooth model. Burn control is provided by feedback on the auxiliary heating power. We find that with the GLF23 and MMM95 transport models, Q >10 operation should be possible for H-mode pedestal temperatures in the range of 4-5 keV.

  15. Divertor design for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.N.; Braams, B.; Brooks, J.N.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the present divertor design for the planned TPX tokamak, which will explore the physics and technology of steady-state (1000s pulses) heat and particle removal in high confinement (2--4{times} L-mode), high beta ({beta}{sub N} {ge} 3) divertor plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive. The TPX device will operate in the double-null divertor configuration, with actively cooled graphite targets forming a deep (0.5 m) slot at the outer strike point. The peak heat flux on, the highly tilted (74{degrees} from normal) re-entrant (to recycle ions back toward the separatrix) will be in the range of 4--6 MW/m{sup 2} with 18 MW of neutral beams and RF heating power. The combination of active pumping and gas puffing (deuterium plus impurities), along with higher heating power (45 MW maximum) will allow testing of radiative divertor concepts at ITER-like power densities.

  16. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

  17. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  18. Simple Experiments on the Physics of Vision: The Retina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2005-01-01

    Many simple experiments can be performed in the classroom to explore the physics of vision. Students can learn of the two types of receptive cells (rods and cones), their distribution on the retina and the existence of the blind spot.

  19. Pilot Experience of Teaching a History of Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddeson, Lillian Hartmann

    1971-01-01

    Outlines laboratory activities designed to permit both majors and non-majors to perform crucial experiments in physics, using, when possible, replicas of original apparatus and copies of translations of original texts. (PR)

  20. B Physics at the DO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Burelo, Eduard de la

    2008-11-13

    At the beginning of RunII of the Tevatron and after more than 30 years of the discovery of the b quark at Fermilab, the lack of statistics had restricted our knowledge on b-baryons to the observation of the lightest b-baryon, the {lambda}{sub b}, and to its lifetime measured in decays which did not allow a fully reconstruction of this particle. I present results of the search for b-baryons in the DO experiment. As part of this program, a precise measurement of the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime was performed, and the discovery of the {xi}{sub b}{sup -} resulted from an analysis of 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006.

  1. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  2. Creative Turbulence: Experiments in Art and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Enrico; Dubois, R. Luke; Camnasio, Sara; Porfiri, Maurizio; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Serrano, Daniel; Ranjan, Devesh

    2016-11-01

    Effective communication of basic research to non-experts is necessary to inspire the public and to justify support for science by the taxpayers. The creative power of art is particularly important to engage an adult audience, who otherwise might not be receptive to standard didactic material. Interdisciplinarity defines new trends in research, and works at the intersection of art and science are growing in popularity, even though they are often isolated experiments. We present a public-facing collaboration between physicists/engineers performing research in fluid dynamics, and audiovisual artists working in cutting-edge media installation and performance. The result of this collaboration is a curated exhibition, with supporting public programming. We present the artworks, the lesson learned from the interactions between artists and scientists, the potential outreach impact and future developments. This project is supported by the APS Public Outreach Mini Grant.

  3. Status and Prospects of Hirfl Experiments on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. S.; Zheng, C.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Gan, Z. G.; Huang, W. X.; Ma, X. W.

    HIRFL is an accelerator complex consisting of 3 accelerators, 2 radioactive beams lines, 1 storage rings and a number of experimental setups. The research activities at HIRFL cover the fields of radio-biology, material science, atomic physics, and nuclear physics. This report mainly concentrates on the experiments of nuclear physics with the existing and planned experimental setups such as SHANS, RIBLL1, ETF, CSRe, PISA and HPLUS at HIRFL.

  4. Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

  5. Peer Provocation in Physical Education: Experiences of Botswana Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehu, Jimoh

    2009-01-01

    Critical incidents of peer provocation in physical education were investigated among 675 junior secondary school students in Botswana. Data were generated through a brief, open-ended questionnaire requesting the students to narrate their experiences of bad, hurtful and offensive peer behaviours during physical education classes. Six overlapping…

  6. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  7. Web life: The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    An educational outreach site maintained by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in the US, IPPEX features several interactive, game-like tools (applets) for exploring the physics of fusion, the doughnut-shaped "tokamak" reactors used in fusion experiments around the world, and related topics.

  8. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  9. Physics Lab Experiments and Correlated Computer Aids. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H.

    Forty-nine physics experiments are included in the teacher's edition of this laboratory manual. Suggestions are given in margins for preparing apparatus, organizing students, and anticipating difficulties likely to be encountered. Sample data, graphs, calculations, and sample answers to leading questions are also given for each experiment. It is…

  10. Primary Teachers' Experience of a Physical Education Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Maura; Woods, Catherine B.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development (PD) is essential for primary school teachers to meet the demands of the education system. Quality PD is aligned with classroom conditions, school contexts and teachers' daily experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore primary teachers' experiences of a 6-week physical education professional development programme…

  11. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  12. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    2013-01-01

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students…

  13. Experiments in atomic and applied physics using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A diverse program in atomic and applied physics using x rays produced at the X-26 beam line at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source is in progress. The atomic physics program studies the properties of multiply-ionized atoms using the x rays for photo-excitation and ionization of neutral atoms and ion beams. The applied physics program builds on the techniques and results of the atomic physics work to develop new analytical techniques for elemental and chemical characterization of materials. The results are then used for a general experimental program in biomedical sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, and materials sciences. The present status of the program is illustrated by describing selected experiments. Prospects for development of new experimental capabilities are discussed in terms of a heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics experiments and the feasibility of photoelectron microscopy for high spatial resolution analytical work. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC - physics and capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.

    1998-11-17

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC is designed to study multiplicity distributions and fluctuations over all of 4{pi}, as well as particle spectra and correlations at mid rapidity, with a particular emphasis on physics at low p{sub T}. The experiment is relatively small and relies almost entirely on silicon pad detector technology. The flexibility of the design, the conservative nature of the technologies used, and the ability to take data at high rates place the experiment in a good position to search for exotic physics from heavy-ion collisions at the early stages of RHIC operations.

  15. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  16. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

  17. Gender, experience, and self-efficacy in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE) styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men's and women's physics self-efficacy, which comprises students' thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women's self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students' feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i) an introductory IE physics course, (ii) students' other introductory STEM courses, (iii) their non-STEM courses, and (iv) their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women's self-efficacy was not reliably different from men's. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women's self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE physics course to be similar to

  18. Becoming physics people: Development of integrated physics identity through the Learning Assistant experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of community of practice and physics identity, and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation. Regression models from physics identity studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics. The goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger "physics student" identity and stronger "physics instructor" identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. Increased comfort in interactions with peers, near peers, and faculty seems to be an important component of this identity development and reconciliation, suggesting that a focus on supporting community membership is useful for effective program design.

  19. Becoming Physics People: Development of Integrated Physics Identity through the Learning Assistant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of "community of practice" and "physics identity," and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation.…

  20. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  1. The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia de la Cruz, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.

  2. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  3. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  4. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  5. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  6. The physics analysis tools project for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzi, Bruno; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is expected to start colliding proton beams in 2009. The enormous amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment (≈1 PB per year) will be used in searches for the Higgs boson and Physics beyond the standard model. In order to meet this challenge, a suite of common Physics Analysis Tools has been developed as part of the Physics Analysis software project. These tools run within the ATLAS software framework, ATHENA, covering a wide range of applications. There are tools responsible for event selection based on analysed data and detector quality information, tools responsible for specific physics analysis operations including data quality monitoring and physics validation, and complete analysis toolkits (frameworks) with the goal to aid the physicist to perform his analysis hiding the details of the ATHENA framework.

  7. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  8. Simulation of Physical Experiments in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Wasfy, Tamer M.

    2001-01-01

    An object-oriented event-driven immersive Virtual environment is described for the creation of virtual labs (VLs) for simulating physical experiments. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of the VLs, including interface devices, software objects, and various applications. The VLs interface with output devices, including immersive stereoscopic screed(s) and stereo speakers; and a variety of input devices, including body tracking (head and hands), haptic gloves, wand, joystick, mouse, microphone, and keyboard. The VL incorporates the following types of primitive software objects: interface objects, support objects, geometric entities, and finite elements. Each object encapsulates a set of properties, methods, and events that define its behavior, appearance, and functions. A container object allows grouping of several objects. Applications of the VLs include viewing the results of the physical experiment, viewing a computer simulation of the physical experiment, simulation of the experiments procedure, computational steering, and remote control of the physical experiment. In addition, the VL can be used as a risk-free (safe) environment for training. The implementation of virtual structures testing machines, virtual wind tunnels, and a virtual acoustic testing facility is described.

  9. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements.

  10. Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

  11. Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

  12. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  13. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  14. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  15. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

  16. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  17. Early Career Experiences of Physical Education Teachers in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early career experiences of three physical education (PE) teachers who taught in urban charter schools. Using cultural relevance theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for approximately six weeks each. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Two major themes emerged…

  18. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  19. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  20. Teachers' Experiences with an Adapted Igcse Physics Syllabus in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koosimile, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on teachers' experiences with implementing a modified International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) physics syllabus in Botswana. The syllabus, characterised by a new organisational and pedagogic paradigm, is a significant shift from the traditional ''teacher-proof'' syllabus to one that is flexible,…

  1. B-physics prospects with the LHCb experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harnew, N.

    2008-04-15

    This paper summarizes the B-physics prospects of the LHCb experiment. Firstly, a brief introduction to the CKM matrix and the mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model is given. The advantages of the LHCb experiment for B-physics exploitation will then be described, together with a short description of the detector components. Finally, the LHCb physics aims and prospects will be summarized, focusing on the measurements of sin(2{beta}) in tree and gluonic penguin diagrams, sin(2{alpha}) in B{sub d}{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, neutral B-meson oscillations and the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing phase, and the measurement of {gamma} using a variety of complementary methods.

  2. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in

  3. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Benage, John F.; Albright, Brian J.; Fernandez, Juan C.

    2012-09-04

    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL

  4. Neutrino Physics in the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Mayly

    2016-09-19

    The objective of the experimental neutrino physics program at ISU is to contribute to the NOvA experiment in order to enable the measurement of the unknown neutrino parameters: the CP violation phase and the mass hierarchy. In the Summer of 2015, the NOvA Collaboration released results from the first year of data collected by the experiment. The ISU group played an important role in various aspects of these results including authoring one of the two resulting publications. During this project period and with the support of this grant the PI and her group made leading contributions both in data analysis and operations to the NOvA experiment.

  5. Industrial metrology as applied to large physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, D.

    1993-05-01

    A physics experiment is a large complex 3-D object (typ. 1200 m{sup 3}, 35000 tonnes), with sub-millimetric alignment requirements. Two generic survey alignment tasks can be identified; first, an iterative positioning of the apparatus subsystems in space and, second, a quantification of as-built parameters. The most convenient measurement technique is industrial triangulation but the complexity of the measured object and measurement environment constraints frequently requires a more sophisticated approach. To enlarge the ``survey alignment toolbox`` measurement techniques commonly associated with other disciplines such as geodesy, applied geodesy for accelerator alignment, and mechanical engineering are also used. Disparate observables require a heavy reliance on least squares programs for campaign pre-analysis and calculation. This paper will offer an introduction to the alignment of physics experiments and will identify trends for the next generation of SSC experiments.

  6. Scintillation counters in modern high-energy physics experiments (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzheev, Yu. N.

    2015-07-01

    Scintillation counters (SCs) based on organic plastic scintillators (OPSs) are widely used in modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. A comprehensive review is given to technologies for production of OPS strips and tiles (extrusion, injection molding, etc.), optical and physical characteristics of OPSs, and methods of light collection based on the use of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers coupled to multipixel vacuum and silicon PMs. Examples are given of the use of SCs in modern experiments involved in the search for quarks and new particles, including the Higgs boson (D0, CDF, ATLAS, CMS), new states of matter (ALICE), CP violation (LHCb, KLOE), neutrino oscillations (MINOS, OPERA), and cosmic particles in a wide mass and energy interval (AMS-02). Scintillation counters hold great promise for future HEP experiments (at the ILC, NICA, FAIR) due to properties of a high segmentation, WLS fiber light collection, and multipixel silicon PMT readout.

  7. Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

  8. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  9. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  10. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  11. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  12. LHCf experiment: forward physics at LHC for cosmic rays study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, M.; Adriani, O.; Berti, E.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W. C.; Zhou, Q. D.

    2016-11-01

    The LHCf experiment, optimized for the study of forward physics at LHC, completes its main physics program in this year 2015, with the proton-proton collisions at the energy of 13 TeV. LHCf gives important results on the study of neutral particles at extreme pseudo-rapidity, both for proton-proton and for proton-ion interactions. These results are an important reference for tuning the models of the hadronic interaction currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. The results of this analysis and the future perspective are presented in this paper.

  13. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  14. Physics program of P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dipanwita; P¯ANDA Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The "antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt"-experiment, P¯ANDA, is one of the main experiments at FAIR, the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research at GSI, Darmstadt. It will be using the antiproton beam of unprecedented intensity and high momentum resolution in the momentum range between 1.5 - 15 GeV/c which will be available at the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) at FAIR. The P¯ANDA experiment aims at high precision spectroscopy in order to address the properties of the strong interaction. The major physics research topics are: hadron spectroscopy, in-medium effects of hadronic particles, study of nucleon structure and precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of single- and double-Λ hypernuclei. To meet the physics objectives of P¯ANDA, a detector with a nearly complete solid angle coverage, an excellent particle identification of hadrons and leptons over a large momentum range and high resolution calorimetry for neutral particles is essential. An overview of the goals and the extensive physics programs, detector development as well as simulation aspects of the P¯ANDA experiment will be discussed.

  15. Low cost alternatives to commercial lab kits for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodejška, Č.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubínek, R.; Říha, J.

    2015-08-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace in the case of professional kits such as Vernier, Pasco or Coach costs around 800 euros. In this paper some physics experiments in which a computer, or a tablet with Microsoft Windows, is used as the measuring device, along with available physical devices such as a laser pointer, a solar cell or an electret microphone, are presented as suitable and alternative ways to carry out lab work. We show that it is possible to perform very simple school experiments (both as a central demonstration and as individual experimentation), in which high accuracy and clear final conclusions can be achieved at a very low cost. Further information is published on the specialized webpage www.sclpx.eu/index.php?lang=en. The worksheets are in Czech, but the English version is in preparation.

  16. A system for designing and simulating particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żelazny, Roman; Strzałkowski, Piotr

    1987-01-01

    In view of the rapid development of experimental facilities and their costs, the systematic design and preparation of particle physics experiments have become crucial. A software system is proposed as an aid for the experimental designer, mainly for experimental geometry analysis and experimental simulation. The following model is adopted: the description of an experiment is formulated in a language (here called XL) and put by its processor in a data base. The language is based on the entity-relationship-attribute approach. The information contained in the data base can be reported and analysed by an analyser (called XA) and modifications can be made at any time. In particular, the Monte Carlo methods can be used in experiment simulation for both physical phenomena in experimental set-up and detection analysis. The general idea of the system is based on the design concept of ISDOS project information systems. The characteristics of the simulation module are similar to those of the CERN Geant system, but some extensions are proposed. The system could be treated as a component of a greater, integrated software environment for the design of particle physics experiments, their monitoring and data processing.

  17. Physics Results from the Antiproton Experiment (APEX) at Fermilab

    DOE Data Explorer

    APEX Collaboration

    Is Antimatter stable? The APEX experiment searches for the decay of antiprotons at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Observation of antiproton decay would indicate a violation of the CPT theorem, which is one of the most fundamental theorems of modern physics. The best laboratory limits on antiproton decay come from the APEX experiment which achieved a sensitivity to antiproton lifetimes up to of order 700,000 years for the most sensitive decay modes. Antiproton lifetimes in this range could arise from CPT violation at the Planck scale.[copied from http://www-apex.fnal.gov/] This website presents published results from the APEX Test Experiment (T861) and from the E868 Experiment. Limits were placed on six antiproton decay modes with a muon in the final state and on seven antiproton decay modes with an electron in the final state. See also the summary table and plot and the APEX picture gallery.

  18. Understanding the learning assistant experience with physics identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Close, Hunter G.; Donnelly, David

    2013-01-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.

  19. [Health promotion through physical activity: territorial models and experiences].

    PubMed

    Romano-Spica, V; Parlato, A; Palumbo, D; Lorenzo, E; Frangella, C; Montuori, E; Anastasi, D; Visciano, A; Liguori, G

    2008-01-01

    Scientific evidences support the preventive role of physical activity in relation to different multifactorial pathologies. Health's promotion through the spreading of lifestyles that encourage movement, does not represent just an action in contrast with "sedentary life" risk-factor, but also a priority for "quality" of life, with relevant economical and social benefits. WHO indicates physical activity as one of the priorities for an effective prevention. Besides, the EU supports the realization and the diffusion of some prevention-programs. Main pilot experiences developed in Italy and other countries are summarized. Attention is focused on the role of the competences and structures involved in an integrated approach based on availability of medical support, social services and local structures, considering recent developments in health prevention and promotion. In Italy and Europe, new opportunities to implement health promotion through physical activity are offered by the development of higher education in movement and sport sciences.

  20. B Physics at the D0 experiment A Mexican review

    SciTech Connect

    De La Cruz-Burelo, E.

    2010-07-29

    On April of 1992 a Mexican group from Cinvestav officially joined the D0 experiment, one of the two experiments in the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The seed for this experimental group on high energy physics from Cinvestav was planted in Mexico in some measure by Augusto Garcia, to whom this workshop is in memorial. Augusto's efforts and support to groups dedicated to this area was clear and important. Some of these seeds have given origin to today's established Mexican groups on experimental high energy physics, one example of this is the Mexican group at D0. I present here a short review of some of the D0 results on which the Mexican group has contributed, emphasizing the last decade, which I have witnessed.

  1. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  2. An Overview of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J. Blair; Gulliford, Jim

    2014-10-09

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties associated with advanced modeling and simulation accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Data provided by those two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades. An overview of the IRPhEP and a brief update of the ICSBEP are provided in this paper.

  3. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  4. A simple digital delay for nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. G.; Cruz, C.

    2014-05-01

    A simple high precision digital delay for nuclear physics experiments was developed using fast ECL electronics. The circuit uses an oscillator synchronized with the signal to be delayed and a presettable counter. It is capable of delaying a negative NIM signal by 2 μs with a precision better than 50 ps. The circuit was developed for use in slow-fast coincidence units for Perturbed Angular Correlation spectrometers but it is not limited to this application.

  5. Monolithic electronics for nuclear and high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic instrumentation for large fixed-target and collider experiments is rapidly moving to the use of highly integrated electronics wherever it is cost effective. This trend is aided by the development of circuit building blocks useful for nuclear and high-energy physics instrumentation and has accelerated recently with the development of monolithic silicon chips with multiple functions on one substrate. Examples of recent developments are given, together with remarks on the rationale for use of monolithic electronics and economic considerations.

  6. Can There BE Physics Without Experiments? Challenges and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Physicists investigating space, time and matter at the Planck scale will probably have to work with much less guidance from experimental input than has ever happened before in the history of Physics. This may imply that we should insist on much higher demands of logical and mathematical rigour than before. Working with long chains of arguments linking theories to experiment, we must be able to rely on logical precision when and where experimental checks cannot be provided.

  7. Solar sphere viewed through the Skylab solar physics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The solar sphere viewed through the Skylab solar physics experiment (S082) Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliographis seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The solar chromosphere and lower corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun characterized by the white light emissions. This image was recorded during the huge solar prominence which occurred on August 21, 1973.

  8. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors for Nuclear Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2015-10-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Nowadays, advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from the old generation of multi wire gaseous chamber (MWPCs) to a new family commonly refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGD technologies combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Several technical breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area MPGDs, making them cost effective and high performance detector candidates for future nuclear physics (NP) and high energy physics (HEP) experiments. We give in the present talk, an overview of the state of the art of the MPGDs. We will then briefly present the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 with the goal of further advancing technological developments and applications of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems. Finally we report on the rich and diverse R&D activities on MPGDs to prepare for the detector challenges of the next generation of accelerators and for the frontiers of physics research.

  9. Trends in integrated circuit design for particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated circuits are one of the key complex units available to designers of multichannel detector setups. A whole number of factors makes Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) valuable for Particle Physics and Astrophysics experiments. Among them the most important ones are: integration scale, low power dissipation, radiation tolerance. In order to make possible future experiments in the intensity, cosmic, and energy frontiers today ASICs should provide new level of functionality at a new set of constraints and trade-offs, like low-noise high-dynamic range amplification and pulse shaping, high-speed waveform sampling, low power digitization, fast digital data processing, serialization and data transmission. All integrated circuits, necessary for physical instrumentation, should be radiation tolerant at an earlier not reached level (hundreds of Mrad) of total ionizing dose and allow minute almost 3D assemblies. The paper is based on literary source analysis and presents an overview of the state of the art and trends in nowadays chip design, using partially own ASIC lab experience. That shows a next stage of ising micro- and nanoelectronics in physical instrumentation.

  10. On the Limitations of Thought Experiments in Physics and the Consequences for Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam; Burko, Lior M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the role of Thought Experiments (TEs) in ongoing processes of conceptual refinement for physicists and physics learners. Analyze TEs related to stellar evolution and general relativity. Identifies the stages at which crucial errors are made in these TEs and the cognitive processes which lead to these errors. Discusses implications for…

  11. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives, feelings, and perceptions and provides students with information and opportunities for choice, while minimizing external pressures. It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (beta=0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (beta=-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (vs. controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to vs. had to; beta=0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (beta=0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (beta=0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable experience in the course. If greater autonomy support was in fact the cause of a more favorable student experience, as suggested by Self-determination Theory and experimental studies in other contexts, these results would have implications for instruction and instructor professional development in similar contexts. I discuss these implications. Study II, an experimental study, investigated the effect

  12. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2015-05-01

    PANDA is an experiment that will run at the future facility FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. A high intensity and cooled antiproton beam will collide on a fixed hydrogen or nuclear target covering center-of-mass energies between 2.2 and 5.5 GeV. PANDA addresses various physics aspects from the low energy non-perturbative region towards the perturbative regime of QCD. With the impressive theoretical developments in this field, e.g. lattice QCD, the predictions are becoming more accurate in the course of time. The data harvest with PANDA will, therefore, be an ideal test bench with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of hadronic phenomena such as confinement and the generation of hadron masses. A variety of physics topics will be covered with PANDA, for example: the formation or production of exotic non-qqbar charm meson states connected to the recently observed XYZ spectrum; the study of gluon-rich matter, such as glueballs and hybrids; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons, their production cross section and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; the hypernuclear physics; the electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region. The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1-2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region); secondary vertex detection with resolution ≈ 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons); a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  13. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  14. Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ping; Snelson, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Coblentz, David D.; Corbell, Robert; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Carrigan, Charles R.; Bradley, Christopher R.; Patton, Howard J.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Sweeney, Jerry J.; Brunish, Wendee M.; Hawkins, Ward L.; Antoun,Tarabay H.; Wohletz, Kenneth H.; Zucca, John Jay

    2010-10-01

    The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters such as p- and s-wave arrivals from simple one-dimensional models for the teleseismic case to somewhat more complicated enhanced two-dimensional models for the regional case. Likewise, radionuclide experts rely on empirical results from a handful of limited experiments to determine the radiological source terms present at the surface after an underground test. To make the next step in the advancement of the science of monitoring we need to transform these fields to enable predictive, physics-based modeling and analysis. The Nevada Test Site Source Physics Experiments (N-SPE) provide a unique opportunity to gather precise data from well-designed experiments to improve physics-based modeling capability. In the seismic experiments, data collection will include time domain reflectometry to measure explosive performance and yield, free-field accelerometers, extensive seismic arrays, and infrasound and acoustic measurements. The improved modeling capability that we will develop using this data should enable important advances in our ability to monitor worldwide for nuclear testing. The first of a series of source physics experiments will be conducted in the granite of Climax Stock at the NTS, near the locations of the HARD HAT and PILE DRIVER nuclear tests. This site not only provides a fairly homogeneous and well-documented geology, but also an opportunity to improve our understanding of how fractures, joints, and faults affect seismic wave generation and propagation. The Climax Stock experiments will consist of a 220

  15. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  16. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  17. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of

  18. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  19. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  20. Interactive Plasma Physics Education Using Data from Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Brisa; Davis, Bill; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX) website was created in 1996 to give users access to data from plasma and fusion experiments. Interactive material on electricity, magnetism, matter, and energy was presented to generate interest and prepare users to understand data from a fusion experiment. Initially, users were allowed to analyze real-time and archival data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment. IPPEX won numerous awards for its novel approach of allowing users to participate in ongoing research. However, the latest revisions of IPPEX were in 2001 and the interactive material is no longer functional on modern browsers. Also, access to real-time data was lost when TFTR was shut down. The interactive material on IPPEX is being rewritten in ActionScript3.0, and real-time and archival data from the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) will be made available to users. New tools like EFIT animations, fast cameras, and plots of important plasma parameters will be included along with an existing Java-based ``virtual tokamak.'' Screenshots from the upgraded website and future directions will be presented.

  1. Brain simulation of action may be grounded in physical experience.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C J; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-12-01

    An intriguing quality of our brain is that when actions are imagined, corresponding brain regions are recruited as when the actions are actually performed. It has been hypothesized that the similarity between real and simulated actions depends on the nature of motor representations. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining S.D., who never used her legs but is an elite wheel chair athlete. Controls recruited motor brain regions during imagery of stair walking and frontal regions during imagery of wheel chair slalom. S.D. showed the opposite pattern. Thus, brain simulation of actions may be grounded in specific physical experiences.

  2. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  3. A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.

  4. The Meaning of Patient Experiences of Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kornelsen, Jude; Atkins, Chloe; Brownell, Keith; Woollard, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Current diagnostic models in medical practice do not adequately account for patient symptoms that cannot be classified. At the moment, when all known diagnostic possibilities have been excluded, physicians-and patients-confront uncertainty in diagnosis, which gives rise to the label of Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS). This phenomenological study, conducted by two research teams in two geographic locations, sought to explore patients' experiences of prolonged uncertainty in diagnosis. Participants in this study described their experiences with and consequences of MUPS primarily in relation to levels of acuity and acceptance of uncertainty, the latter loosely correlated to length of time since onset of symptoms (the longer the time, the more forbearance participants expressed). We identified three experiential periods including the active search for a diagnosis, living with MUPS, and, finally, acceptance/resignation of their condition. Findings point to the heightened importance of the therapeutic relationship when dealing with uncertainty.

  5. Photogrammetric methods for measurements in fluid physics experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, H.-G.; Virant, M.; Becker, J.; Bösemann, W.; Gatti, L.; Henrichs, A.

    2002-02-01

    Methods of digital close-range photogrammetry allow for manifold real 3-D measurements in dynamic processes. Based on the acquisition of multi-camera digital image sequences, image analysis with subpixel accuracy image measurement operators, photogrammetric multi-image matching and point determination techniques, strict geometric modeling of complex environments and thorough system calibration techniques, time-resolved accurate 3-D coordinates of a large number of objects in a scene can be determined fully automatically. The paper will first give a short review on basic principles of digital photogrammetry and discuss the application and accuracy potential. After that, practical examples will be given from several breadboard experiments conducted in the frame of the ESA Technological Research and Development Programme to show the applicability of the technique to typical experiments in the field of fluid physics. These experiments focus on the investigation of experiments on Marangoni convection; they include the determination of 3-D velocity fields near a hanging drop within a fluid matrix and the observation of the tangential tension on the boundary surface by measuring changes in shape and/or position of liquid bodies like drops, bubbles or liquid columns in a fluid matrix.

  6. Relaunch of the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, A.; Rusaitis, L.; Zwicker, A.; Stotler, D. P.

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1990's PPPL's Science Education Department developed an innovative online site called the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX). It featured (among other modules) two Java based applications which simulated tokamak physics: A steady state tokamak (SST) and a time dependent tokamak (TDT). The physics underlying the SST and the TDT are based on the ASPECT code which is a global power balance code developed to evaluate the performance of fusion reactor designs. We have relaunched the IPPEX site with updated modules and functionalities: The site itself is now dynamic on all platforms. The graphic design of the site has been modified to current standards. The virtual tokamak programming has been redone in Javascript, taking advantage of the speed and compactness of the code. The GUI of the tokamak has been completely redesigned, including more intuitive representations of changes in the plasma, e.g., particles moving along magnetic field lines. The use of GPU accelerated computation provides accurate and smooth visual representations of the plasma. We will present the current version of IPPEX as well near term plans of incorporating real time NSTX-U data into the simulation.

  7. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  8. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  9. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  10. Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.; Bell, M.

    2000-11-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a {approx} 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-{beta}{sub t} and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA, stored energies up to 55 kJ, {beta}{sub t} {approx} 10%, and a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and {beta}{sub t}=21% were produced.

  11. Results From the Physics of Colloids Experiment on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David; Bailey, Arthur; Manley, Suliana; Prasad, Vikram; Christianson, Rebecca; Sankaran, Subramanian; Doherty, Michael; Jankovsky, Amy; Lorik, Tibor; Shiley, William

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was accommodated within International Space Station (ISS) EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack 2 and was remotely operated from early June 2001 until February 2002 from NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center (TSC) in Cleveland, Ohio, and from the remote site at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. PCS was launched on 4/19/2001 on Space Shuttle STS-100. The experiment was activated on 5/31/2001. The entire experimental setup performed remarkably well, and accomplished 2400 hours of science operations on-orbit. The sophisticated instrumentation in PCS is capable of dynamic and static light scattering from 11 to 169 degrees, Bragg scattering over the range from 10 to 60 degrees, dynamic and static light scattering at low angles from 0.3 to 6.0 degrees, and color imaging. The long duration microgravity environment on the ISS facilitated extended studies on the growth and coarsening characteristics of binary crystals. The de-mixing of the colloid-polymer critical-point sample was also studied as it phase-separated into two phases. Further, aging studies on a col-pol gel, gelation rate studies in extremely low concentration fractal gels over several days, and studies on a glass sample, all provided valuable information. Several exciting and unique aspects of these results are discussed here.

  12. Virtual experiments, physical validation: dental morphology at the intersection of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P S L; Rayfield, E J

    2012-08-07

    Computational models such as finite-element analysis offer biologists a means of exploring the structural mechanics of biological systems that cannot be directly observed. Validated against experimental data, a model can be manipulated to perform virtual experiments, testing variables that are hard to control in physical experiments. The relationship between tooth form and the ability to break down prey is key to understanding the evolution of dentition. Recent experimental work has quantified how tooth shape promotes fracture in biological materials. We present a validated finite-element model derived from physical compression experiments. The model shows close agreement with strain patterns observed in photoelastic test materials and reaction forces measured during these experiments. We use the model to measure strain energy within the test material when different tooth shapes are used. Results show that notched blades deform materials for less strain energy cost than straight blades, giving insights into the energetic relationship between tooth form and prey materials. We identify a hypothetical 'optimal' blade angle that minimizes strain energy costs and test alternative prey materials via virtual experiments. Using experimental data and computational models offers an integrative approach to understand the mechanics of tooth morphology.

  13. Results on QCD Physics from the CDF-II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2006-12-01

    In this paper the authors review a selection of recent results obtained, in the area of QCD physics, from the CDF-II experiment that studies p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV provided by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. All results shown correspond to analysis performed using the Tevatron Run II data samples. In particular they will illustrate the progress achieved and the status of the studies on the following QCD processes: jet inclusive production, using different jet clustering algorithm, W({yields} e{nu}{sub e}) + jets and Z({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, {gamma} + b-jet production, dijet production in double pomeron exchange and finally exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} production. No deviations from the Standard Model have been observed so far.

  14. The Entangled Cosmos: an experiment in physical theopoetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    As an experiment in constructive transdisciplinary relationality, a theology of nonseparable difference here engages a physics of quantum entanglement. The metaphoric potential of "spooky action at a distance" to intensify a cosmology resistant to the dominant individualism and conducive to ethical ecologies of interdependence has only begun to develop across multiple discourses. This essay contemplates the specific unfolding of a theory of nonlocal superpositions by physicists such as Stapp, Bohm and Barad. It does not literalize any God-trope, but rather entangles theology in the mysterious uncertainty of our widest interdependencies. This essay, first presented as a lecture at the American Academy of Religion "Science, Technology and Religion" Group, San Francisco, November 2011, forms the core of a chapter in a book I am currently completing, The Cloud of the Impossible: Theological Entanglements.

  15. First experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models for detector simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Amadio, G.; Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bianchini, C.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Licht, J.de Fine; Duhem, L.; Elvira, D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Novak, M.; Presbyterian, M.; Shadura, O.; Seghal, R.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-12-23

    The recent emergence of hardware architectures characterized by many-core or accelerated processors has opened new opportunities for concurrent programming models taking advantage of both SIMD and SIMT architectures. The GeantV vector prototype for detector simulations has been designed to exploit both the vector capability of mainstream CPUs and multi-threading capabilities of coprocessors including NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. The characteristics of these architectures are very different in terms of the vectorization depth, parallelization needed to achieve optimal performance or memory access latency and speed. An additional challenge is to avoid the code duplication often inherent to supporting heterogeneous platforms. In this paper we present the first experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models developed for the GeantV project.

  16. Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

  17. Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell

    2000-06-13

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is designed for studying toroidal plasma confinement at very low aspect-ratio, A=R/a = 0.85m/0.68m {approximately} 1.25, with cross-section elongation up to 2.2 and triangularity up to 0.5, for plasma currents up to 1 MA and vacuum toroidal magnetic fields up to 0.6 T on axis. Conducting plates are installed close to the plasma on the outboard side to stabilize kink modes. This should permit operation with toroidal-{beta} approaching 40%. The plasmas will be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves (HHFW) at a frequency 30 MHz and by 5 MW of 80 keV deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. Inductive plasma startup can be supplemented by the process of Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI).

  18. Inertial confinement fusion ablator physics experiments on Saturn and Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.E.; Porter, J.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Fehl, D.L.; Jobe, D.O.; Leeper, R.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McGurn, J.S.; Noack, D.D.; Ruggles, L.E.; Sawyer, P.; Torres, J.A.; Vargas, M.; Zagar, D.M.; Kornblum, H.N.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Phillion, D.W.; Suter, L.J.; Thiessen, A.R.; Wallace, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    The Saturn pulsed power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense} Z-{ital pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nova laser [J. T. Hunt and D. R. Speck, Opt. Eng. {bold 28}, 461 (1989)] at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been used to explore techniques for studying the behavior of ablator material in x-ray radiation environments comparable in magnitude, spectrum, and duration to those that would be experienced in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 3933 (1995)]. The large x-ray outputs available from the Saturn pulsed-power-driven z pinch have enabled us to drive hohlraums of full NIF ignition scale size at radiation temperatures and time scales comparable to those required for the low-power foot pulse of an ignition capsule. The high-intensity drives available in the Nova laser have allowed us to study capsule ablator physics in smaller-scale hohlraums at radiation temperatures and time scales relevant to the peak power pulse for an ignition capsule. Taken together, these experiments have pointed the way to possible techniques for testing radiation-hydrodynamics code predictions of radiation flow, opacity, equation of state, and ablator shock velocity over the range of radiation environments that will be encountered in a NIF hohlraum. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Cyber-physical experiments on the efficiency of swimming protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Nathaniel; Floryan, Daniel; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We present results from experiments on a biologically inspired cyber-physical system, composed of a two-dimensional heaving and pitching rigid airfoil attached to a six component load cell, mounted to a traverse that can move along a water channel. A feedback controller, influenced by the apparatus of Mackowski and Williamson, introduces the effects of a fictional drag force specified by a virtual body profile and drives the traverse accordingly. Free-swimming protocols using the force-feedback system are compared with similar motions on a motionless traverse. The propulsive efficiency of burst-and-coast kinematics is also considered. Of particular interest are (1) the implementation of the cyber-physical control system with respect to the accessible experimental parameter space, (2) the impact of force-based streamwise actuation on experimental data, and (3) the effects of burst-and-coast motions on propulsive efficiency. The work was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) under MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  20. High Energy Physics Research with the CMS Experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.

    2013-05-31

    The highlight of our last budget period, June 1, 2010, to May 31, 2013, was the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), announced on July 4, 2012, and for which François Englert and Peter Higgs were awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics on October 8, 2013. The Higgs boson was postulated in 1964 to explain how elementary particles obtain mass and was the missing piece of the Standard Model. However, the Standard Model does not describe everything that we know. There are many unanswered questions, such as how can the Higgs boson have the mass that we have observed, are there more Higgs bosons, why is there more matter than antimatter, and what is the invisible dark matter, which constitutes about 85% of the matter in the universe. Our group played a significant role in the discovery of the Higgs boson and in subsequent analyses. We also carried out searches for new physics, in ways that could help elucidate some of the remaining questions. Our role in the CMS detector focused on the Tracker, a silicon strip outer tracker and pixel inner tracker.

  1. Self-directed learning: A heretical experiment in teaching physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. P.

    1995-06-01

    An account is given of the instruction of university-level introductory physics courses according to an educational framework in which (1) curiosity-driven inquiry is recognized as an essential activity of both science and science teaching; (2) the principal role of the instructor is to provide students the incentive to learn science through their pursuit of personally meaningful questions; (3) the commission of errors is regarded as a natural concomitant to learning and is not penalized; (4) emphasis is placed on laboratory investigations that foster minimally restrictive free exploration rather than prescriptive adherence to formal procedure; (5) research skills are developed through out-of-class projects that involve literature search, experiment, and the modeling of real-world physical phenomena: (6) the precise and articulate use of language is regarded as seminal to communication in science (as it is in the humanities) and is promoted through activities that help develop written and oral language skills; (7) the evaluation of student performance is based on a portfolio of accomplished work rather than on the outcome of formal testing.

  2. Optimizing liner implosions for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Cylindrical metal shells imploded by magnetic fields - liners - are used as kinetic energy drivers for high energy density physics experiments in hydrodynamics and dynamic material property measurements. There are at least three ways in which liners have been, or are expected to be, used to produce high energy density, i.e., high pressure, in target materials. A common approach uses the liner as a convergent flyer plate, which impacts a material target cylinder after having been shocklessly accelerated across an intervening gap. The resultant shock and piston hydrodynamic flow in the target are used in exploration of a wide variety of phenomena and material properties. Another common method is to slowly compress a liner containing a material sample in a such fashion that little heating occurs. This technique is most useful for investigated physical properties at low temperature and extreme density. Finally, one can use a hybrid approach to shock heat with an impacting liner followed by slower adiabatic, if not isentropic, compression to explore material properties in extrema. The magnetic fields for driving these liners may be produced by either high explosive pulsed power generators or by capacitor banks. Here we will consider only capacitor banks.

  3. Creating a Before-School Physical Activity Program: Pre-Service Physical Educators' Experiences and Implications for PETE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; van der Mars, Hans; Jahn, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive…

  4. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 10¹⁶ cm⁻³, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈ 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  5. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    DOE PAGES

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 10¹⁶ cm⁻³, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean chargemore » $$\\bar{Z}$$ ≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈ 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.« less

  6. The new spin physics program of the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luís

    2015-05-01

    The COMPASS experiment, at CERN SPS, has been compiling for more than a decade successful and precise results on nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy, leading to statistical errors much smaller than previously measured. The new COMPASS spin physics program, starting this year, aims to a rather complete nucleon structure description; this new representation goes beyond the collinear approximation by including the quark intrinsic transverse momentum distributions. The theoretical framework, for this new picture of the nucleon, is given by the Transverse Momentum Dependent distributions (TMDs) and by the Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). The TMDs, in particular Sivers, Boer-Mulders, pretzelosity and transversity functions will be obtained through the polarised Drell-Yan process, for the first time. The results will be complementary to those already obtained via polarised Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Also unpolarised SIDIS will be studied, allowing the knowledge improvement of the strange quark PDF and the access to the kaon fragmentation functions (FFs). Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) off an unpolarised hydrogen target will be used to study the GPDs, in a kinematic region not yet covered by any existing experiment.

  7. Physical trauma experience among school children in periurban Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Muula, Adamson S; Misiri, Humphreys E

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical trauma is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa. There are however, few community-based reports on the subject on the continent. The present study was conducted to explore school children's experience of physical trauma in a disadvantaged periurban area of Blantyre, in Malawi. Methods A cross sectional questionnaire study was carried out among school children in Ndirande-Blantyre, Malawi in 2004. Data were obtained to describe the following aspects of trauma experience: being a victim or observer of motor vehicular accidents involving pedestrians; history of falls from heights; and knowledge about road safety. Sex differences were determined for some of the variables in order to gain insights as to whether there is a difference in trauma experience between boys and girls. Results A total of 217 school children, 99 (45.6%) boys and 118 (54.4%) girls participated in the study. Eight of them reported to have ever been hit by a motor vehicle, 87 (40.1%) had witnessed a road accident where a pedestrian had been hit and 83 (38.2%) had witnessed a pedestrian they knew having been hit by a motor vehicle. Of those that reported to have ever been hit by motor vehicle, 2 (25%) reported that they had been hospitalized as a result of injury. With regard to falling from heights, 86 reported to have ever fallen from tree, 44 of these (51.2%) were injured from the fall and 14 (16.3%) were hospitalized as a result of injury sustained from the fall. Girls were more likely to fall from trees and getting injured as compared to males (p = 0.04 for both situations). Just under half (41.9%) of the study participants were able to report the correct procedure of crossing the road despite the fact that the majority (80%) reported having been taught road safety at home or school. Conclusion Many school children in Blantyre, Malawi have been exposed to trauma either involving themselves or someone they observed. Prevention, including education

  8. Neutrino oscillation physics potential of the T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T2K Collaboration; Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; de Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2015-04-01

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle θ _{13} have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal sin ^22θ _{23}, the octant of θ _{23}, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of δ _{CP}, sin ^2θ _{23}, and Δ m^2_{32}, for various combinations of ν-mode and bar {ν }-mode data-taking. With an exposure of 7.8× 10^{21} protons-on-target, T2K can achieve 1σ resolution of 0.050 (0.054) on sin ^2θ _{23} and 0.040 (0.045)× 10^{-3} {eV}^2 on Δ m^2_{32} for 100% (50%) neutrino beam mode running assuming sin ^2θ _{23}=0.5 and Δ m^2_{32} = 2.4× 10^{-3} eV^2. T2K will have sensitivity to the CP-violating phase δ _{CP} at 90% C.L. or better over a significant range. For example, if sin ^22θ _{23} is maximal (i.e. θ _{23}=45°) the range is -115° < δ _{CP}< -60° for normal hierarchy and +50° < δ _{CP}< +130° for inverted hierarchy. When T2K data is combined with data from the NOνA experiment, the region of oscillation parameter space where there is sensitivity to observe a non-zero δ _{CP} is substantially increased compared to if each experiment is analyzed alone.

  9. Gender, Experience, and Self-Efficacy in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE) styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap…

  10. On high explosive launching of projectiles for shock physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Forest, Charles A.; Clark, David A.; Buttler, William T.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Rightley, Paul

    2007-06-01

    The hydrodynamic operation of the "Forest Flyer" type of explosive launching system for shock physics projectiles was investigated in detail using one and two dimensional continuum dynamics simulations. The simulations were numerically converged and insensitive to uncertainties in the material properties; they reproduced the speed of the projectile and the shape of its rear surface. The most commonly used variant, with an Al alloy case, was predicted to produce a slightly curved projectile, subjected to some shock heating and likely exhibiting some porosity from tensile damage. The curvature is caused by a shock reflected from the case; tensile damage is caused by the interaction of the Taylor wave pressure profile from the detonation wave with the free surface of the projectile. The simulations gave only an indication of tensile damage in the projectile, as damage is not understood well enough for predictions in this loading regime. The flatness can be improved by using a case of lower shock impedance, such as polymethyl methacrylate. High-impedance cases, including Al alloys but with denser materials improving the launching efficiency, can be used if designed according to the physics of oblique shock reflection, which indicates an appropriate case taper for any combination of explosive and case material. The tensile stress induced in the projectile depends on the relative thickness of the explosive, expansion gap, and projectile. The thinner the projectile with respect to the explosive, the smaller the tensile stress. Thus if the explosive is initiated with a plane wave lens, the tensile stress is lower than that for initiation with multiple detonators over a plane. The previous plane wave lens designs did, however, induce a tensile stress close to the spall strength of the projectile. The tensile stress can be reduced by changes in the component thicknesses. Experiments verifying the operation of explosively launched projectiles should attempt to measure

  11. Experimenting in a constructivist high school physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    Although laboratory activities have long been recognized for their potential to facilitate the learning of science concepts and skills, this potential has yet to be realized. To remediate this problem, researchers have called for constructivist learning environments in which students can pursue open inquiry and frame their own research problems. The present study was designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem solving in such an environment. An interpretive research methodology was adopted for the construction of meaning from the data. The data sources included videotapes, their transcripts, student laboratory reports and reflections, interviews with the students, and the teacher's course outline and reflective notes. Forty-six students from three sections of an introductory physics course taught at a private school for boys participated in the study. This article shows the students' remarkable ability and willingness to generate research questions and to design and develop apparatus for data collection. In their effort to frame research questions, students often used narrative explanations to explore and think about the phenomena to be studied. In some cases, blind alleys, students framed research questions and planned experiments that did not lead to the expected results. We observed a remarkable flexibility to deal with problems that arose during the implementation of their plans in the context of the inquiry. These problems, as well as their solutions and the necessary decision-making processes, were characterized by their situated nature. Finally, students pursued meaningful learning during the interpretation of data and graphs to arrive at reasonable answers of their research questions. We concluded that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and in which they can develop complex problem-solving skills.

  12. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  13. Lower hybrid system design for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, P.L.; Conner, D.L.; Swain, D.W.; Yugo, J.J.; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1995-12-31

    The lower hybrid (LH) launcher configuration has been redesigned to integrate the functions of the vertical four-way power splitter and the front waveguide array (front array). This permits 256 waveguide channels to be fed by only 64 waveguides at the vacuum window interface. The resulting configuration is a more compact coupler, which incorporates the simplicity of a multijunction coupler while preserving the spectral flexibility of a conventional lower hybrid launcher. Other spin-offs of the redesign are reduction in thermal incompatibility between the front array and vacuum windows, improved maintainability, in situ vacuum window replacement, a reduced number of radio frequency (rf) connections, and a weight reduction of 7300 kg. There should be a significant cost reduction as well. Issues associated with the launcher design and fabrication have been addressed by a research and development program that includes brazing of the front array and testing of the power splitter configuration to confirm that phase errors due to reflections in the shorted splitter legs will not significantly impact the rf spectrum. The Conceptual Design Review requires that radiation levels at the torus radial port mounting flange and outer surface of the toroidal field coils should be sufficiently low to permit hands-on maintenance. Low activation materials and neutron shielding are incorporated in the launcher design to meet these requirements. The launcher is configured to couple 3 MW of steady state LH heating/LH current drive power at 3.7 GHz to the Tokamak Physics Experiment plasma.

  14. Physics Design of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; J.F. Lyon; the NCSX Team

    2002-02-21

    Compact quasi-axisymmetric stellarators offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio approximately 4.4 and average elongation approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for b > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at b = 4% (the rest is from the coils). Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties.

  15. Automated computer vision interpretation for physical and genetic mapping experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    Much of the high-throughput data currently generated in the molecular genetics laboratory is in the form of two dimensional images. In physical mapping, a high-density gridded filter containing thousands YACs or cosmids can be hybridized against a single labeled probe, such as the IRS-PCR products of a radiation hybrid (RH). In genetic mapping, hundreds of polymorphic dinucleotide repeat PCR experiments can be multiplexed into distinct lanes, size ranges, and fluorescent colors on a single run of an Applied Biosystems (ABl) 373A automated DNA sequencer. For all its advantages such high-throughput data introduces a new fundamental bottleneck: the greatly increased time, expense, and error of scoring these assays when relying solely on the human visual system. Toward this end, we have developed a novel computer vision automation architecture that addresses the needs of high-throughput data interpretation in the molecular genetics laboratory. A flexible knowledge-based approach is used to systematically detect and analyze signal features, motivated by how human experts perform the interpretation. This architecture enables customization to similar hybridization-and gel-based tasks. Our prototype system has thus far been tested on both hybridization data and ABl gel images.

  16. The Wind Spacecraft As an Interplanetary Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Wind spacecraft was launched in the fall of 1994 to explore the nature of the solar wind and the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth. As the years have passed, and the rich datasets collected by the spacecraft have grown, the Wind mission has taken on an additional role as an interplanetary physics experiment, producing fundamental insights into processes in tenuous magnetized plasmas including kinetic instabilities, dissipation, heat flux, and heating. Results from Wind have helped us understand plasmas throughout the heliosphere, but they have also been applied to more exotic situations such as the accretion of matter onto black holes, and cooling of material within galaxy clusters. This talk will both highlight major recent results from Wind and examine the factors of the mission that have made this research possible. Beyond the sensitive statistical tests permitted by two decades of observations, Wind is equipped with a particularly diverse set of complementary instruments, permitting precise inter-calibration of observations and a detailed understanding of the nature of the solar wind that only improves with time.

  17. Experiences developing ALEGRA: A C++ coupled physics framework

    SciTech Connect

    Budge, K.G.; Peery, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    ALEGRA is a coupled physics framework originally written to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments being conducted at the PBFA-II facility at Sandia National Laboratories. It has since grown into a large software development project supporting a number of computational programs at Sandia. As the project has grown, so has the development team, from the original two authors to a group of over fifteen programmers crossing several departments. In addition, ALEGRA now runs on a wide variety of platforms, from large PCs to the ASCI Teraflops massively parallel supercomputer. The authors discuss the reasons for ALEGRA`s success, which include the intelligent use of object-oriented techniques and the choice of C++ as the programming language. They argue that the intelligent use of development tools, such as build tools (e.g. make), compiler, debugging environment (e.g. dbx), version control system (e.g. cvs), and bug management software (e.g. ClearDDTS), is nearly as important as the choice of language and paradigm.

  18. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  19. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Ritort, F

    2006-08-16

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  20. ICF Ablator Physics Experiments on Saturn and Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Rick

    1996-11-01

    In indirect drive ICF, the driver energy is absorbed in a high-Z enclosure (or "hohlraum") that surrounds a spherical shell (or "capsule") containing DT fuel. The hohlraum walls are heated by the driver and emit x-rays, which are absorbed by the capsule material (the "ablator") and drive the implosion. We have used the Saturn z-pinch at SNL and the Nova laser at LLNL to explore the behavior of ablator material in x-ray radiation environments comparable in magnitude, spectrum and duration to those that will be experienced in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums. The large x-ray outputs available from pulsed-power driven z-pinches have enabled us to drive hohlraums of full NIF ignition scale size at radiation temperatures and timescales comparable to those required for the low power "foot" pulse of an ignition capsule. The high intensity of the Nova laser has allowed us to study capsule ablator physics in smaller scale hohlraums at radiation temperatures and timescales relevant to the peak power pulse for an ignition capsule. Taken together, these experiments have allowed us test our radiation-hydrodynamics computer code predictions of ablator opacity, radiation flow, and equation of state over almost the complete range of radiation environments to be encountered in a NIF hohlraum. * in collaboration with J. Porter, G. Chandler, D. Fehl, D. Jobe, R. Leeper, K. Matzen, J. McGurn, D. Noack, L. Ruggles, P. Sawyer, J. Torres, M. Vargas, D. Zagar (SNL), and H. Kornblum, T. Orzechowski, L. Suter, R. Thiessen, R. Wallace (LLNL), and the Saturn and Nova operations and diagnostic crews at SNL and LLNL. +This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.D.; Bulmer, R.J.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1994-06-18

    The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) will be the first all superconducting magnet system for a Tokamak, where the poloidal field coils, in addition to the toroidal field coils are superconducting. The magnet system is designed to operate in a steady state mode, and to initiate the plasma discharge ohmically. The toroidal field system provides a peak field of 4.0 Tesla on the plasma axis at a plasma major radius of 2.25 m. The peak field on the niobium 3-tin, cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is 8.4 Tesla for the 16 toroidal field coils. The toroidal field coils must absorb approximately 5 kW due to nuclear heating, eddy currents, and other sources. The poloidal field system provides a total of 18 volt seconds to initiate the plasma and drive a plasma current up to 2 MA. The poloidal field system consists of 14 individual coils which are arranged symmetrically above and below the horizontal mid plane. Four pairs of coils make up the central solenoid, and three paris of poloidal ring coils complete the system. The poloidal field coils all use a cable-in-conduit conductor, using either niobium 3-tin (NB{sub 3}Sn) or niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting strands depending on the operating conditions for that coil. All of the coils are cooled by flowing supercritical helium, with inlet and outlet connections made on each double pancake. The superconducting magnet system has gone through a conceptual design review, and is in preliminary design started by the LLNL/MIT/PPPL collaboration. A number of changes have been made in the design since the conceptual design review, and are described in this paper.

  2. Structure Modeling and Validation applied to Source Physics Experiments (SPEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Rowe, C. A.; Patton, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPEs) comprise a series of small chemical explosions used to develop a better understanding of seismic energy generation and wave propagation for low-yield explosions. In particular, we anticipate improved understanding of the processes through which shear waves are generated by the explosion source. Three tests, 100, 1000 and 1000 kg yields respectively, were detonated in the same emplacement hole and recorded on the same networks of ground motion sensors in the granites of Climax Stock at the Nevada National Security Site. We present results for the analysis and modeling of seismic waveforms recorded close-in on five linear geophone lines extending radially from ground zero, having offsets from 100 to 2000 m and station spacing of 100 m. These records exhibit azimuthal variations of P-wave arrival times, and phase velocity, spreading and attenuation properties of high-frequency Rg waves. We construct a 1D seismic body-wave model starting from a refraction analysis of P-waves and adjusting to address time-domain and frequency-domain dispersion measurements of Rg waves between 2 and 9 Hz. The shallowest part of the structure we address using the arrival times recorded by near-field accelerometers residing within 200 m of the shot hole. We additionally perform a 2D modeling study with the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to investigate which structural features are most responsible for the observed variations, in particular anomalously weak amplitude decay in some directions of this topographically complicated locality. We find that a near-surface, thin, weathered layer of varying thickness and low wave speeds plays a major role on the observed waveforms. We anticipate performing full 3D modeling of the seismic near-field through analysis and validation of waveforms on the 5 radial receiver arrays.

  3. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily...); (2) Work experience of 35 years or more during which he or she did arduous unskilled physical labor... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the only work experience is...

  4. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  5. A preliminary discussion of gravitational physics experiments for the Spacelab era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Winkler, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of past, present, and proposed future experiments in gravitational physics is given. These experiments are concerned with the measurement of relativistic gravity effects to test theories of gravitation. Certain experiments which could be performed on shuttle and Spacelab missions and the potential of Spacelab for gravitation physics research are discussed.

  6. Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-05-15

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  8. Early Childhood Educators' Experience of an Alternative Physical Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsangaridou, Niki; Genethliou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Alternative instructional and curricular models are regarded as more comprehensive and suitable approaches to providing quality physical education (Kulinna 2008; Lund and Tannehill 2010; McKenzie and Kahan 2008; Metzler 2011; Quay and Peters 2008). The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of the Early Steps Physical Education…

  9. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

  10. Computer Simulations for Lab Experiences in Secondary Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain…

  11. Characterization of the Southern Nevada Region for Source Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Pasyanos, M.; Hauk, T. F.; Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) includes an ongoing series of chemical explosions designed to advance seismic monitoring through better understanding of explosion physics and associated simulation codes. A candidate for a future SPE would result in direct comparison of seismic signals from well constrained and co-located earthquake and explosion sources at a common set of receivers. This possibility arises from an area of unusually shallow seismicity in southern Nevada. In May of 1993 a series of events with depths of 1-2 km were recorded at regional seismic stations as well as local stations that were temporarily deployed by the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR). The main shock had a magnitude of approximately 3.7 and 11 more events in the sequence had magnitudes over 2. As part of a feasibility study for a future SPE, LLNL, UNR and NSTec are working to improve our understanding of the region and the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S. Six new telemetered seismic stations located at both original 1993 sites and additional sites have been installed and operating in and around the area since early 2011. Using both historic and current data we seek to ensure that we have the best possible locations for the 1993 sequence and current ongoing microseismicity in the region. For this purpose we use the Bayesloc multiple-event location algorithm (Myers et al., 2007; 2009) to improve hypocentral locations. Bayesloc formulates the location problem as a hierarchy of the travel-time model with travel-time corrections, an arrival time model including picking errors, and a prior model for each parameter. Using known locations of nearby previous nuclear tests we have the ability to test the accuracy and robustness of our relocation parameters and results. In our preliminary analysis, we use a mixture of local and regional nuclear test data with the algorithm for the first time, and initial tests show significant

  12. Accelerator Preparations for Muon Physics Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments - the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment - is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration. Operating scenarios being investigated and anticipated accelerator improvements or reconfigurations will be presented.

  13. Inequality in Experiences of Physics Education: Secondary School Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of their Physics Education and Intentions to Continue with Physics After the Age of 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.

  14. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  15. Simple Laser Scattering Experiment for Biology-Oriented Physics Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, L.; Schrank, G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a physics exercise designed for biology and premed majors. The activity is a low intensity laser light scattering laboratory exercise to determine the diameter of micron-sized latex spheres (simulated microbes) in water suspension. (GA)

  16. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  17. Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.

  18. ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M.; Shuman, J.P.

    1996-04-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.

  19. The Social Experience of Physically Disabled Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papasotiriou, Maria; Windle, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Research on the university experience of disabled students has focused on barriers in learning and teaching, while the social world of university has as yet gained little attention as a distinctive object of study. Here we examine social experience and socially imposed restrictions through the lenses of social capital and self-concept. A…

  20. Fostering Inclusion and Positive Physical Education Experiences for Overweight and Obese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obese students are often socially and instructionally excluded from physical education and school physical activity opportunities. This article describes teaching strategies from a study of middle school physical education teachers who are committed to providing effective teaching and positive experiences for overweight and obese…

  1. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  2. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  3. Lab-in-a-box @ school: Exiting hands-on experiments in soft matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin; Brinkmann, Martin; Müller, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Soft materials like liquids and polymers are part of everyday life, yet at school, this topic is rarely touched. Within the priority program SPP 1064 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation, we designed an outreach project that allows pupils (age 14 to 18) to perform hands-on experiments (www.labinabox.de). The experiments allow them e.g. to feel viscosity and viscoelasticity, experience surface tension or see structure formation. We call the modus operandi 'subjective experiments' to contrast them with the scientifically objective experiments, which pupils often describe as being boring. Over a dozen different experiments under the topic 'physics of fluids' are collected in a big box that travels to the school. Three other topics of boxes are available, 'physics of light, 'physics of liquid crystals', and 'physics of adhesion and friction'. Each experiment can be performed by 1-3 pupils within 10 - 20 min. That way, each scholar can perform 6 to 8 different small experiments within one topic. 'Subjective experiments' especially catch the attention of girls without disadvantaging boys. Both are fascinated by the hands-on physics experience and are therefore eager to perform also 'boring' objective experiments. Morover, before/after polls reveal that their interest in physics has greatly advanced. The project can easily be taken over and/or adapted to other topics in the natural sciences. Financial support of the German Science Foundation DFG is acknowledged.

  4. Elucidating satisfaction with physical activity: an examination of the day-to-day associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction during physical activity initiation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Baldwin, Scott A; Loehr, Valerie G; Kangas, Julie L; Frierson, Georita M

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction with physical activity is known to be an important factor in physical activity maintenance, but the factors that influence satisfaction are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how ongoing experiences with recently initiated physical activity are associated with satisfaction. Participants (n = 116) included insufficiently active volunteers who initiated a self-directed physical activity regimen and completed daily diaries about their experiences for 28 days. We used multilevel models to examine the associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction. Significant between-person effects demonstrated that people reporting higher average levels of positive experiences and lower levels of thinking about the negative aspects of exercise were more likely to report higher levels of satisfaction (ps < .05). Positive experiences and perceived progress toward goals had significant within-person effects (ps < .01), suggesting that day-to-day fluctuations in these experiences were associated with changes in satisfaction. These findings elucidate a process through which people may determine their satisfaction with physical activity.

  5. Environmental Learning Experiences: Bio-Physical, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junglas, Mary R.; And Others

    This environmental education curriculum guide was developed for teacher use at the junior high school level. Although the guide deals with the bio-physical aspects of the environment, it is designed to encourage an integration of the disciplines into an inter-disciplinary approach. The volume consists of a set of ideas, activities, and opinions…

  6. Environmental Learning Experiences: Bio-Physical, Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junglas, Mary R.; And Others

    This environmental education curriculum guide was developed for teacher use at the senior high school level. Although the guide deals with the bio-physical aspects of the environment, it is designed to encourage an integration of the disciplines into an inter-disciplinary approach. The volume consists of a set of ideas, activities, and opinions…

  7. The Context of Thought Experiments in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes a cognitive perspective in an attempt to analyze mental mechanisms involved in contextual learning. In the following, it is suggested that contextualized environments evoke mental mechanisms that support reasoning about "what if", imaginary situations--utilizing a powerful mental mechanism known from the history of physics as…

  8. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Experiences in Teaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe and explain the views on teaching English Language Learners (ELLs) held by six elementary physical education (PE) teachers in the Midwest region of the United States. Situated in positioning theory, the research approach was descriptive-qualitative. The primary sources of data were face-to-face…

  9. Engineering Students' Experiences from Physics Group Work in Learning Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellingsaeter, Magnus Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential…

  10. Experiences with physical conditioning programs in middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.; Stanley, E.

    1969-01-01

    Long term effects of physical exercise and conditioning in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease are studied. Some aspects of the problem are outlined and difficulties encountered in a group of middle aged business executives using a carefully prescribed, but non-regimented and loosely supervised conditioning program employing commonly used forms of exercise (bicycling and jogging), are described.

  11. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  12. Precision Cosmic Ray physics with space-born experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incagli, Marco

    2016-07-01

    More than 100 years after their discoveries, cosmic rays have been extensively studied, both with balloon experiments and with ground observatories. More recently, the possibility of mounting detectors on satellites or on the International Space Station has allowed for a long duration (several years) continuous observation of primary cosmic rays, i.e. before their interaction with the earth atmosphere, thus opening a new regime of precision measurements. In this review, recent results from major space experiments, as Pamela, AMS02 and Fermi, as well as next generation experiments proposed for the International Space Station, for standalone satellites or for the yet to come Chinese Space Station, will be presented. The impact of these experiment on the knowledge of Cosmic Ray propagation will also be discussed.

  13. Analytical study of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The design specifications of the research laboratory as a Spacelab facility are discussed along with the types of planned experiments. These include cloud formation, freezing and scavenging, and electrical phenomena. A summary of the program conferences is included.

  14. TEACHING PHYSICS: Atwood's machine: experiments in an accelerating frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teck Chee, Chia; Hong, Chia Yee

    1999-03-01

    Experiments in an accelerating frame are often difficult to perform, but simple computer software allows sufficiently rapid and accurate measurements to be made on an arrangement of weights and pulleys known as Atwood's machine.

  15. A Phenomenological Study: A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Practicing Physical Education Teachers on the Integration of Technology in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armijo, Erica Anne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the lived experiences of practicing physical education teachers on the integration of technology in a physical education. This study arose from my current experiences as a physical educator and the current inculcation of technology in education and more specifically physical education. As a current physical…

  16. The use of cylindrical lenses in easy experiments for physics education and the magic arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by staging tricks, effects or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats.

  17. Becoming physics people: Development of physics identity in self-concept and practice through the Learning Assistant experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor

    2016-03-01

    The physics department at Texas State University has implemented a Learning Assistant (LA) program with reform-based instructional changes in our introductory course sequences. We are interested in how participation in the LA program influences LAs' identity both as physics students and as physics teachers; in particular, how being part of the LA community changes participants' self-concepts and their day-to-day practice. We analyze video of weekly LA preparation sessions and interviews with LAs as well as written artifacts from program applications, pedagogy course reflections, and evaluations. Our analysis of self-concepts is informed by the identity framework developed by Hazari et al., and our analysis of practice is informed by Lave and Wenger's theory of Communities of Practice. Regression models from quantitative studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics; the goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger ``physics student'' identity and stronger ``physics instructor'' identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. In addition to becoming more confident and competent in physics, LAs perceive themselves to have increased competence in communication and a stronger sense of belonging to a supportive and collaborative community; participation in the LA program also changes their ways of learning and of being students, both within and beyond physics. This research and the TXST LA program are supported by NSF DUE-1240036, NSF DUE-1431578, and the Halliburton Foundation.

  18. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  19. Laser-Induced Molecular Fluorescence: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a companion experiment to the experimental study of the di-iodide visible absorption spectrum. Experimental details, interpretation, and data analysis are provided for an analysis of the di-iodide fluorescence excited by a visible laser, using a Raman instrument. (CS)

  20. The Physical Environment: A Powerful Regulator of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Discusses five environmental dimensions (hardness/softness, open/closed, simple/complex, intrusion/seclusion, and high mobility/low mobility) that affect the experiences of children in day-care centers, demonstrating how to consider these dimensions in solving typical problems in child care settings. (MDM)

  1. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  2. Skylab Experiments, Volume 5, Astronomy and Space Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This fifth volume is concerned with studies of our own and other galaxies and effects of solar…

  3. Experiments in Molecular Physics with an Acoustic Interferometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1973-01-01

    A device which provides an inexpensive means for making precise studies of the kinetics of gas molecules is discussed. Two experiments are described: (1) Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time of gas molecules and (2) determination of intermolecular forces in molecules. (Author/DF)

  4. Physics of the tumor vasculature: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Heiko; Fredrich, Thierry; Welter, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Growing solid tumors recruit the blood vessel network of the host tissue for nutrient supply, continuous growth and gain of metastatic potential. Consequently the tumor vasculature has been a major target of anti cancer therapies since four decades. The main underlying strategic concepts range from "starving a tumor to death" over "blood vessel normalization" to "blood vessel growth promotion" for improved drug delivery and oxygenation for increased success rates of radiation therapy. A mechanistic understanding of the these strategies is often elusive and call for a quantitative analysis of the underlying physics. Oxygen supply as well as drug delivery is determined by blood and interstitial fluid flow, for which reason such an analysis must focus on the relation between the intra- and extra-vascular transport characteristics and the tumor vasculature morphology. Here we review the current status of theoretical concepts and computational analysis of physical determinants of the tumor vasculature and the emerging predictions for blood flow, oxygen distribution, interstitial fluid pressure and efficiency of drug delivery.

  5. Computer simulations for lab experiences in secondary physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David Shannon

    Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain circumstances, have been found to allow students to gain insight into the operation of the systems they model. This study compared the use of a DC circuit simulation, a modified simulation, static graphics, and traditional bulbs and wires to compare gains in DC circuit knowledge as measured by the DIRECT instrument, a multiple choice instrument previously developed to assess DC circuit knowledge. Gender, prior DC circuit knowledge and subsets of DC circuit knowledge of students were also compared. The population (n=166) was comprised of high school freshmen students from an eastern Kentucky public school with a population of 1100 students and followed a quantitative quasi experimental research design. Differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant. Keywords: Simulations, Static Images, Science Education, DC Circuit Instruction, Phet.

  6. Experimenting with the virtual environment Moodle in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Maria Ines; Dickman, Adriana

    2008-03-01

    The master's program in Physics Education of the Catholic University in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, includes the discipline ``Digital technologies in Physics education.'' The main goal of this discipline is to discuss the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the process of learning-teaching science. We introduce our students to several virtual platforms, both free and commercial, discussing their functionality and features. We encourage our students to get in touch with computer tools and resources by planning their own computer based course using the Moodle platform. We discuss different patterns of virtual environment courses, whose proposals are centered mainly in the students, or teacher-centered or even system-centered. The student is free to choose between only one topic and a year course to work with, since their interests vary from learning something more about a specific subject to a complete e-learning course covering the entire school year. (The courses are available online in the address sitesinf01.pucmg.br/moodle. Participation only requires filling out an application form.) After three editions of this discipline, we have several courses available. We realize that students tend to focus on traditional methods, always preserving their role as knowledge-givers. In conclusion, we can say that, in spite of exhaustive discussion about autonomy involved with ICTs abilities, most of the students used the new virtual medium to organize traditional teacher-centered courses.

  7. Experimenting with Impacts in a Conceptual Physics or Descriptive Astronomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and…

  8. A Take-Home Physics Experiment Kit for On-Campus and Off-Campus Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joanna; Parisi, Alfio

    2008-01-01

    A take-home experiment kit has been developed to reinforce the concepts in a first year physics course that both on and off campus students from a variety of educational backgrounds can successfully use. The kit is inexpensive and is composed of easy to obtain items. The experiments conducted with the kit are directed experiments that require…

  9. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  10. The EEE experiment project: status and first physics results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Agocs, A.; Aiola, S.; Antolini, R.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Li, S.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Massai, M.; Miozzi, S.; Panareo, M.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Regano, A.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Romano, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Spandre, G.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Toselli, F.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Yánez, G.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2013-06-01

    The Extreme Energy Events Project is an experiment for the detection of Extensive Air Showers which exploits the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber technology. At the moment 40 EEE muon telescopes, distributed all over the Italian territory, are taking data, allowing the relative analysis to produce the first interesting results, which are reported here. Moreover, this Project has a strong added value thanks to its effectiveness in terms of scientific communication, which derives from the peculiar way it was planned and carried on.

  11. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Two classic experiments in superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meĭlikhov, E. Z.

    1988-05-01

    Two experiments of I. K. Kikoin—the correlation between superconductivity and the galvanomagnetic properties of metals (1933), and the gyromagnetic effect in superconductors (1938)—which were carried out long before the appearance of the microscopic theory of superconductivity, anticipated two of its principal conclusions. Established were: 1) the determining role of electron-phonon interaction; 2) the orbital nature of diamagnetism in superconductors.

  12. High energy physics experiment triggers and the trustworthiness of software

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1991-10-01

    For all the time and frustration that high energy physicists expend interacting with computers, it is surprising that more attention is not paid to the critical role computers play in the science. With large, expensive colliding beam experiments now dependent on complex programs working at startup, questions of reliability -- the trustworthiness of software -- need to be addressed. This issue is most acute in triggers, used to select data to record -- and data to discard -- in the real time environment of an experiment. High level triggers are built on codes that now exceed 2 million source lines -- and for the first time experiments are truly dependent on them. This dependency will increase at the accelerators planned for the new millennium (SSC and LHC), where cost and other pressures will reduce tolerance for first run problems, and the high luminosities will make this on-line data selection essential. A sense of this incipient crisis motivated the unusual juxtaposition to topics in these lectures. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Hypernuclear physics studies of the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Lorente, Alicia

    2014-09-01

    Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the PANDA experiment at the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at Darmstadt (Germany). http://www. gsi.de, http://www.gsi.de/fair/. Thanks to the use of stored overline {p} beams, copious production of double Λ hypernuclei is expected at the PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision γ spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time, and consequently a unique chance to explore the hyperon-hyperon interaction. In particular, ambiguities of past experiments in determining the strength of the ΛΛ interaction will be avoided thanks to the excellent energy precision of a few keV (FWHM) achieved by germanium detectors. Such a resolution capability is particularly needed to resolve the small energy spacing of the order of (10-100) keV, which is characteristic from the spin doublet in hypernuclei the so -called "hypernuclear fine structure". In comparison to previous experiments, PANDA will benefit from a novel technique to assign the various observable γ-transitions in a unique way to specific double hypernuclei by exploring various light targets. Nevertheless, the ability to carry out unique assignments requires a devoted hypernuclear detector setup. This consists of a primary nuclear target for the production of {Ξ }-+overline {Ξ } pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform γ spectroscopy. Moreover, one of the most challenging issues of this project is the fact that all detector systems need to operate in the presence of a high magnetic field and a large hadronic background. Accordingly, the need of an innovative detector concept will require dramatic improvements to fulfil these conditions and that will likely lead to a new generation of detectors. In the present talk details concerning the current status of the activities related to the detector developments

  14. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  15. SU-E-E-05: Initial Experience On Physics Rotation of Radiological Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Williams, D; DiSantis, D; Hardy, P; Oates, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The new ABR core exam integrates physics into clinical teaching, with an emphasis on understanding image quality, image artifacts, radiation dose and patient safety for each modality and/or sub-specialty. Accordingly, physics training of radiological residents faces a challenge. A traditional teaching of physics through didactic lectures may not fully fulfill this goal. It is also difficult to incorporate physics teaching in clinical practice due to time constraints. A dedicated physics rotation may be a solution. This study is to evaluate a full week physics workshop developed for the first year radiological residents. Methods: The physics rotation took a full week. It included three major parts, introduction lectures, hand-on experiences and observation of technologist operation. An introduction of basic concepts was given to each modality at the beginning. Hand-on experiments were emphasized and took most of time. During hand-on experiments, residents performed radiation measurements, studied the relationship between patient dose and practice (i.e., fluoroscopy), investigated influence of acquisition parameters (i.g., kV, mAs) on image quality, and evaluated image quality using phantoms A physics test before and after the workshop was also given but not for comparison purpose. Results: The evaluation shows that the physics rotation during the first week of residency in radiology is preferred by all residents. The length of a full week of physics workshop is appropriate. All residents think that the intensive workshop can significantly benefit their coming clinical rotations. Residents become more comfortable regarding the use of radiation and counseling relevant questions such as a pregnant patient risk from a CE PE examination. Conclusion: A dedicated physics rotation, assisting with didactic lectures, may fulfill the requirements of physics of the new ABR core exam. It helps radiologists deeply understand the physics concepts and more efficiently use

  16. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant unable...); or (2) Evidence shows that the claimant has training or past work experience which enables him or...

  17. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant unable...); or (2) Evidence shows that the claimant has training or past work experience which enables him or...

  18. An HP 85 Microcomputer for Experiment Control in the Physics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrand, Jacques; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a simple and inexpensive interface to be used for data acquisition and control of some experiments in an undergraduate physics laboratory. Two specific applications are presented. Seven references are listed. (Author/MBR)

  19. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant unable...); or (2) Evidence shows that the claimant has training or past work experience which enables him or...

  20. A Final Year Physics Undergraduate Experiment on Ultrasound Propagation in Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluijs, M. J.; van der Sluijs, J. C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced undergraduate physics experiment which permits the measurement of ultrasound velocity and absorption in liquid systems. A description of the tasks the student is expected to perform is also included. (HM)

  1. Infrared Spectra of Simple Inorganic Ion Pairs in Solid Solution: A Physical Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical inorganic experiment in which large single crystals of the alkali halides doped with divalent ion impurities are prepared easily. Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution. (CS)

  2. Lunar experiments: the moon as a site for certain physical measurements.

    PubMed

    Hill, R D

    1966-01-14

    If the lunar surface becomes available for conducting physical experiments, it may be particularly suited to thermal neutron and molecular and atomic beam measurements. The application of these beams for the purpose of communication on the lunar surface appears possible.

  3. Physics Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell for the NSTX Research Team

    2004-07-08

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas with aspect ratio A {triple_bond} R/a = 0.85m/0.68m {approx} 1.25, at plasma currents up to 1.5 MA with vacuum toroidal magnetic field up to 0.6 T on axis. The plasmas are heated by up to 6 MW of High-Harmonic Fast Waves (HHFW) at a frequency 30 MHz and by 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) at an energy up to 100 keV. Since January 2004, NSTX has been operating, routinely at toroidal fields up to 0.45 T, with a new central conductor bundle in the toroidal field coil.

  4. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  5. Physics reach of the XENON1T dark matter experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arazi, L.; Arneodo, F.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Berger, T.; Breur, P.; Breskin, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; Di Gangi, P.; Di Giovanni, A.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Fulgione, W.; Galloway, M.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Hasterok, C.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Le Calloch, M.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Manfredini, A.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; von Sivers, M.; Wall, R.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The XENON1T experiment is currently in the commissioning phase at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. In this article we study the experiment's expected sensitivity to the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section, based on Monte Carlo predictions of the electronic and nuclear recoil backgrounds. The total electronic recoil background in 1 tonne fiducial volume and (1, 12) keV electronic recoil equivalent energy region, before applying any selection to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils, is (1.80 ± 0.15) · 10-4 (kg·day·keV)-1, mainly due to the decay of 222Rn daughters inside the xenon target. The nuclear recoil background in the corresponding nuclear recoil equivalent energy region (4, 50) keV, is composed of (0.6 ± 0.1) (t·y)-1 from radiogenic neutrons, (1.8 ± 0.3) · 10-2 (t·y)-1 from coherent scattering of neutrinos, and less than 0.01 (t·y)-1 from muon-induced neutrons. The sensitivity of XENON1T is calculated with the Profile Likelihood Ratio method, after converting the deposited energy of electronic and nuclear recoils into the scintillation and ionization signals seen in the detector. We take into account the systematic uncertainties on the photon and electron emission model, and on the estimation of the backgrounds, treated as nuisance parameters. The main contribution comes from the relative scintillation efficiency Script Leff, which affects both the signal from WIMPs and the nuclear recoil backgrounds. After a 2 y measurement in 1 t fiducial volume, the sensitivity reaches a minimum cross section of 1.6 · 10-47 cm2 at mχ = 50 GeV/c2.

  6. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  7. Long Term Psychological and Physical Effects of the POW Experience: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    are seen along ,i single dimension in which somatic and psychodynamic factors are intertwined. The Isolation of Cause and Effect ...AD-A014 080 LONG TERM PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF THE POW EXPERIENCE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Julius Segal Naval Health Research...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 248072 LONG-TERM PSVCHOLOSiCAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF THE POW EXPERIENCE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 0 0 **! H D ,=35 J

  8. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  9. The Nature and Role of Thought Experiments in Solving Conceptual Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kösem, Sule Dönertas; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the possible variations of thought experiments in terms of their nature, purpose, and reasoning resources adopted during the solution of conceptual physics problems. A phenomenographic research approach was adopted for this study. Three groups of participants with varying levels of physics knowledge--low, medium, and high…

  10. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  11. Fifth Grade Students' Experiences Participating in Active Gaming in Physical Education: The Persistence to Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lisa; Sanders, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Although video games are often associated with sedentary behaviors, active gaming is a new genre that requires children to become physically active while playing the games. In this study six fifth grade students' experiences participating in active gaming in eight-week physical education classes were explored. Qualitative methods of interviews,…

  12. Digital Video: The Impact on Children's Learning Experiences in Primary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Joe; Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; O'Grady, David

    2013-01-01

    Technology can support teaching, learning and assessment in physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perspectives and experiences of using digital video in primary physical education. The impact on motivation, feedback, self-assessment and learning was examined. Twenty-three children aged 9-10 years participated in a…

  13. Physical Activity Experiences and Beliefs among Single Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single motherhood has been associated with negative health consequences such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity might reduce these consequences, but little is known about physical activity experiences and beliefs that might inform interventions and programs for single mothers. The present study used…

  14. Investigation of the Perceived Causes of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Problems Encountered in School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Didis, M. Gözde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own…

  15. Overcoming Acculturation: Physical Education Recruits' Experiences of an Alternative Pedagogical Approach to Games Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Brendan; Renshaw, Ian; Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) programmes have been identified as a critical platform to encourage the exploration of alternative teaching approaches by pre-service teachers. However, the socio-cultural constraint of acculturation or past physical education and sporting experiences results in the maintenance of the status…

  16. The Acculturation Experiences of Foreign-Born Students of Color in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries-Britt, Sharon; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.; Peralta, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on 15 foreign-born students majoring in physics who are also racial/ethnic minorities. We address the research question: What are the acculturation experiences of foreign-born Students of Color majoring in physics? Berry's (2003) theory of acculturation and Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy were substantive…

  17. Review Committee report on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment: Role and mission of TPX; overview of design; physics design assessment; engineering design assessment; evaluation of cost, schedule, and management plans; and, environment safety and health.

  18. Concerns of Preservice Physical Education Teachers Participating in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of concerns by type (self, task, and impact) of preservice physical education teachers participating in an early field experience. Participants (n = 52) taught three physical education lessons in a junior high school. Following each teaching episode, participants wrote concerns in their…

  19. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  20. Physics reach of the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.; Brown, A.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Bauermeister, B.; Amaro, F. D.; Balan, C.; Arazi, L.; Breskin, A.; Budnik, R.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G. E-mail: marco.selvi@bo.infn.it; and others

    2016-04-01

    The XENON1T experiment is currently in the commissioning phase at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. In this article we study the experiment's expected sensitivity to the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section, based on Monte Carlo predictions of the electronic and nuclear recoil backgrounds. The total electronic recoil background in 1 tonne fiducial volume and (1, 12) keV electronic recoil equivalent energy region, before applying any selection to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils, is (1.80 ± 0.15) · 10{sup −4} (kg·day·keV){sup −1}, mainly due to the decay of {sup 222}Rn daughters inside the xenon target. The nuclear recoil background in the corresponding nuclear recoil equivalent energy region (4, 50) keV, is composed of (0.6 ± 0.1) (t·y){sup −1} from radiogenic neutrons, (1.8 ± 0.3) · 10{sup −2} (t·y){sup −1} from coherent scattering of neutrinos, and less than 0.01 (t·y){sup −1} from muon-induced neutrons. The sensitivity of XENON1T is calculated with the Profile Likelihood Ratio method, after converting the deposited energy of electronic and nuclear recoils into the scintillation and ionization signals seen in the detector. We take into account the systematic uncertainties on the photon and electron emission model, and on the estimation of the backgrounds, treated as nuisance parameters. The main contribution comes from the relative scintillation efficiency L{sub eff}, which affects both the signal from WIMPs and the nuclear recoil backgrounds. After a 2 y measurement in 1 t fiducial volume, the sensitivity reaches a minimum cross section of 1.6 · 10{sup −47} cm{sup 2} at m{sub χ} = 50 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  1. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  2. Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

  3. The Early Years of Indirect Drive Development for High Energy Density Physics Experiments at AWE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The importance of laser driven indirect drive for high energy density physics experiments was recognised at A WE in 1971. The two beam 1TW HELEN laser was procured to work in this area and experiments with this system began in 1980. Early experiments in hohlraum coupling and performance scaling with both l.06μm and 0.53μm will be described together with experiments specifically designed to confirm the understanding of radiation wave propagation, hohlraum heating and hohlraum plasma filling. The use of indirect drive for early experiments to study spherical and cylindrical implosions, opacity, EOS, mix and planar radiation hydrodynamics experiments will also be described.

  4. Insights from laboratory experiments into the physics of pyroclastic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, L.; Druitt, T. H.; Roche, O.

    2009-12-01

    -expanded (but just fluidized) ash deposited progressively at a rate indicative of an expansion of a few percent, perhaps due to Reynolds dilation during initial slumping. These behaviors have subsequently been confirmed by similar experiments using industrial group-A cracking catalyst powders instead of ash, and the combined results collapse to reveal a very simple scaling for the runout durations of the flows. Velocity profiles in the ash flows reveal that the frontal regions slid across the flume floor on very thin basal shear layers, implying high basal stresses, but that once sedimentation commenced, a no-slip condition was established at the depositional interface. The experiments show that even cm-thin, non-turbulent and poorly expanded flows of ash deposit progressively, as inferred for many pyroclastic flows. This raises the possibility that deposit aggradation rates in mathematical models of dense pyroclastic flows could be parameterized using values measured using 1D rigs. High frontal stresses are consistent with the occurrence of scour surfaces at the bases of some pyroclastic flow deposits.

  5. The Deep Impact Experiment and the Physics of Impact Cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. E.; Melosh, H. J.; Deep Impact Science Team

    2005-08-01

    On July 4, 2005 the Deep Impact experiment produced an impact event on the surface of Comet 9P Tempel 1, using a 360 kg (primarily copper) impactor striking the comet at a velocity of 10.2 km/sec. In addition to images taken from the flyby spacecraft (500 km closest approach distance), images of the target were also returned from the impactor spacecraft, which show that the impactor hit the comet's surface at an oblique angle of roughly 60 degrees from the surface normal. The impactor struck the comet at an ideal location for viewing the cratering process by the flyby spacecraft both during the 800 second long post-impact imaging phase and during the ``look-back" imaging phase (beginning ˜ 45 minutes after impact). Within a fraction of a second of impact, an incandescent vapor plume emerged from the impact site, cooling rapidly and moving away from the comet at a speed of ˜ 5 km/sec. This vapor emission was followed by the emergence and rapid growth of a prominent, conical ejecta plume, indicating crater excavation flow. This ejecta plume was more opaque (composed of finer material) than predicted, obscuring clear observations of the impact crater itself (extraction efforts continue). However, the behavior of the plume during both it's growth and fallback stages is consistent with a gravity-scaled cratering event into a very weak (post-shock) target material. The expansion state of the plume during the look-back phase will also allow us to place constraints on the comet's gravity field (and by extension mass and density).

  6. CALET on the ISS: a high energy astroparticle physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone; CALET Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    CALET is a space mission of the Japanese Aerospace Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. The CALET instrument (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) is planned for a long exposure on the JEM-EF, an external platform of the Japanese Experiment Module KIBO, aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The main science objectives include high precision measurements of the inclusive electron (+positron) spectrum below 1 TeV and the exploration of the energy region above 1 TeV, where the shape of the high end of the spectrum might reveal the presence of nearby sources of acceleration. With an excellent energy resolution and low background contamination CALET will search for possible spectral signatures of dark matter with both electrons and gamma rays. It will also measure the high energy spectra and relative abundance of cosmic nuclei from proton to iron and detect trans-iron elements up to Z ~ 40. With a large exposure and high energy resolution, CALET will be able to verify and complement the observations of CREAM, PAMELA and AMS-02 on a possible deviation from a pure power-law of proton and He spectra in the region of a few hundred GeV and to extend the study to the multi-TeV region. CALET will also contribute to clarify the present experimental picture on the energy dependence of the boron/carbon ratio, below and above 1 TeV/n, thereby providing valuable information on cosmic-ray propagation in the galaxy. Gamma-ray transients will be studied with a dedicated Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM).

  7. Physics of Regolith Impacts in Microgravity Experiment (PRIME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian (Technical Monitor); Colwell, Joshua; Sture, S.

    2003-01-01

    Collisions between planetary ring particles and in some protoplanetary disk environments occur at low impact velocities (v less than 1 m/s) . In some regions of Saturn s rings, for example, the typical collision velocity inferred from observations by the Voyager spacecraft and dynamical modeling is a fraction of a centimeter per second. Although no direct observations of an individual ring particle exist, the abundance of dust in planetary rings and protoplanetary disks suggests that larger ring and disk particles are coated with a layer of smaller particles and dust - the "regolith". Because the ring particles and proto-planetesimals are small (cm to m-sized), the regolith is only weakly bound to the surface by gravity. Similarly, secondary impacts on asteroids by large blocks of ejecta from high velocity cratering events result in low velocity impacts into the asteroid regolith, which is also weakly bound by the asteroid s gravity. At the current epoch and throughout their history, low velocity collisions have played an important role in sculpting planetary systems. In a one-Earth-gravity environment, it is not possible to experimentally determine the behavior of impact eject from such low velocity collisions. Impacts typically occur at speeds exceeding the mutual escape velocity of the two bodies. Thus, impacts at speeds on the order of 10 m/sec or less involve objects that are tens of meters across, or smaller. This research program is an experimental study of such low velocity collisions in a microgravity environment. The experimental work builds on the Collisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE), which has flown twice on the space shuttle. The PRIME experimental apparatus is a new apparatus designed specifically for the environment provided on the NASA KC- 135 reduced gravity aircraft.

  8. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  9. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  10. Using Student Peer Review of Experiment Reports in an Undergraduate Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy; Van Hook, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A class centered on student design of experiments and peer review of the resulting reports is described. Thirteen students in an honors seminar section of an introductory physics class designed experiments to test various types of paranormal phenomena. Each experimental report was evaluated and ranked by several other students. To give them…

  11. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  12. A Narration of a Physical Science Teacher's Experience of Implementing a New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Oscar; Le Grange, Lesley; de Mink, Karen Joy

    2016-01-01

    This article narrates the lived experiences of a Physical Science teacher named Thobani (pseudonym) in implementing a new curriculum in South Africa. Drawing on the work of Husserl and Heidegger, the article describes the objects of direct experience in Thobani's consciousness about his life as a learner and teacher as revealed during an in-depth…

  13. Studying Gender Bias in Physics Grading: The Role of Teaching Experience and Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Sarah I.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gender-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) stereotypes has been repeatedly documented. This article examines physics teachers' gender bias in grading and the influence of teaching experience in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany. In a 2?×?2 between-subjects design, with years of teaching experience included as…

  14. Muslim Girls' Experiences in Physical Education in Norway: What Role Does Religiosity Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walseth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention to minority pupils and their experience of physical education (PE). UK research identifies specific challenges related to Muslim pupils' participation in PE. In Norway, little research has been undertaken on Muslim pupils' experiences in PE, something this paper hopes to redress in part. In…

  15. Practical Applications for Using Peer Assessment in Physical Education Teacher Education Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Beth J.; Marty-Snyder, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment (PA) occurs in many higher education programs. However, there is limited research examining PA in physical education teacher education (PETE) in regards to student teaching experiences. PA may be a method to better prepare PETE students to assess their future students. The field experience students assessed their fellow peers on…

  16. Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

  17. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  18. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  19. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  20. Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

  1. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  2. What do students learn about work in physical and virtual experiments with inclined planes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Jacquelyn J.; Madsen, Adrian; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-02-01

    In previous studies, we have reported a difference in how physical and virtual manipulatives support students' understanding of the physics definition of work in the context of simple machines. We have shown that students who use the virtual manipulative (a computer simulation) before performing a physical experiment provided the correct response to multiple-choice questions about work more frequently than students who first use the physical manipulative. In this paper, we further analyze students' responses to a series of questions about work in the context of inclined planes to explore the models students used to answer the questions. While we had anticipated that students who performed the physical experiment would incorrectly respond to the multiple-choice questions in accordance with their observations (i.e. a longer ramp requires more work due to frictional effects), we actually observed these students more frequently using an alternate model that a longer ramp requires less work.

  3. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  4. Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words.

  5. Microscope-Based Fluid Physics Experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Malarik, Diane C.

    2000-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program is planning to conduct a large number of experiments on the International Space Station in both the Fluid Physics and Combustion Science disciplines, and is developing flight experiment hardware for use within the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility. Four fluids physics experiments that require an optical microscope will be sequentially conducted within a subrack payload to the Fluids Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility called the Light Microscopy Module, which will provide the containment, changeout, and diagnostic capabilities to perform the experiments. The Light Microscopy Module is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of experiments within International Space Station resources. This paper will focus on the four microscope-based experiments, specifically, their objectives and the sample cell and instrument hardware to accommodate their requirements.

  6. Control-based continuation: Bifurcation and stability analysis for physical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, David A. W.

    2017-02-01

    Control-based continuation is technique for tracking the solutions and bifurcations of nonlinear experiments. The idea is to apply the method of numerical continuation to a feedback-controlled physical experiment such that the control becomes non-invasive. Since in an experiment it is not (generally) possible to set the state of the system directly, the control target becomes a proxy for the state. Control-based continuation enables the systematic investigation of the bifurcation structure of a physical system, much like if it was numerical model. However, stability information (and hence bifurcation detection and classification) is not readily available due to the presence of stabilising feedback control. This paper uses a periodic auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) to approximate the time-varying linearisation of the experiment around a particular periodic orbit, thus providing the missing stability information. This method is demonstrated using a physical nonlinear tuned mass damper.

  7. Active experiments using rocket-borne shaped charge barium releases. [solar-terrestrial magnetospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Davis, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A reliable payload system and scaled down shaped charges were developed for carrying out experiments in solar-terrestrial magnetospheric physics. Four Nike-Tomahawk flights with apogees near 450 km were conducted to investigate magnetospheric electric fields, and two Taurus-Tomahawk rockets were flown in experiments on the auroral acceleration process in discrete auroras. In addition, a radial shaped charge was designed for plasma perturbation experiments.

  8. The whole picture: Child maltreatment experiences of youths who were physically abused.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kristopher I; Schneiderman, Janet U; Negriff, Sonya; Brinkmann, Andrea; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the maltreatment experiences of a sample of urban youths identified as physically abused using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI). The sample (n=303) of 9-12 year old youths was recruited from active child protective services (CPS) cases in 2002-2005, and five years of child protective service records were reviewed. The demographic and maltreatment experiences of MCRAI-identified youths with physical abuse were compared to maltreated youths who were not physically abused and youths who were identified as physically abused by CPS when they entered this longitudinal study. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and maltreatment experiences of the sample MCRAI-identified physically abused to the sample MCRAI-identified as nonphysically abused maltreated by gender. Of the total sample, 156 (51%) were identified by MCRAI as physically abused and 96.8% of these youth also experienced other types of maltreatment. Whereas youth with the initial CPS identification of physical abuse showed little co-occurrence (37.7%) with other forms of maltreatment. The MCRAI-identified physically abused youths had a significantly higher mean number of CPS reports and higher mean number of incidents of maltreatment than MCRAI-identified nonphysically maltreated youths. Lifeline plots of case record history from the time of first report to CPS to entry into the study found substantial individual variability in maltreatment experiences for both boys and girls. Thus, obtaining maltreatment information from a single report vastly underestimates the prevalence of physical abuse and the co-occurrence of other maltreatment types.

  9. Results of recent fluid physics and transport phenomena space flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Singh, Bhim S.

    2000-01-01

    A number of space flight experiments in fluid physics and transport phenomena have been conducted under the auspices of NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications. Results of these have been reported in various journals and technical society meetings. As preparations for a new generation of low gravity experiments to be conducted on ISS are well underway, it is useful to review the results of experiments conducted on the ``Shuttle.'' This paper summarizes the key findings of several recent experiments and emphasizes that such low earth orbit spacecraft should be considered as resource in which experiments can be conducted in near weightless conditions for extended time periods. It is hoped that the scientific community will realize the value of a ``microgravity laboratory'' and, stimulated by past results, will propose new experiments that take maximum advantage of the facilities and long duration microgravity conditions afforded by the ISS. The experiments described in this paper include: Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment, Pool Boiling Experiment, Thermocapillary Migration of Bubbles and Drops, Electrohydrodynamics of Liquid Bridges, Colloidal Disorder Order Transition, Critical Dynamics of Fluids, Mechanics of Granular Materials, and the Angular Liquid Bridge and Interface Configuration Experiment. .

  10. Men's controlling behaviors and women's experiences of physical violence in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-09-01

    In the feminist paradigm, intimate partner violence (IPV) among heterosexual couples is gender asymmetric and largely a tactic of male control. However, research on the relationship between men's controlling behavior and physical violence against women is limited. This study examines whether having a controlling partner is associated with women's reports of experiencing physical violence in Malawi. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from 8,385 women who completed the domestic violence module of the Malawi 2004 Demographic and Health Survey. About 18 % of women reported they had experienced moderately severe physical violence and 1 % experienced very severe violence in the past 12 months. A third of women reported their partners had ever been controlling. Results from multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that women who had controlling partners were significantly more likely to report experiencing physical violence. Other factors significantly associated with women's experience of physical violence included women who reported initiating physical violence against their partners, women's work status, partners' lower education level, and partners' alcohol consumption. Women with controlling partners were at increased risk of experiencing physical violence in the past year. However, women who reported initiating physical violence in the past year were nearly four times more likely to experience partner violence in the same time period. Future research should attempt to elucidate these two important risk factors for IPV.

  11. Experiments on Physics in the Arts: Papers from a Workshop (University of South Carolina, Columbia, June 10-21, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Physics.

    This book contains 65 physics experiments. The experiments are for a college-level physics course for music and art majors. The initial experiments are devoted to the general concept of vibration and cover vibrating strings, air columns, reflection, and interference. Later experiments explore light, color perception, cameras, mirrors and symmetry,…

  12. SNiPER: an offline software framework for non-collider physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, J. H.; Huang, X. T.; Li, W. D.; Lin, T.; Li, T.; Zhang, K.; Deng, Z. Y.; Cao, G. F.

    2015-12-01

    SNiPER (Software for Non-collider Physics ExpeRiments) has been developed based on common requirements from both nuclear reactor neutrino and cosmic ray experiments. The design and implementation of SNiPER is described in this proceeding. Compared to the existing offline software frameworks in the high energy physics domain, the design of SNiPER is more focused on execution efficiency and flexibility. SNiPER has an open structure. User applications are executed as plug-ins based on it. The framework contains a compact kernel for software components management, event execution control, job configuration, common services, etc. Some specific features are attractive to non-collider physics experiments.

  13. Should I take Further Mathematics? Physics undergraduates’ experiences of post-compulsory Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Jessica; Darlington, Ellie

    2017-01-01

    It is essential that physics undergraduates are appropriately prepared for the mathematical demands of their course. This study investigated physics students’ perceptions of post-compulsory mathematics as preparation for their degree course. 494 physics undergraduates responded to an online questionnaire about their experiences of A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics. The findings suggest that physics undergraduates would benefit from studying Further Mathematics and specialising in mechanics during their A-level studies. As both A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics are being reformed, universities should look closely at the benefits of Further Mathematics as preparation for their physics courses and either increase their admissions requirements, or recommend that students take Further Mathematics.

  14. Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Experiences of College Students With Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Devine, Mary Ann

    2016-04-01

    College years are an experimental phase in young adulthood and can lay the foundation for lifelong behaviors. One type of behavior developed during these years is the use of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). LTPA experiences of typical college students have been examined, but there is a lack of studies examining the experiences of students with disabilities. The purpose of this inquiry is to understand the experiences of college students with disabilities and their LTPA, with focus on factors that facilitate or create barriers to engagement. Grounded theory was used to understand LTPA with undergraduates with mobility or visual impairments. Results indicated a theme of culture of physical activity and disability as they received a message that engagement in LTPA was "unnecessary" or "heroic," which altered their LTPA experiences. Barriers to LTPA can be understood through a social relational lens to recognize the multidimensionality of barriers and facilitators to LTPA.

  15. Multichannel readout ASIC design flow for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A.; Malankin, E.

    2016-02-01

    In the large-scale high energy physics and astrophysics experiments multi-channel readout application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are widely used. The ASICs for such experiments are complicated systems, which usually include both analog and digital building blocks. The complexity and large number of channels in such ASICs require the proper methodological approach to their design. The paper represents the mixed-signal design flow of the ASICs for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments. This flow was successfully embedded to the development of the read-out ASIC prototype for the muon chambers of the CBM experiment. The approach was approved in UMC CMOS MMRF 180 nm process. The design flow enable to analyse the mixed-signal system operation on the different levels: functional, behavioural, schematic and post layout including parasitic elements. The proposed design flow allows reducing the simulation period and eliminating the functionality mismatches on the very early stage of the design.

  16. A Physics Experiment Concerning the Measurement of the Torque of a Rotating Body Using a Magnetoelectrical Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakon, Takuo; Nakagawa, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    A physical experiment concerning the moment of inertia of a rigid disk is described. Basic physical quantities such as the moment of inertia and torque are very important in elementary physics courses. This experiment was designed to improve students' understanding of the relation between the rigid moment of inertia and torque. The moment of…

  17. A Study of the Nature of Students' Models of Microscopic Processes in the Context of Modern Physics Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Beth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Interviews university students in modern physics about their understanding of three fundamental experiments. Explores their development of models of microscopic processes. Uses interactive demonstrations to probe student understanding of modern physics experiments in two high school physics classes. Analyzes the nature of students' models and the…

  18. Experiences and Perspectives of Physical Therapists Managing Patients Covered by Workers' Compensation in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mandy; Corbière, Marc; Franche, Reneé-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical therapists have an active role in the rehabilitation of injured workers. However, regulations in Queensland, Australia, do not afford them the opportunity to participate in return-to-work (RTW) decisions in a standardized way. No prior research has explored the experiences and perceptions of therapists in determining work capacity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate physical therapists' experiences with and perspectives on their role in determining readiness for RTW and work capacity for patients receiving workers' compensation in Queensland. Design A qualitative design was used. Participants were physical therapists who manage injured workers. Methods Novice (n=5) and experienced (n=20) therapists managing patients receiving workers' compensation were selected through purposeful sampling to participate in a focus group or semistructured telephone interviews. Data obtained were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. Physical therapists' confidence in making RTW decisions was determined with 1 question scored on a 0 to 10 scale. Results Themes identified were: (1) physical therapists believe they are important in RTW, (2) physical therapists use a variety of methods to determine work capacity, and (3) physical therapists experience a lack of role clarity. Therapists made recommendations for RTW using clinical judgment informed by subjective and objective information gathered from the injured worker. Novice therapists were less confident in making RTW decisions. Conclusion Therapists are well situated to gather and interpret the information necessary to make RTW recommendations. Strategies targeting the Australian Physiotherapy Association, physical therapists, and the regulators are needed to standardize assessment of readiness for RTW, improve role clarity, and assist novice practitioners. PMID:22745200

  19. The Oil Drop Experiment: Do Physical Chemistry Textbooks Refer to its Controversial Nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodríguez, María A.

    Most general chemistry textbooks consider the oil drop experiment as a classic experiment, characterized by its simplicity and precise results. A review of the history and philosophy of science literature shows that the experiment is difficult to perform (even today!) and generated a considerable amount of controversy. Acceptance of the quantization of the elementary electrical charge was preceded by a bitter dispute between R.A. Millikan and F. Ehrenhaft, that lasted for many years (1910-1925). The objective of this study was to investigate whether physical chemistry textbooks refer to the controversial nature of the experiment. Based on six criteria developed previously, 28 physical chemistry textbooks were evaluated. Analysis of the texts using six identified criteria demonstrated that the textbooks neither referred to the controversial nature of the experiment nor recognized the difficulty of the experimental procedure. Only a few texts even attempted to include any discussion of the history or philosophy of the experiment. The instructor of a physical chemistry course could include aspects of the Millikan-Ehrenhaft controversy to motivate classroom discussion and help facilitate an understanding of the role that controversy has in scientific progress.

  20. Lift, Squeeze, Stretch, and Twist: Research-Based Inquiry Physics Experiences (RIPE) of Energy for Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Stephen J.; Huziak-Clark, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines changes in kindergarten students' understanding of energy after participating in a series of lessons developed using an inquiry-based early childhood science teaching model: Research-based Inquiry Physics Experiences (RIPE). The lessons addressed where objects get their energy and what they use their energy to do, and how…

  1. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  2. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  3. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  4. Young Muslim Women's Experiences of Islam and Physical Education in Greece and Britain: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Benn, Tansin

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little…

  5. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  6. A Practical and Convenient Diffusion Apparatus: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Ben; Ochiai, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a diffusion apparatus to be used in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment to determine the diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions of sucrose and potassium dichromate. Included is the principle of the method, apparatus design and description, and experimental procedure. (Author/DS)

  7. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  8. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…

  9. Diving in: Adolescents' Experiences of Physical Work in the Context of Theatre Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with adolescents' experiences and perceptions of physical actor training practice in the context of theatre education. The study took place in Kallio Upper Secondary School of Performing Arts in Helsinki, Finland, where I work as a drama teacher. As a researcher, I carried out an authorized inquiry with two groups of 16-year old…

  10. Theoretical Frames and Teaching Styles of Physical Therapy Faculty Who Lead International Service-Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audette, Jennifer Gail

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: International service-learning (ISL) is popular in higher education, and many physical therapy educational programs are adding ISL opportunities to their curricula because doing so aligns with student interest and the increasingly global nature of the profession. The faculty leading these experiences have not been studied. Nearly all…

  11. The Adiabatic Expansion of Gases and the Determination of Heat Capacity Ratios: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the procedures and equipment for an experiment on the adiabatic expansion of gases suitable for demonstration and discussion in the physical chemical laboratory. The expansion produced shows how the process can change temperature and still return to a different location on an isotherm. (JN)

  12. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Experiences in Physical Education and Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Jaekwon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions of their children's experiences in physical education and youth sport. Qualitative research design was employed in this study. Data collection methods included phenomenological interviews and qualitative questionnaires. Forty-one questionnaires were collected and analyzed through…

  13. The Photochemical Synthesis, Kinetics, and Reactions of Nitrosomethane Dimer: A Physical-Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information procedures, and results for the photochemical synthesis and reactions of nitrosomethane dimer. The experiments described have shown a high degree of reliability with student use and are suggested to illustrate some problems of physical and organic photochemistry. (Author/JN)

  14. Comparative Urban Bangladesh Physics Learning Experiences as Described by Students and Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Tanzeem Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    A neo-culture of extra-curricular coaching prior to sitting the terminal exam was once the privileged domain of public education systems in the Eastern world, but this is no longer the case. This multi-phase study based on a grounded theory approach considered a diversity of physics learning experiences of students and alumni from two urban…

  15. The Learners' Experience of Variation: Following Students' Threads of Learning Physics in Computer Simulation Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingerman, Ake; Linder, Cedric; Marshall, Delia

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to describe students' process of learning physics using the notion of experiencing variation as the basic mechanism for learning, and thus explores what variation, with respect to a particular object of learning, that students experience in their process of constituting understanding. Theoretically, the analysis relies on…

  16. Adolescent Sport, Recreation and Physical Education: Experiences of Recent Arrivals to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tracy; Doherty, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived benefits and challenges of sport, recreation and physical education participation of culturally diverse adolescent girls and boys who are recent arrivals to Canada. The aim of the research was to further our understanding of the attitudes and experiences of English as a second language (ESL) students. Following…

  17. On-line computer system for use with low- energy nuclear physics experiments is reported

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemmell, D. S.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program handles data from low-energy nuclear physics experiments which utilize the ND-160 pulse-height analyzer and the PHYLIS computing system. The program allows experimenters to choose from about 50 different basic data-handling functions and to prescribe the order in which these functions will be performed.

  18. Investigating the Opinions of Physical Education Teacher Candidates on the School Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullu, Mehmet; Temel, Cenk

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of physical education teacher candidates on the school experience course. The qualitative case study design was adopted for this study. The research group was composed of 67 teacher candidates. A semi-structured questionnaire was used in the study. The collected questionnaires were analyzed with…

  19. An Attenuated Total Reflectance Sensor for Copper: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Richardson, John N.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor experiment which can be applied to advanced undergraduate laboratory course in physical or analytical chemistry is described along with certain concepts like the demonstration of chemical sensing, preparation of thin films on a substrate, microtitration, optical determination of complex ion stoichiometry and isosbestic point. It is seen…

  20. Coherence in the General Education Experience through the Inclusion of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna; Hall, Erin; Deaner, Heather; Riggs, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share how physical education (PE) offers a unique place of interdisciplinary connections, contributing to coherence in the general education (GE) experience, and to demonstrate the overall value of PE, serving as a rationale for its inclusion in a GE program. A definition of GE is provided, followed by an historical…

  1. Doctoral Sojourn Experiences of Adapted Physical Education Students from Asian Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explain Asian international doctoral students' sojourn experiences into Adapted Physical Education (APE) programs at two universities. The participants were six doctoral students from Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. This case study was conceptualized within sojourner theory (Siu, 1952). The data…

  2. "In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-01-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

  3. The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

  4. High School Physical Education: What Contributes to the Experience of Flow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormoen, Sidsel; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Wold, Bente; Diseth, Åge

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to identify factors that promote positive experiences in high school physical education (PE). The study combines elements of Self-determination Theory (SDT) with the theory of "flow". Special attention is given to gender differences. The study sample consisted of 167 Norwegian senior high school students (78 females and…

  5. Partner-Related Rehabilitation Experiences of Lesbians with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Brandon; Milsom, Amy; Matthews, Connie R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors interviewed 25 lesbians with physical disabilities about their perspectives on their partner-related experiences. Using phenomenological inquiry, they identified two themes: one, how the disability affected the partnership and, two, treatment as a lesbian couple by rehabilitation professionals. The themes and subthemes are described in…

  6. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  7. The experience of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Morphy, Lorraine Y; Goodwin, Donna

    2012-04-01

    This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: (a) interpreting the setting described participants' interpretation of the environment, person, and task when making movement choices; (b) alternative selection described how participants actively engaged in analyzing alternatives and choosing among them; and (c) implications of choices made described participants' evaluations of good and bad choices and what was learned. Evidence of effective choice making among adults with physical impairments suggests the potential efficacy of ecological task analysis as a pedagogical tool in physical activity contexts.

  8. Two experiments for the measurement of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this article we describe two experiments, performed with instrumentation commonly available in undergraduate laboratories, to measure the position of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum. The first one makes use of a constant external force provided by a common spring dynamometer, and allows for a straightforward analysis founded on basic concepts of rigid body dynamics. The second one is, more properly, an experiment based on a percussion, i.e. a collision involving an almost impulsive force, and displays the typical difficulties, but also the physical richness, of this type of phenomena. We provide an historical overview of the problem of the centre of percussion, starting from its first formulation given by Bernardino Baldi at the end of the 16th century, and we show how the mathematical model built for analysing the impact between a physical pendulum and a localised object is helpful in understanding that such a problem, in its original formulation, does not have a unique answer.

  9. Physical Science Informatics: Providing Open Science Access to Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Green, Robert D.; Henrie, Ben; Miller, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Science Informatics (PSI) system is the next step in this an effort to make NASA sponsored flight data available to the scientific and engineering community, along with the general public. The experimental data, from six overall disciplines, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Complex Fluids, Fundamental Physics, and Materials Science, will present some unique challenges. Besides data in textual or numerical format, large portions of both the raw and analyzed data for many of these experiments are digital images and video, requiring large data storage requirements. In addition, the accessible data will include experiment design and engineering data (including applicable drawings), any analytical or numerical models, publications, reports, and patents, and any commercial products developed as a result of the research. This objective of paper includes the following: Present the preliminary layout (Figure 2) of MABE data within the PSI database. Obtain feedback on the layout. Present the procedure to obtain access to this database.

  10. Spin and diffractive physics with a fixed-target experiment at the LHC (AFTER-LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorce, C.; Chambert, V.; Didelez, J. P.; Genolini, B.; Hadjidakis, C.; Lansberg, J. P.; Rosier, P.; Brodsky, S. J.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.

    2013-04-15

    We report on the spin and diffractive physics at a future multi-purpose f xed-target experiment with proton and lead LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal. The LHC multi-TeV beams allow for the most energetic f xed-target experiments ever performed, opening new domains of particle and nuclear physics and complementing that of collider physics, in particular that of RHIC and the EIC projects. The luminosity achievable with AFTER using typical targets would surpass that of RHIC by more than 3 orders of magnitude. The f xed-target mode has the advantage to allow for measurements of single-spin asymmetries with polarized target as well as of single-diffractive processes in the target region.

  11. Sensitivity of low energy neutrino experiments to physics beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Miranda, O. G.; Rashba, T. I.

    2007-10-01

    We study the sensitivity of future low energy neutrino experiments to extra neutral gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and R-parity breaking interactions. We focus on future proposals to measure coherent neutrino-nuclei scattering and neutrino-electron elastic scattering. We introduce a new comparative analysis between these experiments and show that in different types of new physics it is possible to obtain competitive bounds to those of present and future collider experiments. For the cases of leptoquarks and R-parity breaking interactions we found that the expected sensitivity for most of the future low energy experimental setups is better than the current constraints.

  12. Experience matters: Dogs (Canis familiaris) infer physical properties of objects from movement clues.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, Hika; Nabeoka, Yukari; Hori, Yusuke; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-03-01

    Reasoning about physical properties of objects such as heaviness by observing others' actions toward them is important and useful for adapting to the environment. In this study, we asked whether domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can use a human's action to infer a physical property of target objects. In Experiment 1, dogs watched an experimenter opening two differently loaded swinging doors with different corresponding degrees of effort, and then were allowed to open one of the doors. Dogs chose randomly between the two doors. In Experiment 2, we gave new dogs the same test as in Experiment 1, but only after giving them experience of opening the doors by themselves, so that they already knew that the doors could be either light or heavy. In this test the dogs reliably chose the light door. These results indicate that dogs are able to infer physical characteristics of objects from the latters' movement caused by human action, but that this inferential reasoning requires direct own experience of the objects.

  13. The Nature and Role of Thought Experiments in Solving Conceptual Physics Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kösem, Şule Dönertaş; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the possible variations of thought experiments in terms of their nature, purpose, and reasoning resources adopted during the solution of conceptual physics problems. A phenomenographic research approach was adopted for this study. Three groups of participants with varying levels of physics knowledge—low, medium, and high level—were selected in order to capture potential variations. Five participants were selected within each level group and the study was conducted with fifteen participants in total. Think aloud and retrospective questioning strategies were used throughout the individually conducted problem solving sessions to capture variations in the participants' thinking processes. The analysis of the data showed that thought experiments were actively used cognitive tools by participants from all there levels while working on the problems. Four different thought experiment structures were observed and categorized as limiting case, extreme case, simple case, and familiar case. It was also observed that participants conducted thought experiments for different purposes such as prediction, proof, and explanation. The reasoning resources behind the thought experiment processes were classified in terms of observed facts, intuitive principles, and scientific concepts. The results of the analysis suggested that thought experiments used as a creative reasoning tool for scientists can also be a productive tool for students. It was argued that instructional practices enriched with thought experiments and related practices not only reveal hidden elements of students' reasoning but also provide students opportunities to advance their inquiry skills through thought experimentation processes.

  14. Gender discrimination in physics and astronomy: Graduate student experiences of sexism and gender microaggressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelemy, Ramón S.; McCormick, Melinda; Henderson, Charles

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Sexism occurs when men are believed to be superior to women, and is thought to be one of the reasons for women's underrepresentation in physics and astronomy. The issue of sexism in physics and astronomy has not been thoroughly explored in the physics education literature and there is currently no clear language for discussing sexism in the field. This article seeks to begin a conversation on sexism in physics and astronomy and offer a starting point for language to discuss sexism in research groups and departments. Interviews with 21 women in graduate physics and astronomy programs are analyzed for their individual experiences of sexism. Although a subset of women did not report experiencing sexual discrimination, the majority experienced subtle insults and slights known as microaggressions. Other participants also experienced more traditional hostile sexism in the form of sexual harassment, gender role stereotypes, and overt discouragement. These results indicate the existence of sexism in the current culture of physics and astronomy, as well as the importance departments must put on eliminating it and educating students about sexism and microaggressions.

  15. Promoting physical activity for people with neurological disability: perspectives and experiences of physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Hilda; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Hale, Leigh; Thomas, David; Häger-Ross, Charlotte

    2011-08-01

    Both New Zealand and Sweden have health and disability policies that promote recreational exercise within society for people with disability. Despite these policies, levels of physical activity by people with disability in these countries are low. Physiotherapists are equipped to assist people with disabling conditions into physical activity. This qualitative study explored the perspectives and experiences of physiotherapists in New Zealand and Sweden toward promoting physically active recreation for adults with chronic neurological conditions. Nine physiotherapists who worked with adults with neurological disability in a range of long-term rehabilitation and community (home) health services were interviewed and the data analysed for themes. The physiotherapists described innovative and resourceful expertise to assist patients to be physically active. However, they perceived a lack of support for their work from within the health system and a lack of knowledge of disability issues within the recreational arena, both of which they perceived hindered their promotion of physical activity for people with neurological disability. Physiotherapists feel unable to fully support health and disability policies for the promotion of physically active recreation for people with neurological conditions, because of perceived constraints from within the recreational arena and their own health systems. If these constraints were addressed, then physiotherapists could be better agents to promote physical activity for people with neurological conditions.

  16. Status of the Jefferson Lab Polarized Beam Physics Program and Preparations for Upcoming Parity Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    J. Grames; P. Adderley; M. Baylac; J. Clark; A. Day; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman

    2003-07-01

    An ambitious nuclear physics research program continues at Jefferson Lab with Users at three experiment halls receiving reliable, highly polarized electrons at currents to 100 {micro}A. The polarized photoguns and drive lasers that contribute to Jefferson Lab's success will be described as well as significant events since PES2000. Typical of conditions at accelerators worldwide, success brings new challenges. Beam quality specifications continue to become more demanding as Users conduct more challenging experiments. In the months that follow this workshop, two parity violation experiments will begin at Jefferson Lab, G0 and HAPPEx2. The photogun requirements for these experiments will be discussed as well as our plans to eliminate/minimize systematic errors. Recent efforts to construct high power Ti-Sapphire drive lasers for these experiments also will be discussed.

  17. Use of Tablet Computers to Promote Physical Therapy Students' Engagement in Knowledge Translation During Clinical Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Kathryn; Barbosa, Sabrina; Jiang, Fei; Lee, Karin T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists strive to integrate research into daily practice. The tablet computer is a potentially transformational tool for accessing information within the clinical practice environment. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe patterns of tablet computer use among physical therapy students during clinical rotation experiences. Methods: Doctor of physical therapy students (n = 13 users) tracked their use of tablet computers (iPad), loaded with commercially available apps, during 16 clinical experiences (6-16 weeks in duration). Results: The tablets were used on 70% of 691 clinic days, averaging 1.3 uses per day. Information seeking represented 48% of uses; 33% of those were foreground searches for research articles and syntheses and 66% were for background medical information. Other common uses included patient education (19%), medical record documentation (13%), and professional communication (9%). The most frequently used app was Safari, the preloaded web browser (representing 281 [36.5%] incidents of use). Users accessed 56 total apps to support clinical practice. Discussion and Conclusions: Physical therapy students successfully integrated use of a tablet computer into their clinical experiences including regular activities of information seeking. Our findings suggest that the tablet computer represents a potentially transformational tool for promoting knowledge translation in the clinical practice environment. Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A127). PMID:26945431

  18. Studying Gender Bias in Physics Grading: The role of teaching experience and country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Sarah I.

    2015-11-01

    The existence of gender-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) stereotypes has been repeatedly documented. This article examines physics teachers' gender bias in grading and the influence of teaching experience in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects design, with years of teaching experience included as moderating variable, physics teachers (N = 780) from Switzerland, Austria, and Germany graded a fictive student's answer to a physics test question. While the answer was exactly the same for each teacher, only the student's gender and specialization in languages vs. science were manipulated. Specialization was included to gauge the relative strength of potential gender bias effects. Multiple group regression analyses, with the grade that was awarded as the dependent variable, revealed only partial cross-border generalizability of the effect pattern. While the overall results in fact indicated the existence of a consistent and clear gender bias against girls in the first part of physics teachers' careers that disappeared with increasing teaching experience for Swiss teachers, Austrian teachers, and German female teachers, German male teachers showed no gender bias effects at all. The results are discussed regarding their relevance for educational practice and research.

  19. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  20. An undergraduate experiment demonstrating the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, James T.; Whitehouse, Christopher B.; Oulton, Rupert F.; Gennaro, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel undergraduate research project that highlights the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans. We confirm the Helmholtz resonance nature of a single can by measuring its amplitude and phase response to a sound wave. Arranging multiple cans in arrays smaller than the wavelength, we then design an antenna that redirects sound into a preferred direction. The antenna can be thought of as a new resonator, composed of artificially engineered meta-atoms, similar to a metamaterial. These experiments are illustrative, tactile, and open ended so as to enable students to explore the physics of matter/wave interaction.

  1. UNIX trademark in high energy physics: What we can learn from the initial experiences at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1991-03-01

    The reasons why Fermilab decided to support the UNIX operating system are reviewed and placed in the content of an overall model for high energy physics data analysis. The strengths and deficiencies of the UNIX environment for high energy physics are discussed. Fermilab's early experience in dealing with a an open'' multivendor environment, both for computers and for peripherals, is described. The human resources required to fully exploit the opportunities are clearly growing. The possibility of keeping the development and support efforts within reasonable bounds may depend on our ability to collaborate or at least to share information even more effectively than we have in the past. 7 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The LUCIFER project and production issues for crystals needed in rare events physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinei, I.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of elusive particles and in general the construction of detectors with high sensitivity for applications in the physics of rare events requires the use of new high quality crystals with enhanced characteristics. The production of such materials often depends upon the application of dedicated methods for the entire production process from synthesis of raw materials up to the storage and transport of the finished product ready for use for the construction of the particle detector. Cryogenic bolometers and the more sophisticated scintillating bolometers are among the most promising detectors used in rare event physics, particularly in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD) experiments. Operated at extremely low temperatures (≈10 mK) such devices need high purity crystals with a very high crystal perfection and low level of intrinsic radioactivity. Moreover, in the case of 0νDBD application, the crystal requires the presence of the nuclide of interest in a sufficient amount i.e. isotope enriched materials are employed. The current work reviews scientific and technological aspects related to the crystal production for rare events physics experiments, particularly for bolometric application. In the case of enriched isotopes used in 0νDBD experiments, the problems related to a maximum production yield are stressed. The discussion is illustrated with results obtained in the activities connected to the procurement of ZnSe crystals for the experiment Low-background Underground Cryogenic Installation For Elusive Rates (LUCIFER).

  3. Virtual laboratory: assessment of a b-learning experience for teaching Physics in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablanque, J.; Seidel, L.; Losada, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    During the autumn semester of 2008/09 term, we have carried out an experience of teaching an innovative subject at our University. The subject is open and elective for all the students at the University, most of them in Engineering degrees. We call it "Physics virtual laboratory ". The students use a CMS (course management system) for accessing the syllabus, and the materials for the course. These materials include videos, sound and rich text for describing some well known experiments in a Physics lab. They also have a test for each unit and have to submit a written essay for every experiment at a fixed date. They work with the help of the teacher that answer their questions and provide solutions for the exercises, so this course is not entirely e-learning, but rather blended learning. For every unit, we have prepared materials that serve as a guide for the experiment, without being physically at the laboratory and without measuring any physical quantities. All the necessary data are given, and the real apparatus are shown in videos embedded in the document and described in detail. The experiments chosen cover those found in a typical Physics lab: kinematics in an air-cushion rail, Boyle-Mariotte law, magnetic field inside a solenoid, simple circuits, lenses… The number is limited to seven experiments for time constraint reasons. In a given experiment, we put emphasis in quantifying the uncertainty of the results, and several ways of calculating it are explained in detail using Excel spreadsheets. After the subject has ended, we have gathered feedback from the students, and have taken note of how they rate it compared with more traditional subjects. Also, we assess our work and the usefulness of the materials and the fitness of the structure of the subject. This is important for assuring that the change in methodology is better for the learing process. In this communication we present the results of this assessment and try to reach some conclusions that might be

  4. The Source Physics Experiments (SPE): A Physics-Based Approach to Discriminate Low-Yield Nuclear Events (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Discriminating low-yield nuclear explosions is one of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification. Work is currently underway in Nevada to address this challenge by conducting a series of experiments using a physics-based approach. This has been accomplished by using a multifaceted, multi-disciplinary approach that includes a range of activities, from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data both in the near field (< 100 m from the source) to the far field (> 100 m to 10 s km from the source). The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center. The goal of the SPE is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and to understand how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. To fully explore these problems, the SPE test series includes tests in both simple and complex geology cases. The current series is being conducted in a highly fractured granite body. This location was chosen, in part, because it was the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body and because generally the geology has been well characterized. In addition to historic data, high-resolution seismic reflection, cross-hole tomography, core samples, LIDAR, hyperspectral, and fracture mapping data have been acquired to further characterize and detect changes after each of the shot across the test bed. The complex geology series includes 7 planned shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival, Velocity of Detonation, down-hole accelerometers, surface accelerometers

  5. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Stuart, N. H.; Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Patankar, S.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Grouchy, P. de; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.

    2014-11-15

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-α) from a laser plasma source driven by a ∼7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  6. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Burdiak, G C; Suttle, L; Stuart, N H; Swadling, G F; Lebedev, S V; Smith, R A; Patankar, S; Suzuki-Vidal, F; de Grouchy, P; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Pickworth, L; Skidmore, J

    2014-11-01

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-α) from a laser plasma source driven by a ∼7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  7. Freshman year computer engineering students' experiences for flipped physics lab class: An action research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akı, Fatma Nur; Gürel, Zeynep

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the university students' learning experiences about flipped-physics laboratory class. The research has been completed during the fall semester of 2015 at Computer Engineering Department of Istanbul Commerce University. In this research, also known as a teacher qualitative research design, action research method is preferred to use. The participants are ten people, including seven freshman and three junior year students of Computer Engineering Department. The research data was collected at the end of the semester with the focus group interview which includes structured and open-ended questions. And data was evaluated with categorical content analysis. According to the results, students have some similar and different learning experiences to flipped education method for physics laboratory class.

  8. Compact Muon Production and Collection Scheme for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Neuffer, David V.

    2014-11-10

    The relative immunity of muons to synchrotron radiation suggests that they might be used in place of electrons as probes in fundamental high-energy physics experiments. Muons are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. However, the large angle and energy dispersion of the initial beams as well as the short muon lifetime limits many potential applications. Here, we describe a fast method for manipulating the longitudinal and transverse phase-space of a divergent pion-muon beam to enable efficient capture and downstream transport with minimum losses. We also discuss the design of a handling system for the removal of unwanted secondary particles from the target region and thus reduce activation of the machine. The compact muon source we describe can be used for fundamental physics research in neutrino experiments.

  9. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  10. Computational experiment on the numerical solution of some inverse problems of mathematical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Kardashevsky, A. M.; Sivtsev, PV

    2016-11-01

    In this article the computational experiment on the numerical solution of the most popular linear inverse problems for equations of mathematical physics are presented. The discretization of retrospective inverse problem for parabolic equation is performed using difference scheme with non-positive weight multiplier. Similar difference scheme is also used for the numerical solution of Cauchy problem for two-dimensional Laplace equation. The results of computational experiment, performed on model problems with exact solution, including ones with randomly perturbed input data are presented and discussed.

  11. DZero (D0) Experiment Results for Higgs Physics from the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Data Explorer

    The D0 (DZero) Experiment is a worldwide collaboration of scientists conducting research on the fundamental nature of matter. The experiment is located at the Tevatron Collider, at Fermilab. The research is focused on precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons and involves an intense search for subatomic clues that reveal the character of the building blocks of the universe. This web page provides access to Run II research results of the Higgs Physics group, including preliminary, submitted, and published results. Figures and data plots are found in the directories with their respective papers.

  12. DZero (D0) Experiment Results for QCD Physics from the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Data Explorer

    The D0 (DZero) Experiment is a worldwide collaboration of scientists conducting research on the fundamental nature of matter. The experiment is located at the Tevatron Collider, at Fermilab. The research is focused on precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons at the highest available energies. It involves an intense search for subatomic clues that reveal the character of the building blocks of the universe. This web page provides access to Run II research results of the QCD Physics group, including preliminary, submitted, and published results. Figures and data plots are found in the same directories with their respective papers.

  13. DZero (D0) Experiment Results for Top Quark Physics from the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Data Explorer

    The D0 (DZero) Experiment is a worldwide collaboration of scientists conducting research on the fundamental nature of matter. The experiment is located at the Tevatron Collider, Fermilab. The research is focused on precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons and involves an intense search for subatomic clues that reveal the character of the building blocks of the universe. This web page provides access to Run II research results of the Top Quark Physics group, including preliminary, submitted, and published results. Figures and data plots are found in the directories with their respective papers.

  14. DZero (D0) Experiment Results for Electroweak Physics from the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Data Explorer

    The D0 (DZero) Experiment is a worldwide collaboration of scientists conducting research on the fundamental nature of matter. The experiment is located at the Tevatron Collider, Fermilab. The research is focused on precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons and involves an intense search for subatomic clues that reveal the character of the building blocks of the universe. This web page provides access to Run II research results of the Electroweak Physics group, including preliminary, submitted, and published results. Figures and data plots are found in the directories with their respective papers.

  15. Physics of Colloids in Space--Plus (PCS+) Experiment Completed Flight Acceptance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space--Plus (PCS+) experiment successfully completed system-level flight acceptance testing in the fall of 2003. This testing included electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing, vibration testing, and thermal testing. PCS+, an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack payload will deploy a second set of colloid samples within the PCS flight hardware system that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) from April 2001 to June 2002. PCS+ is slated to return to the ISS in late 2004 or early 2005.

  16. An analysis of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemsitry experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to analysis the quality of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemistry experiment of Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was descriptive qualitative. The samples of this research were 2nd semester student, class of 2015. Scientific data of learning process were collected by observation sheet and documentation of seven title experimental. The results showed that the achievement of scientific learning process on observing, questioning, experimenting and associating data were 73.98%; 81.79%; 80.74%; and 76.94% respectively, which categorized as medium. Furthermore, for aspect communicating had high category at 86.11% of level achievement.

  17. Environmental Physical Modulation of Intrinsic Tendency to Growth of Multicellular Tumour Spheroids: In Silico Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffa, M.; Scalerandi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lowering in nutrient local availability and rising in host mechanical rigidity are two distinct boundary conditions that affect the growth of solid a-vascular cancers in similar ways (inhibition of growth). In silico experiments based on a physical-mathematical model can shed light on some of the mechanisms at the basis of these effects and suggest that the self-organizing properties of neoplastic populations are greatly modulated by environmental restrictions.

  18. DZero (D0) Experiment Results for B Physics from the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Data Explorer

    ,

    The DZero b-Physics Working Group studies all issues related to the b-quark at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Topics we are working on include CP violation, measurements of B hadron properties (masses, lifetimes, decay branching ratios, production mechanisms), and searches for rare decays. The D0 (DZero) Experiment consists of a worldwide collaboration of scientists conducting research on the fundamental nature of matter.

  19. Laser Diagnostics for Wire Array Z-Pinch Shock Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    ASAY,JAMES R.; BAILEY,JAMES E.; HALL,CLINT A.; KNUDSON,MARCUS D.; TROTT,WAYNE M.

    1999-09-01

    The Z Accelerator is a fast pulse power facility capable of performing high-pressure studies of the dynamic response of materials under loading conditions unachievable with other methods. A variety of advanced laser diagnostics have been implemented on the facility for shock physics experiments. These include multipoint laser velocity interferometry,line and full field velocity interferometry, time-resolved optical and uv spectroscopy, and both active and passive shock breakout.

  20. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  1. The Resolution Dependence of Model Physics: Illustrations from Nonhydrostatic Model Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to gain insight into the resolution dependence of model physics, the parameterization of moist convection in particular, which is required for accurately predicting large-scale features of the atmosphere. To achieve this goal, experiments using a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic model with different resolutions are conducted under various idealized tropical conditions. For control experiments (CONTROL), the model is run as a cloud-system-resolving model (CSRM). Next, a “large-scale dynamics model” (LSDM) is introduced as a diagnostic tool, which is a coarser-resolution version of the same model but with only partial or no physics. Then, the LSDM is applied to an ensemble of realizations selected from CONTROL and a “required parameterized source” (RPS) is identified for the results of the LSDM to become consistent with CONTROL as far as the resolvable scales are concerned.The analysis of RPS diagnosed in this way confirms that RPS is highly resolution dependent in the range of typical resolutions of mesoscale models even in ensemble/space averages, while “real source” (RS) is not. The time interval of implementing model physics also matters for RPS. It is emphasized that model physics in future prediction models should automatically produce these resolution dependencies so that the need for retuning parameterizations as resolution changes can be minimized.

  2. The Physical Layer Security Experiments of Cooperative Communication System with Different Relay Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Su, Yishan; Han, Guangyao; Fu, Xiaomei; Xu, Naishen; Jin, Zhigang

    2017-04-06

    Physical layer security is an attractive security mechanism, which exploits the randomness characteristics of wireless transmission channel to achieve security. However, it is hampered by the limitation of the channel condition that the main channel must be better than the eavesdropper channel. To alleviate the limitation, cooperative communication is introduced. Few studies have investigated the physical layer security of the relay transmission model. In this paper, we performed some experiments to evaluate the physical layer security of a cooperative communication system, with a relay operating in decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative mode, selfish and malicious behavior in real non-ideal transmission environment. Security performance is evaluated in terms of the probability of non-zero secrecy capacity. Experiments showed some different results compared to theoretical simulation: (1) to achieve the maximum secrecy capacity, the optimal relay power according to the experiments result is larger than that of ideal theoretical results under both cooperative and selfish behavior relay; (2) the relay in malicious behavior who forwards noise to deteriorate the main channel may deteriorate the eavesdropper channel more seriously than the main channel; (3) the optimal relay positions under cooperative and selfish behavior relay cases are both located near the destination because of non-ideal transmission.

  3. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  4. Probing Pre-and In-Service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these…

  5. Still Feeling like a Spare Piece of Luggage? Embodied Experiences of (Dis)Ability in Physical Education and School Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses an increasing concern within physical education and sports research to engage with young people to find out more about their experiences of physical education and school sport. In particular, I centre my concerns on the experiences of five young disabled pupils. I use the conceptual tools offered by Bourdieu to extend…

  6. Physics of Hard Sphere Experiment: Scattering, Rheology and Microscopy Study of Colloidal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Z.-D.; Zhu, J.; Phan, S.-E.; Russel, W. B.; Chaikin, P. M.; Meyer, W. V.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Sphere Experiment has two incarnations: the first as a scattering and rheology experiment on STS-83 and STS-94 and the second as a microscopy experiment to be performed in the future on LMM on the space station. Here we describe some of the quantitative and qualitative results from previous flights on the dynamics of crystallization in microgravity and especially the observed interaction of growing crystallites in the coexistance regime. To clarify rheological measurements we also present ground based experiments on the low shear rate viscosity and diffusion coefficient of several hard sphere experiments at high volume fraction. We also show how these experiments will be performed with confocal microscopy and laser tweezers in our lab and as preparation for the phAse II experiments on LMM. One of the main aims of the microscopy study will be the control of colloidal samples using an array of applied fields with an eye toward colloidal architectures. Temperature gradients, electric field gradients, laser tweezers and a variety of switchable imposed surface patterns are used toward this control.

  7. Physical examination of arteriovenous fistula: The influence of professional experience in the detection of complications.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Teles, Paulo; Dias, Vanessa Filipa Ferreira; Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta Jesus Silva; Martins, Maria Manuela

    2014-07-01

    Vascular access is one of the leading causes of mobilization of financial resources in health systems for people with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications. We decided to evaluate the influence of nurses' professional experience in the detection of complications of the AVF (venous stenosis and steal syndrome). The study took place in eight hemodialysis centers between May and September of 2011 in the north of Portugal. Sample was constituted by registered nurses. The nurses involved in the experiment were divided in two groups: those who had more than 5 years of experience and those who had less than 5 years of experience. Ninety-two nurses participated in the study: 34 nurses had less than 5 years of professional experience and 58 had more than 5 years of professional experience. In the practices considered by nurses in the detection of venous stenosis, there were no differences observed between the groups (P > 0.05). In steal syndrome, there were no differences observed between the groups in the practices of the nurses in the detection of this complication of the AVF (P > 0.05). We concluded that professional experience does not influence the detection of venous stenosis and steal syndrome.

  8. Experiences of Habitual Physical Activity in Maintaining Roles and Functioning among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141

  9. Physics and biophysics experiments needed for improved risk assessment in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, L.

    To improve the risk assessment of radiation carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects, acute syndromes, synergistic effects of radiation and microgravity or other spacecraft factors, and hereditary effects, on future LEO and interplanetary space missions, the radiobiological effects of cosmic radiation before and after shielding must be well understood. However, cosmic radiation is very complex and includes low and high LET components of many different neutral and charged particles. The understanding of the radiobiology of the heavy ions, from GCRs and SPEs, is still a subject of great concern due to the complicated dependence of their biological effects on the type of ion and energy, and its interaction with various targets both outside and within the spacecraft and the human body. In order to estimate the biological effects of cosmic radiation, accurate knowledge of the physics of the interactions of both charged and non-charged high-LET particles is necessary. Since it is practically impossible to measure all primary and secondary particles from all projectile-target-energy combinations needed for a correct risk assessment in space, accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes might be a helpful instrument to overcome those difficulties. These codes have to be carefully validated to make sure they fulfill preset accuracy criteria, e.g. to be able to predict particle fluence and energy distributions within a certain accuracy. When validating the accuracy of the transport codes, both space and ground-based accelerator experiments are needed. In this paper current and future physics and biophysics experiments needed for improved risk assessment in space will be discussed. The cyclotron HIRFL (heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou) and the new synchrotron CSR (cooling storage ring), which can be used to provide ion beams for space related experiments at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP-CAS), will be presented together with

  10. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles

  11. UV Radiation: a new first year physics/life sciences laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.; Siddaway, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unfortunately, Australia leads the world in the number of skin cancer cases per capita. Three major factors that contribute to this are: 1) the level of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Australia is higher than in many other countries. This is caused, among other factors, by the stratospheric ozone depletion and Antarctic ozone hole; 2) many people in Australia are of Irish-Scottish origin and their skin can not repair the damage caused by the UV radiation as effectively as the skin of people of other origins; 3) Australia is one of the world’s leaders in the outdoor activities where people tend to spend more time outside. As our experience has shown, most Australian University students, high school students, and even high school teachers were largely unaware of the UV damage details and effective safety measures. Therefore, a need for new ways to educate people became apparent. The general aim of this new 1st year laboratory experiment, developed and first offered at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) in 2009, is to investigate how UV-B radiation levels change under various solar illumination conditions and how effective different types of protection are. After pre-lab readings on physical concepts and biological effects of UV radiation, and after solving all pre-lab problems, the students go outside and measure the actual change in UV-B and UV-A radiation levels under various conditions. Some of these conditions are: direct sun, shade from a building, shade under the roof, reflection from various surfaces, direct sun through cheap and expensive sunglasses and eyeglasses, direct sun through various types of cloth and hair. The equipment used is the UV-Probe manufactured by sglux SolGel Technologies GmbH. The students’ feedback on this new laboratory experiment was very positive. It was ranked top among all physics experiments offered as part of that subject (Physics for Life Sciences) in 2009 and top among all physics experiments presented for

  12. Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research Experiences in Geosciences for Physical Science and Engineering Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bililign, S.; Schimmel, K.; Lin, Y. L.; Germuth, A.

    2014-12-01

    The recruitment of undergraduate students, especially minorities, into geoscience career paths continues to be a challenge. One approach for addressing this issue involves providing geoscience research experiences. Therefore, the outcomes of an undergraduate research program (REU) focused on recruiting science (physics, mathematics, chemistry) and engineering (electrical) students for an interdisciplinary research experience in geosciences will be presented. The program design has several unique features that include: (1) projects with clear societal implications, (2) projects involve multiple faculty members (at least two) and expose students to interdisciplinary approaches and thinking, (3) partnerships between national labs and universities to provide cutting-edge research, educational, and professional development opportunities for students, (4) student engagement in the creation of personalized professional development plans, (5) combined summer and academic year research experiences. Pre- and post-assessment results, successes, and challenges will be presented.

  13. Lessons from the GP-B Experience for Future Fundamental Physics Missions in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    Gravity Probe B launched in April 2004 and completed its science data collection in September 2005, with the objective of sub-milliarcsec measurement of two General Relativistic effects on the spin axis orientation of orbiting gyroscopes. Much of the technology required by GP-B has potential application in future missions intended to make precision measurements. The philosophical approach and experiment design principles developed for GP-B are equally adaptable to these mission concepts. This talk will discuss GP-B's experimental approach and the technological and philosophical lessons learned that apply to future experiments in fundamental physics. Measurement of fundamental constants to high precision, probes of short-range forces, searches for equivalence principle violations, and detection of gravitational waves are examples of concepts and missions that will benefit kern GP-B's experience.

  14. As-Run Physics Analysis for the UCSB-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Joseph Wayne

    2015-09-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) -1 experiment was irradiated in the A-10 position of the ATR. The experiment was irradiated during cycles 145A, 145B, 146A, and 146B. Capsule 6A was removed from the test train following Cycle 145A and replaced with Capsule 6B. This report documents the as-run physics analysis in support of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the test. This report documents the as-run fluence and displacements per atom (DPA) for each capsule of the experiment based on as-run operating history of the ATR. Average as-run heating rates for each capsule are also presented in this report to support the thermal analysis.

  15. Post-Shot Surface Damage Detected with LIDAR at the Source Physics Experiment Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Cooper, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiment series is being conducted at a location in Nevada and provides an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. A fourth shot (SPE 4) is planned for August 2013 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent shot at a depth of 315 ft (96 m). Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  16. The Research Experience for Undergraduates Program in Solar and Space Physics at the University of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, M.; Wood, E.; Cobabe-Amman, E.; Baker, D.; Renfrow, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Solar and Space Physics is a collaboration between the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research's High Altitude Observatory (HAO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Northwest Research Associates' Colorado Research Associates (CoRA). The goal of the program is to give students real-world, hands-on experience doing research with scientist mentors and to further their intended careers. Our program began in 2007 and is entering its fourth year. Mentors from the member institutions have supervised over fifty research projects dealing with all aspects of Solar and Space Physics. The students begin their eight-week visit to Boulder with a week of classes on the Sun-Earth system as well as practical courses on data analysis and the IDL programming language. The students give a 30 minute oral presentation of their project as well as a poster in a student symposium at the end of the program. Throughout the summer, the students give progress reports at weekly brown-bag lunch meetings. In addition to their own research projects at their host institution, the students tour and meet scientists from the partner institutions as the weekly lunches rotate from site to site. There are also opportunities for students to network with scientists in an informal way at the excursions we organize which include barbecues and weekend outings.

  17. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPh

  18. Medical physics staffing for radiation oncology: a decade of experience in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Battista, Jerry J; Clark, Brenda G; Patterson, Michael S; Beaulieu, Luc; Sharpe, Michael B; Schreiner, L John; MacPherson, Miller S; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2012-01-05

    The January 2010 articles in The New York Times generated intense focus on patient safety in radiation treatment, with physics staffing identified frequently as a critical factor for consistent quality assurance. The purpose of this work is to review our experience with medical physics staffing, and to propose a transparent and flexible staffing algorithm for general use. Guided by documented times required per routine procedure, we have developed a robust algorithm to estimate physics staffing needs according to center-specific workload for medical physicists and associated support staff, in a manner we believe is adaptable to an evolving radiotherapy practice. We calculate requirements for each staffing type based on caseload, equipment inventory, quality assurance, educational programs, and administration. Average per-case staffing ratios were also determined for larger-scale human resource planning and used to model staffing needs for Ontario, Canada over the next 10 years. The workload specific algorithm was tested through a survey of Canadian cancer centers. For center-specific human resource planning, we propose a grid of coefficients addressing specific workload factors for each staff group. For larger scale forecasting of human resource requirements, values of 260, 700, 300, 600, 1200, and 2000 treated cases per full-time equivalent (FTE) were determined for medical physicists, physics assistants, dosimetrists, electronics technologists, mechanical technologists, and information technology specialists, respectively.

  19. BELLE High Energy Physics Experiment at the KEK B-factory: Data and Physics Results for CPV, Rare, DKM, 5S, Charm, Tau, and New Particles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Belle is a high-energy physics (HEP) experiment that began in 1999 at the KEK B-factory in Japan under the direction of the International Belle Collaboration. The Collaboration was formed around the common interest of clarifying a long standing physics puzzle, that of CP violation. The goal of the experiments was to make a definitive test of the Standard Models predictions for CP violations in the decays of B mesons. The original Belle experiment verified the KM theory, leading to a Nobel prize in 2008 for Kobayashi and Maskawa. Belle II Collaboration is now working on additional discoveries.

  20. Physical properties of zircon and scheelite lutetium orthovanadate: Experiment and first-principles calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zuocai; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Wei

    2013-09-15

    Pure zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} were prepared by solid state reaction and high-pressure route, respectively. Structure, elastic constants, lattice dynamics and thermodynamics of LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were studied by experiments and first principles calculation. Calculations here are in good agreement with the experimental results. The phonon dispersions of LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were studied by the linear response method. The calculated phonon dispersions show that zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} phases are dynamically stable. Raman-active frequencies were measured and assigned to different modes according to the calculations. The internal frequencies shift downward after phase transition from zircon to scheelite. Born effective charge tensors elements for both phases are analyzed. The finite temperature thermodynamic properties of LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were calculated from the obtained phonon density of states by quasi-harmonic approach. - Graphical abstract: Lutetium orthovanadate polymorphs were synthesized by SSR and HP methods and their physical and chemical properties, including lattice dynamical properties, were determined by DFT calculations and experiments. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pure zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were synthesized by solid state reaction and high-pressure route. • Chemical and physical properties of LuVO4 polymorphs were studied by experiments and first principles calculation. • Raman-active frequencies were measured and assigned to different modes according to the calculations. • Lattice dynamics of polymorphs were discussed in details.

  1. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physics Experiments, Photonics Applications and Web Engineering, Wilga, May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonicselectronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium is an annual summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP students to meet together in a large group spanning the whole country with guests from this part of Europe. A digest of Wilga references is presented [1-275].

  2. Physics requirements for the design of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Virdee, T S

    2012-02-28

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider are discovery experiments. Thus, the aim was to make them sensitive to the widest possible range of new physics. New physics is likely to reveal itself in addressing questions such as: how do particles acquire mass; what is the particle responsible for dark matter; what is the path towards unification; do we live in a world with more space-time dimensions than the familiar four? The detection of the Higgs boson, conjectured to give mass to particles, was chosen as a benchmark to test the performance of the proposed experiment designs. Higgs production is one of the most demanding hypothesized processes in terms of required detector resolution and background discrimination. ATLAS and CMS feature full coverage, 4π-detectors to measure precisely the energies, directions and identity of all the particles produced in proton-proton collisions. Realizing this goal has required the collaborative efforts of enormous teams of people from around the world.

  3. Large-N Seismic Deployment at the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary project that consists of a series of chemical explosion experiments at the Nevada National Security Site. The goal of SPE is to understand the complicated effect of earth structures on source energy partitioning and seismic wave propagation, develop and validate physics-based monitoring, and ultimately better discriminate low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity. Deployment of a large number of seismic sensors is planned for SPE to image the full 3-D wavefield with about 500 three-component sensors and 500 vertical component sensors. This large-N seismic deployment will operate near the site of SPE-5 shot for about one month, recording the SPE-5 shot, ambient noise, and additional controlled-sources. This presentation focuses on the design of the large-N seismic deployment. We show how we optimized the sensor layout based on the geological structure and experiment goals with a limited number of sensors. In addition, we will also show some preliminary record sections from deployment. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. From Earth to Heaven: Using `Newton's Cannon' Thought Experiment for Teaching Satellite Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia

    2013-10-01

    Thought Experiments are powerful tools in both scientific thinking and in the teaching of science. In this study, the historical Thought Experiment (TE) `Newton's Cannon' was used as a tool to teach concepts relating to the motion of satellites to students at upper secondary level. The research instruments were: (a) a teaching-interview designed and implemented according to the Teaching Experiment methodology and (b) an open-ended questionnaire administered to students 2 weeks after the teaching-interview. The sample consisted of forty students divided into eleven groups. The teaching and learning processes which occurred during the teaching-interview were recorded and analyzed. The findings of the present study show that the use of the TE helped students to mentally construct a physical system which has nothing to do with their everyday experience (i.e. they had to imagine themselves as observers in a context in which the whole Earth was visible) and to draw conclusions about phenomena within this system. Specifically, students managed (1) to conclude that if an object is appropriately launched, it may be placed in an orbit around the Earth and to support this conclusion by giving necessary arguments, and (2) to realize that the same laws of physics describe, on the one hand, the motion of the Moon around the Earth (and the motion of other celestial bodies as well) and, on the other hand, the motion of `terrestrial' objects (i.e. objects on the Earth, such as a tennis ball). The main difficulties students met were caused by their idea that there is no gravity in the vacuum (i.e. the area outside of the Earth's atmosphere) and also by their everyday experience, according to which it is impossible for a projectile to move continuously parallel to the ground.

  5. Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse by male intimates: experiences of women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, M; Sorenson, S B

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the nature of violence (physical, emotional, and sexual) perpetrated by Japanese men against their female intimates. Data were collected in a nationwide mail questionnaire survey with a convenience sample of 796 women between July and December, 1992. Most respondents were currently married and working full-time; average age was 43.5 years. Over three fourths reported at least one type of violence perpetrated by their male intimate partner. These Japanese women reported a wide range of abuse--from a slap to an assault with a deadly weapon, from verbal ridicules to restriction of social activities, and from incompliance with contraception to forced, violent sex. About two thirds of the most serious physically violent incidents resulted in injury. Sociocultural factors unique to Japanese women's experiences of male violence are identified and discussed along with their implications for prevention and intervention.

  6. Manufacturing of calcium, lithium and molybdenum targets for use in nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheswa, N. Y.; Papka, P.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Lieder, R. M.; Neveling, R.; Newman, R. T.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes methods used in the manufacturing of chemically reactive targets such as calcium ( natCa), lithium-6 ( 6Li) and molybdenum-97 ( 97Mo) for nuclear physics experiments at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility (Faure, South Africa). Due to the chemical properties of these materials a suitable and controlled environment was established in order to minimize oxygen contamination of targets. Calcium was prepared by means of vacuum evaporation while lithium was cold rolled to a desired thickness. In the case of molybdenum, the metallic powder was melted under vacuum using an e-gun followed by cold rolling of the metal bead to a desired thickness. In addition, latest developments toward the establishment of a dedicated nuclear physics target laboratory are discussed.

  7. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-12-31

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells.

  8. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Emily; Snelson, Catherine M; Chipman, Veraun D; Emer, Dudley; White, Bob; Emmit, Ryan; Wright, Al; Drellack, Sigmund; Huckins-Gang, Heather; Mercadante, Jennifer; Floyd, Michael; McGowin, Chris; Cothrun, Chris; Bonal, Nedra

    2013-12-05

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined.

  9. User experiences of mobile controlled games for activation, rehabilitation and recreation of elderly and physically impaired.

    PubMed

    Sirkka, Andrew; Merilampi, Sari; Koivisto, Antti; Leinonen, Markus; Leino, Mirka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study how aged people experience mobile controlled game as a method of rehabilitation and recreation. The target group contained persons 70+ years of age living in assisted living conditions (N=34). The average age of the participants was 85.9 years. Women (n=17) and men (n=17) were equally presented in the sample group. Only 12 % (n=4) of participants were involved in an active weekly-based rehabilitation, light physical sitting exercises 38% (n=13). Three (n=3) of the participants (9%) used computers (net banking), and 20 (59%) used mobile phones on daily basis. Social activities and physical activation seem to be rather inadequate and traditional in assisted living organizations. The overall experiences of mobile controlled game described in this paper appeared to be a successful experiment also proving that the elderly are not as reluctant to use technical devices or playing virtual games as often thought. The game was reckoned very motivating, interesting, and entertaining both by the aged and the staff. Activation, rehabilitation and recreation in the elderly homes or assisted living organizations could benefit from utilization of new technology providing new ways and solutions that motivate the users and offer also possibilities for measuring and follow-up of the physical impacts. The future goals to improve the game were set according to the feedback given in this survey: a) wider variety of controlling modes for the game, b) developing various difficulty levels, c) developing the game to support different kinds of body movements, d) easily modified according to the individual user's exercising or rehabilitation needs as well as e) emphasizing the social aspects of the game by producing multiplayer versions.

  10. Frontiers of the Physics of Dense Plasmas and Planetary Interiors: Experiment, Theory, Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, J J; Glenzer, S H; Koenig, M; Brambrink, E; Militzer, B; Saumon, D; Valencia, D

    2008-09-12

    We review recent developments of dynamic x-ray characterization experiments of dense matter, with particular emphasis on conditions relevant to interiors of terrestrial and gas giant planets. These studies include characterization of compressed states of matter in light elements by x-ray scattering and imaging of shocked iron by radiography. We examine several applications of this work. These include the structure of massive 'Super Earth' terrestrial planets around other stars, the 40 known extrasolar gas giants with measured masses and radii, and Jupiter itself, which serves as our benchmark for giant planets. We are now in an era of dramatic improvement in our knowledge of the physics of materials at high density. For light elements, this theoretical and experimental work has many applications, including internal confinement fusion as well as the interiors of gas giant planets. For heavy elements, experiments on silicates and iron at high pressure are helping to better understand the Earth, as well as terrestrial planets as a class of objects. In particular, the discovery of rocky and gaseous planets in other planetary systems has opened our imaginations to planets not found in our own solar system. While the fields of experiments of matter at high densities, first principles calculations of equations of state (EOS), planetary science, and astronomy do progress independently of each other, it is important for there to be communication between fields. For instance, in the realm of planets, physicists can learn of key problems that exist in the area of planetary structure, and how advances in our understanding of input physics could shed new light in this area. Astronomers and planetary scientists can learn where breakthroughs in physics of materials under extreme conditions are occurring, and be ready to apply these findings within their fields.

  11. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for

  12. Striving to be in the profession and of It: the African American experience in physical education and kinesiology.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, David K; Wiggins, Brenda P

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzes the experiences of African Americans in the physical education and kinesiology profession since the late 1850s. Using a variety of primary and secondary source material, we place special emphasis on the experiences of African American physical educators in higher education and in the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance and its southern, regional, and state chapters. Apparent from this examination is that African Americans have experienced various forms of racially discriminatory practices in physical education and kinesiology and have found it extraordinarily difficult to assume leader ship positions in the profession and be acknowledged for their scholarly and academic accomplishments.

  13. Recent Advances and Cross-Century Outlooks in Physics, Interplay between Theory and Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Interdisciplinary Topics * SUPERSYMMETRY * Supersymmetry, Noncommutative Geometry and Ultimate Unification * Supersymmetry and Beam Dynamics * Brane World * Dynamical Symmetries in High-Temperature Superconductivity * BEAM, PLASMA, GRAVITATION, AND ASTRONOMY * Toroidal Akfvén Eigenmode Experiments in TFTR * Empirical Tests of the Relativistic Gravity: The Past, the Present and the Future * Radio Astronomy in Taiwan: (Personal) Highlights * PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS * Is There only Top Quark? Review of Top Results * Some Topics on Double Heavy Mesons: Heavy Quarkonia and Bc Meson * Softly Broken CP Symmetry * A Pilot Experiment with Reactor Neutrinos in Taiwan * The Composition of the Proton Spin * Recent Results from Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility * SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AND ATOMIC PHYSICS * Synchrotron Radiation/Laser and Doubly-Excited Atoms * Multiply Excited States for Lithium * FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT * An Introduction to Topological Orders and Edge Excitations in Quantum Hall States * Phases and Phase Transitions in the Quantum Hall Effect * Chiral Luttinger Liquids at the Fractional Quantum Hall Edge * HIGH-Tc SUPERCONDUCTOR PHYSICS * Two Energy Gaps in Cuprate Superconductors: Clues to the High-Tc Mechanism * Applications of High Temperature Superconductors * Magnetism and Superconductivity in Ru-Based Perovskites * Correlation between Crystal Symmetry, Weak Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in Distorted T'-phase Cuprates * CHAOS * An Overview of Chaos * Chaotic Dynamics: Introduction and Recent Developments * Chaos in Accelerators * HIGHLIGHTS OF PHYSICS ADVANCES IN TAIWAN * Solving the X-Ray Phase Problem for omolecular Crystals by Multi-Wave X-Ray Interference * BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION * Bogoliubov Dispersion Relation and the Possibility of Superfluidity for Weakly-interacting Photons * Bose-Einstein Effects in High-Energy Physics * Physics without Borders

  14. Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Anderson, R.C.; Bartlett, P.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Christensen, P.R.; Chu, P.; Crumpler, L.; Davis, K.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Gorevan, S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Guinness, E.A.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Landis, G.; Li, R.; Lindemann, R.; McSween, H.; Ming, D. W.; Myrick, T.; Richter, L.; Seelos, F.P.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wang, A.; Wilson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The precise location and relative elevation of Spirit during its traverses from the Columbia Memorial station to Bonneville crater were determined with bundle-adjusted retrievals from rover wheel turns, suspension and tilt angles, and overlapping images. Physical properties experiments show a decrease of 0.2% per Mars solar day in solar cell output resulting from deposition of airborne dust, cohesive soil-like deposits in plains and hollows, bright and dark rock coatings, and relatively weak volcanic rocks of basaltic composition. Volcanic, impact, aeolian, and water-related processes produced the encountered landforms and materials.

  15. Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Anderson, R. C.; Bartlett, P.; Bell, J. F., III; Blaney, D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chu, P.; Crumpler, L.; Davis, K.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M. P.; Gorevan, S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Guinness, E. A.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Landis, G.; Li, R.; Lindemann, R.; Ming, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The precise location and relative elevation of Spirit during its traverses from the Columbia Memorial station to Bonneville crater were determined with bundle-adjusted retrievals from rover wheel turns, suspension and tilt angles, and overlapping images. Physical properties experiments show a decrease of 0.2% per Mars solar day in solar cell output resulting from deposition of airborne dust, cohesive soil-like deposits in plains and hollows, bright and dark rock coatings, and relatively weak volcanic rocks of basaltic composition. Volcanic, impact, aeolian, and water-related processes produced the encountered landforms and materials.

  16. Optical Microscopy Characterization for Borehole U-15n#12 in Support of NCNS Source Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Jennifer E.; Sussman, Aviva Joy

    2015-05-22

    Optical microscopy characterization of thin sections from corehole U-15n#12 is part of a larger material characterization effort for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE program was conducted in Nevada with a series of explosive tests designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves inside Stock quartz monzonite. Optical microscopy analysis includes the following: 1) imaging of full thin sections (scans and mosaic maps); 2) high magnification imaging of petrographic texture (grain size, foliations, fractures, etc.); and 3) measurement of microfracture density.

  17. The Main Injector Particle Physics Experiment (MIPP FNAL E-907) at Fermilab status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran

    2008-01-01

    We describe the status of the Main Injector particle production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab which has to date acquired 18 million events of particle interactions using ( 5 GeV/c-120 GeV/c) π, K and p beams on various targets. We describe plans to upgrade the data acquisition speed of MIPP to make it run 100 times faster which will enable us to obtain particle production data of unprecdented quality and statistics on a wide variety of nuclear targets including nitrogen which is of importance to cosmic ray physics.

  18. Manifestations of the rotation and gravity of the Earth in high-energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    2016-08-01

    The inertial (due to rotation) and gravitational fields of the Earth affect the motion of an elementary particle and its spin dynamics. This influence is not negligible and should be taken into account in high-energy physics experiments. Earth's influence is manifest in perturbations in the particle motion, in an additional precession of the spin, and in a change of the constitutive tensor of the Maxwell electrodynamics. Bigger corrections are oscillatory, and their contributions average to zero. Other corrections due to the inhomogeneity of the inertial field are not oscillatory but they are very small and may be important only for the storage ring electric dipole moment experiments. Earth's gravity causes the Newton-like force, the reaction force provided by a focusing system, and additional torques acting on the spin. However, there are no observable indications of the electromagnetic effects due to Earth's gravity.

  19. New Spin-Physics Experiments with Frozen-Spin Target at MAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Reicherz, Gerhard; Thomas, Andreas

    2011-12-14

    In the physics program for the MAMI C accelerator the investigation of the spin dependent excitation spectrum of the nucleon and fundamental properties, such as the spin polarizabilities of the nucleon are an important goal. This will be tackled in the framework of the A2-collaboration by doing double polarization experiments, using the linearly or circularly polarized energy marked photon beam in combination with a new solid state polarized target. The horizontal dilution refrigerator of the Frozen Spin Target was constructed by and is operated in close cooperation with, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The system offers both longitudinally and transversely polarized protons and deuterons. The target material, butanol and deuterated butanol, was developed and produced by the Ruhr-University of Bochum and provides the highest degree of polarization, measured with a new NMR apparatus. The status of the experiment and preliminary results will be presented.

  20. Identification of relaxation parameter of a physical model of vein from fluid transient experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromádka, David; Chlup, Hynek; Žitný, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new fluid transient inflation experiment applied on a physical model of vein (short latex tube, 5mm diameter). Aim of experiments is assessment of wall viscous behaviour from attenuated pulsation of the tested sample. Experimental data obtained from dynamic test are compared with numerical simulation and a viscoelastic parameter of Haslach constitutive model is identified. It is verified that the viscoelasticity of wall has a greater impact to the damping of pulsation than the viscosity of water filling the sample and the attached capillary. Volume of sample depends on internal pressure measured by a pressure transducer. The maximum dissipation constitutive model of viscoelastic wall sample was employed for description of viscoelastic behaviour. Frequency of natural oscillation of pressure is determined by inertia of water column within the tested sample and attached capillary and by the tested specimen stiffness. The pressure pulsations are initiated by a sudden pressure drop at water surface.

  1. 3-D High-Lift Flow-Physics Experiment - Transition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, Catherine B.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Watson, Ralph D.; Bertelrud, Arild

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the flow state on a trapezoidal wing model from the NASA 3-D High Lift Flow Physics Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment was to characterize the flow over a non-proprietary semi-span three-element high-lift configuration to aid in assessing the state of the art in the computation of three-dimensional high-lift flows. Surface pressures and hot-film sensors are used to determine the flow conditions on the slat, main, and flap. The locations of the attachments lines and the values of the attachment line Reynolds number are estimated based on the model surface pressures. Data from the hot-films are used to determine if the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent by examining the hot-film time histories, statistics, and frequency spectra.

  2. A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Aviv; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. This paper describes a distributed graphical user interface-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, which makes use of off-the-shelf output hardware from National Instruments. The software makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature should allow this to be extended to other output hardware. Output sequences running on multiple servers and output cards can be synchronized using a shared clock. By using a field programmable gate array-generated variable frequency clock, redundant buffers can be dramatically shortened, and a time resolution of 100 ns achieved over effectively arbitrary sequence lengths.

  3. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  4. Interactions between spacecraft motions and the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the effects of spacecraft motions on atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) experimentation, the motions of concern are those which will result in the movement of the fluid or cloud particles within the experiment chambers. Of the various vehicle motions and residual forces which can and will occur, three types appear most likely to damage the experimental results: non-steady rotations through a large angle, long-duration accelerations in a constant direction, and vibrations. During the ACPL ice crystal growth experiments, the crystals are suspended near the end of a long fiber (20 cm long by 200 micron diameter) of glass or similar material. Small vibrations of the supported end of the fiber could cause extensive motions of the ice crystal, if care is not taken to avoid this problem.

  5. The MØLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab: search for physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    2010-07-01

    The MO/LLER experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the parity-violating analyzing power Az in the scattering of 11 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from the atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target (Mo/ller scattering). In the Standard Model a non-zero Az is due to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude and the weak neutral current amplitude, the latter mediated by the Z0 boson. Az is predicted to be 35.6 parts per billion (ppb) at the kinematics of the experiment. It is the objective of the experiment to measure Az to a precision of 0.73 ppb. This result would yield a measurement of the weak charge of the electron QWe to a fractional error of 2.3% at an average value Q2 of 0.0056 (GeV/c)2. This in turn will yield a determination of the weak mixing angle sin2θw with an uncertainty of ±0.00026(stat) ±0.00013(syst), comparable to the accuracy of the two best determinations at high energy colliders (at the Z0 pole). Consequently, the result could potentially influence the central value of this fundamental electroweak parameter, which is of critical importance in deciphering any signal of new physics that might be observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measurement is sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as 10-3 GF from as yet unknown high energy dynamics, a level of sensitivity unlikely to be matched in any experiment measuring a flavor and CP conserving process in the next decade. This provides indirect access to new physics at multi-TeV scales in a manner complementary to direct searches at the LHC.

  6. Dynamic Weighing Experiments--The Way to New Physics of Gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, A. L.; Nikushchenko, E. M.; Bulgakova, S. A.

    2010-01-28

    Dynamic weighing is a measuring of size of the average gravity force acting on a test body which is in the state of accelerated movement. The acceleration of a body, or its microparticles, can be caused both by forces of gravitation, and by a direct, electromagnetic in nature, influence on the part of other bodies. It is just dynamic weighing of bodies which is informative in studying the features of electromagnetic and gravitational forces interaction. The report gives a brief review of results of experiments with weighing of accelerated moving bodies--in case of shock phenomena, in state of rotation, and in heating. Special attention is given to measurements of free fall accelerations of a mechanical rotor. In majority of the laboratory experiments executed with the purpose of checking the equivalence principle, the axis of a rotor was oriented vertically. In our experiment we measured the free fall accelerations of the closed container inside which a mechanical rotor (gyroscope) with a horizontal axis of rotation was installed. There was observed an appreciable, essentially exceeding errors of measurements increase of acceleration of free falling of the container at angular speed of rotation of a rotor up to 20 000 rev/min. The physical conditions of free vertical falling of a body essentially differ from conditions of rotary (orbital) movement of a body in the field of gravity and the result obtained by us does not contradict the results of measurements of a gyroscope precession on satellites. Experiments with dynamic weighing of bodies give useful information on complex properties of the gravity force which are beyond the scope of well-known theories. Their careful analysis will allow to expand and supplement the concepts based on the general theory of relativity, and probably to open a way to new physics of gravitation and to new principles of movement.

  7. Pupils’ and teachers’ experiences of school-based physical education: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kiara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore pupils’ and teachers’ experiences of physical education (PE). Study design A qualitative investigation employing semistructured interviews. Self Determination Theory was used as a guiding theory and Template Analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting A secondary school in the North East of England. Participants 14 pupils (aged 13 and 14, boys and girls) with a range of self-perceived competencies regarding PE and four PE teachers of the pupils (3 male, 1 female). Primary and secondary outcomes (1) Attitudes and perceptions of PE pupils regarding their experiences of compulsory school PE lessons. (2) PE teachers’ experiences of teaching PE. Results Key results from pupils and teachers suggest pupils enjoy participation in PE when they feel competent, in control and supported by others. Feeling competent depended on (1) the activity within PE and (2) the pupils perceived physical capabilities/aptitude. Feeling in control related to (1) having a choice of activities, (2) being able to set exertion levels and (3) control over clothes worn while taking part. Relationships within pupil groups and between pupils and teachers were perceived as important. Teachers could positively influence their pupils’ enjoyment by understanding and supporting their personal goals, as opposed to dictating and controlling what they did and for how long, and by promoting a non-threatening atmosphere between pupils. Conclusions Rising obesity levels and concerns over the fitness of children and young people has returned the focus of PE to its potential as a vehicle for promoting health. This study suggests schools and PE teachers in particular can positively influence the PE experience of both boys and girls by providing more choice of activities and letting pupils make their own decisions based on their personal needs. PMID:25227625

  8. Physical experiments of land subsidence within a maar crater: insights for porosity variations and fracture localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerca, M.; Rocha, L.; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Aranda, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a series of physical models aiming to reproduce rapid subsidence (at least 25 m in 30 years) observed in the sediments of a maar crater caused by extraction of groundwater in the interconnected adjacent aquifer. The model considered plausible variations in the geometry of the crater basement and the measured rate of groundwater extraction (1 m per year in the time interval from 2005 to 2011) in 15 wells located around the structure. The experiments were built within a rigid plastic bowl in which the sediments and rocks of the maar sequence were modeled using different materials: (a) plasticine for the rigid country rock, (b) gravel for the fractured country rock forming the diatreme fill and, (c) water saturated hollow glass microbeads for the lacustrine sedimentary fill of the crater. Water table was maintained initially at the surface of the sediments and then was allowed to flow through a hole made at the base of the rigid bowl. Water extraction provoked a sequence of gentle deformation, fracturing, and faulting of the surface in all the experiments. Vertical as well as lateral displacements were observed in the surface of the experiments. We discuss the results of 2 representative models. The model results reproduced the main geometry of the ring faults affecting the crater sediments and helps to explain the diversity of structures observed in relation with the diatreme geometry. The surface of the models was monitored continuously with an optical interferometric technique called structured light projection. Images collected at nearly constant time intervals were analyzed using the ZEBRA software and the obtained interferometric pairs permitted to analyze the full field subsidence in the model (submilimetric vertical displacements). The experiments were conducted at a continuous flow rate extraction and show a also a linear subsidence rate. Comparison among the results of the physical models and the fault system associated to

  9. The Capabilities of the upgraded MIPP experiment with respect to Hypernuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    We describe the state of analysis of the MIPP experiment, its plans to upgrade the experiment and the impact such an upgraded experiment will have on hypernuclear physics. The upgraded MIPP experiment is designed to measure the properties of strong interaction spectra form beams {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, and p{sup {+-}}, for momenta ranging from 1 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The layout of the apparatus in the data taken so far can be seen in Figure 1. The centerpiece of the experiment is the time projection chamber, which is followed by the time of flight counter, a multi-cell Cerenkov detector and the RICH detector. The TPC can identify charged particles with momenta less than 1 GeV/c using dE/dx, the time of flight will identify particles below approximately 2 GeV/c, the multi-cell Cerenkov detector is operational from 2.5 GeV/c to 14 GeV/c and the RICH detector can identify particles up to 120 GeVc. Following this is an EM and hadronic calorimeter capable of detecting forward going neutrons and photons. The experiment has been busy analyzing its data taken on various nuclei and beam conditions. The table 2 shows the data taken by MIPP I to date. We have almost complete acceptance in the forward hemisphere in the lab using the TPC. The reconstruction capabilities of the TPC can be seen in Figure 3. The particle identification capabilities of the TPC can be seen in Figure 4. The time of flight system provides further measurement of the particles with momenta less than 2 GeV/c. Figure 5 shows the time of flight data where a kaon peak is clearly visible.

  10. Cerium Doped LSO/LYSO Crystal Development for future High Energy Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2012-03-25

    Because of their high stopping power and fast and bright scintillation, cerium doped LSO and LYSO crystals have attracted a broad interest in the physics community pursuing precision electromagnetic calorimeter for future high energy physics experiments. Their excellent radiation hardness against gamma-rays, neutrons and charged hadrons also makes them a preferred material for calorimeters to be operated in a severe radiation environment, such as the HL-LHC. An effort was made at SIPAT to grow 25 X{sub 0} (28 cm) long LYSO crystals for high energy physics applications. In this paper, the optical and scintillation properties and its radiation hardness against gamma-ray irradiations up to 1 Mrad are presented for the first 2.5 X 2.5 X 28 cm LYSO sample. An absorption band was found at the seed end of this sample and three other 20 cm long samples, which was traced back to a bad seed crystal used in the corresponding crystal growth process. Significant progresses in optical and scintillation properties were achieved for large size LYSO crystals after eliminating this absorption band.

  11. Understanding the Learning Assistant experience with Physics Identity and Community of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor; Close, Hunter; Donnelly, David

    2012-10-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.[4pt] [1] Otero, Pollock, & Finkelstein, Am. J. Phys. 78 (11), 1218-1224 (2010).[0pt] [2] Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).[0pt] [3] J. Res. Sci. Teach. 47 (8), 978-1003 (2010).

  12. The Relationship Between Academic Writing Experience and Academic Publishing for Graduate Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Steven Timothy Michael

    Writing for scientific publication represents an opportunity to interact with colleagues and make a positive contribution to the academic community. However, there is a growing concern regarding the ability of graduate students' to transfer writing skill sets learned at the graduate and undergraduate levels into professional settings. The main research question in this quantitative correlational study explored potential relationships between the publication rates and the number and types of English and composition classes taken by survey participants. Fischerian development, life course theory, and phenomenological sociology framed this study. Participants from private, public, and commercial institutions of higher learning in the United States participated. Data were analyzed using correlational, chi-square, ANOVA, and multiple regression techniques to reveal relationships between the number and types of English and composition classes taken and publication rates. Open-ended questions gathered opinions about scientific writing and writing class experiences and helped triangulate the findings. The results suggested a relationship between publication rates and number of English and composition classes among certain physics specializations and a need for physics institutions to create specialized publishing courses. The results may lead to positive social change by facilitating the examination of writing within particular physics specializations and motivating the creation of departmental constructed writing courses targeting the scientific community responsible for producing technically skilled literate workers. This could enable increased sharing of scientific findings with professional societies.

  13. Muon decay: an old, yet alive experiment in the university physics curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, F.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The classic experiment on muon decay is proposed in the undergraduate or master physics curriculum, making use of a single scintillation detector and observing in coincidence the delayed signal due to the electron following muon decay. Two experimental setups, with different geometries and scintillation materials, were considered, making use of standard equipment available in most undergraduate labs. The results obtained in the two cases were compared and discussed. For a better understanding of the results, and to also evaluate the possible effect of material surrounding the detector, detailed GEANT simulations were carried out for both experimental setups. Such simulations are also intended as an additional student activity to virtually exploit in a short time the effect of modifying detector and material configuration, which cannot be achieved during a single student session. The results of this experiment and its interpretation also proved to be a useful way to discuss with students many topics of interest in modern physics, such as—among others—the time dilation, the dependence of muon lifetime in matter, the Fermi weak interaction coupling constant and the parity violation in weak interactions.

  14. Heavy-ion physics with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Schukraft, J

    2012-02-28

    After close to 20 years of preparation, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) took first data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator with proton collisions at the end of 2009 and with lead nuclei at the end of 2010. After a short introduction into the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, this article recalls the main design choices made for the detector and summarizes the initial operation and performance of ALICE. Physics results from this first year of operation concentrate on characterizing the global properties of typical, average collisions, both in proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus reactions, in the new energy regime of the LHC. The pp results differ, to a varying degree, from most quantum chromodynamics-inspired phenomenological models and provide the input needed to fine tune their parameters. First results from Pb-Pb are broadly consistent with expectations based on lower energy data, indicating that high-density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like a very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid.

  15. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  16. The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment on MSL-1: Required Measurements and Instrument Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Lant, Christian T.; Ling, Jerri S.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of HArd Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), one of NASA Lewis Research Center's first major light scattering experiments for microgravity research on complex fluids, flew on board the Space Shuttle's Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) in 1997. Using colloidal systems of various concentrations of micron-sized plastic spheres in a refractive index-matching fluid as test samples, illuminated by laser light during and after crystallization, investigations were conducted to measure the nucleation and growth rate of colloidal crystals as well as the structure, rheology, and dynamics of the equilibrium crystal. Together, these measurements support an enhanced understanding of the nature of the liquid-to-solid transition. Achievement of the science objectives required an accurate experimental determination of eight fundamental properties for the hard sphere colloidal samples. The instrument design met almost all of the original measurement requirements, but with compromise on the number of samples on which data were taken. The instrument performs 2-D Bragg and low angle scattering from 0.4 deg. to 60 deg., dynamic and single-channel static scattering from 10 deg. to 170 deg., rheology using fiber optics, and white light imaging of the sample. As a result, PHaSE provided a timely microgravity demonstration of critical light scattering measurement techniques and hardware concepts, while generating data already showing promise of interesting new scientific findings in the field of condensed matter physics.

  17. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Mercadente, Jennifer

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  18. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  19. Benchmark Data Through The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Enrico Sartori

    2005-09-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiments Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) in June of 2002. The IRPhEP focus is on the derivation of internationally peer reviewed benchmark models for several types of integral measurements, in addition to the critical configuration. While the benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP are of primary interest to the Reactor Physics Community, many of the benchmarks can be of significant value to the Criticality Safety and Nuclear Data Communities. Benchmarks that support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), for example, also support fuel manufacture, handling, transportation, and storage activities and could challenge current analytical methods. The IRPhEP is patterned after the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and is closely coordinated with the ICSBEP. This paper highlights the benchmarks that are currently being prepared by the IRPhEP that are also of interest to the Criticality Safety Community. The different types of measurements and associated benchmarks that can be expected in the first publication and beyond are described. The protocol for inclusion of IRPhEP benchmarks as ICSBEP benchmarks and for inclusion of ICSBEP benchmarks as IRPhEP benchmarks is detailed. The format for IRPhEP benchmark evaluations is described as an extension of the ICSBEP format. Benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP add new dimension to criticality safety benchmarking efforts and expand the collection of available integral benchmarks for nuclear data testing. The first publication of the "International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments" is scheduled for January of 2006.

  20. Students' experiences with interactivity and learning in a high school physics multimedia distance learning course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal-Stewart, Irene

    The purpose guiding this research has been to learn about and describe the phenomena of interactivity from the learners' perspectives and to learn which of the interactivity affordances and practices were actually used by students and why in the process of learning physics using an interactive multimedia distance learning course system. The bigger purpose behind learning about and describing interactivity has been to gain knowledge and perspective for its instructional design to benefit the learner, the school as curriculum implementer, and instructional media designers to create better products. Qualitative methodology in the interpretivist tradition was used, that is, in-depth interviews and on-site observations, to gain understanding of interactivity from the learners' perspective and to gain understanding of the student learning context impacting and shaping the students' interactivity experiences. NVivo was used to sort, organize and index data. All data were read on three levels: literally, interpretively, and reflexively; and were read comparatively to other perspectives to get descriptions and interpretations that were holistic to the implementation and had potential insight to improve practice for instructional designers, teachers, administrators, specifically to improve the learning experience for students. Site-Specific Findings: Students watched videos, resisted using phone and e-mail, and worked math problems to demonstrate learning, which resulted in very little interactivity, virtually no dialogue about physics, no physical activity, one-way communication, multifaceted dissatisfaction, student need for teacher involvement in the learning enterprise, student appreciation for interactivity, and expressed desire for a real, live teacher. I also found that some students did experience the system as interactive, did experience learner control and self-directed learning, and despite dissatisfaction, liked and appreciated the course. Wider Applications

  1. Measurement of the Order Parameter in a Room Temperature Liquid Crystal: An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Donald B.; Chapoy, L. Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Presented here is a laboratory experiment for a course in physical chemistry. Students are requested to directly measure the degree of orientational order in a liquid crystal at room temperature. A minimum amount of equipment is necessary. (Author/SA)

  2. PROPOSAL FOR AN EXPERIMENT PROGRAM IN NEUTRINO PHYSICS AND PROTON DECAY IN THE HOMESTAKE LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect

    DIWAN, M.; KETTELL, S.; LITTENBERG, W.; MARIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.; SAMIOS, N.; WHITE, S.; ET AL.

    2006-07-24

    This report is intended to describe first, the principal physics reasons for an ambitious experimental program in neutrino physics and proton decay based on construction of a series of massive water Cherenkov detectors located deep underground (4850 ft) in the Homestake Mine of the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA); and second, the engineering design of the underground chambers to house the Cherenkov detector modules; and third, the conceptual design of the water Cherenkov detectors themselves for this purpose. In this proposal we show the event rates and physics sensitivity for beams from both FNAL (1300 km distant from Homestake) and BNL (2540 km distant from Homestake). The program we propose will benefit with a beam from FNAL because of the high intensities currently available from the Main Injector with modest upgrades. The possibility of tuning the primary proton energy over a large range from 30 to 120 GeV also adds considerable flexibility to the program from FNAL. On the other hand the beam from BNL over the larger distance will produce very large matter effects, and consequently a hint of new physics (beyond CP violation) can be better tested with that configuration. In this proposal we focus on the CP violation physics. Included in this document are preliminary costs and time-to-completion estimates which have been exposed to acknowledged experts in their respective areas. This presentation is not, however, to be taken as a technical design report with the extensive documentation and contingency costs that a TDR usually entails. Nevertheless, some contingency factors have been included in the estimates given here. The essential ideas expressed here were first laid out in a letter of intent to the interim director of the Homestake Laboratory on July 26, 2001. Since that time, the prospect of a laboratory in the Homestake Mine has been realized, and the design of a long baseline neutrino experiment has been refined. The extrapolation

  3. Pre-Instruction, Play-Teach-Play, Processing the Experience. The Three Little P's: Teaching Affective Skills in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhrasch, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Physical education has long been recognized as a forum through which affective skills can be successfully introduced and practiced. Solomon found that current research supports the contention that physical education experiences provide a prime setting for promoting character development. This article describes a three-phase program for teaching…

  4. How Clinical Instructors Can Enhance the Learning Experience of Physical Therapy Students in an Introductory Clinical Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Beverley; Wessel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is little understanding of how physical therapy students are influenced by clinical instructors (CIs) particularly at the outset of their clinical learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical therapy students' perceptions of their learning experiences during an introductory clinical placement. Methods: Subjects were…

  5. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual field tours in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, D. G.; Eastwood, W. J.; Jones, P. I.; Johnson, R.; Marshall, S.; Hannah, D. M.

    2012-05-01

    Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field tour for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD), and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students). A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field tour over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field tour in particular). Our experiences are highly relevant to the implementation of novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  6. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual fieldtrips in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, D. G.; Eastwood, W. J.; Jones, P. I.; Johnson, R.; Marshall, S.; Hannah, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field trip for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD), and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students). A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field trip over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field trip in particular). We believe our experiences are directly relevant to the implementation of such novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  7. A descriptive framework for the problem-solving experiences of physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savrda, Sherry L.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the applicability of a general model of physics students' problem-solving experiences that suggests there are four dynamic factors affecting the problem-solving process: categorization, goal interpretation, resource relevance, and complexity. Furthermore, it suggests an overarching control factor called stabilization, which describes the inter-relatedness of the other factors over the problem-solving process. Think-aloud protocols of problem-solving experiences were used to investigate the model. Results of the study showed that conceptual resources had a significant impact on the success of problem-solving attempts. Participants who exhibited a lack of understanding of physics concepts were less likely to check their work, use diagrams effectively, set subgoals, or to use geometric or trigonometric resources, and were more likely to use a formula-driven search for a solution than those who exhibited evidence of conceptual understanding. However, conceptual understanding did guarantee problem-solving success. Mathematical and procedural knowledge was also seen as important. While many of the specific observations were consistent with the existing literature, the model provides an alternative framework with which to understand and synthesize those observations. The model was shown to be partially successful in describing participants' problem-solving experiences. Categorization, resource relevance and goal interpretation were supported to varying degrees; however, there was less evidence to support the construct of complexity. Determination of evidence for stabilization was guided by a working definition based on the participants' search for a stable understanding of the problem. Implications of these results for research and practice were noted

  8. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  9. Using the Bifocal Modeling Framework to Resolve "Discrepant Events" Between Physical Experiments and Virtual Models in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blikstein, Paulo; Fuhrmann, Tamar; Salehi, Shima

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate an approach to supporting students' learning in science through a combination of physical experimentation and virtual modeling. We present a study that utilizes a scientific inquiry framework, which we call "bifocal modeling," to link student-designed experiments and computer models in real time. In this study, a group of high school students designed computer models of bacterial growth with reference to a simultaneous physical experiment they were conducting, and were able to validate the correctness of their model against the results of their experiment. Our findings suggest that as the students compared their virtual models with physical experiments, they encountered "discrepant events" that contradicted their existing conceptions and elicited a state of cognitive disequilibrium. This experience of conflict encouraged students to further examine their ideas and to seek more accurate explanations of the observed natural phenomena, improving the design of their computer models.

  10. The Scaffolded Mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Huang, Julie Y; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular, we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cues, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these early concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together, this research demonstrates the extent to which such foundational concepts are capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgments, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness.

  11. The Scaffolded Mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Huang, Julie Y.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular, we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cues, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these early concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together, this research demonstrates the extent to which such foundational concepts are capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgments, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness. PMID:20046813

  12. Nurses and workplace violence: nurses' experiences of verbal and physical abuse at work.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Angela D

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes nurses' experiences of violence and abuse in the workplace and the ways in which those experiences influence their abilities to care for patients. The original purpose of the research from which these findings derive was to explore nurses' work with abused women. The qualitative study utilizing a Social Constructivism approach was conducted in two countries: Canada and the United Kingdom. Forty-nine nurses from four clinical areas were interviewed, both in focus groups and individually, about factors influencing their care of abused women. In the course of the original study, the degree of verbal abuse and physical violence that nurses routinely encounter in their work became apparent. It also became clear that abuse against nurses is an important issue that has a significant impact on nurses' abilities to offer effective care. Findings indicated that nurses experience significant threat, frequently in the context of their work, at the hands of patients and their relatives; that verbal abuse is an almost daily occurrence; and that support from other healthcare professionals or from administration in addressing the issue, while improving somewhat, is inadequate. This work has implications not only for nurses' health and safety but also, in the broader sense, for the profession's ability to attract and retain nurses within the healthcare system.

  13. Characterization of PbWO4 crystals for high-energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. J.; Park, H.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy physics (HEP) experiments have employed many new types of scintillators. Specifically, bismuth germanate, thallium-doped cesium iodide, and lead tungstate (PbWO4, PWO) have been used for the L3 experiment; CLEO II, Belle and BES-III; and CMS, respectively. PWO has particularly beneficial properties, such as high density, fast decay time, short radiation length and radiation hardness. In this study, we tested the PWO crystals at low temperatures to determine their applicability in future calorimeters. Various crystals from the Proton Antiproton Annihilations at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment in Giessen, the Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical Plant (BTCP) in Russia and by Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS) in China were investigated. We studied the scintillation properties of PWO crystals, such as their X-ray luminescence, relative light yields, absolute light yields, energy resolutions, decay times and longitudinal uniformities of their light yields. In addition, we measured the temperature dependences of the light yields and decay times by using a 137Cs γ-ray source. The emission spectra of the PWO crystals consisted of a broad band from 350 nm to 700 nm, and the peak emission wavelength in each spectrum was 420 nm. The emission spectra of the PWO crystals from SICCAS were slightly shifted to longer wavelengths compared with those of the crystals from the other institutions.

  14. Use of Simulation Learning Experiences in Physical Therapy Entry-to-Practice Curricula: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Heather; Herold, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To review the literature on simulation-based learning experiences and to examine their potential to have a positive impact on physiotherapy (PT) learners' knowledge, skills, and attitudes in entry-to-practice curricula. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase Classic+Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, using keywords such as physical therapy, simulation, education, and students. Results: A total of 820 abstracts were screened, and 23 articles were included in the systematic review. While there were few randomized controlled trials with validated outcome measures, some discoveries about simulation can positively affect the design of the PT entry-to-practice curricula. Using simulators to provide specific output feedback can help students learn specific skills. Computer simulations can also augment students' learning experience. Human simulation experiences in managing the acute patient in the ICU are well received by students, positively influence their confidence, and decrease their anxiety. There is evidence that simulated learning environments can replace a portion of a full-time 4-week clinical rotation without impairing learning. Conclusions: Simulation-based learning activities are being effectively incorporated into PT curricula. More rigorously designed experimental studies that include a cost–benefit analysis are necessary to help curriculum developers make informed choices in curriculum design. PMID:25931672

  15. NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (SPE2)

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, T; Xu, H; Vorobiev, O; Lomov, I

    2011-10-20

    Motion along joints and fractures in the rock has been proposed as one of the sources of near-source shear wave generation, and demonstrating the validity of this hypothesis is a focal scientific objective of the source physics experimental campaign in the Climax Stock granitic outcrop. A modeling effort has been undertaken by LLNL to complement the experimental campaign, and over the long term provide a validated computation capability for the nuclear explosion monitoring community. The approach involves performing the near-field nonlinear modeling with hydrodynamic codes (e.g., GEODYN, GEODYN-L), and the far-field seismic propagation with an elastic wave propagation code (e.g., WPP). the codes will be coupled together to provide a comprehensive source-to-sensor modeling capability. The technical approach involves pre-test predictions of each of the SPE experiments using their state of the art modeling capabilities, followed by code improvements to alleviate deficiencies identified in the pre-test predictions. This spiral development cycle wherein simulations are used to guide experimental design and the data from the experiment used to improve the models is the most effective approach to enable a transition from the descriptive phenomenological models in current use to the predictive, hybrid physics models needed for a science-based modeling capability for nuclear explosion monitoring. The objective of this report is to describe initial results of non-linear motion predictions of the first two SPE shots in the Climax Stock: a 220-lb shot at a depth of 180 ft (SPE No.1), and a 2570-lb shot at a depth of 150 ft (SPE No.2). The simulations were performed using the LLNL ensemble granite model, a model developed to match velocity and displacement attenuation from HARDHAT, PILE DRIVER, and SHOAL, as well as Russian and French nuclear test data in granitic rocks. This model represents the state of the art modeling capabilities as they existed when the SPE campaign was

  16. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  17. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  18. Large-N Over the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase I and Phase II Test Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Carmichael, J. D.; Mellors, R. J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification is source discrimination of low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity, both natural and anthropogenic. Work is underway at the Nevada National Security Site to conduct a series of chemical explosion experiments using a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary approach. The goal of this series of experiments, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to refine the understanding of the effect of earth structures on source phenomenology and energy partitioning in the source region, the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field, and the development of S waves observed in the far field. To fully explore these problems, the SPE series includes tests in both hard and soft rock geologic environments. The project comprises a number of activities, which range from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data from both the near field (<100 m) and the far field (>100 m). SPE includes a series of planned explosions (with different yields and depths of burials), which are conducted in the same hole and monitored by a diverse set of sensors recording characteristics of the explosions, ground-shock, seismo-acoustic energy propagation. This presentation focuses on imaging the full 3D wavefield over hard rock and soft rock test beds using a large number of seismic sensors. This overview presents statistical analyses of optimal sensor layout required to estimate wavefield discriminants and the planned deployment for the upcoming experiments. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. In Search of the Physics: The Interplay of Experiment and Computation in Slat Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan; Singer, Bart A.; Lockard, David P.; Streett, Craig L.

    2003-01-01

    The synergistic use of experiments and numerical simulations can uncover the underlying physics of airframe noise sources. We focus on the high-lift noise component associated with a leading-edge slat; flap side-edge noise is discussed in a companion paper by Streett et al. (2003). The present paper provides an overview of how slat noise was split into subcomponents and analyzed with carefully planned complementary experimental and numerical tests. We consider both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise. The predicted far-field noise spectra are shown to be in good qualitative (and, to lesser extent, good quantitative agreement) with acoustic array measurements. Although some questions remain unanswered, the success of current airframe noise studies provides ample promise that remaining technical issues can be successfully addressed in the near future.

  20. An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    Leibrandt, D. R.; Heidecker, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general purpose digital servo optimized for feedback control of lasers in atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments. The servo is capable of feedback bandwidths up to roughly 1 MHz (limited by the 320 ns total latency); loop filter shapes up to fifth order; multiple-input, multiple-output control; and automatic lock acquisition. The configuration of the servo is controlled via a graphical user interface, which also provides a rudimentary software oscilloscope and tools for measurement of system transfer functions. We illustrate the functionality of the digital servo by describing its use in two example scenarios: frequency control of the laser used to probe the narrow clock transition of 27Al+ in an optical atomic clock, and length control of a cavity used for resonant frequency doubling of a laser. PMID:26724014

  1. An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leibrandt, D. R. Heidecker, J.

    2015-12-15

    We describe a general purpose digital servo optimized for feedback control of lasers in atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments. The servo is capable of feedback bandwidths up to roughly 1 MHz (limited by the 320 ns total latency); loop filter shapes up to fifth order; multiple-input, multiple-output control; and automatic lock acquisition. The configuration of the servo is controlled via a graphical user interface, which also provides a rudimentary software oscilloscope and tools for measurement of system transfer functions. We illustrate the functionality of the digital servo by describing its use in two example scenarios: frequency control of the laser used to probe the narrow clock transition of {sup 27}Al{sup +} in an optical atomic clock, and length control of a cavity used for resonant frequency doubling of a laser.

  2. RADIATION HARDNESS / TOLERANCE OF SI SENSORS / DETECTORS FOR NUCLEAR AND HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    LI,Z.

    2002-09-09

    Silicon sensors, widely used in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, suffer severe radiation damage that leads to degradations in sensor performance. These degradations include significant increases in leakage current, bulk resistivity, and space charge concentration. The increase in space charge concentration is particularly damaging since it can significantly increase the sensor full depletion voltage, causing either breakdown if operated at high biases or charge collection loss if operated at lower biases than full depletion. Several strategies can be used to make Si detectors more radiation had tolerant to particle radiations. In this paper, the main radiation induced degradations in Si detectors will be reviewed. The details and specifics of the new engineering strategies: material/impurity/defect engineering (MIDE); device structure engineering (DSE); and device operational mode engineering (DOME) will be given.

  3. Event parallelism: Distributed memory parallel computing for high energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1989-05-01

    This paper describes the present and expected future development of distributed memory parallel computers for high energy physics experiments. It covers the use of event parallel microprocessor farms, particularly at Fermilab, including both ACP multiprocessors and farms of MicroVAXES. These systems have proven very cost effective in the past. A case is made for moving to the more open environment of UNIX and RISC processors. The 2nd Generation ACP Multiprocessor System, which is based on powerful RISC systems, is described. Given the promise of still more extraordinary increases in processor performance, a new emphasis on point to point, rather than bussed, communication will be required. Developments in this direction are described. 6 figs.

  4. SOLICITING BCI USER EXPERIENCE FEEDBACK FROM PEOPLE WITH SEVERE SPEECH AND PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Betts; Mooney, Aimee; Oken, Barry; Fried-Oken, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) researchers have shown increasing interest in soliciting user experience (UX) feedback, but the severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) of potential users create barriers to effective implementation with existing feedback instruments. This article describes augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)-based techniques for obtaining feedback from this population, and presents results from administration of a modified questionnaire to 12 individuals with SSPI after trials with a BCI spelling system. The proposed techniques facilitated successful questionnaire completion and provision of narrative feedback for all participants. Questionnaire administration required less than five minutes and minimal effort from participants. Results indicated that individual users may have very different reactions to the same system, and that ratings of workload and comfort provide important information not available through objective performance measures. People with SSPI are critical stakeholders in the future development of BCI, and appropriate adaptation of feedback questionnaires and administration techniques allows them to participate in shaping this assistive technology. PMID:27135037

  5. Fundamental Magnetofluid Physics Studies on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment: Reconnection and Sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.

    2001-07-31

    The general goal of the Magnetofluids Laboratory at Swarthmore College is to understand how magnetofluid kinetic energy can be converted to magnetic energy as it is in the core of the earth and sun (the dynamo problem) and to understand how magnetic energy can be rapidly converted back to kinetic energy and heat as it is in solar flares (the magnetic reconnection problem). Magnetic reconnection has been studied using the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) which was designed and built under this Junior Faculty Grant. In SSX we generate and merge two rings of magnetized plasma called spheromaks and study their interaction. The spheromaks have many properties similar to solar flares so this work is directly relevant to basic solar physics. In addition, since the spheromak is a magnetic confinement fusion configuration, issues of formation and stability have direct impact on the fusion program.

  6. Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: insights from knot tying.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Cohen, Nichola Rice; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T

    2012-12-01

    What does it mean to "know" what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation.

  7. Searches for New Physics Using High Mass Dimuons at the CDF II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Karagoz Unel, Muge

    2004-12-01

    This work describes the measurement of inclusive jets cross section in the D0 experiment. This cross section is computed as a function of jet transverse momentum, in several rapidity intervals. This quantity is sensitive to the proton structure and is crucial for the determination of parton distribution functions (PDF), essentially for the gluon at high proton momentum fraction. The measurement presented here gives the first values obtained for Tevatron Run II for the cross section in several rapidity intervals, for an integrated luminosity of 143 pb-1. The results are in agreement, within the uncertainties, with theoretical Standard Model predictions, showing no evidence for new physics. This work points out the aspects of the detector which need better understanding to reach Run I precision and to constrain the PDFs.

  8. Rika-Shoshi, the First Physics Experiment Textbook Published in Japanese and its Editor, Jun'ichi Udagawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Akabane, Akira; Shozawa, Jun; Tamaki, Toyomi

    The aim of this study is to examine the teaching of physics experiment at elementary and secondary school levels at the time when Japanese science education commenced. In this report, we focused on the first Japanese textbook of physics experiment, Rika-Shoshi, published in 1882 and the editor of the book, Udagawa Jun'ichi. Many experiments in Rika-Shoshi can be performed using low-cost everyday materials. We compare Rika-Shoshi with the original English textbooks and describe Udagawa's physics teaching in the Gunma Normal School based on the documents in the Gunma University archives. We discuss how we can learn from physics education as taught about 130 years ago.

  9. Experiments on the flow field physics of confluent boundary layers for high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Thomas, F. O.; Chu, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of sub-scale wind tunnel test data to predict the behavior of commercial transport high lift systems at in-flight Reynolds number is limited by the so-called 'inverse Reynolds number effect'. This involves an actual deterioration in the performance of a high lift device with increasing Reynolds number. A lack of understanding of the relevant flow field physics associated with numerous complicated viscous flow interactions that characterize flow over high-lift devices prohibits computational fluid dynamics from addressing Reynolds number effects. Clearly there is a need for research that has as its objective the clarification of the fundamental flow field physics associated with viscous effects in high lift systems. In this investigation, a detailed experimental investigation is being performed to study the interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the primary airfoil which is known as a confluent boundary layer. This little-studied aspect of the multi-element airfoil problem deserves special attention due to its importance in the lift augmentation process. The goal of this research is is to provide an improved understanding of the flow physics associated with high lift generation. This process report will discuss the status of the research being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame. The research is sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center under NASA grant NAG2-905. The report will include a discussion of the models that have been built or that are under construction, a description of the planned experiments, a description of a flow visualization apparatus that has been developed for generating colored smoke for confluent boundary layer studies and some preliminary measurements made using our new 3-component fiber optic LDV system.

  10. First off the Blocks: Professional Experience and Learning for First-Year Preservice Physical and Health Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Louisa; Burns, Kellie

    2012-01-01

    Recent research focusing on professional experience has shifted towards understanding preservice teachers' learning. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the learning of preservice Physical and Health Education teachers throughout three progressively designed professional experiences. Ten volunteering first-year preservice teachers, who…

  11. A Precise, Simple, and Low-Cost Experiment to Determine the Isobaric Expansion Coefficient for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe´rez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The procedure of a physical chemistry experiment for university students must be designed in a way that the accuracy and precision of the measurements is properly maintained. However, in many cases, that requires costly and sophisticated equipment not readily available in developing countries. A simple, low-cost experiment to determine isobaric…

  12. Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics Experiments and Facilities for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, Richard W.; Kohl, Fred J.; Weiland, Karen J.; Zurawski, Robert L.; Hill, Myron E.; Corban, Robert R.

    2001-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program supports both ground-based and flight experiment research in the disciplines of Combustion Science and Fluid Physics. Combustion Science research includes the areas of gas jet diffusion flames, laminar flames, burning of droplets and misting fuels, solids and materials flammability, fire and fire suppressants, turbulent combustion, reaction kinetics, materials synthesis, and other combustion systems. The Fluid Physics discipline includes the areas of complex fluids (colloids, gels, foams, magneto-rheological fluids, non-Newtonian fluids, suspensions, granular materials), dynamics and instabilities (bubble and drop dynamics, magneto/electrohydrodynamics, electrochemical transport, geophysical flows), interfacial phenomena (wetting, capillarity, contact line hydrodynamics), and multiphase flows and phase changes (boiling and condensation, heat transfer, flow instabilities). A specialized International Space Station (ISS) facility that provides sophisticated research capabilities for these disciplines is the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF consists of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Shared Accommodations Rack and is designed to accomplish a large number of science investigations over the life of the ISS. The modular, multiuser facility is designed to optimize the science return within the available resources of on-orbit power, uplink/downlink capacity, crew time, upmass/downmass, volume, etc. A suite of diagnostics capabilities, with emphasis on optical techniques, will be provided to complement the capabilities of the subsystem multiuser or principal investigator-specific experiment modules. The paper will discuss the systems concept, technical capabilities, functionality, and the initial science investigations in each discipline.

  13. Search for New Physics with Experiment E36 at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongwi, Dongwi; TREK/E36 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The E36 experiment conducted at J-PARC in Japan will provide a precision test of lepton universality in the Ke 2 /Kμ 2 ratio to search for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The SM prediction for the ratio of leptonic K+ decays is very precise with an uncertainty of △RK /RK = 4 .10-4 . Any observed deviation from the SM prediction would break the universality of the lepton couplings and provide clear indication of New Physics beyond the SM. The detector apparatus allows sensitivity to search for light U (1) gauge bosons and sterile neutrinos below 300 MeV /c2 , which could be associated with dark matter or explain established muon-related anomalies such as the muon g - 2 value, and perhaps the proton radius puzzle. The experiment was set up at the J-PARC K1.1BR kaon beamline in the fall of 2014, fully commissioned in the spring of 2015 and completed production data accumulation in Dec 2015. A scintillating fiber target was used to stop a beam of up to 1.2 Million K+ per spill. The K+ products were detected with a large-acceptance toroidal spectrometer capable of tracking charged particles with high resolution, combined with a CsI(TI) photon detector and particle ID systems. The status of the data analysis will be presented. This work has been supported by DOE awards DE-SC0003884 and DE-SC0013941 in the US, NSERC in Canada, and Kaken-hi in Japan.

  14. Physical mechanism of the Schwarzschild effect in film dosimetry—theoretical model and comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouguela, A.; Kollhoff, R.; Rühmann, A.; Willborn, K. C.; Harder, D.; Poppe, B.

    2006-09-01

    In consideration of the importance of film dosimetry for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment plans, the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law, i.e. the reduction of the net optical density under 'protraction' or 'fractionation' conditions at constant dose, has been experimentally studied for Kodak XOMAT-V (Martens et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2221-34) and EDR 2 dosimetry films (Djouguela et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 N317-N321). It is known that this effect results from the competition between two solid-state physics reactions involved in the latent-image formation of the AgBr crystals, the aggregation of two Ag atoms freshly formed from Ag+ ions near radiation-induced occupied electron traps and the spontaneous decomposition of the Ag atoms. In this paper, we are developing a mathematical model of this mechanism which shows that the interplay of the mean lifetime τ of the Ag atoms with the time pattern of the irradiation determines the magnitude of the observed effects of the temporal dose distribution on the net optical density. By comparing this theory with our previous protraction experiments and recent fractionation experiments in which the duration of the pause between fractions was varied, a value of the time constant τ of roughly 10 s at room temperature has been determined for EDR 2. The numerical magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect in dosimetry films under the conditions generally met in radiotherapy amounts to only a few per cent of the net optical density (net OD), so that it can frequently be neglected from the viewpoint of clinical applications. But knowledge of the solid-state physical mechanism and a description in terms of a mathematical model involving a typical time constant of about 10 s are now available to estimate the magnitude of the effect should the necessity arise, i.e. in cases of large fluctuations of the temporal pattern of film exposure.

  15. Integrated modelling framework for short pulse high energy density physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, N. J.; Hughes, S. J.; Ramsay, M. G.

    2016-03-01

    Modelling experimental campaigns on the Orion laser at AWE, and developing a viable point-design for fast ignition (FI), calls for a multi-scale approach; a complete description of the problem would require an extensive range of physics which cannot realistically be included in a single code. For modelling the laser-plasma interaction (LPI) we need a fine mesh which can capture the dispersion of electromagnetic waves, and a kinetic model for each plasma species. In the dense material of the bulk target, away from the LPI region, collisional physics dominates. The transport of hot particles generated by the action of the laser is dependent on their slowing and stopping in the dense material and their need to draw a return current. These effects will heat the target, which in turn influences transport. On longer timescales, the hydrodynamic response of the target will begin to play a role as the pressure generated from isochoric heating begins to take effect. Recent effort at AWE [1] has focussed on the development of an integrated code suite based on: the particle in cell code EPOCH, to model LPI; the Monte-Carlo electron transport code THOR, to model the onward transport of hot electrons; and the radiation hydrodynamics code CORVUS, to model the hydrodynamic response of the target. We outline the methodology adopted, elucidate on the advantages of a robustly integrated code suite compared to a single code approach, demonstrate the integrated code suite's application to modelling the heating of buried layers on Orion, and assess the potential of such experiments for the validation of modelling capability in advance of more ambitious HEDP experiments, as a step towards a predictive modelling capability for FI.

  16. The Research Experience for Undergraduates Program in Solar and Space Physics at the University of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, M. A.; Wood, E. L.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Baker, D. N.; Renfrow, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Solar and Space Physicsis a collaboration between the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (CU/LASP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research's High Altitude Observatory (NCAR/HAO), The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center (NOAA/SWPC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Northwest Research Associates' Colorado Research Associates (NWR/CoRA). The goal of the program is to give students real-world, hands-on experience doing research with scientist mentors and to further their intended careers. Our program began in 2007 and is entering its fourth year. Mentors from the member institutions have supervised over fifty research projects dealing with all aspects of Solar and Space Physics. The students begin their 8-week visit to Boulder with a week of classes on the Sun-Earth system as well as practical courses on data analysis and the IDL programming language. The students give a 30 minute oral presentation of their project as well as a poster in a student symposium at the end of the program. Throughout the summer, the students give progress reports at weekly brown-bag lunch meetings. In addition to their own research projects at their host institution, the students tour and meet scientists from the partner institutions as the weekly lunches rotate from site to site. There are also opportunities for students to network with scientists in an informal way at the excursions we organize which include barbecues and weekend outings.

  17. High Resolution Regional Attenuation for the Source Physics Experiment Using Multiphase Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic event amplitude measurement plays a critical role in the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions. An accurate 2D model of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves traveling through the earth is especially important for reasonable amplitude estimation at small event-to-station distances. In this study, we investigate the detailed attenuation structure in the region around southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. A high-resolution attenuation model will aid in the modeling efforts of these experiments. To improve our understanding of the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S., we invert regional phases Pn, Pg, and Lg to examine the crust and upper mantle attenuation structure of southern Nevada and the surrounding region. We consider observed amplitudes as the frequency-domain product of a source term, a site term, a geometrical spreading term, and an attenuation (Q) term (e.g. Walter and Taylor, 2001). Initially we take a staged approach to first determine the best 1D Q values; next we calculate source terms using the 1D model, and finally we solve for the best 2D Q parameters and site terms considering all frequencies simultaneously. Our preliminary results agree generally with those from the continent-wide study by Pasyanos (2013). With additional data we are working to develop a more detailed and higher frequency model of the region as well as move toward a fully non-linear inversion.

  18. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  19. Movement-to-music computer technology: a developmental play experience for children with severe physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cynthia; Schwellnus, Heidi; Eaton, Ceilidh; Hamdani, Yani; Lamont, Andrea; Chau, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Children with severe physical disabilities often lack the physical skills to explore their environment independently, and to play with toys or musical instruments. The movement-to-music (MTM) system is an affordable computer system that allows children with limited movements to play and create music. The present study explored parents' experiences of using the MTM system with their children. A qualitative methodology employing in-depth interview techniques was used with six mothers and their children. The themes extracted from the data were organized under two main concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001) framework. The results showed that the MTM expanded horizons for the child along the ICF health dimensions and the MTM had a positive impact on ICF environmental determinants of health. The small sample size should be noted as a limitation of this study. Further research should be carried out with a larger sample of children with restricted mobility to obtain a better understanding of the impact of MTM technology on children's psychosocial development.

  20. Raman Spectroscopy Using a Green HeNe Laser: A Chemical Physics Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, S. N.; Berger, B. K.; Dolson, D. A.; Engel, D. M.; Henderson, J. L.

    1999-10-01

    Although the green HeNe laser has been commercially available for about twenty years, it has been ignored in the development of laser experiments in college physics and physical chemistry laboratory courses. The green HeNe laser (543.365 nm) combines the wavelength advantage of the Ar+ and Nd:YAG lasers while retaining the cost advantage and ease of operation that has made the red HeNe a favorite in teaching laboratories. Raman spectroscopy is rarely explored in teaching laboratories, largely because of the belief that expensive equipment is required and that signals will be too low. Here we present the Raman spectra of several neat organic liquids and of aqueous ions that were obtained using a 2 mW green HeNe laser as the excitation source. The spectra are generally of high quality and dispel the myth of poor signal levels. Simple plastic film polarizers have performed adequately in obtaining polarized spectra. Suggestions for laboratory activities are presented.

  1. New Experiments on Wave Physics with a Simply Modified Ripple Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    The ripple tank is one of the physics education devices most appreciated by teachers and students. It allows one to visualize various phenomena related to wave physics in an effective and enthralling way. Usually this apparatus consists of a tank with a transparent bottom that is filled with a thin layer of water. A source of light illuminates the water surface from the top and the water is mechanically perturbed in order to produce regular waves. With the water crests and troughs acting as converging and diverging lenses, the surface configuration is reproduced on a screen using a play of light and shadows. We propose a simple and cheap change to this tool. Such a modification could be constructed by pupils themselves in their school laboratory. The lighting in our apparatus differs from the usual arrangement: the light is somewhat oblique with respect to the water surface, and a system of screens with holes and slits is placed at the bottom of the glass tank. This allows us to select and illuminate small portions of water. In this way our modified ripple tank gives us the possibility to perform new experiments and to explain by further examples the properties of waves.

  2. Modeling the Infrasound Acoustic Signal Generation of Underground Explosions at the Source Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, R. W.; Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the primary goals of the Source Physics Experiment is to improve upon and develop new physics based models for underground nuclear explosions using scaled, underground chemical explosions as proxies. Jones et. al, (AGU 2012) previously presented results describing the use of the Rayleigh integral (RI) to model the source region of the SPE explosions. While these results showed that the source region could be modeled using the RI, there were some complexities in the produced, synthetic waveforms that were unaccounted for when compared to the observed data. To gain insight into these complexities and to verify the results of the RI method, we used CAVEAT, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, time-domain finite-difference code developed at Los Alamos National Labs (LANL). CAVEAT has been used in the solution of high speed and low speed fluid problems. While the RI uses the observed acceleration records from the 12 vertical surface accelerometers installed above ground zero, CAVEAT employs a synthetic source-time function, based on the acceleration records, that varies with range and time. This model provides a velocity boundary condition at the bottom boundary of the CAVEAT computation mesh that drives the atmospheric pressure wave into the atmosphere.

  3. Promotion of physical activity in a developing country: the Agita São Paulo experience.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor; Matsudo, Sandra; Andrade, Douglas; Araujo, Timoteo; Andrade, Erinaldo; de Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Braggion, Glaucia

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present key points of an intervention programme (Agita São Paulo Program) to promote physical activity in a developing country. Agita is a multi-level, community-wide intervention designed to increase knowledge about the benefits and the level of physical activity in a mega-population of 34 million inhabitants of São Paulo State, Brazil. The main message was taken from the Centers for Disease Control/American College of Sports Medicine (CDC/ACSM) recommendation that: 'everyone should accumulate at least 30 minutes of physical activity, on most days of the weeks, of moderate intensity, in one single or in multiple sessions'. Activities were encouraged in three settings: home, transport and leisure time. Focus groups were students from elementary schools through to college, white and blue collar workers, and elderly people. Innovative aspects included: (1) a research centre leading the process, (2) scientific and institutional partnerships (over 160 groups), (3) a feasible approach--the 'one-step-ahead' model, (4) empowerment, (5) inclusion, (6) non-paid media, (7) social marketing, and (8) culture-linked. Data were obtained from 645 random, home-based questionnaires over four years--stratified by sex, age, education and socio-economic level. These data show that the Agita message reached 55.7% of the population, and among these, 23.1% knew the main message. Recall of Agita and knowledge of its purpose were well distributed among different socioeconomic levels, being known by 67% of the most educated. The prevalence of people reaching the recommendation was 54.8% (men 48.7%, women 61%); and risk of being sedentary was quite smaller among those who knew the Agita message (7.1%) compared with those who did not know (13.1%). In conclusion, based upon the Agita São Paulo experience, it appears that a multi-level, community-wide intervention to promote physical activity may obtain good results if the model contains the items listed above.

  4. Manifestations of the rotation and gravity of the Earth in spin physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    2016-10-01

    An influence of the rotation and gravity of the Earth on the particle motion and the spin evolution is not negligible and it should be taken into account in spin physics experiments. The Earth rotation brings the Coriolis and centrifugal forces in the lab frame and also manifests in the additional rotation of the spin and in the change of the Maxwell electrodynamics. The change of the Maxwell electrodynamics due to the Earth gravity is much smaller and can be neglected. One of manifestations of the Earth rotation is the Sagnac effect. The electric and magnetic fields acting on the spin in the Earth’s rotating frame coincide with the corresponding fields determined in the inertial frame instantly accompanying a lab. The effective electric field governing the particle motion differs from the electric field in the instantly accompanying frame. Nevertheless, the difference between the conventional Lorentz force and the actual force in the Earth’s rotating frame vanishes on average in accelerators and storage rings due to the beam rotation. The Earth gravity manifests in additional forces acting on particles/nuclei and in additional torques acting on the spin. The additional forces are the Newton-like force and the reaction force provided by a focusing system. The additional torques are caused by the corresponding focusing field and by the geodetic effect. As a result, the Earth gravity leads to the additional spin rotation about the radial axis which may not be negligible in EDM experiments.

  5. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve ‘The Crow and the Pitcher’ task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause–effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended ‘learning–prediction–abstraction’ loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  6. Lab experiment using physical models of the human vocal tract for high-school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Eri; Arai, Takayuki; Saika, Noriko; Murahara, Yuji

    2002-11-01

    Recently, the development of educational tools for acoustics has become popular in Japan. We believe that physical models of the human vocal tract are particularly useful for teaching acoustics. Formerly we proposed three models of the vocal tract corresponding to the Japanese vowels, /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/. We presented cylindrical, nasalized, and plate type models. The models were made of transparent acrylic resin, enabling the configurations of the oral cavity to be seen from the outside of the model. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of a lab experiment in which we used these tools to teach the mechanism of vowel production to high-school students who had just finished studying basic acoustics. By manipulating the plates in the plate type model, students were able to simulate constrictions at nodes and antinodes, and they were able to hear the shift in formant frequencies. The exercise helped students to understand vowel production. We received positive feedback from those who participated in the experiment.

  7. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration.

  8. Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  9. Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  10. Manifestations of the Rotation and Gravity of the Earth in Spin Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    An influence of the rotation and gravity of the Earth on the particle motion and the spin evolution is not negligible and it should be taken into account in spin physics experiments. The Earth rotation brings the Coriolis and centrifugal forces in the lab frame and also manifests in the additional rotation of the spin and in the change of the Maxwell electrodynamics. The change of the Maxwell electrodynamics due to the Earth gravity is much smaller and can be neglected. One of manifestations of the Earth rotation is the Sagnac effect. The electric and magnetic fields acting on the spin in the Earth's rotating frame coincide with the corresponding fields determined in the inertial frame instantly accompanying a lab. The effective electric field governing the particle motion differs from the electric field in the instantly accompanying frame. Nevertheless, the difference between the conventional Lorentz force and the actual force in the Earth's rotating frame vanishes on average in accelerators and storage rings due to the beam rotation. The Earth gravity manifests in additional forces acting on particles/nuclei and in additional torques acting on the spin. The additional forces are the Newton-like force and the reaction force provided by a focusing system. The additional torques are caused by the corresponding focusing field and by the geodetic effect. As a result, the Earth gravity leads to the additional spin rotation about the radial axis which may not be negligible in EDM experiments.

  11. An Overview of the Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Snelson, C. M., Chipman, V. D., White, R. L., Emmitt, R. F., Townsend, M. J., Barker, D., Lee, P.

    2012-07-11

    Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE-N) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface

  12. The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS): An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.; Barker, D.; Lee, P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface

  13. Children's Well-Being and Involvement in Physically Active Outdoors Play in a Norwegian Kindergarten: Playful Sharing of Physical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the conditions of children's level of well-being and their involvement in physically active play during kindergarten outdoors time. Observations of three to five year olds from one kindergarten in central Norway were conducted. The researcher followed the children around the kindergarten's outdoors playground and…

  14. Physics Opportunities of a Fixed-Target Experiment using the LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Fleuret, F.; Hadjidakis, C.; Lansberg, J.P.; /Orsay, IPN

    2012-03-16

    We outline the many physics opportunities offered by a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment using the proton and lead-ion beams of the LHC extracted by a bent crystal. In a proton run with the LHC 7-TeV beam, one can analyze pp, pd and pA collisions at center-of-mass energy {radical}s{sub NN} {approx_equal} 115 GeV and even higher using the Fermi motion of the nucleons in a nuclear target. In a lead run with a 2.76 TeV-per-nucleon beam, {radical}s{sub NN} is as high as 72 GeV. Bent crystals can be used to extract about 5 x 10{sup 8} protons/sec; the integrated luminosity over a year reaches 0.5 fb{sup -1} on a typical 1 cm-long target without nuclear species limitation. We emphasize that such an extraction mode does not alter the performance of the collider experiments at the LHC. By instrumenting the target-rapidity region, gluon and heavy-quark distributions of the proton and the neutron can be accessed at large x and even at x larger than unity in the nuclear case. Single diffractive physics and, for the first time, the large negative-xF domain can be accessed. The nuclear target-species versatility provides a unique opportunity to study nuclear matter versus the features of the hot and dense matter formed in heavy-ion collisions, including the formation of the quark-gluon plasma, which can be studied in PbA collisions over the full range of target-rapidity domain with a large variety of nuclei. The polarization of hydrogen and nuclear targets allows an ambitious spin program, including measurements of the QCD lensing effects which underlie the Sivers single-spin asymmetry, the study of transversity distributions and possibly of polarized parton distributions. We also emphasize the potential offered by pA ultra-peripheral collisions where the nucleus target A is used as a coherent photon source, mimicking photoproduction processes in ep collisions. Finally, we note that W and Z bosons can be produced and detected in a fixed-target experiment and in their

  15. Challenges in QCD matter physics -The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, Hongfang; Chen, LuYao; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, Supriya; Das, Susovan; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Wendi; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, Sheng; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Xingming; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, Shengqin; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Han, Dong; Hartmann, H.; He, Shue; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, Dongdong; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, Di; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Qiyan; Li, Xin; Li, Yuanjing; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, Xiaofeng; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, Pengfei; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muñoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, Amitava; Roy, Ankhi; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, Shusu; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Guofeng; Song, Jihye; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, Aleksey; Voronin, Alexander; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Wei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yi; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, Gy.; Won, Sanguk; Wu, Ke-Jun; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Xu, Nu; Yang, Junfeng; Yang, Rongxing; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Jiajun; Zheng, Sheng; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-03-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√{s_{NN}}= 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials ( μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.

  16. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese: A qualitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Bente Skovsby; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to identify facilitators and barriers for physical activity (PA) experienced by morbidly obese adults in the Western world. Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle have become a major challenge for health and well-being, particularly among persons with morbid obesity. Lifestyle changes may lead to long-term changes in activity level, if facilitators and barriers are approached in a holistic way by professionals. To develop lifestyle interventions, the perspective and experiences of this group of patients are essential for success. The methodology of the systematic review followed the seven-step procedure of the Joanna Briggs Institute and was published in a protocol. Six databases were searched using keywords and index terms. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in cited citations up until March 2015. The selected studies underwent quality appraisal in the Joanna Briggs-Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Data from primary studies were extracted and were subjected to a hermeneutic text interpretation and a data-driven coding in a five-step procedure focusing on meaning and constant targeted comparison through which they were categorized and subjected into a meta-synthesis. Eight papers were included for the systematic review, representing the experiences of PA among 212 participants. One main theme developed from the meta-data analysis: “Identity” with the three subthemes: “considering weight,” “being able to,” and “belonging with others.” The theme and subthemes were merged into a meta-synthesis: “Homecoming: a change in identity.” The experiences of either suffering or well-being during PA affected the identity of adults with morbid obesity either by challenging or motivating them. A change in identity may be needed to feel a sense of “homecoming” when active. PMID:26400462

  17. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese: A qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Toft, Bente Skovsby; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to identify facilitators and barriers for physical activity (PA) experienced by morbidly obese adults in the Western world. Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle have become a major challenge for health and well-being, particularly among persons with morbid obesity. Lifestyle changes may lead to long-term changes in activity level, if facilitators and barriers are approached in a holistic way by professionals. To develop lifestyle interventions, the perspective and experiences of this group of patients are essential for success. The methodology of the systematic review followed the seven-step procedure of the Joanna Briggs Institute and was published in a protocol. Six databases were searched using keywords and index terms. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in cited citations up until March 2015. The selected studies underwent quality appraisal in the Joanna Briggs-Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Data from primary studies were extracted and were subjected to a hermeneutic text interpretation and a data-driven coding in a five-step procedure focusing on meaning and constant targeted comparison through which they were categorized and subjected into a meta-synthesis. Eight papers were included for the systematic review, representing the experiences of PA among 212 participants. One main theme developed from the meta-data analysis: "Identity" with the three subthemes: "considering weight," "being able to," and "belonging with others." The theme and subthemes were merged into a meta-synthesis: "Homecoming: a change in identity." The experiences of either suffering or well-being during PA affected the identity of adults with morbid obesity either by challenging or motivating them. A change in identity may be needed to feel a sense of "homecoming" when active.

  18. Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids, a Fluid Physics Experiment Conducted on Mir, Complete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2001-01-01

    The Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids (GMSF) is an international experiment facilitated by the NASA Glenn Research Center and under the guidance of U.S. principal investor Professor Hegseth of the University of New Orleans and three French coinvestigators: Daniel Beysens, Yves Garrabos, and Carole Chabot. The GMSF experiments were concluded in early 1999 on the Russian space station Mir. The experiments spanned the three science themes of near-critical phase separation rates, interface dynamics in near-critical boiling, and measurement of the spectrum of density fluctuation length scales very close to the critical point. The fluids used were pure CO2 or SF6. Three of the five thermostats used could adjust the sample volume with the scheduled crew time. Such a volume adjustment enabled variable sample densities around the critical density as well as pressure steps (as distinct from the usual temperature steps) applied to the sample. The French-built ALICE II facility was used for these experiments. It allows tightly thermostated (left photograph) samples (right photograph) to be controlled and viewed/measured. Its diagnostics include interferometry, shadowgraph, high-speed pressure measurements, and microscopy. Data were logged on DAT tapes, and PCMCIA cards and were returned to Earth only after the mission was over. The ground-breaking near critical boiling experiment has yielded the most results with a paper published in Physical Review Letters (ref. 1). The boiling work also received press in Science Magazine (ref. 2). This work showed that, in very compressible near-critical two-phase pure fluids, a vapor bubble was induced to temporarily overheat during a rapid heating of the sample wall. The temperature rise in the vapor was 23-percent higher than the rise in the driving container wall. The effect is due to adiabatic compression of the vapor bubble by the rapid expansion of fluid near the boundary during heatup. Thermal diffusivity is low near the

  19. Body-Reflexive Pleasures: Exploring Bodily Experiences within the Context of Sport and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of sport and physical activity in achieving wellbeing has received much attention in relation to children and adults, although consideration of the physical aspects of bodily pleasure have tended to be ignored in favour of developing health related measures. In physical education, the physical body has been further "disembodied"…

  20. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need